EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES PLANNING -- OVERVIEW
Information on planning for new or modernized school and campus facilities. See related NCEF Resource Lists on Educational Specifications, Master Planning, Community Participation in Planning, School Design, Facilities Assessment, and many more topics.
References to Books and Other Media
School Utilization [Portland Public Schools]
(Long Range Plan, Portland Public Schools. Issue Paper 5.3, Mar 20, 2012)
This paper focuses on student assignment and building capacity components of school utilization. School utilization planning requires an understanding of space needs for the range of academic programs offered in a school, as well as classroom and common spaces available for student use and the number of students anticipated in the future. Paper examines: student assignment policies and practices that influence school enrollment; current school size target enrollment ranges to meet program goals; a new model for assessing building capacity based on instructional use, and; trends in school utilization expected in the next decade. 14p
Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies
National Forum on Education Statistics
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Mar 2012)
This guide provides a framework for collecting, evaluating, and maintaining education facilities data. It is written to help officials design a school facility information system that supports policy and decision making; management and operation; capital budgeting and project management; public participation in school facilities planning; and the integration of facilities data into other education and municipal data sets. Best practices are given for the design, development, implementation, and use of facilities management information systems, along with a list of standard data elements. These elements can be used to develop indicators for measuring and comparing the quality of education facilities; and, in turn, answering policy questions and informing new education policies. The facility data elements presented in this guide are described in greater detail in the NCES Handbooks Online at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/handbook. 80p
Kings of Infinite Space: How to Make Space Planning for Colleges and Universities Useful Given Constrained Resources
(Society for College and University Planning, Jan 2012)
Instead of focusing on the application of formulae to strictly categorized space types, this describes an evolved comprehensive space planning practice for colleges and universities that emphasizes utilization, economic value, quality, and accountability both to the institutional mission and to stakeholders.
School Siting Guidelines.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Oct 02, 2011)
Voluntary school siting guidelines can help local school districts and community members evaluate environmental factors to make the best possible school siting decisions. Includes overview, environmental siting criteria considerations, environmental review process, evaluating impacts of nearby sources of air pollution, quick guide for environmnetal issues, and frequent questions.
Integrated Resource and Budget Planning at Colleges and Universities.
Rylee, Carol et al
(Society for College and University Planning’s Resource & Budget Planning Advisory Group, Oct 2011)
Descriptions of processes, models, and case studies on campus planning, including chapters on capital budgeting and budgeting academic space.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/pubs/books
School District Master Planning: A Practical Guide to Demographics and Facilities Planning.
Carey, Kelly D.
(Rowman & Littlefield Education , Sep 2011)
Explains how facilities master planning is done. Planning tools, steps and process check lists are discussed in detail, using case studies and the planning triangle of programs, demographics and facilities. Process roles are explained for district staff, consultants, and the public at each step. Steps are clearly explained for acquiring, analyzing, and applying critical data to drive planning to redistrict, build, close, renovate or expand schools. Steps are explained for developing the comprehensive master plan and getting it implemented on time and within budget. 276p.TO ORDER: http://www.amazon.com/School-District-Master-Planning-Demographics/dp/1610485300/
Creating Quality School-Age Child Care Space.
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation/Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, Sep 2011)
Provides strategies for planning, designing, and equipping after-school physical environments for school-age children from kindergarten through eighth grade. After-school spaces offer an opportunity to create special crossover environments where children can learn in a low-stress setting, explore new interests, and develop meaningful relationships with friends and mentors. Covers the following topics: getting started, adjacencies; accessibility; greening your space; tips for maximizing shared space; entry/gathering area; program activities; indoor and outdoor active play; dramatic play, quiet games, and construction-based play; science; music and arts; academic support; computer/technology spaces; adult spaces; children's bathrooms; storage; maintenance; ambiance and aesthetics; equipment and furnishings; 40p
PK-12 Public Educational Facilities Master Plan Evaluation Guide.
(21st Century School Fund, 2011)
Proper planning of school facilities is critical for all school districts no matter how large or small. When school districts properly plan for their school facilities they have better schools, more public use and higher value for public spending. This evaluation guide was designed for superintendents and school boards that are called on to sign off on plans presented by facility professionals and consultants, but who generally do not have experience with educational facility planning. It can also be used by community members to advocate for high quality educational facility planning. 13p.
Building Better Schools: Methodological Concerns and The Need for Evidence-Based Research.
Edgerton, Edward; McKechnie, J.; McEwen, S.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Describes how the difficulty in building high-quality school environments has more to do with a lack of knowledge rather than a lack of finance. Research supported decisions in planning schools are still badly needed. According to the author, there are many reasons why there is little high quality research on school environments, but, perhaps the main reason concerns the practical and methodological difficulties that exist in this "real-life" field of research. Issues such as access to schools and users, specifying what variables to measure, selecting appropriate tools and obtaining large, representative samples, result in many barriers that need to be overcome. With reference to two school environment studies (one completed and one on-going), the paper focuses on tool development, operationalization of variables and the necessity for longitudinal research. 9p.
Architectural Quality in Planning and Design of Schools: Current Issues with Focus on Developing Countries.
Knapp, Eberhard; Noschis, Kaj, eds.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th Architecture & Behavior Colloquium, bringing. It brought together researchers, designers, consultants and decision makers on educational facilities. Representatives from countries in Africa, the Middle-East, Europe, and the United States took part. The eleven presentations included in the proceedings cover the following topics: 1) Research on the interrelation between the quality of educational facilities and students' learning performance; 2) Educational architecture that enhances learning and social processes: examples of successful design projects, and 3) Educational architecture in developing countries: standard designs vs. site-specific, individual designs. 108p.
Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.
Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL): A History. Revised.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
This publication presents information on the history, operations, and accomplishments of the Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL), a nonprofit corporation established to help schools and colleges maximize the quality and utility of their facilities, stimulate research, and disseminate information to facility planners. Included are descriptions of EFL's funding, guiding principles, leadership, and operations over its 28-year history. Also explores EFL's aggressive philanthropic philosophy and innovative approaches to school project funding, it's development of the open plan approach that influenced basic school design in the 1960s and early 1970s, and the school construction systems and development team that created a standardized method for constructing school buildings. A discussion about EFL publications and a list of these publications and EFL films are provided. 8p.
Closing a School Best Practices Guide.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2008)
Advises on gathering the facts on the costs of keeping a particular school open, discerning the community effect of closing it, deciding which schools to close, making the decision to close a school and announcing it, making the transition, and disposing of school property. 6p.
Local Governments and Schools: A Community-Oriented Approach.
(International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC , 2008)
Provides local government managers with an understanding of the connections between school facility planning and local government management issues, with particular attention to avoiding the creation of large schools remotely sited from the community they serve. It offers multiple strategies for local governments and schools to bring their respective planning efforts together to take a more community-oriented approach to schools and reach multiple community goals--educational, environmental, economic, social, and fiscal. Eight case studies illustrate how communities across the U.S. have already succeeded in collaborating to create more community-oriented schools. Includes 95 references and an extensive list of additional online resources. 40p.Report NO: E-43527
Planning Your School Building Project: Putting the Pieces Together.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2008)
Offers extensive guidance in the school facilities planning and construction process, with particular reference to Ohio requirements. Individual large sections are arranged to follow the general project timeline of preplanning, planning approval and funding, contracting, design, bidding, construction, occupancy, and post occupancy. Numerous examples forms and documents to assist with job descriptions, planning, policies, procedures, budgeting, and commissioning are included. 601p.
DeJONG Names Top Ten Trends in School Facility Planning.
(SchoolFacilities.com, Orange, CA , Jul 23, 2007)
Presents the ten top trends in school facilities, as determined by a large educational planning firm. The trends are: 1) Declining enrollment; 2) Life beyond Leave No Child Behind; 3) Any place, any time learning; 4) Flexible buildings; 5) Global focus; 6) Modernizing democracy; 7) Green buildings/sustainability; 8) Geographical Information Systems; 9) Safety and security; and 10) Renovations, modernizations, and replacements. 2p. 2p.
Future-Proofing Schools, Part 1.
(SchoolFacilities.com, Orange, CA , Jul 23, 2007)
Discusses the creation of school facilities that anticipate and support educational change without expensive remodeling, outlining the main considerations of a flexible building that can accommodates future standards that are presently embryonic or nonexistent. (Part 2 is titled "Future-Proofing Schools: Strategies and Implementation.") 2p.
Integrating Schools into Healthy Community Design.
(National Governors Association, Washington, DC , May 02, 2007)
Examines state policies on school siting, school construction financing, and Safe Routes to School programs focusing on how policies can benefit communities, improve children's health, and reduce the need for infrastructure expansion. Strategies that states are using include reducing or eliminating minimum acreage requirements for schools, revising school funding formulas to promote renovation or expansion of existing sites. requiring that schools be located in areas designated for growth that already have sufficient existing infrastructure to support school facilities; and creating, funding, promoting, and implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. 9p.TO ORDER: http://www.nga.org/
Creating Excellent Secondary Schools: A Guide for Clients.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
This British guide introduces some of the key issues around school design, and then proceeds through school building project stages: 1) creating a vision for the school and appraising the options: new build, refurbishment or a mixture; 2) developing the brief 3) selecting the team that will design and build your school; 4) developing the designs and constructing them; 5) the finished building. The guide explains what happens at each of these stages, how the school will be involved, and what help is available to enable informed decisions. The intent is to explain when the key decisions are made that influence the design quality of your school and the implications of those decisions. The guide features 13 case studies illustrating the secondary school design process. It also includes a glossary of terms, guidance and information on useful organizations and websites. 165p.
Educational Trends Shaping School Planning and Design: 2007.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines 12 educational trends influencing the planning and design of school facilities. The trends were identified by reviewing the latest research on school facilities and student outcomes; current issues, problems, and initiatives in the educational field; emerging demographic patterns; and the authors previous work on this subject. The trends are: (1) School choice and equity will redirect facilities planning. (2) Small schools may be favored over large ones. (3) Class size may continue to be reduced. (4) Technology will be increasingly used to lower personnel costs and to deliver instruction. (5) School missions may change. (6) Classrooms will be reconfigured to accommodate various learning styles or tasks. (7) Schools will see extended hours of use to accommodate year-round schooling, non-traditional students, and community use. (8) Electronic media will increasingly replace paper. (9) Grade configurations will change. (10) Special education will continue to be mainstreamed. (11) Early childhood programs will expand. (12) Schools might disappear altogether in favor of home and distance learning. Includes 40 references. 8p.
Educational Facilities Planning: A Systems Model.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh , Dec 2006)
Proposes a systems model of public educational facilities planning. The model represents a theoretical construct from which design professionals and educators can better organize, understand, analyze, communicate, and research complex cause-effect relationships that occur when educational facilities are designed and constructed. The Systems Model for Planning of Educational Facilities attempts to: 1) identify and describe complicated social, cultural, political, and economic mechanisms at work when public schools are designed and constructed in a pluralistic democratic society, 2) make understandable the relationships between those mechanisms and educational facility planning, and 3) formalize causal inferences between social, cultural, political, and economic mechanisms, educational facility planning, and educational facilities. 315p.
Building Your Dream School: Some Thoughts to Consider.
(Robert S. Slone, Sr., Mason, Ohio , 2006)
Presents a reader-friendly account of the school design process, with guidance on defining a community's "dream school," building support for its funding, converting dreams into an actual design, managing construction, and celebrating the building opening. Includes tips on guiding participants' efforts, selecting consultants, and making key design decisions. 40p.TO ORDER: Robert S. Slone; Voorhis, Slone, Welsh, Crossland-Architects, Inc., 414 Reading Road, Mason, OH, 45040; e-mail: email@example.com
Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/
Educational Facility Master Planning: A 10-Point Check List for Educational Excellence.
(SchoolFacilities.com, Nov 01, 2005)
This article presents a 10-point checklist of issues to consider during the facility planning process. Issues pertain to a single school being remodeled or to an entire school district undergoing massive remodeling, new construction, and maintenance upgrades.
Selection of the District-Wide Planner Consultant.
(Duval County Public Schools, Jacksonville, FL , Jun 2005)
Presents the Duval County Public Schools' planner consultant selection criteria, including standard qualifying data and forms, as well as specific screening and selection procedures. 17p.
Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 1: Public School Facilities Planning Policies.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve facilities planning in order to support and enhance the delivery of educational programs and services. The document proposes policy reform as one tool for affecting the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and funding practices and processes at the state and local school district levels. However, state level standards and control must be carefully developed and applied, so that creativity, public participation, and local priorities can drive the facility planning and design outcomes. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 14p.
Design Quality and the Private Finance Initiative.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK , Jan 2005)
Presents the Commission's perspective on the British private finance initiative (PFI) to deliver well-designed public buildings (including schools), and considers what policy interventions are needed to remove the barriers to the delivery of design quality. 6p.
Planning and Programming for A Capital Project.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeff
(University of Georgia, College of Education, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens , 2005)
Advocates regular school facility assessment and outlines the stages of a capital planning project as steps A-Z-FF, in chronological order. The stages begin with the planning process and end with the completed warranty inspection. 7p.
The Non-Architect's Guide to Major Capital Projects: Planning, Designing, and Delivering New Buildings.
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2005)
Introduces the steps and sequence of planning, designing, and delivering a capital project. The six stages of the project delivery process (planning or pre-design, schematic design, design development, construction documents, construction administration, and occupancy) are covered in order, with emphasis on the pre-design phase, where non-architects are the most involved. A glossary is included, as are appendices which explain how to interpret architectural drawings, suggest further reading, and categorize design services. Includes 30 references. 128p.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/pubs/books
Paying for Schools: Does Smart Growth Matter? Growth Patterns in El Paso County and the Falcon School District.
Greenwood, Daphne; Stiedemann, Jacob
(University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Center for Colorado Policy Studies , Sep 17, 2004)
Describes how three factors have combined to create an unsustainable solution for both homeowners and school districts in some of the most rapidly growing areas in the Pikes Peak region: 1) the segregation of residential from commercial and industrial property, 2) the Gallagher Amendment effect on residential property assessments, and 3) the existence of sixteen separate school districts in El Paso County. Without sufficient commercial property, homeowners must pay higher taxes to fund infrastructure than they would in more diversified districts 13p.
Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Adequacy.
Earthman, Glen I.
(American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland, Baltimore , Jan 05, 2004)
Prioritizes the 31 criteria for school facilities established by the Maryland Task Force to Study Public School Facilities based on the links beteween conditions in school buildings and student achievement. The author, drawing on a large quantity of research, recommends addressing first the criteria that relate to student health and safety: 1) potable water, 2) fire safety, 3) adequate lavoratories, 4) security systems, and 5) emergency communications systems. Elements directly linked to student achievement should then be addressed as follows: 1) human comfort, 2) indoor air quality, 3) lighting, 4) acoustical control, 5) secondary science laboratories, and 6) student capacity. The 31 criteria may be found at http://www.mlis.state.md.us/other/education/public_school_facilities_2003/Definition%20of%20Standards.pdf. (Contains 75 references.) 66p.
Creating Connections: The CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning.
(Council of Education Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Guides new and experienced school planners from the conception of educational needs through occupancy and use of the completed facilities. Chapters follow the planning, design, and occupancy processes in sequence as follows: forming the educational plan, creating community partnerships, establishing a master plan, writing educational specifications, addressing design guidelines, evaluating and selecting the site, infusing technology, integrating sustainable design, working with a design team, evaluating project delivery options, identifying cost and funding options, monitoring construction, integrating maintenance and operations, and assessing the completed project. Numerous references, photographs, drawings, figures, and a glossary are included. 386p.TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org/i4a/ams/amsstore/category.cfm?product_id=90
Denison University Learning Spaces Project: Checklist for Improving Your Learning Spaces.
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2004)
Offers a checklist for assessing and improving learning spaces. The checklist items address gathering stakeholders to discuss ideas, stating the teaching styles intended for the space, reviewing attributes of the space that are known to affect learning, and gathering the resources needed to implement the plan. A set of guiding principles covering diversity of learning styles, versatility, aesthetics, comfort, technology, and maintenance are included. 4p.
For Generations to Come: A Leadership Guide to Renewing School Buildings.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2004)
This guide provides a framework for community involvement in modernizing or building new public school buildings. The process is broken down into the five steps of assessment, envisioning, planning, development and implementation of the project. The chapters for each step are preceded by an overview of how facilities affect the quality of education and community, and how to initiate the process of improving a school building. 60p.
School Maintenance and Renovation: Administrator Policies, Practices, and Economics.
Earthman, Glen; LeMasters, Linda
(Proactive Publications, Lancaster, PA , 2004)
Written for decision-makers in school buildings, district offices, and boards, this book outlines the major aspects of school maintenance and renovation, with a focus on cost-effectiveness. Chapters include: 1) How Schools are Funded; 2) Organization of Maintenance, Engineering, and Operations Staff; 3) School Board Policies for Maintenance and Operations; 4) Administrative Process--The Paper Chase; 5) Capital Improvement and Maintenance Planning; 6) Cost Maintenance; 7) Deferred and Preventive Maintenance; 8) Emerging Role of Technology; 9) Contract Maintenance--External Management Service; 10) Regulatory Aspects of Maintenance and Operations; 11) Cost-Effective Procurement Processes; 12) Deciding to Renovate; 13) Planning the Educational Program; 14) Selection of the Architect; 15) What the Architects Does; 16) Renovation Funding; 17) Alternative Funding Plans; 18) Bidding and Contractor Selection; 19) School Operating During a Renovation; 20) Bringing Closure to the Project; and 21) The Price of a Good Education. 200p.TO ORDER: ProActive Publications, 1148 Elizabeth Avenue #2, Lancaster, PA 17601.
The Middle School of the Future: a Focus on Exploration.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Myler, Patricia; Davis, Daniel; Oja, Richard
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that middle schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. A detailed educational specification and case studies of recent school construction projects are included. Issues of site design, acoustics, security, indoor air quality, sustainability, and accessibility are each accorded their own chapter. (Includes 34 references.) 181p.
The Elementary School of the Future: A Focus on Community.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Sells, Jeffrey; Oja, Richard
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that elementary schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. A detailed educational specification and case studies of recent exemplary school construction projects are included. Issues of site design, acoustics, security, indoor air quality, sustainability, and accessibility are each accorded their own chapter. (Includes 14 references) 163p.
Schools as Centers of Community: A Citizens' Guide For Planning and Design. Second edition.
Bingler, Steven; Quinn, Linda; Sullivan, Kevin
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Council of Educational Facility Planners, Building Educational Success Together, Coalition for Community Schools , Dec 2003)
This publication outlines a process for planning schools that more adequately addresses the needs of the whole learning community. It explores six design principles for creating effective learning environments, provides 13 case studies that illustrate various aspects of the six design principles, and examines the facilities master planning process for getting started and organized, including developing and implementing a master plan. It provides references, sources for additional information, photographs and plans. 76p.
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, May 2003)
This book introduces 29 elementary through high school projects in various countries, the majority of which are from the UK, the US, and Germany as well as featured buildings from India, Japan, Singapore, Norway, and Canada. Through these case studies, the book presents educational philosophies and needs, as well as cultural and climatic considerations across the world. A wide range of issues are reflected in these projects, including the technology-led classroom, sustainable green schools, flexible spaces, tight urban sites, optimum school size, community involvement, and safety and security concerns. Contains plans, illustrations, drawings, and many full color photographs. 224p.
Thirty-Three Principles of Educational Design.
Lackney, Jeffrey A.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
This provides a framework of educational design principles from which educators and design professionals can structure the content of their educational facility development process, from the earliest strategic and educational planning right through to design, construction, occupancy and facility management. The principles are divided into educational facility planning and design process principles, principles for site and building organization, principles for primary educational space, principles for shared school and community facilities, principles related to the character of all spaces, and those related to site design and outdoor learning spaces. 18p.
Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.
(PageSouthlandPage, Arlington, VA. , 2003)
This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools; life cycle costing; facility standards; facility costs; maintenance; bond issues; site issues; accessibility; building codes; asbestos; working with architects; construction delivery options; and sustainabilty issues. 28p.
Urban School Facilities: An A-Z Primer.
(DeJong, Dublin, OH , 2003)
This describes essential characteristics required to successfully develop and implement an educational facility planning processs. The intent of these essential characteristics is to outline an approach for addressing the facility challenges confronting urban school districts that is cost effective and realistic. Discusses such characteristics as shared vision, agreed upon process, consultant leadership, internal capacity, adequate funding, and broad based involvement. 8p.
Programming Circulation Factors in K-12 Facilities.
Hall, Michael E; Fanning, Ronald H.
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , Oct 21, 2002)
This paper provides architects and educational planners with data on the necessary space requirements for restrooms, mechanical rooms, custodial spaces, food service, construction enclosure space, and circulation and corridor space, as well as an ongoing indication of necessary building area per student. It offers itemized data to illustrate variations and similarities in elementary schools, junior high/middle schools, K-12 schools, and high schools. Data were extracted from the final construction drawings of 158 educational facilities designed and constructed over the last 12 years. The paper presents general facility data and itemization of facility research data. Results show that programming percentages for the various categories can vary dramatically, depending on building systems utilized, type of building enclosure, and efficiency of the design. Based on the facilities examined, 32-38 percent should be added to net programmed areas for construction and circulation, depending on the type of building being developed. Net programmed areas should include the necessary restroom, custodial, mechanical/electrical, and food service requirements. 29p.
Ten Educational Trends Shaping School Planning and Design.
Stevenson, Kenneth R.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Sep 2002)
This publication examines 10 educational trends that should be considered in the planning, design, and modernization of schools. The trends were identified by reviewing research on the relationship of school facilities to student outcomes; by performing a general environmental scan of current trends, issues, problems, and initiatives in education; and by reviewing demographic patterns emerging out of the 2000 U.S. Census. The trends are: (1) the lines of prescribed attendance areas will blur; (2) schools will be smaller and more neighborhood oriented; (3) there will be fewer students per class; (4) technology will dominate instructional delivery; (5) the typical spaces thought to constitute a school may change; (6) students and teachers will be organized differently; (7) students will spend more time in school; (8) instructional materials will evolve; (9) grade configurations will change; and (10) schools will disappear by the end of the 21st century (or will they?). 6p.
Revitalization by Design: A Guide for Planning and Implementing School Improvement Projects through School-Community Partnerships.
Davis, Stephanie, Ed.
(State of Maryland, Public School Construction Program, Baltimore , Jun 2002)
This manual is intended to be used by parents, teachers, school administrators, students, community organizations and residents as a guide to identifying, planning, implementing, and maintaining large- and small-scale school improvement projects. Its sections address: (1) key terms and concepts; (2) types of school improvement projects; (3) creating the school improvement partnership; (4) planning a school improvement project--getting started; (5) planning a school improvement project--design; (6) school improvement project implementation; (7) marketing and promoting a school improvement project; (8) findings funds and volunteers; (9) school improvement project tools (preliminary school assessment tool, consensus tool, site selection tool, implementation planning tool, fundraising plan tool); and (10) case studies of a small project (Bladensburg High School sign) and a large project (Shadyside Elementary School master plan). 24p.TO ORDER: State of Maryland, Public School Construction Program at 410-767-0617.
Reflections: The History of the Council 1980-2000.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2002)
Records the history of the Council of Educational Facility Planners International during the 20 years from 1980 to 2000, including information that connects the years preceding 1980 and beyond 2000. Past and present presidents and executive directors offer "stories" in response to prompting questions about their personal experiences with the council. Also included is a summary of the council's previous history-publication, published in 1982, titled "From NCSC to CEFPI: The Council's First Sixty Years." 114p.
Schools That Fit: Aligning Architecture and Education.
(Cuningham Group, Minneapolis, MN , 2002)
This booklet presents one architectural firm's understanding and application of the latest educational research in real-world settings. It asserts that architects can make significant contributions to education by designing schools that uniquely facilitate improvements in organizational structure, learning methods, or both. It presents lessons learned about designing schools and about the process and the planning that are required to align facilities with programs, and architecture with education. The booklet provides examples of environments shaped by attention to communities' individual needs, including small schools, project-based learning, and community schools. Following an introduction, the discussion is broken into the following chapters: (1) "Schools That Fit;" (2) "Toward Better Schools;" (3) "Schools That Fit Communities;" (4) "Schools That Fit Education Leaders;" (5) "Schools That Fit Teachers;" (6) "Schools That Fit Learners;" and (7) "Schools That Fit Children." 64p.
Planning and Managing School Facilities. Second Edition.
(Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT , 2002)
This book addresses the administrative procedures associated with planning and managing school facilities and discusses planning from the perspective of both individual facility projects and more comprehensive district-wide efforts. Part One examines historical and contemporary perspectives on school facility planning. A systems perspective is provided for defining the adequacy of school buildings, and the effects of changing demographics, school reform, technology, and obsolescence are detailed. Various planning paradigms and needs assessment are the focus of Part Two. Part Three examines specific tasks related to completing a facility project, including public opinion polling, securing professional services, and management responsibilities before, during, and after construction. Part Four includes focused issues: planning elementary schools, planning secondary schools, making enrollment projections, working with other agencies, choosing between renovation and new construction, financing capital outlay, and maintaining facilities once they become operational. 279p.TO ORDER: Bergin & Garvey, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Tel: 203-226-3571
A Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program.
Oates, Arnold D.; Burch, A. Lee
The Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program described in this paper encourages school leaders to consider a more holistic view of the planning process. It is intended to assist those responsible for educational facility planning, who must assure that all important and relevant tasks are accomplished in a timely manner. The model's six phases are: (1) assessment of current facilities, programs, and community beliefs; (2) preliminary planning for facility master plan development; (3) implementing the facility master plan; (4) marketing the master plan; (5) implementation of projects in the master plan; and (6) post-occupancy evaluation. Each phase includes a list of tasks and responsible persons, and an estimated time frame.
Learning Environments Designed for the Occupants: Three Case Studies of Innovative Elementary School Design.
Shrader-Harvey, Erika; Droge, Martha
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville , Jan 2002)
This research project examined how educational facilities are perceived and used by the occupants. It sought to inform the design of effective learning environments in elementary schools through a heightened awareness of the needs of the occupants and an understanding of how they use their school facilities. Project objectives included the following: (1) to increase awareness of the needs of facility users by encouraging a dialogue between designers, educators, and facility occupants; (2) to develop a knowledge base that will lead to the design of effective learning environments; and (3) to assemble a set of visual examples of effective learning environments that can be used as a resource to facilitate communication between architects and educators. The project involved the case study of three elementary schools: Irwin Avenue Open Elementary School in Charlotte, North Carolina; Grasonville Elementary School in Grasonville, Maryland; and Cougar Elementary School in Manassas Park, Virginia. In addition to detailed building descriptions with photographs, significant findings were: (1) a sense of community at multiple scales provides students with a sense of belonging and a sense of place; (2) functional spaces that allow for multiple uses and a variety of tasks encourage students to make choices for themselves, fostering the development of individual responsibility; and (3) experiential learning takes place when a student is engaged in an activity; active participation allows students to apply what they learn and helps them define their interests, thereby contributing to a sense of self. 44p.
The School is Dead, Long Live the School!: Planning Schools in the Dawn of a New Era.
Nair, Prakash; Lackney, Jeffery
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Oct 2001)
Summarizes a workshop that examined current and potential school and learning models, school organizational structure, and the facility development process. 65p.
The School Design Process: An Opportunity for Change?
Guttormsson, Thomas Bjorn
(Master's Research Project, Southwest State University, Marshall, MN , Aug 23, 2001)
Reports on a study to determine if involving teachers in the design process for school facilities would result in a commitment to change by the whole faculty. In one rural Minnesota school district a majority of the facility planning committee was made up of teachers. This committee was charged with articulating the educational activities that would take place in any new or renovated buildings by outlining seven critical attributes that would set the direction for the physical design and educational programs that would take place in the future. It was found that in this district, which attempted several reform efforts during the past 10 years, teachers agreed to change their teaching to conform to the committee's vision. 71p.Report NO: 1406234
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Creating a New Vision of the Urban High School. Carnegie Challenge, 2001.
(Carnegie Corporation of New York, NY , 2001)
This paper focuses on how urban high schools may be not only revitalized but also transformed into institutions that are designed to help students at the crossroads of their academic careers. It discusses the rationale for change, historic highlights of this effort, and a new vision for American high schools. Some of the promising approaches to change include: transforming large impersonal schools into small schools; using whole-school design; reaching out to parents and other community members to increase their involvement in education; and partnering with businesses and universities. The paper highlights the Carnegie Corporation's Schools for a New Society initiative, which has awarded planning grants to 10 community-school district partnerships working on urban high school reform. The paper also focuses on principles outlined by the New Century High Schools for New York City Consortium, a $30 million commitment to high school reform in New York City announced in December 2000 by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Open Society Institute, and the Carnegie Corporation. 14p.TO ORDER: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Tel: 212-371-3200
Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY , 2001)
This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of energy issues and mechanical systems, structural concerns and acoustic control, lighting, internal traffic, and security. Further, the book asks and answers 20 questions that frequently arise in the early phases of a project commission; and provides project photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 250p.
A Visioning Process for Designing Responsive Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2001)
This manual presents guidance for creating a constructive dialogue between school officials and the surrounding community on the design of schools that contribute to enhancing educational quality. The benefits of community participation are addressed as are descriptions of the principle parts of the participation process, including strategic planning, goal setting, and long term planning. Finally, the manual presents the Charrette process as a method for generating design ideas. 18p.
Assessing the Need.
(Governor's Education Reform Study Commission, Education Facilities Committee, Atlanta, GA , Nov 28, 2000)
This issue paper presents an assessment of Georgia's need for school facilities--both current need as well as the additional need created by law HB 1187. For the purposes of this paper, the current unmet needs are addressed separately from the impact of HB 1187. The pre-HB 1187 needs are identified from the facilities plans in terms of classroom additions, new schools, renovations, and modifications and are expressed not only in terms of units but also in terms of eligible costs at a standard state rate that is applied to all systems. Then, the impact of HB 1187 is examined and an estimate of the additional need for classrooms as a result of HB 1187 is provided. For illustrative purposes only, the number of additional classrooms or instructional units is broken into new schools and additions. No definitive cost estimates are provided at this point until all 180 facilities plans can be examined with local facilities personnel to determine how many of these additional classrooms would be accommodated in new schools. 36p.
Comprehensive Facility Planning.
(Governor's Education Reform Study Commission, Education Facilities Committee, Atlanta, GA , Nov 28, 2000)
This paper asserts that given the net growth in Georgia's student population and the need to house these students, a logical and systematic approach to disburse state funds based upon an assessment of needs is critical. It explains that a local facilities plan encourages the local school system to look into the future and assess their needs and how they will construct, add, renovate, or modify facilities to meet their future needs. This plan is then used as the basis for funding decisions both at the local and state level. The paper presents some background information related to facilities planning and discusses why planning is important and what triggers construction. Additionally, it provides a history of Georgia state facilities planning and explains in detail a typical local facilities plan and the development process. In the "Current Conditions" section, the paper analyzes current planning in relation to the requirements of the law. The "Findings" section highlights issues that need further consideration. The final section of the paper poses some alternatives for consideration to further improve the planning process and management of planning. 23p.
Making Current Trends in School Design Feasible.
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Div. of School Support. Raleigh, NC , Nov 2000)
This North Carolina report describes new and innovative approaches to school facilities as they relate to their communities by exploring the trends towards smaller schools, walkable schools, sustainability and green building practices, recycling older small community schools, and joint use arrangements. The pros and cons of small schools are examined. The report finds solutions by applying strategies in smart growth planning. Concluding sections contain links and references where stakeholders can obtain in-depth material on these subjects. (Contains 60 references.) 57p.
GIS in Community-Based School Planning: A Tool To Enhance Decision Making, Cooperation, and Democratization in the Planning Process.
(Presented to the Stein and Schools Lecture Series: Policy Planning, and Design for a 21st Century Public Education System, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY , Jun 20, 2000)
Examines use of geographic information systems (GIS) by the Blue Valley School District in Overland Park, Kansas, to help manage and plan for rapid growth and development. The GIS program helps school districts realize several planning related benefits: increased cooperative planning activities among stakeholders in the school planning process; achievement of a greater democratization level; and improvement in the planning process for school district residents, the planning and facilities committee, and the school district's administration. 30p.
Stimulating the Supply and Building the Capacity of New Schools and School Developers: Recommendations for the Design and Implementation of a New Schools Incubator.
(Washington Univ., Seattle. Center on Reinventing Public Education. , Jun 2000)
This report examines the viability of creating a new-schools incubator and identifies appropriate incubator services. A new-schools incubator, an entirely new organization designed to provide expertise and support to school founders during their planning process, may meet the needs of school founders facing the challenges of planning effective new schools. The report details the growing need for new schools, the challenges to school startup, and the theory behind incubation. In addition, it provides lessons learned from interviews with business incubator directors relevant to the design and planning for a schools incubator. Sections II and III establish the rationale for a schools incubator. The report utilizes school-enrollment projections and data from existing school-reform initiatives to demonstrate the growing need for new schools. It also describes the challenges for new-school startups based on interviews with school founders. These challenges include the lack of access to resources and technical expertise and a shortage of startup financing. Sections IV and V propose implications and recommendations for structuring a schools incubator, paying close attention to how business incubators work. The report closes with recommendations for the ways school-incubator developers can ensure the viability of a new-schools incubator.TO ORDER: Center on Reinventing Public Education, Daniel J. Evans Schools of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Box 353060, Seattle, WA 98195-3060. Tel: 206-685-2214.
McWillie School - Jackson, Mississippi.
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Apr 2000)
Presents the planning team report for this school, including a project description, workshop and interview methodology and findings, and the recommended facility program. Numerous plans and tables illustrate the results. 95p.
Planning Effective Leadership for Facility Development (for Small and Medium Size Districts).
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Feb 23, 2000)
This paper draws on the experience of the Sebastopol Union School District, a small school district in California, which formed a team to manage facilities renovation. The team was comprised of the district superintendent, the architect, a construction manager, and a facility/financial consultant; it allowed the district to succeed at the school construction "game" in a manner similar to large school districts that enjoy well-developed facility departments. The roles and responsibilities of each team member are outlined for the following phases of facility development: master planning/educational specifications, funding and finances, design, pre- construction, construction, and post-construction. It illustrates the manner in which the several consultants coordinated their roles and responsibilities in an effort to ensure the most effective leadership for successful completion of projects that support the facility master plan. 13p.
Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support.
Dewees, Sarah; Hammer, Patricia Cahape
(Appalachia Educational Laboratory, Charleston, WV , 2000)
Most rural school districts face similar issues as they consider new facility construction, renovations, or additions. These issues are how to gain public support for funding, how to make the best use of local resources, how to design buildings that meet a variety of community needs, and how to design facilities that optimize instruction and use of technology. This book contains seven edited papers presented at the National Working Conference on Improving Rural School Facilities, held in Kansas City, Missouri, in March 1998. The papers are: 1) "Trends and Issues Affecting School Facilities in Rural America: Challenges and Opportunities for Action"; 2) "Financing Facilities in Rural School Districts: Variations among the States and the Case of Arkansas"; 3) "Preserving Heritage While Restoring and Improving Facilities: A Rural Community's Experience"; 4) "Creating Technology Infrastructures in a Rural School District: A Partnership Approach"; 5) "Gaining Rural Community Support for a Bond Issue: A Superintendent's Experience"; 6) "Maintaining Respect for the Past and Flexibility for the Future: Additions and Renovations as an Integrated Sequence"; and 7) "Managing the Rural School Facility Construction Process" 128p.
Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments.
(Architectural Press, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, Massachusetts , 2000)
This guide focuses on the architecture of primary and pre- school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture along with an overview illustrating the link between progressive educational ideas and experimental architecture. Chapter 2 explores the classroom environment and its importance to child development and learning, including the interweaving of the esoteric factors such as the effects on behavior of color, light, and texture with the practical aspects of designing for comfort, health, and education. Chapter 3 analyzes and discusses the best new examples of school design within the wider architectural and political context. Chapter 4 examines the issues outside the classroom such as environmental factors defining healthy, comfortable buildings for education and the structure of school funding within the United Kingdom. The book also analyzes 20 school or educational buildings in diagrammatic and visual terms revealing how wit and imagination applied in a discerning manner can be as inspiring as cutting-edge technologies adapted in previous eras. 238p.
Planning Educational Facilities for the Next Century.
Earthman, Glen I.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2000)
This book examines each phase in the process of planning capital projects and those individuals in the schools who make decisions about the buildings students will use. It uses the long range planning process of the school system as the vehicle for providing the proper housing for students and programs. Program development, student enrollment projections, existing facility evaluation, and financial planning are discussed. Further areas address the development of the capital improvement program, architect employment, educational specifications development, the federal regulations in planning educational facilities, design phase monitoring, construction project bidding and construction phase management, and technology planning. Appendices provide sample forms and correspondence such as the standard forms of agreement between owner and architect and between owner and contractor, a middle school appraisal form, site selection flow chart, a flow chart for developing educational specifications, job description for construction supervisor, a planning process evaluation form, and school planning checklist. 299p.
New Designs for Learning: K-12 Schools
Copa, George, H.
(University of California, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA , Aug 1999)
Project staff have found that designing schools for the future is a learning process in which staff, students, community, and designers work together to discover new ways to design a school's learning experiences and environment. The project staff had several goals for the characteristics and features of the learning experience and school design when the project, New Designs for the Comprehensive High School, was initiated. Goals included: (1) representing the leading edge of a new breed of schools that would create some new "space" in which to think about the operation of high schools; (2) promising the idea of a common set of learner outcomes for all graduates; (3) relating learner expectations to the challenges and opportunities in work, family, community, and personal life; (4) operating the high school more as a learning community; (5) more closely aligning learner expectations, the learning process, the learning organization, and the learning environment; (6) drawing more attention to learning in contrast to teaching; (7) having a positive special character that gives more focus, coherence, and spirit to learning; and (8) wanting schools that don't cost any more to build or operate than existing schools. The design-down process has 12 learning elements: context, audience, signature, expectations, process, organization, partnerships, staff and staff development, environment, celebration, finance, and accountability. Lessons for gaining agreement on decisions include looking inside and outside the school for design group members; involving those members from the beginning; using a clear and powerful process; relying on more than one way; and thinking comprehensively and long-term. 17p.
The ABC's of Building a School.
(Oklahoma State Dept of Education, Financial Services Division, Oklahoma City, OK , 1999)
This booklet is designed for administrators who are being encouraged to build a new, or remodel an old, school facility. It describes the planning process from perceived need to the hiring of an architect; the duties of the architect, bondsman, and contractor; school bonds and finances; disability access requirements; force account; economical maintenance; the chronological order of construction; an overview of building systems and materials; applicable state laws; construction costs; and sample construction forms. Also included are Oklahoma State Fire Marshall fire resistive considerations and safety. Appendices contain a checklist for designing maintenance-free buildings; samples of the forms used in building construction projects such as contracts, bonds, and affidavits; and examples of energy conservation measures. 84p.TO ORDER: Oklahoma State Department of Education, 2500 North Lincoln Boulevard,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105-4599; Tel: 405-521-3812
Heritage Oak School: From Obscurity to International Recognition--A Historical Case Study in Participatory School Facility Planning.
Lee, Kelvin K.
(Ed.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, Utah. , 1999)
This case study describes the planning and design process for the Heritage Oak Elementary School in Dry Creek Joint School District. It discusses the rapid residential growth that initiated the school planning process to reconfigure the K-8 self-contained classrooms into elementary schools that contained kindergarten through fifth-grade and middle schools for the remaining sixth- through eighth-grade students. Also described is the reconfiguration of the traditional 9-month calender to a multi-track year-round calendar, and the joint planning of school sites with the park systems in the school district. Major elements of the planning process discussed are the Board of Trustees' commitment to build community-based schools, community participation in the instructional program design, a comprehensive district facilities master plan, educational specifications designed to the district curriculum, and a participatory design process. The case study demonstrates that the process used to plan and design the school was effective in providing a school facility that met the school district's program needs, school staff, and school community. 308p.
Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.
Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.
(University of New Mexico, School of Architecture and Planning, Albuquerque , Fall 1998)
This issue of MASS Magazine, Journal of the School of Architecture and Planning at the University of New Mexico, addresses growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on the new and emerging integrated field which combines elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two- and three-dimensional visual thinking as mainstream educational practices. Following an editorial introduction, the issue's articles are: (1) "Technology and Education" (George Lucas); (2) "Learning Is Being Alive" (Rina Swentzel); (3) "E Pluribus Unum: The New American Community School" (Steven Bingler); (4) "Environments for Children" (Dolf Schnebli); (5) "Beauty, Morality, Sunshine and Freedom" (George Anselevicius); (6) "A Case History of a Community School in Sendai, Japan" (Hiroko Hosoda); (7) "Lessons in High School Planning and Design" (C. William Brubaker); (8) "Ecology and Community" (Fritjof Capra); (9) "The Role of Designers in Design and Education" (Peter Edward Lowe and Phillip I. Nobel); and (10) "Physical Environments Do Affect Learning and Behavior of Students" (Anne Taylor). 56p.
Architectural Terms for Educational Planners.
(Wolff/Lang/Christopher Architects, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga,CA , 1998)
This booklet is designed to facilitate open, clear communication between educational facility planners and the architects hired to oversee building design and construction. Provides a list of architectural, electrical, plumbing, and topographical symbols; a glossary of architectural terms; and a list of public agencies and relevant codes and regulations of which school planners ought to be aware.TO ORDER: WLC Architects,10470 Foothill Blvd., Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730-3754; Tel: 909-987-0909
Planning and Designing Schools.
Brubaker, C. William
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY , 1998)
This book offers and examines a number of suggestions for school architecture. The book consists of a review of 22 school projects from around the United States. The text opens with a brief history of school design in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but the focus throughout the book focuses on several distinct elements: designing schools with beauty and character; the planning and building process; computers and their impact on learning and design; interior design, including color, light, space, furnishing, and equipment; how educational restructuring affects architecture; and campus planning-site analysis. The design ideas presented here apply to a broad array of school types: community schools, high schools, shared facilities, elementary schools, expansions, renovations, and new projects. Each case deals with a unique problem and shows how the architects worked with the educators to create a tailored solution. Graphics and other illustrations are provided for each project reviewed. Special chapters address issues such as how to prevent obsolete schools, how to transform the learning environment, and how to design schools with character. 205p.
Changing Patterns in Educational Facilities
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Recognized Educational Facility Professional workshop conducted for members of the Council of Educational Facility Planners International; Design Share , 1998)
Planners are increasingly focusing on the future of society, education, and the impact these social forces may have on school facilities and learning environments. This report examines patterns in societal trends, educational approaches, and facility design. It describes changing patterns in each area, as articulated in Alvin Toffler's "The Third Wave", within the following time frames: Agricultural Society (1650-1849); Industrial Society (1850-1949); Information Society (1950-1999); and Knowledge Society (2000-2025).
The Overlooked Half of a Large Whole: The Role of Environmental Quality Management in Supporting the Educational Environment.
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Paper presented at the International Conference on Buildings and the Environment (2nd, Paris, France, June 9-12, 1997). , Jun 1997)
This paper examines the changing role of environmental quality management from its traditional operationally-based role, to an expanded, more dynamic role in strategic educational planning activities at the local, site-based level. First, a brief review of the state of knowledge concerning the impact of environmental quality on the educational process is presented. Second, the trend toward site-based management (SBM) in schools is discussed in light of the potential opportunities for developing a whole-system process of strategic educational planning that encompasses and integrates environmental quality management. Third, an action research study is presented in order to first illustrate the complex relationship that exists between day-to-day environmental quality management and educational instructional activities in many urban schools, and second, to suggest a potential mechanism for drawing school and community representatives into the strategic planning and evaluation process at local school sites. The paper concludes that educators can be trained to collaborate in an environmental diagnostic process in which environmental quality concerns are identified, prioritized, and addressed in such a way as to be congruent with educational activities and goals, and that this process can be integrated within existing facility management decision-making frameworks such as SBM school improvement teams. 8p.
Making a World of Difference: Elementary Schools. Impact on Education Series.
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , 1997)
To demonstrate the impact facilities can have on learning, some exemplary elementary schools that made the decision to provide a good educational environment are presented. To assess the impact of these facilities, students, teachers, parents, superintendents, and other administrators were interviewed. The book opens with a discussion of whether the building does make a difference in education and concludes that the physical surroundings wield a profound effect on children and personnel. Discussed next are various philosophies that influence structural design and how classrooms should be constructed to help children learn. The school environment should stimulate and motivate children, and it should support educational initiatives, not hinder them. Some of the specific areas that are discussed at length include communications and technology, enrichment and support space, and outdoor learning and play. The theme of the text, "a place where people want to be", is the focus of the last chapter. Each section features numerous interior and exterior photographs of school buildings. 135p.
Physical Facilities for Education: What Planners Need to Know. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 57.
(UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris , 1997)
This booklet presents key areas that educational and physical facilities planners need to know to effectively interface with architects and building designers so students can have the best learning environments possible within the available resources. The necessity for adequate physical facilities for education is argued, how to manage the qualitative dimensions of these facilities is explored, controlling capital investments is examined, and designing facilities that are adaptable for multiple uses is discussed. A chart outlining the educational buildings planning process is provided. An appendix presents a checklist of data to be collected during an educational buildings inventory. 100p.TO ORDER: UNESCO Publishing, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France
Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools.
(Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau , 1996)
The Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools (Cost Model) is a tool for use by school districts and their consultants in estimating school construction costs in the planning phase of a project. This document sets out the sixth edition of the demand-cost model, a rewrite of the whole system. The model can be used to establish a complete budget for each facility or to determine the current replacement value for insurance purposes. The document explains, using detailed worksheets, how to use the demand-cost model for new school construction, school expansion, and renovation work. Three tables are included. 98p.
The School Design Primer: A How-To Manual for the 21st Century.
(Little Institute for School Facilities Research, Charlotte, NC , 1996)
This document was developed to provide those individuals involved in school construction with an easy-to-understand resource. Ten chapters address facility and educational planning, budgeting and funding, organizing the planning team and process, site selection, space planning, contracts and negotiating, the design and building process, special features of an educational facility, security and vandalism prevention, and indoor air quality. Includes a school evaluation and a site selection criteria checklist, theoretical space profiles for three educational facility levels, a table detailing adequate space allocation, and a standard school project schedule and construction timeline. The appendix provides the following samples: "Request for Proposal" questionnaire, policy statement, letter of intent for subcontractor, commitment form, school construction project directory, construction data sheet, and project cost data sheet. 125p.TO ORDER: Little Diversified Architectural Consulting, 5815 Westpark Dr., Charlotte, NC 28217. Tel: 704-525-6350
Planning and Financing School Improvement and Construction Projects.
Bittle, Edgar H.
(National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Topeka, KS; Education Law Association, Dayton, OH; American Bar Association, Chicago, IL , 1996)
Although a high-quality learning environment is crucial to educating America's youth, numerous studies have shown that the countrys schools are in substandard condition. Suggestions and guidelines to help school administrators, business officials, board members, and others interested in improving school facilities are presented in this book. It opens with an overview of the legal and planning issues that school boards face and provides practical insights from a school administrator for planning and implementing capital improvement projects. It also offers an experienced architect's insights concerning the planning process. Financial concerns that school districts face in planning a capital improvement project are covered, as are considerations for complying with the Americans with Disability Act in building or renovating a building. How to conduct competitive bidding is described, and information on public policy is offered. The last two chapters present a detailed summary of the federal tax and securities laws, which govern the marketing of securities for financing capital improvement projects. It is hoped that this information will help school administrators and others understand the requirements of the federal tax and securities laws. 171p.TO ORDER: Education Law Association
Planning Educational Facilities.[Course Outline for Virginia Polytechnic Institute]
Earthman, Glen I.
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, College of Education, Blacksburg , 1995)
School administrators need in-depth information to mount effective planning efforts, to develop and maintain satisfactory buildings for modern educational programs, to supervise the work of other professionals and technicians in designing and constructing facilities, and in evaluating such efforts. A syllabus for a course that imparts this type of information is presented here. It lists the objectives for the course, including that the student will be able to describe and evaluate the process used in various types of planning, and outlines the class requirements. The 19 suggested course topics include an introduction to the planning process, organizing staff for a building program, long-range planning, surveying existing facilities, facility evaluation instruments, developing capital improvement, involving the community, architectural selection, site selection, educational facility specifications, facility design, bidding, evaluation, plant maintenance, energy utilization, and other topics. 14p.
The Decision Making Roles and Processes of Texas Superintendents in Educational Facility Planning.
Ross, James Moffatt
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin , 1995)
This survey of 96 Texas public school superintendents and 96 Texas public school business managers determined their decision making roles and differing perceptions of the facility planning process. Survey data reveal few significant differences between superintendents and business managers suggesting that business managers often perceive correctly to what extent superintendents involve others in decision making entailing school facility acquisition. Superintendents were more often collaborative than autocratic in decision making, particularly, during the "selling" and "occupation" phases of facilities' planning. "Selling" involved justification to the public for the new school and presentations made in the public arena to persuade members of the community of the need for the new school. During the "occupation" phase decisions were made to involve parents and other community members in the opening of the new facility through open houses, etc. Superintendents also tended to be highly collaborative when the time came to develop educational specifications for the new building. 213p.
The Effects of Teacher Involvement on the Planning of Secondary Schools.
Montoya, Carl A.
(Doctoral Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces , May 1994)
Explores the effects of teacher involvement in the planning of new secondary schools. The study found that the more teachers were involved in planning the new school, the more positive their attitude was towards the facility. The study found that three-fourths of the teachers surveyed were not involved in new school planning. It also found that most teachers, whether or they had previously been involved in planning their schools, wanted an active role in the planning process. 169p.Report NO: 9510414
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Educational Facilities: Planning, Modernization, and Management. Fourth Edition
(Allyn and Bacon; Boston, MA , 1994)
As a sourcebook and textbook, this publication provides a comprehensive treatise on the planning, design, remodeling, and maintenance of educational facilities. The first chapters deal with the theory, principles, and techniques related to the educational planning of school buildings, including the application of selected principles of educational psychology. These chapters contain theoretical considerations that serve as a basis for long-range education planning and the specific educational facilities in any school district. The remaining chapters offer timely and practical information that reflects the state of the art in the planning of functional and futuristic educational facilities. It also includes information specific for planning child-care facilities. Besides containing information on curricular matters for the architect, this book also offers suggestions and solutions to a variety of problems related to educational facilities confronting school officials, school maintenance personnel, college and university officers, boards of education, and other stakeholders. 435p.TO ORDER: Allyn & Bacon (A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.), 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02194
A Guide to the Planning of Educational Facilities
Holcomb, John H.
(University Press of America, Inc., Lanham, MD, 1994)
This guidebook provides information to school districts for use during the planning and development process of a school building program. The first eight chapters offer guidelines for completing the stages of educational facility planning: conducting a needs-assessment study; planning and generating commitment; designing the proposed facility; "selling" the plan; procuring financing; working with the architect and contractor during construction; orienting students, personnel, and the community prior to occupation of the building; and evaluating the new facility. The final chapter provides suggestions for deciding whether to build new facilities or remodel. Appendices contain a sample facilities study project, evaluation instruments, a chart for calculating enrollment projections, and an outline for final presentation before the school board. (Contains 25 references.) 110p.
Schoolhousing: Planning and Designing Educational Facilities.
Ortiz, Flora Ida
(State University of New York Press, Albany, NY , 1994)
This book presents a theoretical and practical portrayal of how, when, and why public school districts build new schools as well as specifying school district reorganization and the subsequent steps necessary to implement plans. It discusses how school districts relate to state agencies on regulatory, fiscal, and support bases; and addresses questions considered important to school district officials and others engaged in projects requiring long-term management. Topics address preconstruction considerations, issues involving the construction of new schools, postconstruction processes, and provide conclusions and policy implications. Author and subject indexes are include as is an appendix containing references for additional information. (Contains 228 references.) 194p.
A Procedural Guide for Planning an Educational Facility.
Logsdon, Gordon B.
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville , May 1993)
Provides the board of education and administrators with a single document containing information needed to implement an educational facility construction program. The objective is to provide planners with the basic principles of educational planning, to emphasize the relationship between educational facilities and the programs they must accommodate, to show the relationship of human involvement to functional planning of successful educational facilities, and to examine the broad steps necessary to plan and construct new educational facilities. Data for this guide was collected through an intensive search of literature divided into seven major categories: 1) historical background; 2) demographic projections; 3) educational planning; 4) personnel; 5) architect; 6) financing the educational facility; and 7) site selection. 185p.Report NO: 9334083
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
School Ways: The Planning and Design of America's Schools.
Graves, Ben E.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1993)
This sourcebook draws upon award-winning educational projects to examine emerging trends and new technology in educational facilities design. It presents profiles of the best designed schools of the last decade; new trends in school layouts; essential programming information on space needs, classroom size, and other design criteria; design tips for accommodating computers and audio-visual equipment; and guidance on organizing the programming and design phases of school construction. Additionally, it explains how to prepare long-range facility plans, how to inventory and evaluate existing facilities, and how to prepare educational specifications as well as providing a detailed summary and directory of information and planning resources. 237p.
The Nine Lives of the Facilities Planner.
Ortiz, Flora Ida; And Others
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the California Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA , Nov 1992)
The construction of new schools is a complex task requiring a great deal of executive direction that is most successfully attained if the executive function resides permanently in one individual. Data were collected through observation of schools in 6 school districts (photographs and films); document analysis (newspapers and other media, and reviews of technical reports); and interviews with principals, teachers, school board members, superintendents, parents, custodians, architects, contractors, and 20 school facilities planners. A successful facility construction process requires the coordination of three functions: executive, providing procedural order and allocating resources; professional, providing specialized knowledge; and representative, balancing attention between special interests and the common good. The facility planner fulfills the executive function, overseeing and coordinating nine fundamental steps involved in school facility construction: (1) needs assessment; (2) long-range planning, including formation of planning and advisory groups; (3) fiscal planning; (4) school building planning, which includes school site planning and selection, architectural services, and educational specifications; (5) contractor bidding; (6) building construction; (7) occupying the building; (8) postoccupancy evaluations; and (9) school facility use, which includes judging the final project and implementing plans for full utilization of the school. 17p.
Revitalization of School Facilities.
Coffey, Andrea Barlow
(Phd. Dissertation, East Tennessee State University , May 1992)
This study analyzed current practices in the revitalization of school buildings and assimilates data that can be used by school administrators when deciding on revitalization issues. Data from nine revitalized schools since 1985 and a literature review of the elements for planning the revitalization of school facilities indicate that structural soundness, program support, site, and cost are the areas of concern with planning of the revitalization of a school. Specific planning elements included the development of educational specifications, attention to site condition, consideration of playground areas, importance of the exterior appearance of the school buildings, space utilization, condition of mechanical and electrical systems, importance of energy efficiency, development of barrier-free environments, treatment of thermal environments, consideration of acoustics, management of visual environments, selection of furniture and equipment, and attention to aesthetics. Appendices provide a roof management program, energy conservation measures of the National Petroleum Council, the functions of carpeting in schools, the National Council of Schoolhouse Construction Brightness Goals, a list of areas where the school facility can enhance student learning, and a revitalization of school facilities review guide. (Contains 51 references.) 133p.
Guidelines for Planning Public School Facilities: A Trends-Oriented Approach.
Coffey, Harold Edward
(Ph.D. Dissertation, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN , 1992)
This study establishes guidelines for planning future public schools based upon identified global, societal, and educational trends that most likely will impact the types of school facilities built. Sixty- six guideline elements were developed and judged as essential, highly desirable, and significant by 13 national educational facility planning specialists. Major conclusions from the study are that educational practitioners advocated systematic, proactive, long- and short-range facility planning; that aesthetic, psychological, and behavioral environmental enhancement factors were key areas in future school designs; and that schools should be designed to offer optimal comfort to all inhabitants with flexible spaces where teachers and students can learn, relate, and explore. 287p.Report NO: AAG9222251
Facilities Planning and Construction.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1991)
This self-assessment guide is designed to assist members of fiscal policy teams in assessing current district standards and practices in the area of school facility planning and construction in relation to the total educational program. Arranged to complement the components of a long-range master plan, the guide is divided into nine parts: (1) organization and process for planning a facility; (2) use of demographics in planning; (3) selection and acquisition of the site; (4) determination of the need for educational facilities; (5) program requirements; (6) selection of an architect; (7) financing for the facility; (8) construction of the school building; and (9) orientation and post occupancy evaluation for users. 95p.
A Comparative Analysis of the Importance of Selected Elementary School Building Characteristics to Teachers, Principals, and Architects.
Chapman II, Marvin Watzel
(Doctoral Disseration, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill , 1991)
Examines the perceptions of teachers, principals, and architects relative to a set of building characteristics for a new elementary school. The data suggests that each group perceives school design features differently and that the professional training of each subject group influences their perception. Teachers and principals demonstrated the most similarity in responses, while teachers and architects demonstrated the least similarity. Analysis of the statistical values produced for the different design categories suggests that the expertise of all three subject groups should be used when new schools are designed. This planning should take place in a cooperative, professional atmosphere. 183p.Report NO: 9135212
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Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
Moore, Deborah P., Ed.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1991)
Advises on planning educational facilities from the conception of needs through occupancy and use. Each unit contains numerous photographs, drawings, and figures that illustrate the contents. Unit subjects are as follows: historical perspectives; planning resources; developing a master plan; the planning professionals; educational specifications; the site; spaces for learning; auxiliary spaces; environment for learning; equipping the facility; project budget and cost control; financing the capital program; the construction program; renovation, alteration, conversion; orientation and post-occupancy evaluation; college and university planning; and buying, selling, and leasing. 244p.
The Role of Educators in Educational Facilities Planning: A Case Study of the Planning Process.
Neylon, Terrance Bernard
(Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts , 1991)
This case study explores the role of educators in educational facilities planning and construction and discusses the different agendas and perspectives people bring to the development of educational facility specifications. It describes how cooperation and input among stakeholders resulted in a Massachusetts community college being built in 18 months, under budget, and with less than 1 percent change orders. Chapters provide background information on the college, the educational planning and specifications process, the phases of the design process, school construction issues and management, and user interviews about the outcome. Study conclusions are discussed as are recommendations on the planning process to ensure user involvement and input in the final facility, and improvements to the facilities planning process. 237p.
School Housing for the Schooling of Children.
Ortiz, Flora Ida
(California Educational Research Cooperative, Riverside, CA , 1991)
The demand for school construction and the agency regulations and practices involved in the process are described in this report. A four-part theoretical framework explains the process of school facility construction. First, school districts follow a process that consists of nine fundamental steps: (1) needs assessment; (2) long-range planning; (3) fiscal planning; (4) school building planning, which includes school-site planning and selection, architectural services, and educational specifications; (5) bidding for contractors; (6) facility construction; (7) occupying the building; (8) postoccupancy evaluation; and (9) school facility use. Second, school districts accomplish these nine steps by coordinating three functions: executive leadership, professional expertise, and representative legitimation. Third, in order for the school district to construct new schools, it is also necessary to relate to external agencies such as the state (for regulation, fiscal allocation, and technical distribution). Fourth, local school district and state officials relate to each other interpersonally as well as interorganizationally. A brief discussion of the historical evolution of school construction is followed by arguments for the importance of school environments and the school structure itself. The conclusion is an indepth review of the nine steps from stage one of the theoretical framework mentioned above. (5 tables and 204 references) 102p.
School Planning and Design.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1990)
Presentation material and dialog is provided from the Council of Educational Facility Planners International's Workshop designed to acquaint educators, planners, designers, and other interested parties with contemporary issues impacting the planning and design of educational facilities in the 1990s'. The workshop examined the critical elements and trends in school planning and design, discussed how quality planning and design can enhance the educational process, and explored how to best address tomorrow's technology in today's school facilities. Two educational facility design case studies conclude the document. 66p.
Schools for the Twenty-First Century.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1990)
Proper planning in the design of new school facilities saves time, money, and resources. The importance of planning increases when funds are scarce, as limited dollars must be put to their best use. A dialogue should be generated in the community and among members of the school planning committee regarding how schools should look. Many questions that must be considered in the construction of new schools and building remodeling are addressed as well as issues and alternatives each district can take into account with its own resources, situation, and philosophy. The first section looks at a hypothetical school containing design elements that are described and discussed in section 2. Section 3 outlines planning steps, specification determination, and planning for quality. Design examples of nine schools, a master plan checklist, and a listing of resources in providing planning assistance are included. 81p.TO ORDER: California Department of Education Press Publications, California Department of Education, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: 916-327-7148
Planning Educational Facilities
MacKenzie, Donald G.
(University Press of America, 1989)
This book describes a process for planning educational facilities which respond to the community's educational needs. By determining the needs of the local citizenry, and developing building programs that reflect that need, the first critical steps in planning efficient and effective educational facilities will have been taken. Chapters 1, 2 and 3 discuss how this can be accomplished. The remaining chapters examine three critical issues: designing energy-efficient buildings; incorporating design strategies to reduce vandalism; and planning for the use of educational technology in the educational facility. These last chapters are designed to provide planning committees with sufficient information so they may raise questions about these issues with the architect. 102p.
Hertz, Karl V., Ed.; Day, C. William, Ed.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 1987)
This guide, a collection of 14 articles by experts in the field, highlights the key features related to the planning and construction of educational facilities. The guide is to be used as a tool in the planning, design, remodeling, and construction of educational facilities. The focus is on practice rather than theory. The book starts by dealing with a feasibility study and develops the master plan in the first two chapters. Chapter 3 details the important topic of writing the educational specifications before turning to the selection of the architect in chapter 4. Site selection is the order of business for chapter 5. The next three chapters deal with spaces for learning, interiors, and the visual environment. The next four chapters deal with the issues of financing, construction management, construction observation and administration. The last two chapters focus attention upon two rather unique topics: remodeling and the challenges of building schools in a rapidly growing population. 90p.
State-of-the-Art Facility: A Planning Process.
Day, C. William; Speicher, A. Dean
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of School Business Officials, Las Vegas, NV , Sep 1985)
Chief executive officers of school districts and facility planners must assume the role of change agent to meet the information needs of the 21st century. Public school learning, which will serve more groupings of people on a continual basis, will be disseminated through media learning centers. Management should follow six steps in planning program and facility strategies. (1) Be informed: Because the public will demand a careful rationale of funding expenditures, administration should act from an informed base. (2) Hire consultants: Professional school planning consultants should be experienced in educational programs and facility planning. (3) Conduct a comprehensive school study: Information gathered should contain demographic projections, community attitudes, status of school facilities, and district financial ability. (4) Select your architect: Administration should make available a prequalification questionnaire to architectural firms, a proposed project information sheet, and a team of educators to interview applicants. (5) Hire a construction manager: A construction manager should be selected at the time an architect is hired. (6) Prepare educational specifications: School district staff should define program goals, space requirements, and equipment needs to serve as a program guide to the design architect. 11p.
Guidelines for Developing a Program of Requirements.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1985)
Guidelines are presented that describe both the role and preparation of a Program of Requirements (POR) in the planning and design of capital improvement projects for educational facilities. The POR's purpose is to clearly define facility needs and objectives, which then become the challenges and charges to the designer. The guidelines explain what is contained in each section of a POR, including its title page, general content section, the summary of requirement section, a detailed description of facilities required, and standard appendices. Appendices include sample formats and illustrations. 19p.TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840
Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
Jenkins, Judith, ed.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1985)
Presents a compilation of information to be used in the planning of educational buildings from the conception of needs through occupancy and use. Each unit contains numerous photographs, drawings, and figures that illustrate the contents. Unit subjects are as follows: historical perspectives; planning resources; developing a master plan; the planning professionals; program requirements; the site; spaces for learning; auxiliary spaces; the learning environment; equipping the facility; project budget and cost control; financing the capital program; the construction program; renovation, alteration, and conversion; orientation and evaluation; college and university planning; and buying, selling, and leasing. 233p.
Campus in Transition.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Apr 1975)
Gives an interpretation of demographic factors that will have a long-term influence on higher education, considers some basic ideas that affect academic trends, and then describes some pathfinding concepts. Chapters cover: 1) fiscal crisis, 2) population and college enrollment, 3) programs and people, 4) implications for the physical plant, and 5) eight strategies for the management of space. 82p.
Fewer Pupils/Surplus Space.
Sargent, Cyril G.; Handy, Judith
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , May 1974)
Examines the counter-phenomenon of shrinkage in school population after a quarter of a century of rapid growth to find its extent, possible duration, and some of the strategies being developed to cope with surplus space. The report deals directly with how future population numbers are calculated and discusses the strategies and procedures that follow when a population is too thin for existing school facilities. 58p.
Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, Columbus, OH , Sep 1969)
Provides planners with basic principles of educational facility planning; serves as a basic guide for the application of recognized local and State criteria, standards, and principles to the planning of effective educational facilities; emphasizes the relationship between educational facilities and the educational programs they must accommodate; shows the importance of human resources and the relationship of human involvement to functional planning of successful educational facilities; and examines the broad steps necessary to plan and construct new facilities. An index and a bibliography are included. 204p.
Information Needs: for Planning Physical Facilities in Colleges and Universities. Overview.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jul 1969)
Presents the planning information needs of an institution of higher learning, and an approach to the collection of appropriate activity and facility information. Emphasis is given to space management and activities data with regard to facilities planning effectiveness. A computer program for evaluation of alternate building programs is described; input data requirements are set forth and related to the activities and facilities data described. 90p.
Step by Step to Better School Facilities.
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY , 1965)
Considers the improvement of school facilities in four parts: 1) development of a long-range plan including curriculum and building needs; 2) development of an individual project, covering stages from planning through occupancy; 3) planning for specifics of function, health, beauty, and economy, and 4) whether to modernize or build new. 382p.
School Building Planning.
McClurkin, W. D.
(The MacMillan Company, New York, NY , 1964)
Advises on planning school building by first examining the planning process, development of educational policy, and master planning. Subsequent chapters consider selection of design and construction services, costs, and facts and myths concerning aspects of school building and classroom design, size, and lighting. Includes 74 references. 150p.
Planning America's School Buildings.
(American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC , 1960)
Advises on school planning and construction, addressing the impact of the educational environment, space and facility needs assessment, aesthetics, the planning process, enrollment predictions, site selection, capitalization, construction costs, renovation, and maintenance. 237p.
References to Journal Articles
The Four Energy Zones of Schools
Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p49-53 ; Jun 2012
Discusses how schools can provide each child with an environment where they can grow and thrive by creating facilities that support quality educational delivery and promote a high level of engagement. The authors describe the regression, stagnation, corruption, and actualization zones.
Facility Planning: Sustainable Strategies
American School and University; Jan 2012
The payback for green school strategies is far-reaching. Discusses the LEED certification system and the Energy Star program. Looks at how school design has utilized some manner of sustainable principles for years, from the Educational Facilities Laboratories in the 1960s, the National Energy Act of 1978, design in the 1990s, through the Architecture 2030 Challenge.
LearnSpace Facility Engages! Enlightens! And Envisions!
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2011
LearnSpace shows that learning can take place in a variety of spaces and places. LearnSpace assists schools in identifying future educational needs and the corresponding spatial requirements for these needs.
A Brave New Campus--Marysville Getchell High School Campus 2011 MacConnell Award Winner.
Yurko, Amy and Mason, Craig
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p5-8 ; Dec 2011
Extensive case study of award winning high school outside Seattle, Washington that redefines high school education. Discusses communities of learners, taking chances, starting with the learner, being brave, scenario planning, environments for teaching and learning, and a shell-and-core approach.
10 Ways to Create Schools Where Students Thrive
Learning by Design; , p14-17 ; Fall 2011
Describes 10 innovative strategies for creating 21st century schools: engage all stakeholders in the design process; seek education partnerships and joint use; maximize sites well connected to the community; adapt and reuse existing facilities; utilize the neighborhood and the world as a campus; use sustainable design for a high-performance learning environment; integrate technology throughout; facilitate learning everywhere; break down the scale of the school; and design in support of learning.
What Schools Can Learn From Google, IDEO, and Pixar.
Turckes, Steven; Kahl, Melanie
Fast Company Co Design; Aug 26, 2011
The process of planning and designing a new school requires both looking outward (to the future, to the community, to innovative corporate powerhouses) as well as inward (to the playfulness and creativity that are at the core of learning. This articles suggests learning from the country's strongest innovators that embrace creativity, play, and collaboration -- values that also inform their physical spaces.
Smart Planning Saves Money.
American School Board Journal; v198 n5 , p44,45 ; May 2011
Describes strategic planning initiatives that can save money in school construction and renovation. In spite of a weak economy, school systems are still required to maintain and expand their facilities as necessary. Engaging all stakeholders to prioritize projects, transparent working sessions, facility benchmarking, adherence to curriculum needs, and attention to demographics are recommended.
Planning for the Future: Do a Comprehensive Demographic Study in 2011.
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p70 ; Mar 2011
Relates the release of 2010 Census data to the critical need for school districts to conduct a 10-year Comprehensive Demograhic Study. Population trends do not occur overnight, and a study of direction of change in housing, births, ethnicity, jobs, population, and age over 10 years will help create a model of change over the next decade.
Building the Community Nexus.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p35-37 ; 2011
Advocates integration of education and community services by effective siting of the facilities that house them. These community ?nexus? centers should be planned as a whole, include housing, and be walkable. The physical, cultural, social, economic, and educational domains making up the nexus are discussed, and an example of the concept being implemented in New Orleans is included.
School as a Place: A Phenomenological Method for Contemplating School Environments
Zur, Ayala; Eisikovits, Rivka A.
International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education; v24 n4 , p451-470 ; 2011
The study presents a phenomenologically based research procedure, whose intent is to examine people's school experience and the meaning they ascribe to "school." Participants in this investigative endeavor are instructed to sketch an "ideal school," present their plan in a visual-schematic manner, and provide an oral and written description of their design. Proposals are presented through a Location Task--a tool originally intended for use by architects in their routine work with clients. We discuss the rationale behind this procedure and describe the research tool and its application potential. Finally, we illustrate the data processing via the analysis of one proposal designed by a 17-year-old male student.[Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/tqse/2011/00000024/00000004/art00004
Planning Schools for 2050? First, Let's Get Now Right.
School Business Affairs; v76 n10 , p8-10 ; Dec 2010
Describes a method of master planning schools that considers four levels. The foundation of the scheme is fundamentals, which includes room orientation, technology, and natural light. This is followed by design around the curriculum, which is then followed by creativity that includes using the environment as a learning tool, and interdisciplinary studies. Finally, attention to globalism that emphasizes multiculturalism is promoted.
Smart Planning, Better Schools. [Educational Facilities Planning.]
Building Operating Management; v57 n8 , p44-46 ; Aug 2010
Discusses a comprehensive approach to school planning that includes involving all stakeholders, developing a core model program, and various points of a district-wide approach.
National Standard Brings Efficiency to Facility Planning.
Butler, R. Mark
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n2 , p14-16 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Advocates the use of the National CAD Standard (NCS) in facility planning and management, as well as being a first step toward the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM).
Defining Smart Spaces to Meet New and Changing Paradigms.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n1 , p18,20,21 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses a wide variety of school planning principles, including user participation, sustainability, technology integration, and flexible spaces. The article explains how concepts considered futuristic not long ago are now commonplace.
School Transformation and Development Map.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p14-16 ; 2010
Introduces 21st Century Skills Initiative, which advocates interdisciplinary learning and project-based learning. This is achieved through teacher collaboration, team teaching, RTIs (response to interventions), small learning communities, student cooperative learning, multi-age instruction and student internships. Charts are incorporated to demonstrate how stakeholders can convene to provide input.
Avoiding the Costly Mistake.
American School Board Journal; v196 n7 , p26-28 ; Jul 2009
Advises on properly projecting enrollment before building new schools. Tools for more precise projections, typical mistakes, computer mapping, and correct use of demographic data are described.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p38-40 ; Feb 2009
Addresses declining school enrollment in some regions, suggesting an organized and thoughtful procedure for closing a school, preparing and securing a school for vacancy, and maintaining a vacant school.
What's in Your Back Pack? Three Essential Items for Survival in the Tough and Changing World of Campus Construction.
del Monte, Rick
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n4 , p25-27 ; 2009
Stresses the importance of building information modeling (BIM), sustainable design, and integration of planning and design participants to educational building. Examples of BIM advantageously applied to specific school buildings are cited, as are the benefits and requirements of LEED certification.
A Moving Target. (Using Demographics in Your School Construction Plan.)
American School Board Journal; v195 n10 , p20-23 ; Oct 2008
Discusses use of demographic information in school planning, including predicting areas of growth that will need schools and areas of decline that may necessitate closing or consolidating schools. Costs of maintaining underutilized or vacant schools, the practice retaining them in case of an unforseen upswing, the negative effects of school closures on neighborhoods, and some particular issues surrounding shifts between neighborhoods within metropolitan areas are considered.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Meeting the Challenges of Facility Needs.
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p22-24 ; Dec 2007
Advises on addressing the demands of aging educational infrastructure, in an environment of shrinking state funds and demands for equity in school facilities. Planning that budgets for short- and long-term needs, alternative ways to organize capital projects, non- traditional funding schemes, and quality project teams are discussed. Includes one reference.
Efficiency by Design.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p6,7 ; Oct 2007
Profiles the cooperation of design and maintenance personnel in the Milwaukee Public Schools, resulting in buildings that are easier and less expensive to maintain.
The Challenges Faced by Fast-Growing School Districts.
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p16,17,19,20 ; Jul 2007
Discusses challenges faced by America's fastest-growing school districts in projecting enrollment, funding new facilities, and finding sites. Examples from three fast-growing districts illustrate the situation.
Ins and Outs of Planning.
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p18,20,22,24,26,28 ; Jun 2007
Discusses the need to satisfy design, construction, and community constituents in school facility projects. The features of various project delivery methods and financing are briefly discussed, as are desirable building features such as flexibility and accommodation of various learning styles.
Planning for School Facilities. School Board Decision Making and Local Coordination in Michigan.
Norton, Richard K.
Journal of Planning Education and Research; v26 n4 , p478-496 ; Apr 2007
A prominent part of current debates on sprawl involves the relationship between schools and communities. Two key questions on this issue are to what extent considerations about community growth and development influence school boards as they decide, first, whether to renovate an existing school or build new and second, if building new, whether to site the new school in an urban or exurban location. Research on these questions to date has relied largely on case study or anecdotal analysis and has yielded a variety of recommended policy reforms. This paper presents the results of a systematic statewide study of local school board decision making in Michigan. The findings suggest that school boards, in general, are influenced most by a sense of competition with neighboring districts and by shifting demographics. Moreover, little meaningful coordination is occurring between school districts and local governments, largely because of the institutional arrangements that shape the school board decision-making process. [Author's abstract]
Buildings: The Gifts That Keep on Taking.
Facilities Manager; v23 n2 , p18-23 ; Mar-Apr 2007
Reflects on the value of higher education buildings as investments. The variety of integrated decisions determining need and priority are displayed as a pyramid, and a methdology for for determining priorities proposed. Six major recommendations for an asset investment strategy are proposed.
Rethinking the Educational Environment.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p3-8 ; 2007
Proposes an "educational environment program" as a replacement for educational specifications. The educational environment program systematically describes the desired community environment, learning environment, and physical environment. The community environment addresses civic design, program planning and partnership development relationships. The learning environment focuses on interpersonal relationships between students, teachers, and parents. The physical environment examines the relationship of building a site to the inhabitants and greater environment. Includes two references.
Closing Schools: A Community Engagement Process.
Furey, Brad; Dickinson, David; Ryland, James
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n2/3 , p7-10 ; 2007
Outlines a process for engaging the community and logically closing schools. The process and framework for decision-making are illustrated by criteria, filtering characteristics, and special considerations. Quantitative and qualitative data types used by the Milwaukee Public Schools are provided, as are five references.
Planning Non-Traditional Schools.
Gillmore, Don; McLean, Andrea; Robertson, Sue
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 , p17-20 ; 2007
Uses four case studies from the Seattle Public Schools to illustrate the planning of non-traditional schools. The involvement of diverse stakeholders, goal-setting processes, and results are discussed.
The Impact of the Housing Market on School Facility Planning.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p18-21 ; 2007
Discusses educational planning in the wake of a housing slump, advising school distircts to identify multiple resources, gather data, and seek partnerships. Districts should pay close attention to live birth counts, enrollment in elementary schools, and migration patterns as well as to new housing starts and building permits. Includes three references.
Transforming School Spaces. Five Trends Driving Educational Design.
Learning By Design; n16 , p16-19 ; 2007
Identifies five trends driving educational design: providing educational choice, ensuring equality and access, linking between learning levels, linking school and community, and meeting client's needs. Each trend is illustrated with examples of recently built schools.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Using Demography and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in School District Planning.
McKibben, Jerome; Cropper, Matthew
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p9-13 ; 2007
Details use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information in enrollment forecasting, long-range facility planning, and redistricting. Recent advances in this field help demographers accurately forecast small population trends and smaller attendance areas. Census data is currently available in block-sized increments that detail demographic and migration trends.
Do You Have a Strategy?
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers; v81 n6 , p34-36 ; Sep 2006
Education is undergoing a transformation across the country as it responds to new understandings of the mechanisms for learning. These changes are affecting the physical environments where learning occurs, from individual rooms to entire building complexes. The impact of these trends on facilities is dramatic. Old classroom models will not support these new paradigms. This article offers strategic planning on facilities management as a way to boost student performance. The author proposes a change in the traditional thought process by focusing on a strategic plan to a facilities concept. A facilities project can be used to reinforce a culture of experimentation, assessment and implementation. Facilities should be designed with the purpose of empowering faculty and students to capitalize on change and explore alternative relationships between pedagogy, technology, curriculum, furniture and the encompassing architectural environment. In addition, rapidly changing technology should be evaluated to determine how technology can best support faculty and student exploration into more effective ways to learnTO ORDER: http://www.acteonline.org
Using a Student Yield Index in Planning for Student Growth.
School Business Affairs; v72 n5 , p37-39 ; May 2006
Explains the use of student yield index, rather than the traditional cohort survival method, when projecting enrollment in districts experiencing rapid population growth. An example based on housing permits for new residences is presented, along with potential challenges to the accuracy of this method.
American School and University; v78 n10 , p16-18,20,22 ; May 2006
Discusses potential environmental, historical, and neighborhood obstacles to school construction, citing examples of how several school districts and universities have dealt with expected and unexpected situations that arose.
Planning and Designing Facilities. Facility Design and Development--Part 1
Hypes, Michael G.
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance ; v77 n4 , p18-22 ; Apr 2006
Before one begins the planning process for a new facility, it is important to determine if there is a need for a new facility. The demand for a new facility can be drawn from increases in the number of users, the type of users, and the type of events to be conducted in the facility. A feasibility study should be conducted to analyze the legal issues associated with the proposed facility, usage (both current and future), site selection, financial feasibility, and administrative feasibility of the project. In addition to the feasibility study, it is necessary to evaluate existing facilities. To accomplish this, a facility audit should be conducted. Can existing facilities be upgraded to meet future needs? Renovation of existing facilities is often considered because it can be less expensive than building new facilities and can allow the use of existing space. Once it has been determined that a need exists, and a new facility has been approved, it is time to organize a project-planning committee. This article walks the reader through the steps of planning and designing the best and most appropriate facility for each organization's needs. (Contains 2 tables.)
No School Is an Island.
Architectural Record Review; , p7-10,12,14 ; Apr 2006
Reflects on recent growth in school construction, citing trend away from the suburban model of large schools on remote sites, the popularity of small schools, and changing demographics that compel more construction for the lower grades.
Thinking Outside the Box: Reinventing the Traditional Classroom.
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p3-8 ; 2006
Discusses shortcomings of traditional learning environments and provides examples of classroom designs appropriate for contemporary educational delivery. These designs accommodate flexibility, variability, extended learning areas, interdisciplinary teaching, and technology integration. Includes 17 references.
Public Schools as Public Infrastructure.
Journal of Planning Education and Research; v25 , p433-437 ; 2006
Focuses public schools as public infrastructure, particularly in the context of inner cities and older suburbs. The article argues that there is a profound and detrimental "cities and schools disconnect," and as a field, planning has virtually ignored public schools. City planning scholars need to increase their engagement with public schools and school facilities and think more critically about how development and redevelopment decisions ultimately impact our public schools. Includes 36 references.
Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions.
PEB Exchange; v2005/3 n56 , p13-24 ; Oct 2005
Examines trends, issues, and case studies in higher education facilities planning, design, and management. These were gathered from an April, 2005 conference sponsored by APPA and the OECD Programme on Educational Building. Discussions of megatrends and myths that influence facilities management, the technology-enabled learning space, and natural hazard risk mitigation are followed by three case studies from Montreal, Spain, and Veracruz.
This New School.
American School and University; v77 n13 , p164-169 ; Aug 2005
Recounts the planning, financing, design, and construction sequence of two high schools, a higher education classroom building, and a dormitory. The successes and setbacks, community involvement, and innovations are described.
McDonough, F. James
American School and University; v77 n13 , p185-188 ; Aug 2005
Advocates data-driven school facility upgrade planning to avoid derailment by individual agendae and preferences. Data considered should include enrollment, class size, periods per day, building utilization, staff numbers, classroom size, and classes offered. Sources for this information include existing building statistics, course descriptions, historical and future course enrollments, and spaces required. An example of a step-by-step process is included.
Learning Space Design: Theory and Practice.
Educause Review; v40 n4 , p30 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Presents a succinct table that maps from the "Net Generations" characteristics to learning theory, and then from theory to learning space applications and the technology that might support those applications.
Design of the Learning Space: Learning and Design Principles.
Johnson, Chris; Lomas, Cyprien
Educause Review; v40 n4 , p16,17,20,22,24-26,28 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Discusses the design of learning space around contemporary learning habits, lifecycles, how people learn, and technology. Steps describe the process for identifying the institutional context, specifying the learning principles, defining the learning activities, developing clearly articulated design principles, creating a set of requirements, and determining a methodology for assessing success. Includes 14 references.
Future of the Learning Space: Breaking Out of the Box.
Long, Phillip; Ehrmann, Stephen
Educause Review; v40 n4 , p42-44,46,48,50-56,58 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Presents a visionary scenario of highly interactive instructional buildings and spaces that use technology to intricately connect the instructor, the class, and the classroom. These technological features represent an essential response to contemporary learning habits. Seven characteristics of future classrooms are offered. Includes 20 references.
Learning Space Design: Precepts and Assumptions.
Educause Review; v40 n4 , p40 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Presents a short list of guidelines to help guide decision-making as a school project progresses from concept development through implementation.
Creation of the Learning Space: Catalysts for Envisioning and Navigating the Design Process.
Wedge, Carole; Kearns, Thomas
Educause Review; v20 n4 , p32-38 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Describes seven steps for envisioning and navigating the school design process: 1)Identify the participants in the planning process. 2)Develop goals. 3) Analyze existing learning facilities. 4) Project future needs and learning from others. 5)Conduct a reality check. 6)Explore alternatives. 7)Evaluate and make recommendations. Includes two references.
Essential Questions to Raise During a Building Project.
The School Administrator; v5 n62 , p39 ; May 2005
Presents twelve questions that should be answered during the school design process to enhance safety, health, and connectivity within the facility. The questions focus on the organization and observability of the physical spaces, protection from external and internal threats, a healthy environment, and interdisciplinary communication.
Resources for Planning.
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p9 ; Feb 2005
Reviews seven beneficial publications on school planning, design, maintenance, assessment, and community use.
What A School Can Be.
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p47-51 ; Oct 2004
The Los Angeles Unified School District has initiated rigourous discussion on the current state of school design and the role of schools in the successful redevelopment of mixed-use communities. This article includes two case studies: Central High School No. 10 in Los Angeles that has a town square that serves as a portal to the surrounding neighborhood, and East Valley Middle School in North Hollywood that provides community access to primary social spaces within the school.
Los Angeles Builds.
School Construction News; v7 n1 , p21,22 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Presents an interview with Guy Mehula, Deputy Chief Facilities Executive for New Construction in the Los Angeles Unified School District. He describes plans for the $3.8 billion bond that will enable all students to attend school within their neighborhood and on a two- semester schedule.
District Administration; v39 n8 ; Aug 2003
Summarizes the growth in K-12 enrollment and construction in several fast-growing districts, along with the decline in others.
Surviving Closings and Consolidations.
The School Administrator; v60 n7 , p16-18 ; Aug 2003
Kentucky School Boards Association director provides school administrators with several suggestions for surviving the frequently controversial decisions involving school closings and consolidations during the facilities planning process. Three examples are (1) compile a comprehensive report on all data to be used in the decisions, (2) meet with concerned citizens at each affected school, and (3) keep listening and responding after the final decision.TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email: email@example.com
Flexibility: Ensuring Adaptability.
Van Slyke, Paul; Goode, Chris
American School and University; v75 n12 , p140-53 ; Aug 2003
Discusses how to collaborate with administrators, physical plant representatives, department heads, lawmakers, and design professionals to create flexible school facilities that adapt to changing needs, noting the importance of utilizing a programming process that determines the true needs of a facility, based on the potential activities that will occur there. A sidebar discusses the creation of common ground at Albany State University, Georgia.
Fads, Fancies and Fantasies: An Educator's Perspective on Current Educational Facility Issues.
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p16-24 ; Jun 2003
Explores educational facilities issues from the personal perspective of being both an educator and an owner. Topics discussed include aligning curriculum and instruction with facilities design, green school rating systems, the relationship between facilities and achievement, longitudinal facilities research, post-occupancy evaluation, and communication during the planning and design phases between construction professionals and educators.
The Principal’s Role in School Construction and Renovation.
Bradley, William S.; Protheroe, Nancy
Principal; v82 n5 , p38-41 ; May-Jun 2003
Principals can provide input and feedback during the planning stage for building or renovating schools. Questions to ask focus on potential number of students, grade configuration, student grouping, length of school days and years, and instructional materials to be used. Describes a Virginia school built to meet the specific needs of an innovative curriculum. (Contains 14 references.)
GIS in School Facility Planning.
School Planning and Management; v42 n2 , p56-60 ; Feb 2003
Describes how computerized Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to aid in facilities planning at the district level by providing a repository of various types of relevant data.
Building Better Schools.
American School and University; v75 n5 , p30-35 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten ideas for schools and universities before embarking on a new construction project: defining a school, shared space, sustainability, outdoor landscape, geoexchange, a variety of spaces, student-oriented space, technology, community use, and security.
Planning Schools as Symbols of Change.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n3 , p3-6 ; 2003
Discusses five essential components for development of a school facility: 1) process, whereby the school is planned according to the educational program, 2) site selection, 3) building design, 4) high performance design, 5) post-occupancy evaluation.
Lopez, Robert; Ruck, James A.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p341-44 ; Nov 2002
Discusses steps to help ensure successful district-wide school building improvement projects: identify the right people, plan carefully, implement community communications, and manage the design and construction process.
An Evolving Mission.
Meno, Lionel R.; Karnyski, Margaret A.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p360-61 ; Nov 2002
Discusses the new roles to serve changing populations that schools constructed for the 21st century must fulfill. Describes a collaborative facilities planning process developed by the National Center for the 21st Century Schoolhouse.
Top Five Considerations for Your Preplanning Agenda.
Clement, Jerry; Jordan, Q. Chappell
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p69-71 ; Jun 2002
Discusses five steps to address in preplanning for public support and effective management of a multiyear school building program: examine board policies and procedures, engage all appropriate stakeholders, update educational specifications, review technical specifications, and evaluate industry-imposed challenges.
Cultivating Dialogue Before Building.
Kosar, John E.
The School Administrator ; v59 n6 , p28-30 ; Jun 2002
Describes how two school districts--one in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the other in Yorktown, Virginia--involved their communities in a school building and renovation planning process called "discovery through viewpoint and diagram" or DVD.
One More for the Money.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p56-58 ; Jun 2002
Describes how the Denver Public School District used detailed planning and precise fiscal management to build 10 schools rather than just the 9 approved by voters in a bond issue, as well as to renovate 22 other schools.
School Design Confronts Three F's.
Sommerhoff, Emilie Worthen
Facilities Design & Management; v21 n6 , p30-34 ; Jun 2002
Discusses three predominant themes encountered by facilities managers and architects when planning and designing educational facilities: flexibility requirements, fiscal pressure, and community focus.
Best Practice in Education Design.
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p37-40 ; Apr 2002
Four experts in school design discuss what constitutes best practice in educational facilities planning and design. Their discussions include examples of schools that illustrate these best practices.
School Facilities for the 21st Century: 12 Trends That School Facility Planners Need to Know About.
Stevenson, Kenneth R.
School Business Affairs; v67 n12 , p4-7 ; Dec 2001
Describes 12 current trends in education that may have a significant impact on long-range plans for school construction and remodeling. Offers suggestions to help ensure that facilities plans accommodate these trends
Copa, George; Sutton, Sharon
Northwest Education; v6 n4 , p10-13,39 ; Summer-Fall 2001
An educator and an architect discuss school design considerations that include developing a strong learning plan, a strong concept of community, and architecture that supports both. Involving the community and students in planning instills a sense of ownership and pride that is more conducive to learning and school safety than tough standards and tight security measures.
With Apologies to Maria Shriver: 10 Things You Must Know Before Starting a School Construction or Renovation Project
DiBella, Cecilia M.; Anderson, Jim
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p30-33 ; Dec 2000
Before undertaking a school construction or renovation project, administrators should plan carefully, collect adequate data, involve the school board, form a building committee, understand legalities, select the right architect, consult with technology director, monitor the construction site, enjoy short-lived trouble-free times; and document expenditures.
Change is Good...Wrong!
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p41-43 ; Dec 2000
Change must be personally relevant, beneficial, clearly defined and believed to be achievable. To renovate school facilities, several steps are necessary: identifying future trends and making them personally applicable, establishing a realistic vision, creating functional facility goals, seeing the building as an empty shell, and considering details.
Henry, Clyde; Gibson, Robert
American School and University; v73 n3 , p382-85 ; Nov 2000
Examines how clear planning for designing and building facilities can help schools avoid unforeseen costs and complications. Planning tips for design planning, bidding methods, and construction are addressed.
Building Quality Facilities That Meet Changing Needs.
School Construction News; v2 n7 , p17-18 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses the changing field of educational specifications and facility planning, community partnerships, changing school technology, and the role of playgrounds in education. Also discussed are the accomplishments and role of the Council of Educational Facilities Planners.
Planning Without Anxiety.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , p28-30 ; Oct 2000
Examines how to conduct a successful school renovation or building planning process through thorough preparation and community involvement. Briefly highlighted are the use of population projections, building evaluations, cost analysis planning as is why it's important to involve the community in the planning process.
Public School A-B-C's.
Hawkins, Beth Leibson
Facilities Design and Management; v19 n9 , p44-48 ; Sep 2000
Reveals how working with the surrounding community can make public school construction and renovation easier and make the school a more community-friendly facility. Topics cover the facilities planning process, the ultimate cost of deferring maintenance, school/community relationships, use of modular classrooms, and reliance on high technology in the construction and renovation process.
How Educational Design Enhances the Learning Process.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v3 n6 , p20-22 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses designing schools that blend intense educational planning with school architecture and the notion of shared school and community facilities. Additionally discussed are differences between urban and rural school designs, technology in school design, differences in design requirements of foreign schools, and the direction of the school design industry.
The Insiders' View of School Construction Planning.
School Planning and Management; v39 n7 , p30,32-34 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the basic issues a school district should consider when beginning a school construction planning process. Issues discussed cover funding, the building delivery system, modernization versus new construction, and advances in technology.
The 100-Year School.
Cobble, Jeffrey E.
Learning By Design; n9 , p10-12 ; 2000
Discusses how school design/planning can help a school double its life span. Examined are the importance of insightful planning and detailing by the architect, the need for quality workmanship by the construction team, and the value of proper maintenance of the building by the owners and maintenance team.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Doherty, Jacqueline; Futral, Karen
American School and University; v72 n5 , p41-43 ; Jan 2000
Examines the comprehensive planning process done prior to renovating or constructing new buildings at educational facilities in order to prevent errors. Planning steps are highlighted, as is one city's experience in making more space available at its schools to meet rising enrollment needs.
American School and University; v72 n4 , p30-31 ; Dec 1999
Discusses a non-traditional approach to school planning and redesign that provided one school district's middle school with the best learning environment for its students and community. The use of performance contracting and privatization of school services are addressed, including the benefits of the positive student response to their new school.
A Century of Progress.
American School and University; v72 n4 , p10-12, 14, 16 ; Dec 1999
Describes how public education has changed over the past 100 years. Developments in equal education, technology implementation, school neglect and decay, and mainstreaming are discussed as are violence in schools and comparisons in school construction characteristics over the century.
Best-Laid Plans: Before you Build, Start With a Comprehensive Planning Process.
Carey, Kelley D.
American School Board Journal; v186 n10 , p36-38 ; Oct 1999
A comprehensive planning process--one that identifies problems and alternative solutions, then develops a sensible course of action--can help districts avoid mistakes while assuring the most effective results for school construction dollars.
Planning for Flexibility, Not Obsolescence
Design Share; , 9p ; Sep 1999
This keynote speech discusses computer lab/classrooms and the issue of properly combining space, pedagogy, and technology when facility planning to better enhance student learning and support the teaching process. Several case studies illustrate classroom computer workstation configurations and how these may help or impede student learning and instructional methodology. Also addressed is the rapidly changing tools of education and the ways for achieving the flexibility today's schools will need to adequately embrace these changes. It is suggested that enough space must be allocated to allow for a variety of learning environments to be adopted, both large and small, that fit with the curriculum and teaching needs, and be appropriate to the requirements of the students. It is argued that without enough space in the school design to help schools be flexible enough to accommodate changes in learning and teaching over time, the useful life of new schools will be shorter than their predecessors of 20 years earlier.
Planning the Learning Community.
Design Share; Aug 1999
An interview with Steven Bingler, President of Concordia, Inc., a research and planning firm, and Concordia Architects, an architectural design firm is presented revealing his views on planning a learning community in educational facilities. He addresses what tools to use to facilitate the group process for planning, discusses how school districts save money through business partnerships, and highlights how school district size can affect the planning approach. He also discusses how to design an environment for fifth- and sixth- grade learners, including how to design a computer lab. Having clear lines of communication between diverse groups during the planning stage is stressed. Problems with lengthy planning stages creating diminishing returns and generating reports that are outdated are also addressed as is the dubious value of planning reports that emphasize process over product. Final comments discuss learning environments that are so extensive that the traditional school is nearly eliminated.
Long-Term Planning and the Building Process
Meglis, Jr., Edward
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p14-16 ; Jul 1999
A long-range facilities plan includes anticipated large expenditures and contingencies. The plan should include an overview of existing facilities, enrollment projections, program changes, and projected capital improvements. A school-planning checklist is provided.
Designing Facilities for the Next Millennium
Carlson, Howard C.; Eller, John
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p30-33 ; Jul 1999
Outlines a five-step process to help school and community members in planning the initial phases of a new school: (1) establish a realistic planning timeline; (2) select a design team with diverse perspectives; (3) develop a sense of team/community among design-team members; (4) develop a vision for a new facility; and (5) select an architect.
The Campus as Classroom: Engaging Students in Design, Aesthetics, and Ecology.
Cummins, Anna; Cummins, Paul
Architecture California; v20 n1 , p30-32 ; Summer-Fall 1999
Contends that schools should be remodeled and new schools built so that they are child-oriented and aesthetically stimulating, as well as ecologically sound and educational in and of themselves.
Architectural Services, Construction, and Funding of California Schools.
Architecture California; v20 n1 , p13-17 ; Summer-Fall 1999
Details various methods of paying for school construction in California, and discusses problems with "quick fixes" such as stock school plans, relocatable buildings, and shifting of professional services to developers rather than architects.
The High School as Workplace.
Architecture California; v20 n1 , p40-44 ; Summer-Fall 1999
Studied six northern California high schools implementing various educational reforms involving alternative organizational structures, and how their facilities helped or hindered their implementation.
Planning a School
Learning By Design; i8 , p8, 10-11 ; 1999
Discusses the areas to consider when renovating a school to enhance student learning and achievement. The following areas are covered: structural condition; environmental quality; size and capacity; safety and security; site location; and symbolic value and aesthetics.
Guidelines for Success. A Case Study
Pate, Steven H.; Clark, Orvin
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n2 , p8-9 ; 1999
Reveals how an Illinois school district built a new elementary school over two years before a traditional funding process would have allowed it. It examines a planning process that included using the Council of Educational Facilities Planners guidelines for developing a business plan, hiring needed professionals, architect and site selection, design development, and construction management.
Critical Elements in New School Planning
Stevenson, Kenneth R.
School Business Affairs; v64 n12 , p3-7 ; Dec 1998
It is critical that school facility planning and design include auxiliary spaces that uphold the primary instructional program. This article identifies major support elements (storage, hallways, cafeteria, library/media center, administrative and guidance offices, and outdoor facilities) to be incorporated and discusses how to make these components more functional.
Learning from Your Mistakes.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p31-33 ; Oct 1997
Discusses bringing the community into the planning and development stages of educational facilities, including post occupancy evaluations, to enhance the facility's positive impact on the community. Provides examples of one school district's success planning for new computer workstations in anticipation of future regulations, as well as one failed process involving learning space development.
Building Change into New Buildings.
DeJong, William S.
The School Administrator; v54 n6 , p10-13 ; Jun 1997
Whether renovating or constructing a school building, planners must give serious thought to how a building might accommodate different instructional approaches and avoid traffic or supervision nightmares. Planners must also consider aesthetics, community-school partnerships, and educational technology's role. A sidebar by James Fox and Kay Psencik describes how an Austin, Texas, district planned new buildings around instruction.TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email: email@example.com
Planning for Quality
Adams, Sam W.; Henderson, James B.; Chitwood, James M.
Learning By Design; n6 , p14-16 ; Mar 1997
Describes one Wisconsin school district's use of continuous quality improvement (CQI), coupled with community involvement, to plan and pass a referendum for a new K-8 school. Fourteen CQI principles used to successfully develop and drive a community-wide effort in school planning are highlighted and discussed.
Day, C. William; Parsley, James
American School & University; v68 n12 , p81-83 ; Aug 1996
Describes how school boards and administrators can use a facility-planning symposium, which brings together educators, students, parents, business leaders, and others, to establish an educational program and to design a template representative of the community. Examines ways to construct a shared vision and looks at design issues.
Planning and Constructing School Facilities
School Business Affairs; v62 n2 , p4-10 ; Feb 1996
Constructing school facilities requires a multitude of considerations. Outlines a suggested sequence of processes and events that will be helpful in the three- to four-year planning phase.
Building an Effective Site Investigation Team
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n4 , p4-7 ; Jul-Aug 1995
Site visitations to various campuses or facilities help planners decide how the observed features can be incorporated into future facility planning. Includes specific tasks for the planning team, 11 common site visit pitfalls, a preliminary site-visit checklist, criteria for site-visitation reports, and goals for educational specifications.
Do You Know Buildings? Facility Planning Knowledge and Skills
Glass, Thomas E
School Business Affairs; v60 n7 , p16-19 ; Jul 1994
A school business administrator should be equipped to lead a district facility planning effort. Describes the processes of demographic planning, facility assessing, long-range financial facility plan budgeting, and aligning the facility plan with the district strategic plan.
Emergent Educational Facility Planning Issues. What Are They? How Are They Dealt With?
Hathaway, Warren E.
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n4 ; 1994
The planning and design of educational facilities is impacted by developments in information technology and telecommunications. Potentials for improving education, the realities facing educational facilities planners, and achieving these potentials are examined. Planning principles followed by the influences educational facilities may have on learning are outlined. (Contains 9 references.)