EARLY LEARNING FACILITIES
Information on early learning environments, including design guidelines, quality indicators, and safety requirements, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers
Copeland, Kristen; Sherman, Susan; Kendeigh, Cassandra; Kalkwarf, Heidi; and Saelens, Brian
(Pediatrics, Jan 04, 2012)
Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care were identified: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. [Authors' abstract]
New Kindergarten Architecture
(Links International, Dec 2011)
A comprehensive design section sets out the parameters and technical considerations in kindergarten design as well as introducing components and functional considerations. Case studies of 26 kindergartens, each a successful rendering of the qualities that create ideal spaces for children, combined with innovative architectural practices; spaces which are safe and calming while at the same time capable of stimulating a child’s interest, with materials that absorb noise as well as cushioning the inevitable fall. 300p
Care for Their Air: Asthma Pilot Project for Head Start and Child Care Learning Settings
(Asthma Community Network, Oct 24, 2011)
Listen to Heidi LeSane and LaShon Blakely (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Dorothy Mabry (Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families), Stephanie Hall (Georgia Department of Public Health) share their experiences working with Head Start and Child Care communities in two Georgia counties to better integrate asthma education into program activities. Learn how you can apply their best practices and resources to create effective partnerships with federal, state and local agencies and integrate asthma education into your local Head Start and Child Care programs. Includes a pdf of the presentation slides.
Caring for Our Children, National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care, Third Edition.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care, Jun 2011)
Presents standards to be used in planning and establishing a high quality child care program, including facilities and outdoor spaces. The standards are based on the recommendations of technical panels that studied particular facets in child care and are intended to serve as goals for practice and guidelines for implementation. The nine chapters of the text address the topics of: (1) staffing; (2) program activities; (3) health protection and promotion; (4) nutrition; (5) facilities; (6) Play areas/playgrounds and transportation; (7) infectious diseases; (8) children with special health care needs and disabilities; (9) program administration; and (10) licensing and community action. The chapters list almost 1,000 standards. Each chapter includes a rationale for each standard and comments concerning the standard. A list of references is provided at the end of each chapter. A series of 39 appendices includes further lists of standards and additional information relating to standards, a reference list for the appended materials, a glossary, and an index. 608p
A Room to Learn. Rethinking Classroom Environments.
Faulk, Janet; Evanshen, Pam
(Gryphon House, Inc. , Jun 2011)
Based on the latest research about how children learn, this book helps teachers make their classrooms into creative spaces that facilitate teaching and learning. Geared toward showing teachers how to use the learning environment as a teaching tool, the book begins with research and exploration about designing classrooms for child-centered learning. It then delves into specific areas of classroom design such as use of color and plants, room arrangement, learning centers, and impact of clutter. With “before” and “after” photos of real classrooms, teachers can examine each area and determine their own classroom’s need for improvement. 192p.TO ORDER: http://www.gryphonhouse.com/
Best Practices in Educational Facilities Investments: Fuji Kindergarten, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
(Centre for Effective Learning Environments , 2011)
Description of a kindergarten building with open teaching spaces and large playground areas designed to allow children to mix and move around at will.
Green Child Care Center Design.
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO , 2011)
The practice of building green is one that works with nature, works with the occupants, focuses on an integrated design approach and requires planning and coordination. This article outlines the benefits of a green child care design and construction. 3p.
Dudek, Mark (editor)
(Architectural Press, Oct 2010)
This collection of essays is concerned with the experiences children have within the supervised worlds they inhabit, as well as with architecture and landscape architecture. International examples of innovative childcare practice are illustrated together with the design processes which informed their development. Research supports in depth recommendations regarding the ideal children's environment, across a range of contexts and dimensions. [2010 e-book version of a 2005 publication] 321p.
Greening Early Childhood Centers.
Lindstrom, Mike and Gillman, Amy
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation/Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Oct 2010)
Focuses on high-impact green environmentally-sound building design and facility management practices that can be implemented over the long term, as well as low-cost/no-cost ideas for physical improvements, environmental education, and facilities operations that can be undertaken immediately. Explains why green design makes sense for early childhood centers. Includes a Go Green Checklist. 42p.
Child Development Centers [Whole Building Design Guide]
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 21, 2010)
A child development facility must be designed to provide safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments essential for the healthy development of children. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide provides information on the types of spaces in a facility, and discusses the following recommendations: Be Homelike; Be Child Sized; Encourage Autonomy; Invite Self-Expression; Provide Space, Indoor and Outdoor Physical Activities; Have Outdoor and Indoor Spaces for Nature; Be Structured, Yet Flexible; Include Appropriate Space for Parents and Teachers; and Be Safe, Secure, and Healthy. Includes relevant codes and standards and additional resources.
Infant and Toddler Spaces: Design for a Quality Classroom.
(Community Playthings and WestEd Program for Infant/Toddler Care , 2010)
This report discusses the importance of the surroundings and playthings to the individual development of infants and toddlers. Eight characteristics are considered for quality infant/toddler environments: (1) safety, (2) health, (3) comfort, (4) convenience, (5) child-size space, (6) flexibility, (7) movement, and (8) choice. The following considerations are offered for the architect: (1) involve teachers, parents, and children in the design process; (2) licensing standards do not always support the developmental needs of children; (3) long-term flexibility is important; (4) follow the children's standards by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA); (5) keep doors to a minimum; (6) although natural light is wonderful, be careful about too many windows; (7) consider aspects of floor materials; and (8) acoustic tiles are nice for ceilings. Various floor plans are included. [Author's abstract] 20p.
TCC Early Learning Center Video Tour.
(McGranahan Architects, Tacoma, WA, 2010)
Presents a video tour of the Annette B. Weyerhaeuser Early Learning Center at Tacoma Community College. Flexibility is accommodated in each classroom, and easy maintenance and outdoor learning areas are featured. Plans and renderings are included in the video.
Creating Environments for Learning: Birth to Age Eight.
(Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2010)
Provides a textbook for study of the creation of early childhood and primary learning environments, with chapters on creating healthy and safe environments, arranging the classroom, design considerations, developing learning centers within the space that serve specific subject areas and play, outdoor learning spaces, and family areas. 447p.TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com
The 100 Is There!: Helen Gordon Child Development Center.
Reinisch, Sheryl; Parnell, Will.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2010)
Profiles this historic Portland, Oregon, facility, originally constructed for early childhood education in 1928, and expanded in 2003. Building features such as the entryway, pathways, transition spaces, aesthetics, light, natural touches, textures, and color are featured, and 16 references are included. 12p.
Innovative Financing Strategies for Early Childhood Care.
Zeidman, Betsy; Scherer, Jill
(Children's Institute, Portland, OR , 2010)
Explores methods to increase resources for early-childhood care and development. Financing strategies discussed include qualified section 501(c)(3) bonds, real estate investment trusts, tax increment financing (TIF) districts, developer impact fees, paid family leave laws, credit enhancement, and program-related investments (PRIs). All of the financing strategies addressed are currently under-utilized or non-existent in the early childhood education sector. 19p.
Young Children Learn Through Authentic Play in a Nature Explore Classroom.
Miller, Dana L.; Tichota, Kathy; White, Joyce
(Dimensions Foundation, Lincoln, Neb., Nov 2009)
This research study concludes that outdoor play that engages with nature results in optimal childhood development mentally, physically, socially, and emotionally. Child-initiated outdoor play is an important element of overall education in conjunction with textbook-and-test teaching methods. 82p.
CDC Guidance on Helping Child Care and Early Childhood Programs Respond to Influenza during the 2009-2010 Influenza Season.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA , Sep 2009)
Provides guidance to help decrease the spread of influenza among children in early childhood programs and among early childhood providers during the 2009-2010 flu season. The guidance provides a menu of tools that health officials, Head Start, and other early childhood and child care providers can choose from based on conditions in their area. It recommends actions to take now, during the 2009-2010 flu season, suggests strategies to consider if the Centers for Disease Control determine that the flu is becoming more severe, and provides a checklist for decision-making at the local level. 6p.
Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8.
(National Asssociation for the Education of Young Children, 2009)
The purpose of this position statement is to promote excellence in early childhood education by providing a framework for best practice that is grounded both in the research on child development and learning and in the knowledge base regarding educational effectiveness. 32p.
FirstSchool Learning Environments: Supporting Relationships.
(University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute, Chapel Hill , 2009)
Describes learning facilities that accommodate pre-K through third grade learners, responding to the needs of increasingly early and diverse students, as well as relationships between staff and children, staff and their families, between staff members. Shows a model design layout for classroom clusters that create small learning communities that support relationships. 8p.
The ABCD Story: A Model for Learning.
(Children's Institute, Portland, OR , Jan 2009)
Profiles the Affordable Buildings for Children's Development Initiative (ABCD). ABCD uses loans, grants and technical assistance and reaches out to financial institutions to leverage and expand financing for the development of child care facilities across California. Since its origin in 2003, ABCD has delivered $18.5 million in capital to support 12,600 quality child care spaces and has provided training and technical assistance to more than 200 individuals across the state. The story includes the role that the Low Income Investment Fund (LIIF), ABCD's parent organization, plays in support of its success. The document includes a description of ABCD's design, early value and impact, the key ways in which the design has evolved, a vignette that demonstrates the ABCD experience at the community level, and a list of what LIIF's ABCD team believes are the critical factors of the program's success. 12p.
Early Childhood Centers.
Butin, Dan; Woolums, Jennifer
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2009)
Addresses how early childhood center design can improve the quality of these centers in terms of health, safety, and the appropriate development of the child. It briefly explores educational trends involving early childhood centers, then addresses the key spaces in these centers designers should focus on, including the classroom, outdoor space, multipurpose room, health center, teachers' work space, and administrative area. It also explores the key issues in designing early childhood centers concerning health and safety, developmentally appropriate environment, play areas, and overall size. Final comments discuss placing early childhood centers in schools. 5p.
Indoor Environmental Quality within an Elementary School: Measurements of Felis Domesticus I, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides Farinae I, And Blatella Germanica in Carpeting.
(University of South Florida, Tampa , 2009)
Quantifies the concentrations of cat (Felis domesticus I), dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus I, Dermatophagoides farinae I), and cockroach (Blatella germanica) allergens in carpeting in an elementary school kindergarten class and documents student group activities that are floorbased. One Florida elementary school classroom was identified as the study site. A total of eight reservoir dust samples were collected during the school year to be analyzed. The sampling reservoir was the carpeting used for group floor-based activities by the school children. Dust samples from the carpet were analyzed by The Johns Hopkins University Reference Laboratory for Dermatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology (DACI). Following discussions with the kindergarten teacher regarding curriculum and scheduled classroom activities, group floor activities were identified. The kindergarten class was observed periodically throughout a school year to document and quantify classroom activities that were floor-based. The information documented includes: occupancy of classroom, occupied floor area, occupant density, and time spent on carpeting. Based upon the DACI criteria, dust mite concentrations were moderate to high and cat concentrations were low to moderate. Kindergarten children spent approximately 38% of classroom time in floor-based activities. [author's abstract] 57p.
References to Journal Articles
Effective, Positive Educational Spaces
Moxley, Ralph W.
School Planning and Management; , p84-85 ; May 2012
Describes the unique set of challenges in designing an early childhood center.
Children’s Movement in an Integrated Kindergarten Classroom: Design, Methods and Preliminary Findings
Coralee McLaren, Susan Ruddick, Geoffrey Edwards, Karl Zabjek and Patricia McKeever
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p145-177 ; Spring 2012
Contemporary neuroscientific evidence indicates that unrestricted movement and gestures are necessary for optimal cognitive and communicative development. In- depth understanding of disabled and non-disabled children’s interactions with physical features of their school environments is limited. Describing the ways school environments enhance or inhibit movement may optimize all children’s health, social abilities and cognitive development. This paper documents an interdisciplinary, ethnographic study designed to capture children’s interactions with the physical features of an integrated kindergarten classroom. The innovative theoretical and methodological approaches used are detailed. Children’s bodies were conceptualized according to “what they could do,” and classrooms were conceptualized as being inherently “discoverable.” Preliminary findings indicate that certain environmental features trigger children to move in dynamic, non-habitual ways. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
German Forest Kindergartens: Healthy Childcare under the Leafy Canopy
Silvia D. Schäffer and Thomas Kistemann
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p270-279 ; Spring 2012
A forest kindergarten is a special form of daycare, with walks, free play and environmental education in the forest on the daily schedule. Attending a forest kindergarten can contribute to children’s healthy development and is associated with physical activity, concentration, mental health, linguistic development and the prevention of infections. Drawing from systematic observations of 12 German forest kindergartens, this report presents an insight into their daily routines, their surrounding landscape and other essential characteristics. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
Solhuset Climate-Friendly Nursery
Greensource; Mar 2012
A net-positive energy child-care center in Hoarsholm, Denmark sets a new standard for high-performance and healthy indoor air quality. The inspiration behind the nursery's layout is that of a small village, placing the most common areas, such as dance and music, on the main square, with all group rooms gathered around the perimeter.
Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in the Republic of Sakha (Yakuria), Russia: Meeting the Challenges
Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran
CELE Exchange; , 5p ; Dec 2011
The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrollment levels. Includes photos.
Early Education Center Uses Child-Centered Design
School Construction News; Aug 17, 2011
Recommends that design of early childhood centers should emulate the principles of 21st century pedagogy: holistic, flexible, collaborative, contextual, and tailored to the individual’s specific needs.” For children under age six, learning should not be a task but an adventure of discovery, which should be mirrored in the facility design. Discusses accommodating diverse needs, such as language barriers or physical, mental, or emotional challenges, can be achieved by having more space allocated for each child, given the individualized instruction present in early childhood center curriculum.
Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Spaces.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p48,49 ; May 2011
Profiles the United Cerebral Palsy Bailes Campus in Orlando. Principles of universal design enable students of every ability to share the same spaces. Calming colors, indoor and outdoor wheelchair accessibility, daylighting, and acoustical enhancement are described.
The Leagers, Inc. Head Start School and Headquarters.
Design Cost Data; v55 n2 , p36,39 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Profiles this early learning center that also hosts community services and adult learning. Color coding of the interiors defines space functions. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.
Last but Not Least.
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p20-24 ; Feb 2011
Describes how an early learning center with a large special needs enrollment carefully selected furniture for ergonomics and a warm palette. Before purchasing, various furnishings were tested in place, with teachers and therapists evaluating the results.
Researching Children's Understanding of Safety: An Auto-Driven Visual Approach
Agbenyega, Joseph S.
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood,; v12 n2 , p163-174 ; 2011
Safe learning spaces allow children to explore their environment in an open and inquiring way, whereas unsafe spaces constrain, frustrate and disengage children from experiencing the fullness of their learning spaces. This study explores how children make sense of safe and unsafe learning spaces, and how this understanding affects the ways they engage with their learning spaces. Using a qualitative research method that employed auto-driven visual and observation approaches, this research conducted at one centre in the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, examined children's movement and interaction within their learning spaces. The results suggest that the children felt safe in spaces that offered them the best opportunities for play. These are the spaces where they behaved well, laughed freely, reacted positively, and played without too much restriction and intimidation, keeping in mind the restrictions imposed on them by their teachers at other spaces. The implications for constructing and managing safe learning spaces for children are discussed.
The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development.
Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal; v18 n4 , p457-471 ; Dec 2010
This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. The findings indicate that Norwegian children spend a significant amount of time in kindergarten outdoors, 70% and 31% in summer and winter semester respectively. Norwegian children also have large outdoor areas in their institutions; the average size is 2600 square meters. Head teachers and pedagogical leaders seem to be satisfied with the quality of the outdoor environment in their institutions. (Authors' abstract)
John McLaren Child Development Center-New Modular Campus.
CASH Register; v31 n11 , p8,9 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Profiles this modular school that replaced an unloved 1950?s school. Modular construction enabled an aggressive building schedule and provided a building built under budget.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p28,30-34 ; Nov 2010
Profiles five early childhood education facilities, honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.
Building Blueprints: Kindergarten Classrooms.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p58,59 ; Nov 2010
Advises on the design of kindergarten classrooms, emphasizing the available of intimate spaces for individual and small group activities, natural light and access to nature, thermal comfort, acoustics, and appropriate scale.
Early Childhood & Elementary School.
Learning By Design; n19 , p20-30 ; Fall 2010
Profiles nine early childhood and elementary schools cited in the Fall 2010 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.
Pre-K/Early Childhood Education.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p111,112 ; Aug 2010
Profiles early childhood education projects in Avenal, California, and Maplewood, Missouri, winning projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase.
Designing for Early Childhood Education: What Works?
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Profiles the Annette B. Weyerhaeuser Early Learning Center at Tacoma (Washington) Community College as a model for early childhood learning center design.
Young Children Need Room to Stretch Their Minds.
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Discusses the importance of movement, exploration, and comfort in early childhood education, citing arrangements of the grounds and furnishings that promote these in young children.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this simple, oval-shaped kindergarten in Japan, with a rooftop playground that serves as play area and "track" for the students. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Austrian facility that offers multiple "feel-good" spaces via an ever-changing space continuum, inviting one to stray and move into them, providing both a retreat as well as a communications space. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.
Nursery School in Pamplona.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this early learning facility designed as a series of four parallel bodies in which fully built and empty areas are alternated, allowing daylighting and natural ventilation. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this South African early learning facility that consists of 2 classrooms, a kitchen, sanitary facilities, and an outdoor playground. The school is embedded in a "colorful landscape," in which adventure and curiosity are encouraged and serve as an experimental play-room for children to discover and conquer. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.
Ouca Crèche and Elementary School.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Portuguese early learning through elementary facility, designed as a series of pavilions in the shape of a house, surrounded by courtyards, balconies, and establishing a relation of continuity with the surrounding territory neighborhood. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.
Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2010
Reviews state mandates on preschool education, with special attention to the 31 states that have facility requirements. Ten references are included.
Early Childhood and Elementary Schools.
Learning By Design; n19 , p24-50 ; Spring 2010
Profiles 26 lower grade level facilities cited in the 2010 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.
Outdoor Environmental Assessment of Attention Promoting Settings for Preschool Children.
Mårtensson, F.; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, JE; Grahn, P.
Health and Place; v 15 n4 , 1149-1157 ; Dec 2009
The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories and the fraction of visible sky from play structures, and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.
Carriage House Children's Center.
Design Cost Data; v53 n6 , p40,43 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Profiles this early childhood learning facility that occupies a renovated school that was once dilapidated and slated for demolition, but is now LEED Gold certified. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.
Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Centers.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p46,47 ; Oct 2009
Addresses early childhood center design, citing the experience of Illinois' Naperville Community Unit School District. The particular design challenges of early childhood facilities are discussed, followed by the District's response to those challenges.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p112,113 ; Aug 2009
Profiles two early childhood facilities selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment.
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
Early Childhood Education Journal; v36 n6 , p491-496 ; Jun 2009
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color red in the interior environment. The color purple was preferred by girls. Cool colors were favored over warm colors. Recommendations are made for application of color in the child development environment.
Early Childhoold and Elementary Schools.
Learning By Design; n18 , p53-82 ; 2009
Profiles 26 lower grade level facilities cited in the 2009 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: email@example.com