NCEF Resource List: Early Learning Facilities
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EARLY LEARNING FACILITIES

Information on early learning environments, including design guidelines, quality indicators, and safety requirements, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers
Copeland, Kristen; Sherman, Susan; Kendeigh, Cassandra; Kalkwarf, Heidi; and Saelens, Brian
(Pediatrics, Jan 04, 2012)
Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care were identified: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. [Authors' abstract]

New Kindergarten Architecture
Kotnik, Jure
(Links International, Dec 2011)
A comprehensive design section sets out the parameters and technical considerations in kindergarten design as well as introducing components and functional considerations. Case studies of 26 kindergartens, each a successful rendering of the qualities that create ideal spaces for children, combined with innovative architectural practices; spaces which are safe and calming while at the same time capable of stimulating a child’s interest, with materials that absorb noise as well as cushioning the inevitable fall. 300p

Care for Their Air: Asthma Pilot Project for Head Start and Child Care Learning Settings
(Asthma Community Network, Oct 24, 2011)
Listen to Heidi LeSane and LaShon Blakely (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Dorothy Mabry (Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families), Stephanie Hall (Georgia Department of Public Health) share their experiences working with Head Start and Child Care communities in two Georgia counties to better integrate asthma education into program activities. Learn how you can apply their best practices and resources to create effective partnerships with federal, state and local agencies and integrate asthma education into your local Head Start and Child Care programs. Includes a pdf of the presentation slides.

Caring for Our Children, National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care, Third Edition.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care, Jun 2011)
Presents standards to be used in planning and establishing a high quality child care program, including facilities and outdoor spaces. The standards are based on the recommendations of technical panels that studied particular facets in child care and are intended to serve as goals for practice and guidelines for implementation. The nine chapters of the text address the topics of: (1) staffing; (2) program activities; (3) health protection and promotion; (4) nutrition; (5) facilities; (6) Play areas/playgrounds and transportation; (7) infectious diseases; (8) children with special health care needs and disabilities; (9) program administration; and (10) licensing and community action. The chapters list almost 1,000 standards. Each chapter includes a rationale for each standard and comments concerning the standard. A list of references is provided at the end of each chapter. A series of 39 appendices includes further lists of standards and additional information relating to standards, a reference list for the appended materials, a glossary, and an index. 608p

A Room to Learn. Rethinking Classroom Environments.
Faulk, Janet; Evanshen, Pam
(Gryphon House, Inc. , Jun 2011)
Based on the latest research about how children learn, this book helps teachers make their classrooms into creative spaces that facilitate teaching and learning. Geared toward showing teachers how to use the learning environment as a teaching tool, the book begins with research and exploration about designing classrooms for child-centered learning. It then delves into specific areas of classroom design such as use of color and plants, room arrangement, learning centers, and impact of clutter. With “before” and “after” photos of real classrooms, teachers can examine each area and determine their own classroom’s need for improvement. 192p.
TO ORDER: http://www.gryphonhouse.com/

Best Practices in Educational Facilities Investments: Fuji Kindergarten, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
(Centre for Effective Learning Environments , 2011)
Description of a kindergarten building with open teaching spaces and large playground areas designed to allow children to mix and move around at will.

Green Child Care Center Design.
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO , 2011)
The practice of building green is one that works with nature, works with the occupants, focuses on an integrated design approach and requires planning and coordination. This article outlines the benefits of a green child care design and construction. 3p.

Children's Spaces.
Dudek, Mark (editor)
(Architectural Press, Oct 2010)
This collection of essays is concerned with the experiences children have within the supervised worlds they inhabit, as well as with architecture and landscape architecture. International examples of innovative childcare practice are illustrated together with the design processes which informed their development. Research supports in depth recommendations regarding the ideal children's environment, across a range of contexts and dimensions. [2010 e-book version of a 2005 publication] 321p.

Greening Early Childhood Centers. Adobe PDF
Lindstrom, Mike and Gillman, Amy
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation/Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Oct 2010)
Focuses on high-impact green environmentally-sound building design and facility management practices that can be implemented over the long term, as well as low-cost/no-cost ideas for physical improvements, environmental education, and facilities operations that can be undertaken immediately. Explains why green design makes sense for early childhood centers. Includes a Go Green Checklist. 42p.

Child Development Centers [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Subcommittee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 21, 2010)
A child development facility must be designed to provide safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments essential for the healthy development of children. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide provides information on the types of spaces in a facility, and discusses the following recommendations: Be Homelike; Be Child Sized; Encourage Autonomy; Invite Self-Expression; Provide Space, Indoor and Outdoor Physical Activities; Have Outdoor and Indoor Spaces for Nature; Be Structured, Yet Flexible; Include Appropriate Space for Parents and Teachers; and Be Safe, Secure, and Healthy. Includes relevant codes and standards and additional resources.

Infant and Toddler Spaces: Design for a Quality Classroom.
(Community Playthings and WestEd Program for Infant/Toddler Care , 2010)
This report discusses the importance of the surroundings and playthings to the individual development of infants and toddlers. Eight characteristics are considered for quality infant/toddler environments: (1) safety, (2) health, (3) comfort, (4) convenience, (5) child-size space, (6) flexibility, (7) movement, and (8) choice. The following considerations are offered for the architect: (1) involve teachers, parents, and children in the design process; (2) licensing standards do not always support the developmental needs of children; (3) long-term flexibility is important; (4) follow the children's standards by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA); (5) keep doors to a minimum; (6) although natural light is wonderful, be careful about too many windows; (7) consider aspects of floor materials; and (8) acoustic tiles are nice for ceilings. Various floor plans are included. [Author's abstract] 20p.

TCC Early Learning Center Video Tour.
(McGranahan Architects, Tacoma, WA, 2010)
Presents a video tour of the Annette B. Weyerhaeuser Early Learning Center at Tacoma Community College. Flexibility is accommodated in each classroom, and easy maintenance and outdoor learning areas are featured. Plans and renderings are included in the video.

Creating Environments for Learning: Birth to Age Eight.
Bullard, Julie
(Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2010)
Provides a textbook for study of the creation of early childhood and primary learning environments, with chapters on creating healthy and safe environments, arranging the classroom, design considerations, developing learning centers within the space that serve specific subject areas and play, outdoor learning spaces, and family areas. 447p.
TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com

The 100 Is There!: Helen Gordon Child Development Center.
Reinisch, Sheryl; Parnell, Will.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2010)
Profiles this historic Portland, Oregon, facility, originally constructed for early childhood education in 1928, and expanded in 2003. Building features such as the entryway, pathways, transition spaces, aesthetics, light, natural touches, textures, and color are featured, and 16 references are included. 12p.

Innovative Financing Strategies for Early Childhood Care. Adobe PDF
Zeidman, Betsy; Scherer, Jill
(Children's Institute, Portland, OR , 2010)
Explores methods to increase resources for early-childhood care and development. Financing strategies discussed include qualified section 501(c)(3) bonds, real estate investment trusts, tax increment financing (TIF) districts, developer impact fees, paid family leave laws, credit enhancement, and program-related investments (PRIs). All of the financing strategies addressed are currently under-utilized or non-existent in the early childhood education sector. 19p.

Young Children Learn Through Authentic Play in a Nature Explore Classroom. Adobe PDF
Miller, Dana L.; Tichota, Kathy; White, Joyce
(Dimensions Foundation, Lincoln, Neb., Nov 2009)
This research study concludes that outdoor play that engages with nature results in optimal childhood development mentally, physically, socially, and emotionally. Child-initiated outdoor play is an important element of overall education in conjunction with textbook-and-test teaching methods. 82p.

CDC Guidance on Helping Child Care and Early Childhood Programs Respond to Influenza during the 2009-2010 Influenza Season. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA , Sep 2009)
Provides guidance to help decrease the spread of influenza among children in early childhood programs and among early childhood providers during the 2009-2010 flu season. The guidance provides a menu of tools that health officials, Head Start, and other early childhood and child care providers can choose from based on conditions in their area. It recommends actions to take now, during the 2009-2010 flu season, suggests strategies to consider if the Centers for Disease Control determine that the flu is becoming more severe, and provides a checklist for decision-making at the local level. 6p.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. Adobe PDF
(National Asssociation for the Education of Young Children, 2009)
The purpose of this position statement is to promote excellence in early childhood education by providing a framework for best practice that is grounded both in the research on child development and learning and in the knowledge base regarding educational effectiveness. 32p.

FirstSchool Learning Environments: Supporting Relationships. Adobe PDF
(University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute, Chapel Hill , 2009)
Describes learning facilities that accommodate pre-K through third grade learners, responding to the needs of increasingly early and diverse students, as well as relationships between staff and children, staff and their families, between staff members. Shows a model design layout for classroom clusters that create small learning communities that support relationships. 8p.

The ABCD Story: A Model for Learning. Adobe PDF
(Children's Institute, Portland, OR , Jan 2009)
Profiles the Affordable Buildings for Children's Development Initiative (ABCD). ABCD uses loans, grants and technical assistance and reaches out to financial institutions to leverage and expand financing for the development of child care facilities across California. Since its origin in 2003, ABCD has delivered $18.5 million in capital to support 12,600 quality child care spaces and has provided training and technical assistance to more than 200 individuals across the state. The story includes the role that the Low Income Investment Fund (LIIF), ABCD's parent organization, plays in support of its success. The document includes a description of ABCD's design, early value and impact, the key ways in which the design has evolved, a vignette that demonstrates the ABCD experience at the community level, and a list of what LIIF's ABCD team believes are the critical factors of the program's success. 12p.

Early Childhood Centers. Adobe PDF
Butin, Dan; Woolums, Jennifer
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2009)
Addresses how early childhood center design can improve the quality of these centers in terms of health, safety, and the appropriate development of the child. It briefly explores educational trends involving early childhood centers, then addresses the key spaces in these centers designers should focus on, including the classroom, outdoor space, multipurpose room, health center, teachers' work space, and administrative area. It also explores the key issues in designing early childhood centers concerning health and safety, developmentally appropriate environment, play areas, and overall size. Final comments discuss placing early childhood centers in schools. 5p.

Indoor Environmental Quality within an Elementary School: Measurements of Felis Domesticus I, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides Farinae I, And Blatella Germanica in Carpeting.
Fowler, Jennifer
(University of South Florida, Tampa , 2009)
Quantifies the concentrations of cat (Felis domesticus I), dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus I, Dermatophagoides farinae I), and cockroach (Blatella germanica) allergens in carpeting in an elementary school kindergarten class and documents student group activities that are floorbased. One Florida elementary school classroom was identified as the study site. A total of eight reservoir dust samples were collected during the school year to be analyzed. The sampling reservoir was the carpeting used for group floor-based activities by the school children. Dust samples from the carpet were analyzed by The Johns Hopkins University Reference Laboratory for Dermatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology (DACI). Following discussions with the kindergarten teacher regarding curriculum and scheduled classroom activities, group floor activities were identified. The kindergarten class was observed periodically throughout a school year to document and quantify classroom activities that were floor-based. The information documented includes: occupancy of classroom, occupied floor area, occupant density, and time spent on carpeting. Based upon the DACI criteria, dust mite concentrations were moderate to high and cat concentrations were low to moderate. Kindergarten children spent approximately 38% of classroom time in floor-based activities. [author's abstract] 57p.

Referral List of Architects with Child Care Facilities Development Experience in California.
(Building Child Care Project, CA, Sep 2008)
The list is divided into three regions: Northern California, Central California, and Southern California, and by county within each region. Architects generally will work outside their county, and many work on projects statewide. 37p.

Child Care Facility Site Selection. Adobe PDF
(Building Child Care, Oakland, CA , 2008)
Advises child care providers on finding a site that is suitable to their program, affordable, code compliant, and accessible. Modular buildings are addressed, and advice on securing a site once one is identified is included. 6p.

FirstSchool Design Guide. Optimal Learning Environments for Children Three to Eight. Adobe PDF
(FirstSchool Design Collaborative, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008)
Helps communities develop optimal indoor and outdoor learning environments for children ages 3 to 8. The guide offers the rationale for the FirstSchool approach, the evidence base for our principles, examples of how those principles can be expressed and supported in the physical environment, technical considerations and design specifications. 128p.

Sure Start Children's Centres: A Post-Occupancy Evaluation. Adobe PDF
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2008)
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of 101 of Great Britain's Sure Start program centers, which was conducted two thirds of the way through the government's goal of providing 3,500 early childhood education centers nationwide. The results show that the majority are considered good by the staff and parents. Architecture and design professionals who conducted the evaluations considered the design of very few centers to rank as good or excellent. In many cases, some fundamental aspects such as environmental sustainability, external identity, storage and adult spaces are either not well designed or not included. Designs also need to cater for a wider and more varied range of uses because the buildings are more than just children's centers: they offer a wide range of family-orientated services. 89p.

Sure Start, Every Building Matters: A Visual Guide to Designing Sure Start Children's Centres and Other Early Years Facilities and Spaces. Adobe PDF
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2008)
Focuses on on both the preparation for and the design of an early childhood learning center by drawing on the lessons that British local authorities and other key partners have learned and highlighting the importance of quality design. The first section highlights the importance of five strategic issues that need to be addressed and outlines the qualities that should be present in the final building. Writing a project brief and how the design process works are also introduced. The next section focuses on specific issues to consider when creating an inspiring building for children and families, and demonstrates how small changes can impact positively on a building. This section uses visual examples of practical ideas and suggestions and highlights good design practice. Lastly, a summary of overriding qualities focuses on key aspects of every project, including incorporating sustainability features efficiently. 53p.

Natural Playscapes: Creating Outdoor Play Environments for the Soul.
Keeler, Rusty
(Exchange Press , 2008)
500 color photographs and illustrations of extraordinary outdoor places for young children, where the entire space is filled with art, hills, pathways, trees, herbs, open areas, sand, water, and music, and where children find places to run, climb, dig, pretend, and hide, and the chance to bellow or be silent. 316p

Advancement Project's Policy Recommendations on Facilities for Preschool and Early Education. Adobe PDF
Munger, Molly; English, Steve; Dow, Sharon, Brownson, Kim
(California School Finance, Mountain View , Oct 19, 2007)
Reviews the Project's response to improving student achievement in California schools. The group maintains that there are preschool spaces for only 80 percent of the state's children, that these spaces are unevenly distributed, and that failure to provide universal preschool disproportionately affects those in greatest need. The Project recommends making preschool facilities part of the next statewide bond, as well as a variety of local and state-aided initiatives to acquire land and create facilities for early childhood education. 6p.

Building Early Childhood Facilities: What States Can Do to Create Supply and Promote Quality. Adobe PDF
Sussman, Carl; Gillman, Amy
(National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, NJ , Apr 2007)
Outlines what is known about the value of well-designed early childhood facilities and makes recommendations for state policies that will help develop adequate early childhood facilities. The report examines financial barriers, design and real estate practices, policy, and regulatory practices, with special attention to strategies for enabling the creation of early childhood facilities for the economically disadvantaged. 12p.

Veterans Health Administration: Childcare/Development Center. Adobe PDF
(Dept. of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC , Feb 2007)
Outlines space planning criteria childcare and child development facilities at Department of Veterans Affairs medical facilities. The document addresses reception areas, staff and administrative spaces, child care areas, and support spaces. 10p.

Property Manager's Child Care Resource Book 2007. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Services Administration, PBS Office of Childcare, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 78p.

Strategies for Increasing Child Care Facilities Development and Financing in California. Adobe PDF
(Building Child Care, Oakland, CA , Jan 2007)
Identifies seven strategies for local and statewide policymakers in California to address barriers to childcare facilities development and financing. This include standardizing fees and codes for providers, including childcare in municipal planning, adjust space requirements for urban areas, increase the business skills of providers, encourage private investment, and increase reimbursements to reflect the true cost of care. 39p.

The One Hundred is There! Helen Gordan Child Development Center.
Reinisch, Sheryl; Parnell, Will
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Using this Portland, Oregon, early learning center, the author illustrates desirable design features for early learning environments in the areas of finishes, colors, corridors, light, use of natural items, textural richness, accessible casework, and transition spaces. 15p.

Designing Early Childhood Facilities. Community Investment Collaborative for Kids Resource Guide Volume 2.
Arthur, Dogan W.; Larson, Cindy; Gillman, Amy; Sussman, Carl
(Local Initiative Support Coalition, Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Aug 2006)
This "how to" guide assists organizations that are planning to renovate, construct or improve their child care facilities. The publication highlights the important connection between well-designed space and quality child care programming and helps providers, their development partners, and their architects create an effective space for young children. The guide includes an overview of design principles, a tour through each functional area of the center, and information on materials, lighting, security, urban settings and accessibility. 57p.

Developing Early Childhood Facilities. Community Investment Collaborative for Kids Resource Guide Volume 1.
Sussman, Carl; Gillman, Amy; Larson, Cindy
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation, Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Aug 2006)
This "how to" guide assists organizations that are planning to renovate, construct or improve their child care facilities. The publication identifies steps in the real estate development and financing process, and helps child care providers and their partners overcome the hurdles that every project faces. Information is provided on carrying out early feasibility and planning activities, putting together a project development team, selecting and acquiring an appropriate site, raising money, and completing construction. 65p.

Learning to Learn, Pre-kindergarten Kindergarten Design Implications. Adobe PDF
Johnson, Karen
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jun 2006)
Discusses elements of child development that should be considered when designing early childhood educational facilities. Design elements, size, shape, universal design, daylighting, room zoning, and acoustics are covered. Includes 18 references. 4p.

Getting Ready: Preparing to House Your Pre-K Program. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Facility Fund, Chicago , Feb 2006)
Assists the creator of early childhood facilities in planning location, size, and space configuration for a new or relocated facility. Step-by-step guidance takes the user through evaluations of basic facility parameters, evaluation of options, and getting started. Numerous links within the document provide additional information. 19p.

Designing a Childcare Center: How to Choose an Architect.
(Spaces for Children, Fairfax, CA , 2006)
Advises on selection of an architect for early childhood facilities, describing the sensitivities required when designing for small bodies in an educational environment, ways to collect referrals and conduct interviews, and how payment might be arranged. Ten typical steps in the design process are described, and the respective roles of client and architect. 7p.

Eight Steps in the Design Process for Childcare Centers.
(Spaces for Children, Fairfax, CA , 2006)
Advises on the eight steps of feasibility study, programming, schematic design, design development, construction documentation, bidding and negotiation, construction administration, and post-occupancy training that should be undertaken when creating a successful early childhood facility. 8p.

Kindergarten Classroom Layout
(North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, Jan 2006)
Layout for a kindergarten classroom at the Valeska Hinton Early Childhood Education Center in Peoria, Illinois. Includes a key to equipment specifications. 1p.

Preschool Classroom Layout
(North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2006)
Suggested layout for a preschool classroom from the 1992 publication The Creative Classroom for Early Childhood. 1p.

Spaces for Children Floor Plans.
(Spaces for Children, Fairfax, CA, 2006)
Offers five annotated floor plans illustrating early childhood education facilities for infants and toddlers. Plans are offered for the presence or absence of cribs, and a modular building plan for toddlers is included.

Tribal Child Care Facilities: A Guide to Construction and Renovation. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC , 2006)
Provides technical assistance to address major areas of the process of creating or renovating a child care facility on tribal lands, including conducting a child care community needs assessment, site selection, financing, developing a business plan for the facility, conducting an environmental assessment, planning and design, hiring a contractor, and overseeing the project. A glossary, list of additional resources, and directory of federal contacts is included. 87p.

Court Mandates, Free Markets and the Lottery: An Exploration of Facilities Development in States with Expanded Preschool. Adobe PDF
Amer, Tarecq; Traill, Saskia
(National Economic Development and Law Center, Oakland, CA , 2006)
Reports on facilities development for expanded preschool programs, describing the experiences of six states that have implemented such programs. The report assesses what capacity building and technical assistance efforts were put in place to help with the facility development process, what were the funding sources and financing mechanisms, what early care and education providers were eligible, and what lessons were learned. 17p.

Involving People Is Not Hard: It Makes Educational Sense, It's about Value for Money, It's about Ownership.
Gourlay, James
(School Works, London, United Kingdom , Jan 2006)
Presents case studies of ten British early childhood facilities that involved the community in the design process, where decisions were being made as to what services the facilities would provide. For each school, the varying goals and issues of the participants are presented, along with a description of the consultations that occurred and key design features of the completed facility. 42p.
TO ORDER: http://www.school-works.org/

The Outdoor Classroom.
Harriman, Hilary
(Corner to Learn, Swindon, United Kingdom , Jan 2006)
Advises on space needs, organization, design, program areas, surfaces, equipment, safety, and storage in outdoor learning environments for young students. The use of the outdoor learning environment in language skills, mathematical development, physical development, and creativity is illustrated, along with the role of the adult and three British case studies. 68p.
TO ORDER: http://www.cornertolearn.co.uk/outdoorclassroom.html

The California Preschool Planning Toolkit. Adobe PDF
Muenchow, Susan; Scott, Karen
(Karen Hill Scott, Culver City, CA, 2006)
Offers a toolkit for planning, programming, building, and financing preschool facilities, with particular attention to helping California counties. Section four of the toolkit provides facility assistance, offering a facilities scan spreadsheet for assessing for preschool expansion, guidance on conducting a facilities resource inventory, preparing facilities for child care, and a list of public capital financing options.

Great Kids' Spaces.
Rojals, Marta
(Links International , 2006)
Kids are tough and demanding, and their spaces must be safe but not boring, stimulating but not overwhelming, playful but age-appropriate. This guide to the design of playgrounds, day-care centers, and indoor playspaces includes hundreds of pictures and diagrams illustrating some of the most innovative and architecturally inspired kids’ design from around the world. 304p.

Architecture and Design for Young Children. International Award Winners 2005
(Children in Scotland, Sep 2005)
Winners of an international award for architecture and design for young children run by Children in Scotland, in association with The Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Children in Europe and with sponsorship from Lend Lease and support from the Scottish Executive. Includes information about the winning projects with photographs.

Creating Playgrounds for Early Childhood Facilities. Community Investment Collaborative for Kids Resource Guide Volume 4.
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation, Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Jun 2005)
Assists with planning an early childhood center s outdoor space to achieve a successful environment for young children. It begins by considering the types of activities that children enjoy outdoors, matching these with milestones in childhood motor development. Equipment and materials that support each of the activities are suggested, along their pros, cons, and advice on purchasing. 19p.

Equipping and Furnishing Early Childhood Facilities. Community Investment Collaborative for Kids Resource Guide Volume 3.
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation, Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, New York, NY , Jun 2005)
Provides guidance to help select and arrange classroom furniture and equipment to create a child-safe and child-friendly, as well as functional and attractive physical environment. The guide focuses on programs serving children from infancy through preschool, and emphasizes equipment and layout of space to support the development of young children. It offers a step-by- step plan, beginning with an empty room and proceeding through room layout, various activity areas, and the equipment and furnishings that should accompany each area. 38p.

Content and Construct Validity of the Early Childhood Physical Environment Rating Scale (ECPERS). Adobe PDF
Sugiyama, Takemi; Moore, Gary
(University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , May 2005)
Examines the content and construct validity of this scale used to assess the quality of an early childhood learning environment. With regard to content validity, the vast majority of items (93%) in the scale were found to be important to very important by a diverse panel of 12 experts. Construct validity was measured as the degree of agreement between expert's global evaluation of a center and by using the 142-item ECPERS scale. The data from 13 experts assessing 13 different centers across Australia and New Zealand showed a very high correlation between expert's judgements and ECPERS score (r=0.85). Includes 11 references. 11p.

Head Start Design Guide. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Bureau, Washington, DC , 2005)
Offers criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration s Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended for use in developing GSA child care centers and expanding or renovating existing ones. It discusses the groups and processes that may be involved in planning and designing a Head Start Center, standards for design and operations, and the goals and objectives for center design and operation. Other chapters address planning location and space; site design; generaly design concepts, outdoor play spaces, technical criteria, specific interior spaces; furnishings and equipment, references to applicable codes and regulations, and interior finishes. Appendices list applicable Head Start Program Performance Standards and guidance, information on metric conversion, terms used in the construction industry, and appropriate plantings for the vicinity of centers serving children. 218p.

Rules for the Licensing of Child Care Facilities.
(Maine Dept. of Health and Human Services, Augusta , Jan 2005)
Section XIX of this document is entitled "Environment and Safety," and covers early childhood facility and premise conditions, space standards, safety consideration, HVAC, lighting, furnishings, restrooms, outdoor play areas, and fire safety. Section XX proposes standards for food service facilities. 65p.

Y.I.K.E.S. Your Inventory for Keeping Everyone Safe: Planning Guide for Emergency Response Planning in Child Care Planning Guide. Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care and Head Start, Augusta , Jan 2005)
Serves as a tool for emergency response planning in child care programs. This guide provides basic emergency preparedness and planning information that can be customized to fit the size and needs of differing programs. It covers specific disasters such as earthquake, flood, severe weather, bomb threat, contamination, power failure, fire, hazardous materials, abduction, transportation incident, medical emergency, and building collapse. A sample emergency relocation shelter agreement and a sample emergency transportation permission agreement are appended. 28p.

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R). Revised.
Harms, Thelma; Clifford, Richard M.; Cryer, Debby
(Teachers College Press, Williston, VT , Dec 2004)
This provides an overall picture of the surroundings that have been created for the children and adults who share an early childhood setting. The rating scale consists of 43 items that assess the quality of the early childhood environment including use of space, materials and experiences to enhance children's development, daily schedule, and supervision. This 43 item scale covers seven categories: Personal Care Routines, Space and Furnishings, Language-Reasoning, Activities, Interactions, Program Structure, Parents and Staff. 96p.
TO ORDER: Teachers College Press, P. O. Box 20, Williston, VT 05495-0020.Tel:800-575-6566.
http://store.tcpress.com/0807745499.shtml

The Building Blocks of Design: A Handbook for Early Childhood Development Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Facilities Fund, Chicago, Illinois. , Oct 2004)
This is a guide and reference tool for early childhood development providers who want to improve or expand their centers. Topics covered include: assessing space needs and project planning; laying out and furnishing classrooms; adding toilets or diaper-changing facilities; making cosmetic improvements; addressing storage needs; designing playgrounds; adding classrooms; evaluating a space for renovation; and planning and building a new center or major renovation. Worksheets, checklists, and case studies are included. 107p.

Planning for Quality: Ensuring the Educational Adequacy for All Abbott Preschool Facilities.
Rice, Cynthia; Ponessa, Joan
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Sep 2004)
Reviews the preschool facility data collected by the New Jersey Department of Education in 2003 from providers, showing numbers of buildings and classrooms, whether or not they are leased or owned, but not assessing the condition of the facilities themselves. The data indicate that significant numbers of facilities may be inadequate, and the paper calls for the state to properly screen, assess, plan, and fund preschool facilities. Includes eight references. 11p.
TO ORDER: http://www.edlawcenter.org/

Child Care Facilities: Quality by Design. Adobe PDF
Proscio, Tony; Sussman, Carl; Gillman, Amy
(LISC Community Investment Collaborative for Kids; Freddie Mac Foundation, Washington, DC , Jun 28, 2004)
This paper describes the interaction between building design and the quality of child care. It offers examples of effective efforts in Rhode Island and Connecticut to create superior child care facilities and recommends steps to bring the issue more squarely into the discussion of what both communities and children need for health, growth, and success. Includes a child care facilities design checklist. 16p.

The Abbott School Construction Program. NJ Department of Education Proposed Facilities Regulations: Analysis of Preschool Issues Adobe PDF
Ponessa, Joan; Boylan, Ellen
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Feb 2004)
This report on preschool facilities analyzes regulations proposed by the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE)to implement the Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act. The report begins with a summary of key findings and recommended amendments to the NJDOE proposed regulations. It then provides background on the Abbott preschool and school construction programs, analyzes the proposed NJDOE regulations, and makes recommendations for needed changes. As the report makes clear, substantial revision of the proposed rules are necessary to improve implementation of the Abbott preschool and facilities programs over the next five-year construction cycle. 14p.

Unified Facilities Criteria. Children's Outdoor Play Areas. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency; Washington, DC , Jan 2004)
Advises in the planning and design of unsupervised outdoor play areas at military installations to meet child safety and child development requirements. It recommends site layouts, design, and equipment for play lots for age groups 6 weeks to 5 years or 5 to 9 years, neighborhood parks serving ages 9 to 15 years, and community parks serving all age groups. 95p.
Report NO: UFC 3-210-04


Head Start Disaster Preparedness Workbook
(UCLA Center for Public Health and Disasters, Los Angeles , Jan 2004)
Presents steps for Head Start programs to take to identify hazards and resources, train their staff and families, and build partnerships with other agencies in the community. The types of hazards that can potentially impact a Head Start program and the local community are described. Information, tools, and activities to assist the Head Start program in different aspects of disaster planning and preparedness are provided. The sections of the workbook include: 1) Setting the Stage Disasters and the Importance of Preparing, 2) Assessing Your Head Start Program's Risks and Resources, 3) Developing and Implementing a Disaster Plan, 4) Communicating Important Information to Staff, Volunteers, Parents, and Others, 5) Building Teams and Training for Effective Disaster Responses, and 6) Recovering After a Disaster. Forms are included that are designed specifically for printing, for filling in program-specific information, and for use in developing a disaster plan. Supplemental resources that can be helpful throughout the disaster planning process are listed. 130p.

Planning and Licensing a Child Day Care Center in Chicago.
(Chicago Dept. of Human Services, IL , 2004)
Guides the potential day care provider through the process of planning, programming, and designing a day care center, including Chicago licensing information. Steps in the process are presented as chapters in the guidebook, arranged in much the same order as a child day care provider might use the information to plan and design a center. The chapters are: Getting Started, Programming Center Spaces, Creating a Project Budget, Review of City Licensing Requirements and Process, Selecting a Site and Building, Planning Indoor Space, Site Planning and Outdoor Spaces, Sustainability, Universal Design, Working with an Architect and Other Professionals, Case Study, and Health Requirements for Child Care Centers and City of Chicago Fire Alarm Requirements for Day Care Centers. 165p.

Recommendations for Early Childhood Facilities Standards
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ, 2004)
These recommendations to New Jersey's Commissioner of Education by an early childhood subcommittee are for the construction and renovation of Abbott preschool classrooms. These standards provide guidance to school districts and community providers in constructing or renovating preschool facilities that will ensure a quality learning environment; and provide architects and facilities planners with maximum flexibility in meeting the educational needs of each district’s three and four year old children. The standards cover the preschool building, preschool classrooms, the classroom environment, administrative and support rooms, entrance/exits and security, outdoor play areas, and health. 4p.
TO ORDER: http://www.edlawcenter.org/

There's Something About a Space. [Video]
(Illinois Facilities Fund, Chicago. , 2004)
In 2003, the Illinois Facilities Fund and the Grand Victoria Foundation entered into a partnership called Building Blocks. One component of the initiative is early care and education classroom renovations. This video demonstrates the impact of this initiative. [This video requires the Flash plugin.]

Adults are from Earth; Children are from the Moon. Designing for Children: A Complex Challenge.
White, Randy
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 2004)
Describes ways children may co-opt elements of their environment for learning and play, rather than the uses for which they were intended. Design considerations that encourage appropriate and discourage inappropriate uses and behaviors are discussed, citing children's particular psychological and motor needs, as well as attention spans, safety, environmental hazards, durability, and maintenance. Environments for children need to be designed with careful consideration of four basic environmental needs children have: movement, comfort, competence, and control. 6p.

The Impact of Density and the Definition and Ratio of Activity Centers on Children in Childcare Classrooms.
White, Randy
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 2004)
Summarizes childhood education research indicating that their should be between 45 and 54 square feet of usable classroom space per child in preschool facilities. Includes 11 references. 3p.

The Complete Learning Spaces Book for Infants and Toddlers : 54 Integrated Areas with Play Experiences.
Isbell, Rebecca; Gamble, Christy Isbell
(Gryphon House, Sep 2003)
This book is designed to help teachers meet the challenge of creating an effective learning environment for very young children. It includes ideas for planning, using, and evaluating learning spaces that will captivate infants and toddlers and encourage the developmental process. Information for each learning space is complete with thorough illustrations, letters to parents, literacy connections, and vocabulary lists. Learning objectives, and assessments help determine the impact of each learning space on the children’s development. 336p.
TO ORDER: Gryphon House, P.O. Box 207,Beltsville, MD 20704; Phone: 800-638-0928, 301-595-9500; Fax: 301-595-0051
http://www.ghbooks.com/Showbook.cfm?code=16917

Final Report: Think Tank on Modular Design for Early Care and Education. Adobe PDF
Anderson, Gretchen; Philiposian, Dianne.
(The Design Institute, Louisville, KY , Jul 31, 2003)
Collects the recommendations of designers, manufacturers, child development experts, contractors, government personnel, and financing experts on the use of modular construction in early childhood care and education. Indoor and outdoor design enhancements include larger and lower windows, homelike facades, courtyards, child-scaled entry paths, and covered outdoor decking. 32p.

Child Care Center Design Guide. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Services Administration, Washington , Jul 2003)
Presents criteria for planning and designing child care centers in GSA-owned or controlled spaces. Introductory chapters cover the administration s mission, goals, and policies, along with a discussion of the nature of adult and child presence in the facility and NAEYC standards. Planning and design chapters include planning for space and location, site design, interior space design, furnishings and equipment, interior finishes, and technical criteria. Appendices offer guidance with metric/english conversions, poisonous plants, sustainable design, accessibility, and playground furnishing. 154p.
Report NO: PBS-100


Evaluation Report on the Growing Upwards Project Part of the Growing Schools Initiative. Adobe PDF
White, Jan; Jameson, Neil
(Learning Through Landscapes, Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom , Jul 2003)
Presents an evaluation of Learning through Landscapes' Growing Upwards project from May 2002 to July 2003. The objectives of the program were to support the development of best practice in early childhood education through first hand experiences in horticulture, and to realize the full curriculum, child development, health, and community benefits of growing and harvesting food in early childhood settings. The many findings outlining high community and parental involvement, securing of additional funding, and particular benefit to multi-cultural areas are described. 12p.

Financial Management Toolbox: Essential Implements for Planning and Operating Inclusive Child Development Centers.
(Easter Seals, Inc., Chicago, IL , May 2003)
Presents a financial planning guide to help in creating or expanding an incluse child development center. The guide covers financial projections and expenses for facilities, start-up costs, slot capacities and income, specialized services, income, fundraising, staffing, programs, and borrowing. A glossary of common terms and checklist for a loan proposal are included. 19p.
TO ORDER: http://www.easterseals.com/site/DocServer/PQICC_Tool_Order_Form.pdf?docID=2121

Creating Inclusive Child Care Facilities.
Young, Leslie
(Easter Seals, Inc., Chicago, IL , May 2003)
Provides information and strategies to help ensure that child care facilities are welcoming and usable for everyone possible, covering principles of universal design, ideas to incorporate into existing and future facilities, review points for assessing the universal design features of a child care center, an overview of disability types and design tips for accommodating each group's needs, and resources for additional information. 92p.
TO ORDER: http://www.easterseals.com/site/DocServer/PQICC_Tool_Order_Form.pdf?docID=2121

Child Care Center Financial Planning and Facilities Development Manual. Adobe PDF
(National Economic Development and Law Center, Oakland, CA , Jan 2003)
This manual consists of four chapters, each of which addresses a key component of financial planning and the facility development process: 1) budgeting and basic financial statements; 2) developing pro formas and determining debt capapity; 3) developing a child care business plan; and 4) the facilities development process. The facilities development process includes an overview of the process of purchasing or building a new facility, or renovating and expanding an existing facility. 103p.

Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.
Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie
(Red Leaf Press, St. Paul, MN. , 2003)
This illustrated book outlines hundreds of ways to create healthy and inviting physical, social, and emotional environments for children in child care. It offers hands-on activities to structure adults' reflection on their practical experiences in early childhood environments and to encourage the creation of more complex and interesting learning spaces. The eight chapters focus on: (1) "Laying a Foundation for Living and Learning"; (2) "Creating Connections and a Sense of Belonging"; (3) "Keeping Space Flexible and Materials Open-Ended"; (4) "Designing Natural Environments that Engage Our Senses"; (5) "Provoking Wonder, Curiosity, and Intellectual Engagement"; (6) "Engaging Children in Symbolic Representation, Literacy, and the Visual Arts"; (7) "Enhancing Children's Use of the Environment"; and (8) "Facing Barriers and Negotiating Change." Resources and tools for assessing one's environment are appended. Photos from a wide variety of programs are included. 227p.

Prototype: Enhanced Modular Childcare Facility. Adobe PDF
Davis, John; Nelsson, Anne; Philiposian, Diane; Anderson, Gretchen
(The Design Institute, Louisville, KY , 2003)
Presents a prototype modular early childhood facility, featuring the rotation of one modular of a 3-modular unit to break up the repetitive, boxlike nature typical of modulars. The turning of one unit creates new habitable spaces that can used for outdoor learning and as transitional entrance areas. 12p.

Children's Physical Environment Rating Scale. Adobe PDF
Moore, Gary; Sugiyama, Takemi; O Donnell, Louise
(University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , 2003)
Proposes a 143-item scale for early childhood center directors, educators, policy makers and regulators to assess the quality of the physical environment of childcare, preschool, kindergarten and other early childhood education settings. The Children's Physical Environment Rateing Scale (CPERS) is based on a Piagetian ecological theory of child development and the environment; the research literature including empirical investigations in the United States, Canada, and Australia; the knowledge of many leading childcare researchers, educators, directors and teachers around the world; and childcare and preschool standards in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA. Includes 38 references. 12p.

The Great 35 Square Foot Myth.
White, Randy; Stoeklin, Vicki
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 2003)
There is a large body of research that shows that the amount of classroom space per child is the single most important environmental factor affecting the quality of child care programs and the welfare of children and staff. This paper debunks the standard of 35 square foot of classroom space per child for the design of child care classrooms. 3p.

Unified Facilities Criteria. Design: Child Development Centers. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Defense. , Aug 2002)
Provide criteria and guidance for the evaluating, planning, programming, design and construction of new and renovated Child Development Centers on military installations. 152p.
Report NO: UFC 4-740-14


Child Care Facilities: Requirements, Costs, and Funding Adobe PDF
Ennes, Judy; Lauster, Charles
(Child Care, Inc. Resource Paper , Jul 2002)
Noting that locating suitable space can be a challenge when starting a new early childhood program or relocating an established program in New York City, this resource paper focuses on physical sites for early education and child care programs and services. Presented in three parts, the paper includes tips for assessing the feasibility of a potential site, estimating the cost, finding the funding to develop the site, and working with an architect. Part 1 identifies six ways to locate potential sites in the community. Part 2 provides suggestions for assessing the suitability of a site for a child care program, considering both licensing requirements and program needs. This part includes tips with regard to amount of instructional space, location in building, other space, playground, rent, and potential space problems. Part 3 focuses on finding and working effectively with a qualified architect. This part includes questions to ask the architect, a list of architectural services, a glossary of architectural terms, and addresses for further information. 23p.

New Daycare in Annapolis Responds to Governor’s Initiative.
(Davis, Bowen, Friedel Inc.,Salisbury,MD, Press Release, Jan 31, 2002)
A state run daycare facility was created in existing office space for 103 children, infants through age five. The daycare center located within the Department of Natural Resources building complex was designed with a nature theme; it also includes an outdoor play area. 4p.

Aesthetic Code in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia.
Tarr, Patricia
(Design Share, Inc., Minneapolis, MN , Oct 2001)
This article compares the messages contained in the physical environments of early childhood classrooms in Reggio Emilia, Italy, with typical early childhood settings in Canada and the United States. The article examines the classroom’s "aesthetic code,", i.e., the social construction created, consciously or unconsciously, by the classroom’s environment and its impact on student feelings and social perception. The author discusses how these "codes" reflect each culture’s image of the child, cultural values in general, and broad educational goals. Concluding comments explore the implications that these classroom codes have for art educators. 10p.

Designed Environments for Young Children: Empirical Findings and Implications for Planning and Design. Adobe PDF
Moore, Gary
(University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , Jul 2001)
Discusses the impact of the physical environment in early childhood educational settings, citing specific findings from a number of studies, and describing ten principles for the architecture of early childhood development. Includes 48 references. 14p.

Kindergarten Architecture.
(Gingko Press, Inc., Corte Madera, CA , 2001)
This book presents 22 preschool buildings from all over the world, selected on the basis of how well they approximate an ideal preschool where children and educators live harmoniously in exceptional settings. The projects also include technological innovations (experimental materials, specific construction details) and visible ecological installations, such as energy savings through the use of solar panels, tanks for rainwater collection, or recycling of materials. Each building description contains several color photographs. (An appendix discusses children's playgrounds.) 192p.
TO ORDER: Gingko Press, Inc., 5768 Paradise Dr., Suite J, Corte Madera, CA 94925. Tel: 415-924-9615; Fax: 415-924-9608;
http://www.gingkopress.com

Early Learning Environments that Work.
Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty
(National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC , 2001)
This book examines the early childhood environment with the vision of making it a place where all young children will be physically, emotionally, aesthetically, and intellectually nurtured. It explores how to use furniture, color, materials, storage, lighting, and more to create space and activity centers that support children's independence and decision-making and allow them to make the environment their own. Each chapter provides educators with detailed illustrations and photographs to help them set up or arrange what they already have in the classroom. Specific chapters address: (1) the power of the environment and its impact on children; (2) contemporary childcare spaces; (3) the teacher's new role as designer; (4) principles of meaningful environments; (5) aspects of quality environments for children; (6) assessing what you have and ways to review existing spaces; (7) making a plan that works for you, evaluating the current environment, and developing goals for the environment; (8) the designer's toolbox, where to find classroom materials and furnishings, innovative ideas, purchasing lumber, and finding help; (9) enriching the environment; and (10) resources about early childhood environments. Appendices include inventory forms, storage ideas, an anthropometric chart for a child-scaled environment, and drawings of different centers. 191p.
TO ORDER: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036-1426; Tel: 800-424-2460.
http://www.naeyc.org

Child Care Design Guide.
Olds, Anita Rui
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2001)
Provides detailed information about every aspect of the planning and design of child care centers, for architects, interior designers, developers, and child care professionals. The book is organized into four parts: 1) the child's environment; 2) the design process; 3) ingredients of good design; and 4) the functional spaces. Step-by-step explanations are provided of interior and exterior layout and design principles through case studies. Includes licensing and code requirements, operational standards and strategies, and checklists, charts and graphs Features over 300 floor plans for infant and toddler, preschool, and afterschool spaces, plus areas for outdoor play. 483p.

Tips for Furnishing the Learning Environment. Adobe PDF
Dorrell, Angie; Sigsbee, Mike
(Earlychildhood.com , Nov 2000)
This paper presents advice on what questions to ask and what points to consider when purchasing classroom furniture. The suggested questions help purchasers determine how safe the furniture is and how appropriate it is for a particular age group. Also provides easy-to-use references that cover planning a furniture purchase, making the actual purchase, and choosing a furniture vendor. 10p.

Quality Indicators for Preschool Facilities. Recommendations of the Early Care and Education Coalition
(Association for Children of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, Jul 24, 2000)
Series of indicators for facilities housing preschool programs that would meet the needs of three and four year olds. These guidelines provide a starting point for an assessment of current preschool facilities, and can lead to the development of improved design for new buildings. Includes preschool classroom space, storage, bathrooms, floors, lighting, furnishings, entrance/exits, and outdoor play areas. 5p.

McWillie School - Jackson, Mississippi.
Lackney, Jeffery
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Apr 2000)
Presents the planning team report for this school, including a project description, workshop and interview methodology and findings, and the recommended facility program. Numerous plans and tables illustrate the results. 95p.

Building for the Future: A Guide to Facilities Loan Funds for Community-Based Child and Family Services.
Sussman, Carl
(The Finance Project, Washington, DC , Jan 05, 2000)
This guidebook assesses the feasibility and potential impact a specialized lending program might have on the capital needs of community-based child and family services. It explains the need for quality facilities and how physical space can affect child care quality and the program's impact. Also described are the problems associated with capital loans for these services and examines how facilities loan funds directly improve access to credit and how they can have broader indirect impact on the level of capital investment in community programs. Types of loan funds are examined, as are the characteristics of a lender's capital structure, lending policies, several start-up strategies, and capitalization loan strategies used by other institutions. 34p.

Stewpot Pre-School Feasibility Study: Daycare Planning Guidelines. A Pre-School for Stewpot Community Services. Adobe PDF
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , 2000)
As part of a feasibility study for a pre-school conducted with the Jackson Community Design Center for Stewpot Community Services, the Educational Design Institute has developed a series of tearsheets to aid designers in planning pre-school environments. These sheets outline educational objectives, optimum square foot standards, general environmental concerns, furniture and equipment for infant, toddler and pre-school age groups. A diagram of each room along with a list and diagrams of furniture and equipment are included for each age group. 7p.

Making Space for Children: A Toolkit for Starting a Child Care Facilities Fund. Starting Points: Meeting the Needs of Our Youngest Children. Adobe PDF
Kershaw, Amy
(Carnegie Corp., New York, NY., 2000)
To address the growing demand for high-quality child care, many communities are seeking to develop specialized child care facilities funds to build new, and improve the quality of existing, child care programs. This toolkit is designed for policymakers, nonprofit leaders, child care providers, and others interested in increasing access to high-quality child care through the development of a child care facilities fund. The kit is organized around six sections. Following an introductory section, Section 2, "Why Start a Child Care Facilities Fund?" presents basic information about how child care facilities funds can help meet the growing demand for high-quality child care. Section 3, "Getting Started," describes some of the initial steps needed, including convening a committee of stakeholders, understanding the facility needs in the community, establishing goals and priorities, and identifying potential partners. Section 4, "Designing Your Facilities Fund: Structure, Funding, Products, and Services," lays out some of the design considerations for starting a child care facilities fund and includes a list of funding sources, information regarding fund administration, eligibility considerations, and what types of expenses should be funded. Section 5, "What Can You Do?" describes some options that stakeholders can use to support, promote, or lead efforts to start up, design, and operate a child care facilities fund, including specific suggestions and examples for government agencies, elected officials, banks, philanthropies, parents, providers, and others. Section 6 provides a list of publications and organizations that may be helpful in starting a facilities fund, including a brief description of facilities funds from around the country. A glossary of child care and facilities financing terms is included. 39p.

Design Guidelines for Montessori Schools.
De Jesus, Raquel
(University of Wisconsin, CAUPR, School of Architecture and Planning, Milwaukee , 2000)
This report presents guidelines for use by architects, designers, and teachers in designing an environment that will complement and enhance the Montessori teaching method. Provides a history of the Montessori Method, analysis of books written by Montessori and her followers, review of methods and settings, and a section containing interviews and inventories done in six Montessori schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Appendices contain school interview forms and pages describing "muscular education" from the book, "Montessori Method." 80p.
TO ORDER: http://www4.uwm.edu/caupr/publication.htm

Kindergarten Architecture: Space for the Imagination. Second Edition.
Dudek, Mark
(Spon Press, London, England , 2000)
This publication about pre-school nursery design illustrates major issues and ideas about these spaces and provides comprehensive guidance for the planners and designers of such spaces. The author presents examples of historical and contemporary kindergartens that demonstrate practical ways that educational theory can be incorporated into new buildings. The guide addresses such issues as whether kindergartens should be designed like homes away from homes, what spaces a modern nursery should have, and what special details should be considered to enhance the learning environment. The book also charts attempts made by educators and architects over the last 100 years to provide educational environments for young children. This revised edition features two new projects from Denmark and the United States and provides new source material throughout the book. 217p.
TO ORDER: Spon Press 29 West 35th St. New York, NY 10001
http://www.sponpress.com/

Design Standards for Children's Environments.
Ruth, Linda Cain
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2000)
This 3-part book addresses the design or maintenance of spaces where children are the primary users covering both commercial and residential designs and products. Part I chapters provide anthropometric data of children from birth to age 18, offers dimensions for typical objects within the child's built environment; synthesizes the Consumer Product Safety Commission's safety guidelines for play areas; and provides dimensions of typical, and sometimes untypical, products that are often found in children's environments. Part II features a source list developed for designers that lists products appropriate for use in children's environments. Part III chapters outline the development of children's abilities and perceptions in the first stages of life from birth to age 10, and offers a bibliography of the most effective and highly regarded resources in the area of children's design. 306p.

Housing-Leveraged Facilities Finance: A Model for Child Care Centers Adobe PDF
Sussman, Carl; Roberts, Buzz
(Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, 2000)
This describes financial barriers to feasible early childhood facilities such as low fees and subsidy reimbursement rates and the high costs of child care facilities. The article discusses the California model of housing-leveraged facilities financing as a means of filling the child care equity financing gap. 3p.

Facility Management Child Care Resource Book. Adobe PDF
Kinney, Patricia F.; Grandy, Susan
(General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service, Child Care Operations Center of Expertise, Washington, DC. , Jul 1999)
This guidebook provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 115p.

Educational Specifications for the Proposed Pre-K-Grade 2 Elementary School [Connecticut]. Adobe PDF
(East Haddam Board of Education, East Haddam, CT , May 24, 1999)
This document describes one Connecticut school district's project to build a facility that is designed for small children and supports an educational program focusing on early learning success for all children. Describes the school district's goals, the project's rationale, the long-range plan to prepare students for the 21st century, the learning activities and program needs for each grade level, and the various facility design requirements that will support the student's educational and social needs. 16p.

Playing in Place: Why the Physical Environment is Important in Playwork.
Cosco, Nilda; Moore, Robin
(14th Playeducation Annual Play and Human Development Meeting: Theoretical Playwork. Ely, Cambridgeshire, UK , Jan 26, 1999)
The aim of this paper is to set down some of the theoretical dimensions of the physical environment to encourage playworkers to consider space and its content as a versatile, valuable support in playwork practice. An inviting sense of place allows children to express themselves, to interact and unfold their curiosity for the external world, including relations with the people around them. Place-enhancing processes, activated through play, help elaborate the place beyond the confines of everyday life, providing children with a sense of belonging, identity, and ownership–the culture of the place. The body (our personal, most private space) has a very dynamic relationship to external space that is so commonplace we often gloss over it. As we discover the body-in-space, the body-in-time appears as the companion, helping to complete the totality of body skills. The richer and more diverse the world is, the greater likelihood that places acquire anima locii. Regarding the potential play value of a diverse, changeable physical environment, one could say that a play program can only be as good as its physical environment and the playworkers’ skill in managing it to maximize the programming potential with the children. [Authors' abstract]

Early Childhood Special Education for Children with Disabilities, Ages Three through Five: Staff/Facilities. Revised. Adobe PDF
(North Dakota Dept. of Public Instruction, Dept. of Special Education, Bismarck, ND , 1999)
This document presents requirements related to staff and facilities providing early childhood special education services in North Dakota. Teacher qualifications are stated and staffing patterns involving teachers, related services personnel, paraeducators, and volunteers are described. A section on administrative considerations provides additional standards and guidelines for classroom facilities (especially accessibility options), safety standards, playground facilities, emergency precautions, interagency collaboration, transportation, funding, evaluation, and technology-based options. 14p.

Child Care You Can Count On: Model Programs and Policies.
(Annie E. Casey Foundation, 1999)
Discusses affordability, accessiblity, care for school-age children, community building, quality, consumer awareness, etc.

Head Start Program. Revision of 45 CFR Part 1309. Adobe PDF
(Administration for Children, Youth, and Families , Project Head Start,Washington, DC , 1999)
The Administration on Children, Youth, and Families is issuing this final rule to 45 CFR Part 1309 to implement the statutory provision authorizing Head Start grantees to use grant funds to purchase facilities in which to operate Head Start programs. This amendment makes 45 CFR Part 1309 one complete rule covering use of grant funds to purchase along with construction and major renovations to Head Start Facilities. The rule specifies (1) what information must be included in requesting grant funds, (2) what measures must be taken to protect the Federal interest in facilities purchasing using Administration for Children and Families grant funds, (3) requires that grantees acquire specified types of insurance and maintain the facilities within applicable building codes and standards, and (4) includes modular units in the "facilities" definition and requires grantees purchasing modular units to comply with these regulations which include provisions applicable to the purchase of modular units. Additional administrative provisions conclude the document. p5939-5949
Report NO: RIN-0970-AB31; FR-DO


Tribal Child Care Facilities: A Guide to Construction and Renovation.
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Child Care Bureau , 1999)
This document provides technical assistance in addressing major areas of the child care facility construction and renovation process, including conducting a child care community needs assessment, identifying a site, financing costs, developing a business plan, conducting an environmental assessment, building and designing a facility, and hiring contractors. A glossary of terms and resources are provided. Appendices contain a sample notice of federal interest, a list of construction and renovation documents and deadlines, and an application of Title III (Public Accommodations) of the Americans with Disabilities Act to the Tribes. 74p.

Design of Child Care Centers and Effects of Noise on Young Children.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.; Evans, Gary W.
(Design Share , 1999)
There is a considerable amount of research documenting the effects of noise on children. The effects are largely negative. Research findings in this field are described, current research by Maxwell and Evans is discussed, and design issues related to noise and child care centers are outlined. 4p.

Let's Go Outside: Designing the Early Childhood Playground
Theemes, Tracy
(High/Scope Press, Ypsilanti, MI , 1999)
Outdoor play is commonly believed to be an important form of play for young children. This shows how to design, equip, and maintain safe yet challenging playgrounds. The chapters are: (1) "Why Playgrounds?" exploring the elements and value of outdoor play and safety versus challenge; (2) "Developmental Characteristics of Young Children," including physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development, and sensory experiences outdoors; (3) "Playground Design," including analyzing children's outdoor play patterns and needs, and assessing the outdoor environment and planning the layout; (4) "Furnishing the Outdoor Classroom," including stationary structures and loose, manipulative materials; (5) "Safety," including standards and guidelines; (6) "Supporting Children's Outdoor Play: The Adult's Role," outlining specific strategies; and (7) "Playground Assessment Case Study," including the surrounding community and recommendations. Seven appendices include observation records, inspection and incident report forms, and a list of toxic and nontoxic vegetation. (Contains 40 references.) 144p.
TO ORDER: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 600 North River Street, Ypsilanti, MI 49198-2898; Tel: 734-482-6660, Toll free: 800-407-7377

Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. Adobe PDF
Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.
(A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference, Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998)
These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the environment of a center should fit its image of children: as learners and researchers; in constant relationship with their surroundings; as being capable of long investigation of media; as being able to solve important problems; as social beings; as entitled to beauty; as welcome; and as engaged in learning. The second paper, "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" concerns the culture of a private early childhood center in Melbourne, Australia. The paper notes how the center's culture was presented through its physical environment such as interior and exterior architecture and design, and suggests that the design of early childhood centers should: create a conducive environment for learning; provide children with a sense of achievement and ownership in the environment; and allow children a degree of freedom. The third paper, "Packing the Suitcase: What To Pack?" presents the authors' experiences designing an early child care center in Geelong, Australia, inspired by their Reggio Emilia experience. The fourth paper, also titled "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" concerns refurbishment of the Junior School of Melbourne Girls Grammar in Australia. Includes a profile of conference speakers.

Early Childhood Education Facilities Planner Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Feb 1998)
This report describes early childhood education programs and facilities and presents planning guidelines to assist design professionals to plan facilities that meet the evolving needs of public schools in North Carolina. It addresses issues concerning both the indoor and outdoor environments of early childhood educational facilities, provides sample floor plans that supplement and clarify those issues addressed, and presents several photographs depicting early childhood facilities in several North Carolina schools that illustrate descriptions discussed in the report. Appendices provide a checklist on outside play areas to make them safe; and descriptions of sample learning centers that include art, toy blocks, computers, dramatic play/housekeeping, family area/library corner/listening area, woodworking, and manipulatives and table toys. Additional resources are listed. 31p.

The Effects of Facility Design and Equipment Acquisition on Curriculum Offered in Preschool Centers. Adobe PDF
Camerin, Elaine M.
(University of Central Florida, Orlando , 1998)
This descriptive study surveyed directors/education coordinators, lead teachers, and parents to identify the effects of facility design and equipment acquisition on the curriculum offered in preschool centers. Study results indicate that the components of facility design had varying degrees of effect on the curriculum offered. Components such as material accessibility, toileting facilities adapted to the child's size, storage areas for toys, low windows, and the size of indoor and outdoor play areas are cited as examples. The components of equipment acquisition that had a very great affect on the curriculum offered were buying child-sized furniture and equipment, acquiring a variety of equipment and materials, and having age-appropriate equipment. Head Start teachers and education coordinators possessed greater awareness of the effects of facility design and equipment acquisition on the curriculum. Recommendations are submitted for increasing stakeholder's awareness levels of the impact of facility design and equipment on the preschool curriculum. 248p.

Children, Spaces, Relations: Metaproject for an Environment for Young Children.
Ceppi, Giulio, Ed.; Zini, Michele, Ed.
(Reggio Children, Reggio Emilia, Italy. , 1998)
This book describes a project on designing spaces for young children; the aim of the project is to enable a "meeting of minds" between the pedagogical philosophy of Reggio Emilia preschools and the innovative experiences within the culture of design and architecture. The book presents the project in three main sections: (1) a critical analysis of the cumulative experience of the municipal early childhood system of Reggio Emilia in an attempt to identify the desirable characteristics of a space for young children; (2) reflections on the tools of design, with indications regarding both the distribution of space and the "soft qualities" (light, color, materials, smell, sound, microclimate), to provide tools for both the interior and exterior design of infant-toddler centers and schools for young children; and (3) essays discussing the pedagogical and architecture/design issues that form the theoretical basis studies carried out in the municipal preschools of Reggio Emilia and at Domus Academy as part of the joint research project. 159p.

Learning Environments for Young Children : Rethinking Library Spaces and Services
Feinberg, Sandra; Kuchner, Joan F.; Feldman, Sari; Ash-Geisler, Viki
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL , 1998)
Taking a research-oriented approach to the role of the library in the education of children, this book focuses on making public libraries developmentally appropriate learning environments for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and their families. The first section covers the theories and practices for librarians to provide social and physical environments in which they, parents, administrators, and the community work together with young children. The second section describes the methodologies, strategies, and tools for an "Early Childhood Quality Review" (ECQR), a self-evaluation process. The third section gives replicable questionnaires, observation guides, and other documentation aids necessary to evaluate spaces, programs, and resources. 214p.
TO ORDER: American Library Association, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611; Tel: 800-545-2433.
http://www.alastore.ala.org

Designing Child Care Settings: A Child-Centered Approach.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.; Segal, Michelle, Ed.
(Cornell University Resource Center, Ithaca, NY , 1998)
This four-part manual assists child care providers working in day care centers, Head Start Centers, or nursery schools to design the physical space of both indoor and outdoor settings for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and younger school-aged children. Part 1 stresses the importance of the physical environment in the child care setting. Part 2 addresses planning and designing a classroom or playroom. Part 3 contains information on designing a new center, including working with an architect. Part 4 examines planning outdoor play settings as part of a child care program. Each section contains exercises to illustrate important points, and provides handout material that can be photocopied for distribution. The manual concludes with a resource list. 110 p.

Commonly Asked Questions About Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act.
(U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, DC , Oct 1997)
Presents 30 questions and answers that address the Act's coverage, requirements, communication with parents, types of disabilities, administering of personal services to children, making the facility accessible, tax provisions, legal issues, and additional resources. 13p.

The ABCs of Safe and Healthy Child Care: A Handbook for Child Care Providers.
Hale, Cynthia M.; Polder, Jacquelyn A.
(U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 1997)
Recognizing the importance of maintaining a safe and healthy child care setting, this manual for home or center child care providers contains information and guidelines to help providers maintain child health and reduce sickness and injuries. Part 4, "Maintaining a Safe and Healthy Facility," details the contents of a written safety plan, including precautions, evaluation plan and drills pertaining to fire safety, electrical fixtures and outlets, stairways and walkways, indoor furnishings and equipment, outdoor play areas, small objects and toys, firearms, water temperatures, chemical toxins, lead poisoning, air pollution, pets, and exposure to electric and magnetic fields and to heat and ultraviolet rays. 150p.

Designing Quality Child Care Facilities.
Stoecklin, Vicki; White, Randy
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group , 1997)
This paper explores problems involving expertise of design participants and the design process hampering the creation of high quality child care facilities that promote child development. Problems addressed include architects and designers needing more knowledge of child development and operation of child care centers, the inability of those who do know child development and child care center operations to translate this knowledge into space design, and the relay approach of traditional design process contributing to poor child care center facilities. The concept of concurrent design, the pulling together of all the experts who design the facility and those who operate it at the same time, is discussed as a solution. (Contains two references.) 4p.

Getting Started: Materials and Equipment for Active Learning Preschools
Vogel, Nancy
(High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI , 1997)
This book provides information to guide the development of an active learning early childhood program by assisting in the selection of materials and equipment to support children's cognitive, physical and social development. Considers the arrangement of classroom areas, and elements of the daily routine. Art, block, house, toy, book, computer areas, movement and music areas, sand and water areas, and outdoor play areas are covered. Suggestions for locating and planning the area and a list of suggested materials and equipment, with quantities specified are included, and sample diagrams of three typical classrooms. The guide offers suggestions for selecting culturally appropriate materials, for prioritizing, arranging, acquiring and supplementing materials in each area. 54p.
TO ORDER: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 600 North River Street, Ypsilanti, MI 49198-2898; Tel: 734-482-6660, Toll free: 800-407-7377

Children's Outdoor Play & Learning Environments: Returning to Nature
White, Randy; Stoecklin, Vicki L.
(White Hutchinson Leisure and Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 1997)
Why typical playgrounds are designed the way they are by adults is discussed, including what the ideal outdoor play/learning environment for children is and how the outdoor space should be considered as an extension of the classroom. The paper emphasizes the importance of nature to children, discusses the criteria playground designers should possess, and explains why it is essential for the design process to include input from children, teachers, parents, and maintenance staff. 7p.

Redefinition of Space and Equipment in the Kindergarten and Involving the Children in the Process of Designing. Adobe PDF
Bika, Anastasia
(Paper presented at the European Conference on the Qualilty of Early Childhood Education, Paris, France , Sep 07, 1995)
This research examined the extent to which 2.5- to 5-year-old children in three Kindergarten classrooms in Thessaloniki, Greece could be taught about the use of classroom space and equipment. The study combined the theoretical perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Frangos with the views of theater director Peter Brook. Results indicated that: (1) preschoolers are capable of receiving scientific knowledge through personal discovery of basic concepts; (2) children have vague ideas about space but these ideas can become concrete after dialectical instigation; (3) kindergarten teachers' participation in discussing space was limited, although they were positive toward the research; (4) parents' response to the research was hesitant; and (5) equipment should be designed using both adult and child criteria

Head Start Facilities Manual. Adobe PDF
(Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD; Collins Management Consulting, Inc., Vienna, VA , 1995)
This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making improvements, and securing space for expansion. The manual is primarily designed for use by the Head Start director, the grantee's executive director, financial officer, and other persons directly involved in facilities planning and development. Chapters are: 1) "Assessing Head Start Facilities"; 2) "Understanding Head Start Compliance Issues,"; 3) "Designing Head Start Facilities,"; 4) "Developing Head Start Facilities"; 5) "Funding Head Start Facilities"; and 6) "Finding More Help." Contains 46 references. 121p.

Creating Environments for Young Children. Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry
(North Carolina State Univ., School of Design, Raleigh , 1995)
The planning and design of child care centers has been undertaken without sufficient knowledge of children's spatial behavior, resulting in centers not providing appropriate physical conditions for young children's developmental needs. This workbook contains exercises and other learning materials for young students that follow principles of good design in the following units: (1) "Goal Setting"; (2) "What Is a Learning Environment," including components of a learning center, along with how to create and rate learning centers; (3) "Playroom Design Principles," focusing on light and color, planning, and modeling the playroom; (4) "Building Image"; (5) "Planning the Facility"; and (6) "Planning Outdoor Play," including play zones, planning outdoor play (POP), playground safety, playground document scale, and mapping children's behavior. 124p.

Child Care by Design: Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
Schmidt, Lori, Ed.
(Childcare Resource and Research Unit, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, , 1995)
In Canada today, more than a million children spend a large portion of their preschool years in child care outside the immediate family. Intended to assist design and child care professionals who are building a new child care center or renovating an existing one, this resource guide and accompanying videotape present an overview of some important design principles that influence the effectiveness of any child care center. The principles detailed in the guide are: (1) Pre-design Issues--location, size, neighborhood connections; (2) Site Planning--positive orientation, safe circulation; (3) Building Design--residential scale, village plan approach, common core; (4) Interior Space Design--(5) Outdoor Space Design--play yards, indoor-outdoor connections. 35p.

The Developmentally Appropriate Design of Child Care Facilities. Adobe PDF
Moore, Gary T.
(Summary text of a paper presented at the United Nations Conference on the Rights of the Child--Stronger Families--Stronger Children, Victoria, Canada , Jun 21, 1994)
This paper discusses developmentally appropriate design of child care centers, focusing on properties of center design proven to influence child development. The paper suggests that design of child care centers can be considered in terms of the five main steps. First, they should be designed on a neighborhood hub model, incorporating family child care and group care centers of no more than 60-75 children, and located in neighborhoods or at workplaces. Larger centers may be subdivided into clusters of separate buildings with a central core for administrative and support services. Buildings should have adequate indoor and outdoor space (100 square feet per child indoors and outdoors). Second, site planning is needed. Third, overall building design needs to accommodate mixed-age groups. Fourth, group houses, or modified open spaces, and fifth, outdoor activity spaces, which accommodate developmentally appropriate play yards, are also discussed. Illustrations included. 12p.

Child Care Center Design & the Potential of Architecture.
Abbott, Carl; Abbott, Cooper
(Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Southern Early Childhood Association, New Orleans, LA , Apr 11, 1994)
The paper discusses the stages of the design process and the role of architectural firms in designing child care facilities. An overview is provided of the following topics: the importance of the built environment to the young child; the approach to design; a summary of the design process; the role of codes and regulations; and master planning and budgeting the project. Also discussed are different issues that need to be considered in the design process, such as: (1) designing for different age groups; (2) flexible classroom space; (3) outside play space; (4) landscaping; (5) color and light; (6) furniture and finishes; (7) kitchens; and (8) safety and security. 7p.

Disaster Preparedness Planning Manual for Day Care Centers.
(Normandy Books, San Jose, CA , 1994)
Guides day care staff in assessing hazards and preparing a disaster response plan. It can also be used by parents concerned about their child's safety in a day care center or after school program. It covers what to expect in an earthquake, responses, drills, hazard assessment, emergency supplies, psychological factors, alternative siting, and release or relocation of children. Appendices offer sample emergency plans, forms, nonstructural hazard assessment guidance, and first aid/survival advice. 122p.

Comprehensive Bibliography on Child Care and Preschool Design.
Moore, Gary T.
(American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.; Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee. Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research , 1994)
The bibliography is based on the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research database and collection of resources, which covers 15 years of research and amassed consulting services on child care center design. The database was supplemented by a call for bibliographic entries sent to members of the American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education and people involved in child care research and design. The bibliography is not annotated and is not categorized. Some topics addressed include outdoor settings, ecology, playground construction, children and space, day care centers, therapeutic environments, design patterns, child care centers, crowding, play equipment, special education facilities, and toy structure. 55p.

Recommendations for Child Care Centers
Moore, Gary T.; Lane, Carol G.; Hill, Ann B.; Cohen, Uriel; McGinty, Tim
(Wisconsin Univ., Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research, Milwaukee, WI , 1994)
Part of a seven-volume series on children's environments, guide includes 115 patterns for large, medium, and small child care centers in neighborhood and work-place settings. Many of the patterns are appropriate also for family day-care homes, parent-child drop-in centers, nursery schools, kindergartens, and other early childhood development facilities. The patterns are based on a 3-year, federally-funded national research project conducted in the late 1970s. The research evaluated 52 child care centers and outdoor play yards around the United States and Canada, including observations of child-environment interactions, interviews with key staff members, and open-ended interviews with the children. National experts in early childhood development and design were interviewed, and some 2,000 pieces on environment-behavior research and design literature were collected from around the world and analyzed. 450p.

Childcare Design Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(City of Vancouver, Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines, Vancouver, BC. , 1993)
These guidelines detail general design considerations, including site selection, health and safety, and facility size; the internal design of the facility, including program spaces, activity room, quiet room, and support spaces; and outdoor considerations, including environment, activity zones, landscaping, fences, outdoor storage, and relationship to indoor space. 22p.

Removing Barriers to Childcare Facilities Development.
Anderson, Gretchen
(Gretchen Lee Anderson, Albuquerque, NM , 1993)
Uses interviews and visits to child care centers to discuss conceptual, design, legal, and funding obstacles to childcare facility development. Architects, developers, and child care consultants elaborate on what worked and didn't in their respective facilities, and what they would do differently the next time. Desirable and problematic design features of the facilities are listed categorically, and a discussion of the economic and regulatory elements impacting child care center development is examined. A checklist of barriers accompanied by recommended solutions is included. 122p.
TO ORDER: Dr. Gretchen Anderson, 5216 White Reserve SW, Albuquerque, NM, 87105

Design of the Times: Day Care.
(National Task Force on Day Care Interior Design, Living and Learning Environments, Burlingame, CA , 1992)
This report includes a design survey of 155 day care sites across the U.S.; day care interior design recommendations from professionals; photographs of various child care facilities; University of Tennessee Spatial Research on Child Care Sites; and an extensive bibliography. 70p.
TO ORDER: Living and Learning Environments, 1301 Mills Avenue, Burlingame, CA 94010, 650-340-8489
http://www.msro.com/ro/others.htm#daycare

Facility Design for Early Childhood Programs. An NAEYC Resource Guide.
(National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC , Mar 1989)
A guide presents information for identifying helpful resources related to facility design for early childhood programs and materials exploring some of the critical issues involved in design decisions, particularly as they pertain to young children's learning and play environments. Included are tips for planning safe educational environments and for providing an indoor and outdoor physical environment that fosters optimal growth and development through opportunities for exploration and learning. The document concludes with an article on how to improve school playgrounds and a playground improvement rating scale to determine how well a playground meets certain goals. 27p.
TO ORDER: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1834 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-232-8777.

Caring Spaces, Learning Places: Children's Environments that Work.
Greenman, Jim
(Exchange Press, Inc., Redmond, WA. , 1988)
This book is intended as a resource for those who create, adapt, and cope with settings for young children. It focuses particularly on all-day child care settings. Part 1, "Understanding Children's Settings," explores the power of the environment, or the "landscape" of children's lives--the array of settings they inhabit--and analyzes the dimensions and qualities of children's environments. Part 2, "Putting Quality Environments Together Piece by Piece," looks at how high-quality settings can be created. It addresses the building and site, interiors, care areas, storage, room arrangement, indoor learning environments, outdoor learning, and how to change and plan spaces. 217p.
TO ORDER: http://www.naeyc.org/store/node/167

Learning Environments for Children: A Developmental Approach to Shaping Activity Areas Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry; Sanoff, Joan
(Humanics Limited, Atlanta, GA , 1988)
Guidelines are provided for creating learning environments for children centers which can be used for the creation of either new centers, the re-design of existing centers, or when remodeling existing buildings. Each of the activity areas that may be contained in a children center is described in terms of their objectives, design requirements, participants, and the molecular activities engaged in by children. The molecular activities describe what the expected range of behaviors might be in the activity areas. Diagrams are used to illustrate, but not determine, the way in which the activity areas should be organized. An activity factor evaluation chart and advice on playground planning conclude the document. 100p.

Found Spaces and Equipment for Children's Centers. A Report. Adobe PDF
Passantino, Richard J.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1972)
Reports on turning discarded, overlooked, and inexpensive spaces or objects into useful places and things for child-oriented learning in preschools or day care centers. The document is organized into five sections: 1) Types of Places which demonstrates the wide variety of unlikely structures that have been converted into viable educational spaces; 2) Furniture and Equipment which features imaginative use of manufacturers’ “throwaways”; 3) Outdoor Spaces which points up the use of rooftops and vacant lots for solutions to urban play space problems; 4) Outdoor Things; and 5) How to Go About It which provides sources for help, licensing requirements and codes, and a checklist of found items. A bibliography and a directory of the centers described in the report are included. 72p.

Patterns for Designing Children's Centers. Adobe PDF
Osmon, Fred Linn
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Nov 1971)
Summarizes the issues involved in the design of a children's center. A children's center is defined as an away from home, group child care program for 2-4 year olds. The material is organized into 35 chapters or "patterns." A pattern is a package of design requirements whose solution is focused on a distinct part of the physical environment. This part can be a physical activity space; a part of a building; or an overall design issue. The patterns should be a takeoff point for the director, the teachers, and the architect to begin thinking about the daily program for a center and the parallel requirements for a physical environment. The patterns are transitory and temporary to be modified and changed as the dialogue is vitalized with new ideas and insights. 133p.

Profiles of Significant Schools: Schools for Early Childhood. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Sep 1970)
Focuses on the creation of learning facilities for two-, three-, and four-year-old children. It illustrates graphically two types of facilities: 1) new centers that were specifically constructed for early education; 2) old facilities--houses, storefronts, and warehouses--that have been successfully remodeled to provide early education centers. Also described is a non-school approach to early learning for communities where lack of finances or interest limits the development of early education centers. The structures vary widely in space usage, types of equipment, and genre of teaching aids, differences dictated by considerations of finances or space.

Some European Nursery Schools and Playgrounds. Adobe PDF
Utzinger, Robert C.
(Architectural Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI , 1970)
Provides a narrative and photographic account of some seventeen existing facilities for child care in Europe. It presents prototype plans, diagrams and pictures of playrooms and playgrounds in day nurseries, nursery schools, playgrounds, and recreation centers in London, England; Copenhagen, Denmark; Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden; and Zurich, Switzerland. The section titled "Conclusions and Recommendations" offers 13 recommendations general in nature; 25 pertaining to indoor play areas; and 15 pertaining to outdoor play areas. This report is the second in a 3-part series on Early Childhood Facilities. 77p.
Report NO: Monograph ECF/2


Memorandum on: Facilities for Early Childhood. Adobe PDF
Deutsch, Martin; Ellis, Richard R.; Nimnicht, Glendon P.; Covert, Angela M.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Discusses providing instructional space that will facilitate intellectual development in the disadvantaged child. The nursery classroom should consist of a series of well-defined, interrelated areas, including a general area for group activities, a reading corner, a doll corner and housekeeping area, block alcove and manipulative toy area, an art corner, tutoring booth, cubicles, toilets, storage, outdoor play area, and observation space. Guidelines are given for these areas and three examples of existing facilities are presented. Floor plans and bibliography are included. 40p.

References to Journal Articles

Effective, Positive Educational Spaces
Moxley, Ralph W.
School Planning and Management; , p84-85 ; May 2012
Describes the unique set of challenges in designing an early childhood center.

Children’s Movement in an Integrated Kindergarten Classroom: Design, Methods and Preliminary Findings
Coralee McLaren, Susan Ruddick, Geoffrey Edwards, Karl Zabjek and Patricia McKeever
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p145-177 ; Spring 2012
Contemporary neuroscientific evidence indicates that unrestricted movement and gestures are necessary for optimal cognitive and communicative development. In- depth understanding of disabled and non-disabled children’s interactions with physical features of their school environments is limited. Describing the ways school environments enhance or inhibit movement may optimize all children’s health, social abilities and cognitive development. This paper documents an interdisciplinary, ethnographic study designed to capture children’s interactions with the physical features of an integrated kindergarten classroom. The innovative theoretical and methodological approaches used are detailed. Children’s bodies were conceptualized according to “what they could do,” and classrooms were conceptualized as being inherently “discoverable.” Preliminary findings indicate that certain environmental features trigger children to move in dynamic, non-habitual ways. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

German Forest Kindergartens: Healthy Childcare under the Leafy Canopy
Silvia D. Schäffer and Thomas Kistemann
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p270-279 ; Spring 2012
A forest kindergarten is a special form of daycare, with walks, free play and environmental education in the forest on the daily schedule. Attending a forest kindergarten can contribute to children’s healthy development and is associated with physical activity, concentration, mental health, linguistic development and the prevention of infections. Drawing from systematic observations of 12 German forest kindergartens, this report presents an insight into their daily routines, their surrounding landscape and other essential characteristics. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Solhuset Climate-Friendly Nursery
Kolleeny, Jane
Greensource; Mar 2012
A net-positive energy child-care center in Hoarsholm, Denmark sets a new standard for high-performance and healthy indoor air quality. The inspiration behind the nursery's layout is that of a small village, placing the most common areas, such as dance and music, on the main square, with all group rooms gathered around the perimeter.

Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in the Republic of Sakha (Yakuria), Russia: Meeting the Challenges
Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran
CELE Exchange; , 5p ; Dec 2011
The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrollment levels. Includes photos.

Early Education Center Uses Child-Centered Design
School Construction News; Aug 17, 2011
Recommends that design of early childhood centers should emulate the principles of 21st century pedagogy: holistic, flexible, collaborative, contextual, and tailored to the individual’s specific needs.” For children under age six, learning should not be a task but an adventure of discovery, which should be mirrored in the facility design. Discusses accommodating diverse needs, such as language barriers or physical, mental, or emotional challenges, can be achieved by having more space allocated for each child, given the individualized instruction present in early childhood center curriculum.

Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Spaces.
Tarczynicki, Daniel
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p48,49 ; May 2011
Profiles the United Cerebral Palsy Bailes Campus in Orlando. Principles of universal design enable students of every ability to share the same spaces. Calming colors, indoor and outdoor wheelchair accessibility, daylighting, and acoustical enhancement are described.

The Leagers, Inc. Head Start School and Headquarters.
Design Cost Data; v55 n2 , p36,39 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Profiles this early learning center that also hosts community services and adult learning. Color coding of the interiors defines space functions. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Last but Not Least.
Eckmann, Aimee
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p20-24 ; Feb 2011
Describes how an early learning center with a large special needs enrollment carefully selected furniture for ergonomics and a warm palette. Before purchasing, various furnishings were tested in place, with teachers and therapists evaluating the results.

Researching Children's Understanding of Safety: An Auto-Driven Visual Approach
Agbenyega, Joseph S.
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood,; v12 n2 , p163-174 ; 2011
Safe learning spaces allow children to explore their environment in an open and inquiring way, whereas unsafe spaces constrain, frustrate and disengage children from experiencing the fullness of their learning spaces. This study explores how children make sense of safe and unsafe learning spaces, and how this understanding affects the ways they engage with their learning spaces. Using a qualitative research method that employed auto-driven visual and observation approaches, this research conducted at one centre in the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, examined children's movement and interaction within their learning spaces. The results suggest that the children felt safe in spaces that offered them the best opportunities for play. These are the spaces where they behaved well, laughed freely, reacted positively, and played without too much restriction and intimidation, keeping in mind the restrictions imposed on them by their teachers at other spaces. The implications for constructing and managing safe learning spaces for children are discussed.

The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development.
Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal; v18 n4 , p457-471 ; Dec 2010
This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. The findings indicate that Norwegian children spend a significant amount of time in kindergarten outdoors, 70% and 31% in summer and winter semester respectively. Norwegian children also have large outdoor areas in their institutions; the average size is 2600 square meters. Head teachers and pedagogical leaders seem to be satisfied with the quality of the outdoor environment in their institutions. (Authors' abstract)

John McLaren Child Development Center-New Modular Campus.
CASH Register; v31 n11 , p8,9 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Profiles this modular school that replaced an unloved 1950?s school. Modular construction enabled an aggressive building schedule and provided a building built under budget.

Pre-K/Early Childhood.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p28,30-34 ; Nov 2010
Profiles five early childhood education facilities, honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.

Building Blueprints: Kindergarten Classrooms.
Cherry, Cathy
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p58,59 ; Nov 2010
Advises on the design of kindergarten classrooms, emphasizing the available of intimate spaces for individual and small group activities, natural light and access to nature, thermal comfort, acoustics, and appropriate scale.

Early Childhood & Elementary School.
Learning By Design; n19 , p20-30 ; Fall 2010
Profiles nine early childhood and elementary schools cited in the Fall 2010 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.

Pre-K/Early Childhood Education.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p111,112 ; Aug 2010
Profiles early childhood education projects in Avenal, California, and Maplewood, Missouri, winning projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase.

Designing for Early Childhood Education: What Works?
McGavock, Michael
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Profiles the Annette B. Weyerhaeuser Early Learning Center at Tacoma (Washington) Community College as a model for early childhood learning center design.

Young Children Need Room to Stretch Their Minds.
Reifert, Gerald
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Discusses the importance of movement, exploration, and comfort in early childhood education, citing arrangements of the grounds and furnishings that promote these in young children.

Fuji Kindergarten.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this simple, oval-shaped kindergarten in Japan, with a rooftop playground that serves as play area and "track" for the students. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.

Kindergarten Sighartstein.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Austrian facility that offers multiple "feel-good" spaces via an ever-changing space continuum, inviting one to stray and move into them, providing both a retreat as well as a communications space. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.

Nursery School in Pamplona.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this early learning facility designed as a series of four parallel bodies in which fully built and empty areas are alternated, allowing daylighting and natural ventilation. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.

Olifantsvlei.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this South African early learning facility that consists of 2 classrooms, a kitchen, sanitary facilities, and an outdoor playground. The school is embedded in a "colorful landscape," in which adventure and curiosity are encouraged and serve as an experimental play-room for children to discover and conquer. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.

Ouca Crèche and Elementary School.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Portuguese early learning through elementary facility, designed as a series of pavilions in the shape of a house, surrounded by courtyards, balconies, and establishing a relation of continuity with the surrounding territory neighborhood. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans accompany the text.

Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2010
Reviews state mandates on preschool education, with special attention to the 31 states that have facility requirements. Ten references are included.

Early Childhood and Elementary Schools.
Learning By Design; n19 , p24-50 ; Spring 2010
Profiles 26 lower grade level facilities cited in the 2010 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.

Outdoor Environmental Assessment of Attention Promoting Settings for Preschool Children.
Mårtensson, F.; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, JE; Grahn, P.
Health and Place; v 15 n4 , 1149-1157 ; Dec 2009
The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories and the fraction of visible sky from play structures, and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

Carriage House Children's Center.
Design Cost Data; v53 n6 , p40,43 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Profiles this early childhood learning facility that occupies a renovated school that was once dilapidated and slated for demolition, but is now LEED Gold certified. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Centers.
Siepka, Craig
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p46,47 ; Oct 2009
Addresses early childhood center design, citing the experience of Illinois' Naperville Community Unit School District. The particular design challenges of early childhood facilities are discussed, followed by the District's response to those challenges.

Pre-K/Early-Childhood Education.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p112,113 ; Aug 2009
Profiles two early childhood facilities selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment.
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
Early Childhood Education Journal; v36 n6 , p491-496 ; Jun 2009
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color red in the interior environment. The color purple was preferred by girls. Cool colors were favored over warm colors. Recommendations are made for application of color in the child development environment.

Early Childhoold and Elementary Schools.
Learning By Design; n18 , p53-82 ; 2009
Profiles 26 lower grade level facilities cited in the 2009 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.
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http://www.learningbydesign.biz

Pre-K/Early Childhood.
American School and University; v81 n3 , p22,24,26,28,30 ; Nov 2008
Profiles four outstanding new early childhood education facilities, selected for their contribution to the educational program, adaptability, design, technology accommodation, sustainability, and maintainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy. Adobe PDF
Ponti, Giorgio
PEB Exchange; 2008/8 ; Jul 2008
Profiles this flexible early childhood facility that accommodates children's development and the different ways they experience space, according to their age. The facility includes a nursery school, kindergarten, drop-in day care center, play center, and outdoor learning environment.

Special Primary School Complex in the United Kingdom: Booker Park. Adobe PDF
Robinson, Mark
PEB Exchange; 2008/7 ; Jul 2008
Profiles the United Kingdom's Booker Park School, a new complex for pre-school and elementary school students with behavioral and learning difficulties. A high degree of flexibility accommodates the extreme range of emotional, sensory, and physical abilities of the students.

Risk Management, Preschools, and Young Children.
Russo, Chalres; Russo, Debra
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p18-20 ; Jun 2008
Addresses reduction of environmental risk to school children, with particular attention to very young and pre-school ages. Advice on managing risks presented by furnishings and equipment, class size, and supervision is emphasized.

The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v29 n3 , p8 ; Mar 2008
Profiles Annaheim's Horace C. Mann Elementary School, which integrates medically fragile special education, pre-school, and K-6 students.

The Childcare Environment and Children's Physical Activity.
Bower, Julie; Hales, Derek; Tate, Deborah; Rubin, Daniela, Benjamin, Sara; Ward, Dianne
American Journal of Preventive Medicine; v34 n1 , p23-29 ; Jan 2008
Examines the relationships between the childcare environment and physical activity behavior of preschool children. Aspects of the environment hypothesized to influence children's physical activity were assessed in 20 childcare centers using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument. Physical activity behavior was assessed over 2 days using direct observation. The results showed that children in centers with supportive environments achieved more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (15% of observations vs 9%; effect size), spent less time in sedentary activities (50% vs 61%), and had higher mean physical activity levels (2.68 vs 2.43) compared to centers with less supportive environments. Facets of the physical and social environment related to physical activity behavior included active opportunities, portable play equipment, fixed play equipment, sedentary environment, and physical activity training and education. Includes 31 references.
TO ORDER: http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(07)00616-2/abstract

Perspectives from the Ground: Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Play Spaces at Child Care Centers.
Herrington, Susan
Children, Youth and Environments; v18 n2 , p64-87 ; 2008
Presents the results of a study of early childhood educators' evaluations of the outdoor play space at their childcare center. They were asked what aspects were successful or unsuccessful, and what they would change about their outdoor play space if they could. Outdoor play spaces with plants had significantly more positive responses, averaging 11 positive responses versus four for spaces without plants. Coding and analysis of interview notes found that 79 percent wanted more sensory stimuli, 64 percent wanted more space, and 57 percent desired more challenging equipment, suggesting that these are important features in outdoor play spaces for young children.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

2007 Architectural Portfolio: Pre-K/Early Childhood Education.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p20,22,24,26,28,30 ; Nov 2007
Profiles five outstanding new early education facilities selected for their innovation, sustainability, security, aesthetics, and life-cycle costs. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Early Education and Schools: Development Projects That Work. Adobe PDF
Raff, Maria
CASH Register; v28 n10 , p8,9,13 ; Oct 2007
Outlines elements of successful early education program housing, illustrated with four California projects using various types of facilities.

Your Outdoor Spaces.
Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine ; n177 , p76-81 ; Sep-Oct 2007
This article presents a sampling of great design ideas, using photographs and brief descriptions, of creative elements incorporated into outdoor environments. The design ideas were sent by readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" e-newsbrief from their early childhood programs and include the following: (1) pathway, garden, sound, or texture features; (2) elements that invite exploration, physical challenge; (3) special places for social interaction; (4) solutions to a challenging problem; and (5) ideas for inclusion.

Childcare Centers.
American School and University; v79 n13 , p79 ; Aug 2007
Profiles Providence's Salvation Army Childcare Center, honored in American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The project was selected for its meticulous space planning, interior connectivity, and radiant floor heating that warms the children as they play on the floor. Photographs and building statistics are included..

Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Centers.
Rogers, James
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p48,49 ; Jul 2007
Discusses early childhood educational design, citing the principles of the Reggio Emilia model and how building design proceeds from that program. The role of community and the common space, larger-than-expected square footage per student, and variation in design from one school to the next are illustrated with two examples designed by the author s firm.

Sense of Place in Child Care Environments.
Read, Marilyn A.
Early Childhood Education Journal; v34 n6 , p387-392 ; Jun 2007
The exterior design of existing preschool environments is evaluated in the context of contemporary writings by architects focusing on creating designs that nurture children's emotions. Sense of place research is discussed in relation to young children's experiences. Findings reveal that the majority of sites included in the study incorporated many physical design elements that create a sense of place for children in preschool environments, including small-scale structures, windows, landscaping, natural wall materials, and thresholds. Recommendations for administrators and directors planning and designing a new or remodeled preschool environment include incorporating features that reflect home-like environments with windows, thresholds, and landscaping. [Author's abstract]
TO ORDER: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d33q5324619533j7/

Competency in Child Care Settings: The Role of the Physical Environment.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Environment and Behavior; v39 n2 , p229-245 ; 2007
A rating scale is developed for preschool classrooms to assess the physical environment's role in children's development of cognitive and social competency. The scale is tested in 98 classrooms, and children are assessed on two measures of competency in a subsample of these classrooms. Findings indicate that the physical environment is related to measures of competency, one of which is a self-perception measure. Younger children's competency, those in the 3-year-olds' classrooms as opposed to the 4-year-olds' classrooms, is most affected by the physical environment. Assessment of quality child care must include thorough assessment of the physical environment. [Author's abstract]
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http://eab.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/39/2/229

The Children's Physical Environment Rating Scale (CPERS): Reliability and Validity for Assessing the Physical Environment of Early Childhood Educational Facilities.
Moore, Gary; Sugiyama, Takemi
Children, Youth and Environments; v17 n4 , p24-53 ; 2007
Summarizes a series of studies conducted to test the reliability and validity of a new scale intended for the assessment of early childhood development centers. While a number of tools exist for assessing childcare settings, this paper considers the Children's Physical Environments Rating Scale (CPERS). The new scale is based on an interactional-constructivist theory, the research literature, international preschool standards, and the wisdom of leading European educators. CPERS is comprised of 124 items organized into 14 subscales focusing on planning, overall architectural quality, indoor activity spaces, and outdoor play areas. This paper summarizes the background, organization, and content of CPERS, and reports on the methods and results of a series of reliability and validity studies conducted between 1997 and 2003.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Children and Place: Reggio Emilia's Environment as Third Teacher
Strong-Wilson, Teresa; Ellis, Julia
Theory Into Practice; v46 n1 , p40-47 ; 2007
Education is often understood as the sole responsibility of parents and teachers. Reggio Emilia identifies a 3rd teacher between child, teacher, and parent: the environment. In its attention to how space can be thoughtfully arranged, Reggio Emilia has reconceptualized space as a key source of educational provocation and insight. In what ways does this idea support and challenge existing understandings within early childhood education? The article draws on educational literature on space(s) and early childhood education, including but not confined to Reggio Emilia, as well as classroom-based practice, to pursue the implications of the notion of environment as 3rd teacher to classrooms and teacher education and how both preservice and experienced teachers can use this knowledge to inform their practice. [Authors' abstract]

A New Slant on Preschool.
Sullivan, C. C.
Architectural Record; Supplement , p104,105 ; Jan 2007
Profiles the custom prefabricated construction of the two-classroom Montessori Children's Center in San Francisco The spatial programming and design ideas respond to the curriculum by emphasizing the connection to nature and the distinction between indoors and outdoor. Plans, photographs, and a list of project participants are included.

Educational Facilities for Young Children. Adobe PDF
Meade, Anne
PEB Exchange; , p1-5 ; Nov 2006
Examines Maori cultural influences on indoor/outdoor spaces a learning in a New Zealand school, along with a multi-faith, multi-needs campus in Scotland that emphasizes shared facilities.

Why Outdoor Spaces for Children Matter So Much.
Wike, James
Child Care Exchange; Sep-Oct 2006
Describes principles learned by a team of landscape architects and educators working together to provide outdoor settings for child care centers and schools. Case study of a demonstration outdoor classroom in Nebraska City, Nebraska, that serves children from ages 2 to 10.
TO ORDER: http://www.childcareexchange.com/catalog/product_info.

Wonderful Walls
Greenman, Jim
Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine ; n168 , p62 ; Mar-Apr 2006
In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as sight and sound conditioners. When effective, they modulate and direct sensory stimulation in service of program goals. The author presents tips on how to make "working" walls wonderful.

First Days in School.
Flynn, John
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , p30,32,33 ; Feb 2006
Suggests elements of early childhood education facility design that fosters learning, creates safety and security, and reassures young children. Site design, landscaping, visibility, parking, vehicular traffic, play areas, color, acoustics, lighting, and indoor air quality are considered.

Designing Better Preschools: Improving Communication between Designers and Child Development Professionals
Beacham, Cindy V.
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences; v98 n3 , p39-43 ; 2006
This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals during the process of designing preschool facilities. Participants had an interest in successful children's spaces and had been involved in the design and construction of new preschool facilities within the 2 years prior to the study. Data collected indicated a discrepancy in the perceptions of communication levels between participant groups and a desire to improve interdisciplinary communication. Recommendations are made to support the communication process during preschool design phases.

Early Childhood Centers.
Quinn, Elizabeth
School Planning and Management; v44 n12 , p30,31 ; Dec 2005
Offers recommendations for early childhood classroom location, size, design, furnishings, and adjacencies.

Special Places.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n2 , p16-18,20,22 ; Oct 2005
Describes specialized school facilities including early childhood centers, single-grade facilities, and complex higher education science laboratories.

Fresh Start.
Slessor, Catherine
Architecture; v94 n9 , p42-49 ; Sep 2005
Describes South London's Lavender Sure Start and Children's Centre, which employs wood-cladded prefabricated construction to create a sensitive children's environment. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants are included.

Riley Child Development Center and Family Learning Center.
Design Cost Data; v49 n3 , p52,53 ; May-Jun 2005
Describes this center for pre-school and adult literacy, featuring a family atmosphere and adjacency to the elementary school it feeds. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

The End of Kindergarten As I Knew It?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p46 ; May 2005
Describes a shift in kindergarten curriculum away from play-based learning to stricter teaching of reading and writing.

From German Kindergarten to Glaswegian Architect.
Children in Europe; n8 , p8-11 ; Apr 2005
Reviews the work of European early childhood educators Friedrich Froebel and Maria Montessori, and the types of facilities that accommodated their institutions. The influence of industrialization, and Charles Rennie Mackintosh s Scotland Street School are also discussed.

Space to Play, Room to Grow.
Bergstrom, Matti; Ikonen, Pia
Children in Europe; n8 , p12,13 ; Apr 2005
Discusses the effect of types of play and play spaces on brain development in children. Empty spaces provide the most expansive learning environment, and enclosed spaces should emulate the irregularity and play of light and shadow that is found in nature.

Time to Listen: Young Children's Perspectives on Design.
Clark, Alison
Children in Europe; n8 , p28,29 ; Apr 2005
Discusses what preschool-aged children think is important in their educational environment, based on interviews, photographic surveys, and tours. The results were organized into four categories: places that the students like (places to keep), places that they wanted to be bigger (places to expand), places they knew were important, but wanted changed in appearance (places to change), and places they did not have (places to add).

Nature: The Space Provider.
Forstad, Anders
Children in Europe; n8 , p14,15 ; Apr 2005
Discusses the pedagogic possibilities of nature, citing a Norwegian kindergarten that conducts a great deal of its program outdoors, even in bad weather.

Making Use of Space: Theory Meets Practice.
Van Liempd, Ine
Children in Europe; n8 , p16,17 ; Apr 2005
Discusses how various Dutch pre-school facilities serve the country's differing educational programs. Pre-school staff were surveyed regarding their school's vision for education and recreation, and then buildings were assessed for their appropriateness for that vision.

Kids on the Block.
Woodbridge, Sally
Architecture; v93 n4 , p68-71 ; Apr 2005
Describes the light-filled Montessori Children's Center preschool in San Francisco, which met a tight construction schedule by using a prefabricated steel frame and roof deck commonly used in commercial buildings.

See, Hear, Touch, Taste, Smell and Love.
Zini, Michele
Children in Europe; n8 , p22-24 ; Apr 2005
Recommends a variety of spaces for different experiential possibilities in early childhood education, advocating flexibility that can accommodate different activities and student densities throughout the day. Color, light, sound, smell, and textures incorporated to engage the senses are emphasized.

Intergenerational Learning Center.
Architecture; v94 n1 , p44,45 ; Jan 2005
Describes Chicago housing for seniors that includes a dining hall, library, fitness facility, and Head Start facility for residents who have custody of their grandchildren.

Redeemer Lutheran Preeschool.
Learning By Design; n14 , p20 ; 2005
Describes the award-winning design of this McLean, Virginia, addition that doubled the size of the school, but was built while school was in session. A list of design and construction participants, costs, specifications, and photographs are included.
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http://www.learningbydesign.biz

SmartTiles: Designing Interactive "Room-Sized" Artifacts for Educational Computing.
Elumeze, Nwanua; Eisenberg, Michael
Children, Youth and Environments; v15 n1 , p54-66 ; 2005
Describes educational computing accessories designed as moderate- to large-scale objects or furnishings with which children can interact. Also described is a working prototype of one such system SmartTiles, a system of large-scale programmable "tiles" that can endow surfaces such as walls with child-controlled dynamical behaviors. Notions of "room-sized educational artifacts" are contrasted with related research directions in interface design and educational computing, and the central issues in the design of such artifacts are discussed.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Schools for Early Learning Offer Pre-K Classes and Child Care.
Good, Wes
Learning By Design; n14 , p162,163 ; 2005
Describes the design of a prototype school that was used to create four free-standing full-day facilities. The designs were deemed successful in terms of security, stimulating learning environment, and flexibility. Areas for improvement included larger classrooms, built-in cabinets, and improved administrative, janitorial, and multipurpose spaces.
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http://www.learningbydesign.biz

Early Childhood Centers.
Lillio, Dinos
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , p34,35 ; Dec 2004
Describes indispensable element of an early childhood education facility, including secure design, stimulating architecture, landscaping, natural lighting, and color coding.

Childcare Centers.
American School and University; v76 n13 , p66 ; Aug 2004
Describes the Elgin Community College childcare center, selected for the American School & University 2004 Educational Interiors Showcase. The entire wainscot surface is markerboard that can be used for writing and art projects.

Creating the Environment for Movement.
Wolf, Elizabeth
Young Children ; , 6p. ; Mar 2004
Physical and social environments for young children should encourage and enable them to participate in safe, and enjoyable physical activities. This article describes theoretical foundations, the physical environment, and suggested starter equipment for movement curriculums.

Other School Projects.
Learning By Design; n13 , p113-118 ; 2004
Describes the award-winning designs of five projects that are not typical school buildings. These include a performing arts center, an administrative center, a continuing education center, and early childhood facilities. A list of design and construction participants, costs, specifications, plans, and photographs are included.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: lbd@strattonpublishing.com
http://www.learningbydesign.biz

Space, Schools and the Younger Child. Adobe PDF
Dixon, Annabelle
Forum; v46 n1 , p19-23 ; 2004
Describes the types of indoor and outdoor spaces crucial for early childhood development, the evolution of these spaces have evolved in recent years, the ways children use the spaces, and the sociological changes in children's lives that informs it all. Includes 16 references. (Scroll down in PDF for article.)

Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the Setting of Child Care.
Gaines, Sherry; Leary, Janie
Community Health; v27 n3 , p260-265 ; 2004
Discusses child care emergency preparedness, offering recommendations for consultants working with child care providers. The complexity of emergency preparedness in child care calls for the involvement of community health professionals, such as child care health consultants (CCHCs), who can assist child care providers in preparing to respond to a crisis. CCHC's are uniquely positioned to address emergency plans and are aware of resources that can support child care facilities during a crisis. Plans should describe how child care fits in with the larger public health and emergency management response to a community-wide event. A list is included of recommended child care emergency supplies.

Pedagogy in a Public Space: Children and Adults Learning Together at Tate Modern. Adobe PDF
Ross, Michaela; Hancock, Roger; Bagnall, Kate
Forum; v46 n1 , p24-27 ; 2004
Describes education programs conducted at this museum, involving parents and their preschool children. Includes two references. (Scroll down in PDF for article.)

Prioritizing for Preschoolers.
Moxley, Ralph W.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p292-94 ; Nov 2003
Describes desirable design features for pre-K and kindergarten classrooms and common areas, emphasizing welcoming aesthetics, flexible spaces and accommodation of physical activity.

Creative Kindergarten. [Israel]
Eylon, Lili
Architecture Week ; Aug 2003
Case study of a kindergarten in Caesarea, Israel, a city full of Roman structures. The architects took the linear motif of the famous Roman aqueduct and translated it into a contemporary building. The architectural language and color scheme are drawn from the sand dunes on which it is located. The outer walls are rendered in bright colors and carved into shapes that spark the children's imagination for storytelling.

Childcare Centers.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p79 ; Aug 2003
Presents information on Tribeca Nursery School, New York, New York, which was judged outstanding in a competition which evaluated the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The article offers information on the firm, total area, and completion date.

Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.
Read, Marilyn A.
Early Childhood Education Journal; v30 n4 , p233-39 ; Summer 2003
Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers used only white, off- white, or gray on the walls.

A Place of Discovery.
Soltero, Ed
Texas Architect; v53 n4 , p28-31 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Describes the design of the John E. Uxer Head Start Complex in El Paso, Texas, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, manufacturers/suppliers, and construction team. Also includes the floor plan and photographs.

Here for the Children
Peters, Patrick
Texas Architect; v53 n1 , p22-25 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Describes the prototype design for four prekindergarten schools in Spring Branch Independent School District in Texas, including educational context and design goals. Includes photographs.

Modular Construction Delivers New Jersey Pre-School.
Ulrey, Bill
Modular Construction; Jan 2003
Case study of the Early Childhood Development Center at the Samuel Smith Elementary School in Burlington City, New Jersey. This is a single-story, twelve-classroom facility built within 8 months using modular technology.

Early Childhood Facilities.
Kilpatrick, Lucinda L.
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , p28-29 ; Nov 2002
Discusses important considerations when designing early childhood facilities, including adequate space, design features that work for both small children and adults, floorcovering, color, and technology.

How Safe Are Your Child Care Programs?
Shepherd, Sonayia
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , pS6-S10 ; Nov 2002
Discusses steps that child care facilities should take to develop a prevention strategy and emergency operations plan to keep their environments safe.

Childcare Centers.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p72-75 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable day care facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

Enhancing Development Through Classroom Design in Early Head Start.
Torelli, Louis
Children and Families; , pv21 n2 ; Spring 2002
Provides examples of how a poorly-designed environment adversely affects learning and social development in early childhood settings. Advice is offered on creating a master plan, budgeting, developing an interior landscape for learning, selecting furnishings, designing windows, and lighting. Recommendations for group size, room size, sinks, toilets, and access to outdoor areas is included.

Concern Turns to Preschool Facilities.
Jacobson, Linda
Education Week; v21 n18 , p1,14 ; Jan 16, 2002
This discusses the poor condition of child-care and preschool facilities across the country, and efforts to bring attention to the issue and new financing to help programs find higher-quality facilities or upgrade their current buildings and classrooms. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

The Role of Culture in Designing Child Care Facilities.
Stoeklin, Vicki
Child Care Information Exchange; , p60-63 ; May 2001
Describes methods for bringing culturally appropriate design to child care facilities, including reading about and studying the culture; interviewing and working with early childhood staff, children, and parents of the culture; participating in the dailing life of the culture; and learning about the language of the culture. Includes three references.

Early Childhood and Elementary Schools.
Learning By Design; n20 , p34-56 ; Spring 2001
Profiles 18 early childhood and elementary school facilities cited in the Fall 2010 Learning by Design competition. For each project, a description, list of project participants, costs, and photographs are included.

Back to Nature.
LeFevre, Camille
Architecture Minnesota; v27 n1 , p30-35 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Explains how Minnesota's first nature-center-based preschool supports its curriculum with a home-like, child-friendly country house design. Several photos are included.

Design Collaborations--Successes and Failures in Developing a Child Care Center Design.
Silverman, Felice L.; Driscoll, Diane
Child Care Information Exchange; n136 , p40-44 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Explores how thoughtful design of a child care facility enhances its safety, effectiveness, and high quality programming, and helps reduce annual maintenance to high use areas. Concludes that collaboration between an architect and provider can increase the quality of care for children and improve the work environment for staff.

Child's Play.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v3 n8 , p18-20 ; Aug 2000
Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes.

Early Learning Facilities: Meeting the Educational Needs of Our Youngest Students.
Passantino, Richard J.; Latona, Natasha M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p44-45 ; Mar 2000
Discusses how early learning facilities can help children develop stronger learning potential when their environments nurture curiosity and enhance learning opportunities. The need for early learning centers is addressed and facility design considerations are explored.

Transforming Spaces: Rethinking the Possibilities--Turning Design Challenges into Opportunities.
Bunnett, Rochelle; Kroll, Diane
Child Care Information Exchange; n131 , p26-29 ; Jan-Feb 2000
Discusses design of physical environment for an early childhood program. Provides six starting points and pertinent questions for redesigning: start from the end and work forward; do your research; who's on your design team?; clean out and de-clutter before you start; maximize space; and beautify places.

The Petite Elite
Galley, Michelle
Teacher Magazine; Jan 2000
Describes the Creme de la Creme child care center in Denver, Colorado which has the look and feel of an upscale hotel. The 22,000 square foot facility includes a theater, a mock Victorian town, an indoor stream, computer lab, math room, library, and a real store. The outdoor play area has a scaled-down soccer field, basketball court, biking track, picnic pavillion, and separate playgrounds for infants and toddlers.

Schools to Scale: Learning Environments for Young Children
Gisolfi, Peter A.
American School Board Journal; v186 n10 , p39-41 ; Oct 1999
In designing preschool and elementary school projects--new structures, renovations, and additions--three factors are vital to successful design for young children: protection, interaction, and scale. Three projects are described with these principles applied.

Pre-K Possibilities.
Allison, Nancy
American School and University; v71 n12 , p106,109-10 ; Aug 1999
Describes the differences in design and materials involved when designing today's early-education center compared to its older counterparts. Also discussed are the importance of proper interior circulation, scale design, and incorporating areas for community participation in the center.

Welcoming Kids to Their First School Experience.
Hanan, Fran
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 ; Aug 1999
Describes development of a kindergarten that would be non- threatening, challenging, comforting, and provide a homelike environment for 430 children. Creation of a building design that conveyed a sense of community for the children while providing enough room for work and play is described.

Changing the Paradigm of Prepared Environments: The Princeton Montessori School Experience.
Cusack, Ginny; Stencel, Marsha
Montessori Life; v11 n3 , p22-23 ; Summer-Fall 1999
Describes the three-stage growth of the Princeton (New Jersey) Montessori School. Examines how the philosophy of prepared environments evolved over 12 years upon reflection of concepts such as user-friendliness, ambiance, developmental appropriateness, effective communication, a welcoming space, faculty needs, storage, eating areas, resting areas, and versatility.

Assessing the Physical Environment in an Early Childhood Program
Turner, Joy
Montessori Life; v11 n3 , p12-21 ; Summer 1999
Describes Montessori's vision of a developmentally appropriate physical environment, considers some effective design principles and characteristics of environments for young children, and identifies criteria for assessing the indoor and outdoor physical environments.

Child Care in High Schools.
Coburn, Janet
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p67-69 ; Jan 1999
Provides advice on how to set up child day care services within a school to allow teen moms to continue their education. In order to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be prepared when the school season starts.

Creating Blueprints for Literacy: Simple Ideas for Designing a Literacy-Friendly Head Start Classroom
Denham, Marty
Children and Families; v8 n1 , 28-30 ; Winter 1999
Describes how Head Start teachers can support children's emergent literacy by improving their classroom environment. Includes suggestions for designing the floor plan, enriching the print environment within each learning center, and making the literacy center the classroom's focal point.

Impact of Space and Color in the Physical Environment on Preschool Children’s Cooperative Behavior
Read, M. A.; Sugawara, A. I.; Brandt, J. A.
Environment and Behavior; v31 n3 , p413-428 ; 1999
Design elements within child care facilities are thought to have important effects on children's behavior. Empirical studies that examine features of the physical environment, such as color, wall surfaces, and vertical space, and how they affect development are sparse. Using Gibson's Ecological Theory of Visual Perception, this study investigated the impact that differentiated space, including changes in ceiling height and wall color, has on children's cooperative behavior.
TO ORDER: http://eab.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/31/3/413

Play It Safe: A Pre-Installation Checklist That Could Mean an Injury- and Liability-Free Playground.
Thomason, Carroll; Thrash, Dusty
Children and Families; v8 n1 , p40-42,45-46 ; Winter 1999
Presents a pre-installation checklist to enable Head Start programs to meet guidelines for safe playgrounds established by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Includes questions relating to age-appropriateness of equipment, manufacturer's compliance with current safety guidelines, selection of metal or wood play structures, no-encroachment zones for equipment, equipment installation, playground surfacing, and equipment guarantees. Includes contact information for relevant organizations.

Creating a Classroom Where Children Can Think
Hubbard, Ruth Shagoury
Young Children; v53 n5 , 26-31 ; Sep 1998
Presents suggestions for creating a classroom environment where young children's thinking and reasoning processes are supported. Discusses organizing time blocks for predictability and flexibility and organizing the physical space, including providing access to work spaces and access to materials.

Right-sizing for Tikes.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n5 , p59-61 ; May 1998
Describes the design process of the nation's largest public preschool noted for its classroom flexibility, an environment suited for the needs and safety of children, ample play space, community inclusiveness, and building durability and efficiency. It discusses the right-sizing of corridors and rooms, furniture kits to accommodate differing teaching styles and activities, use of colors and patterns, and security.

Simply Sensational Spaces: A Multi-"S" Approach to Toddler Environments
Lowman, Linda H.; Ruhmann, Linda H.
Young Children; v53 n3 , 11-17 ; May 1998
Presents guidelines for providing suitable play and learning spaces for children from birth to 3 years old. Argues that toddlers have developmental needs different from those of older preschoolers, and that environments must be designed appropriately. Recommends that room arrangements for toddlers provide simplicity, options for seclusion and softness, sensory appeal, stimulation, stability, safety, and sanitation.

Four Easels, Five Sand Tables, and a Billion Blocks: Setting Up an Early Childhood Classroom
Johnston, Callum B.
Dimensions of Early Childhood; v26 n2 , p24-27 ; Spring 1998
Offers suggestions for selecting appropriate classroom materials and designing an early-childhood classroom in which children learn through play. Focuses on the decisions a beginning teacher needs to make, such as selecting the curriculum, identifying appropriate learning areas, finding intriguing learning materials, selecting comfortable furniture, arranging the room, and deciding where to locate each learning area.

Image and Scale: Child Care Facility Design
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n120 , 97-101 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Examines general principles in designing child care centers and preschools: (1) design the site and building so that it has a friendly, child-like, inviting image; and (2) design child development environments to be child scaled, including furnishings, materials, the building, and the site as a whole. Contains criteria and suggestions for achieving each principle.

Site Planning and Layout
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n199 , p24-26 ; Jan-Feb 1998
Examines five issues related to child care facility design: (1) siting the building, outdoor play, and service areas; (2) creating favorable microclimates; (3) developmentally appropriate play yards; (4) pedestrian access and site circulation; and (5) vehicular access and parking away from pedestrians and play.

Out of the Basement: Discovering the Value of Child Care Facilities
Sussman, Carl
Young Children; v53 n1 , p10-17 ; Jan 1998
Describes the design and renovation of a center using a Play Street theme for the Massachusetts North Shore Community Action Programs' Head Start program. It is located in a former school building that has been dramatically renovated to create a bright and spacious building. The reception area consists of an open space of work stations with plenty of visibility. The classrooms are built to look like houses, with a Dutch door and two double-hung windows. The classrooms are connected by the school's main corridor, Play Street, which is a broad, brightly lit boulevard that has walls indented at intervals to avoid monotony. The school has been built to provide staff, children, and parents with their own space and facilities. Classroom spaces are scaled to meet the needs of children and have child-sized bathrooms. The lessons learned during the remodeling process are discussed.

Out of the Basement: Discovering the Value of Child Care Facilities.
Sussman, Carl
Young Children; v53 n1 , p10-17 ; Jan 1998
Describes the design and renovation of a center using a Play Street theme for the Massachusetts North Shore Community Action Programs' Head Start program. Notes lessons learned from creating a child-friendly center: (1) appreciate the importance of space; (2) find affordable good design; (3) get help; (4) cultivate a vision; and (5) learn new ways to raise lots of money.

Storage Ideas That Promote Self-Help Skills
Texas Child Care; v21 n2 , 22-26 ; Summer 1997
Provides specific guidance to teachers planning activity areas and storage spaces to create an environment that supports children and how they learn. Areas of consideration include order, independence, comfort, materials, and boundaries. Hints for discovering unused space, including small and large storage projects, are provided.

Favorable Locations for Child Care Centers: Child Care Facility Design.
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n117 , p73-76 ; Sep-Oct 1997
Author notes that the location of any child care center is a key factor in its success. Provides four major objectives to consider when siting a center: (1) the center as a part of the community; (2) access and visibility; (3) desirable and undesirable surroundings; and (4) characteristics of the site itself.

Room Arrangement. Beginnings Workshop
Shepherd, Wendy; And Others
Child Care Information Exchange; n117 , 41-56 ; Sep-Oct 1997
Workshop articles address the importance of room arrangement in early childhood settings: "Creating Environments that Intrigue and Delight Children and Adults" (Wendy Shepherd and Jennifer Eaton); "3 Keys to Flexible Room Arrangement" (Elizabeth Prescott); "Mood: The Spirit of Place" (Anita Rui Olds); and "Meeting Adult Needs within the Classroom" (Eileen Eisenberg).

Creating Environments That Intrigue and Delight Children and Adults.
Shepherd, Wendy; Eaton, Jennifer
Child Care Information Exchange; Sep-Oct 1997
Attention to the design, organization, presentation, and atmosphere of the learning environment is crucial.

Classroom Design and How It Influences Behavior
Colbert, Judith
Early Childhood News; v9 n3 , p22-29 ; May-Jun 1997
Presents suggestions for organizing the early childhood classroom, focusing on play unit assessment and creating accessible areas that hold children's interest. Discusses how classroom design influences teacher behavior, children's independence, and social interaction. Examines the connection between classroom design and developmental and program goals, children's play, and educational philosophy. Presents tips and resources for effective classroom design

Child Development Center Play Area Inspection and Maintenance Program, Technical Manual. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Defense, Dept. of the Army, Washington, Mar 1997)
Provides the child development center staff, installation safety officer, and engineering staff with step-by-step guidance needed to establish a customized inspection and maintenance program for the child development center outdoor play area. Detailed instructions are included for customizing the program to meet the specific needs of each installation. Recommended inspection questions are provided to assist staff with inspection of the play area using specialized tools, procedures, and techniques described in this manual. Maintenance schedules for all elements within the CDC play area are keyed to the recommended inspection questions that apply to those elements and are provided in the tables. Procedures for reporting and managing hazards and for keeping complete and accurate records are described. 358
Report NO: TM 5-663


The Common Core of a Child Care Center. Child Care Facility Design.
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n114 , p82-86 ; Mar-Apr 1997
Examines the notion of an early childhood education center organized as a series of houses around a common core of shared facilities. Discusses examples of child-care centers in Sweden and explores ideas that can promote functional facilities. Suggestions include ideas about physical-motor activities areas, administration offices, centralized kitchen, staff lounge, greenhouse, animal house, and resource rooms.

Houses and Their Resource-Rich Activity Pockets.
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n113 , p15-20 ; Jan-Feb 1997
Provides a list of developmentally appropriate activity areas for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers which could be used in multi-house, module, or medium-sized child care centers. Describes these age-appropriate physical, academic, sensory-motor, fine arts, and multi-use areas, and provides suggestions for inexpensive materials, toys, storage, display, and construction.

A Question of Privacy: Places to Pause and Child Caves
Moore, Gary T.
Nov-Dec 1996
When given the chance, children seek out and create private places in the midst of busy days. This article advises centers to design protected places where small groups or a single child can retreat to observe other children, either from above or horizontally. Suggestions for such "child caves" involve architecture, furniture arrangement, and found objects. 91-95

Addressing Center Size: A Village of Interconnected Houses for Very Large Centers
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n111 , p77-80 ; Sep-Oct 1996
Examines the size of child care centers as a factor in designing developmentally appropriate facilities. Proposes as a general principle that, whenever a center is to house more than 75 children, it should be partially decentralized into a village, campus, or articulated series of interconnected houses, with each module serving no more than 60 to 75 children.

Designing Early Childhood Education Environments: A Partnership Between Architect and Educator
Maxwell, Lorraine
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n4 , p15-17 ; Aug-Sep 1996
Maxwell discusses the importance of teacher involvement in the child care facility design process to create a physical environment that facilitates learning goals. The physical attributes of an effective child care facility are discussed, as well as the design elements necessary to ensure these attributes are present. Maxwell presents a table illustrating how design decisions affect the learning environment, where she includes examples.

Financing Early Childhood Facilities Adobe PDF
Financing Child Care; v6 n2 , 4p. ; Summer-Fall 1996
Early childhood programs require a specialized type of space to promote children's health, safety, and development, yet the quality of early childhood facilities is frequently inadequate. For most programs, the costs of building or adapting space for the special needs of child care are prohibitively expensive, and often such projects are not economically viable unless both initial capital costs and ongoing operations costs are subsidized. Banks often consider loans to child care borrowers a bad risk despite evidence that their delinquency rates are low. This article discusses facilities costs, funding sources for child care facilities, and selected innovative financing models.

Follow-up to "Designing Classroom Spaces: Making the Most of Time"
DeLong, A. J.
Early Childhood Education Journal; v23 n4 , p255-56 ; Summer 1996
Further explains the theory of "experiential time," which argues that children can process more information and have more time for complex play when the size of the learning environment is decreased, which increases a child's command of space.

How Big Is Too Big? How Small Is Too Small?--Child Care Facility Design
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n110 , p21-24 ; Jul-Aug 1996
Examines the size of child-care-center spaces as a factor for designing developmentally appropriate facilities. Explores a range of architectural and design issues related to the size of spaces and ways of subdividing rooms to provide opportunities for small-group, quiet activities that are important to quality child care.

Innovative Approaches to Financing Facilities.
Stokley, Jan; Heumann, Emily
Child Care Bulletin; n10 ; Jun 1996
Innovative joint ventures between government, business, and philanthropy are helping finance child care facilities through various combinations of loans, grants, and technical assistance. A few of these approaches are listed.

Some Guidelines for Preschool Design
Caples, Sara Elizabeth
Young Children; v51 n4 , p14-21 ; May 1996
Claims that almost none of the preschool design literature bridges the interest and technical concern of architects and teachers. Offers design suggestions for classrooms, outdoor spaces, shared spaces, offices, teachers' space, and a place for parents. Discusses general design issues such as textures and colors, materials, security and safety, as well as planning and budgeting.

Designing Classroom Spaces: Making the Most of Time
Tegano, Deborah W.; And Others
Early Childhood Education Journal; v23 n3 , p135-41 ; Spring 1996
Summarizes three studies on the effects of physical environment on preschool children's play and cognitive development, and discusses implications for classroom design. Notes that size of play area, and the extent to which the size of structures in that area was proportional to children's size, affected the rate at which children entered complex play.

Landscape for Learning: The Impact of Classroom Design on Infants and Toddlers. Adobe PDF
Torelli, Louis; Currett, Charles
Early Childhood News; v8 n2 , p12-17 ; Mar-Apr 1996
Offers guidelines for a developmentally designed environment for infants and toddlers. Notes that a developmentally designed classroom environment supports children's individual and social development; encourages exploration, focused play, and cooperation; provides choices for children that support self-directed learning; and supports the caregiver-child relationship.

Day Care Room Transitions for Toddlers: Recommendations for a Supportive Physical Environment
Weinberger, Nanci
Early Childhood Education Journal; v24 n2 , 83-86 ; Winter 1996
Discusses ways physical setting facilitates room transitions for toddlers in day care centers. Recommends specific physical features that support the transition process, including visual access to the next room, flexible access to one's former room, shared space, familiar materials and structures, and enriched cozy areas. Toddlers need to take in information about their new room at their own pace.

Turning On the Light: Thinking about Lighting Issues in Child Care
Alexander, Nancy P.
Child Care Information Exchange; n105 , p65-68 ; Sep-Oct 1995
Discusses the importance of planning lighting in childcare centers. Ideas for organizing lighting in efficient and developmentally appropriate ways are offered. Suggestions are made for provisions that will ensure children's gradual transition from bright to dimly-lit rooms. Guidelines for assessing light quality in a facility and the degree to which it is appropriate for its purpose are proposed.

Spaces Fit for Children: Competency in the Design of Daycare Center Environments.
Trancik, Anika; Evans, Gary
Children's Environments; v12 n3 , p43-58 ; Sep 1995
Argues that design elements can offer scaffolding to enable children to function at the boundaries of pre-existing capabilities. Critical design elements that afford the development of competency in preschool children are described as follows: 1) Control, which provides the ability to use physical resources to meet user needs. 2) Privacy, which allows one to regulate social interaction. 3)Complexity and exploration, created by variety and mystery. 3)Restorative environments, which provide a chance for recovery from fatigue. 5) Identity, found in ownership, attachment, and familiarity. 6)Legibility, created by environments organized into a comprehensible pattern. 7) Safety, minimizing hazardous conditions that may prevent the development of competence.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Is Your Center Secure? 20 Questions You Need to Ask
Child Care Information Exchange; n104 , p38-40 ; Jul-Aug 1995
Examines a wide range of potential safety and security issues in center-based child care. Suggestions include specific procedures for responding to all likely emergencies and for evacuating the center; plans to notify parents and secure the children; and safe access to the center and children in a consistent and sensible way.

Daycare Children's Establishment of Territory to Experience Privacy.
Zeegers, Sarah; Readdick, Christine; Hansen-Gandy, Sally
Children's Environments; v11 n4 , p1-10 ; Dec 1994
Reports on interviews with 100 randomly selected three-, four-, and five-year-old children from ten randomly selected daycare centers to determine the extent to which they established territory as a means of achieving privacy in their group childcare settings. Fifty-eight of the 100 children indicated they had a special place in their center that they perceived as belonging only to them. Fifty-five of the 58 children were able to show their special places, such as a cubby or chair at lunch or hideaway underneath a playhouse, and to tell what they did in these places. Forty-four children said they had no special place at their center. Nineteen of these children declared that their special place was at home. Includes 16 references.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Guidelines for the Adaptation of Preschool Environments to Integrate Deaf, Hard of Hearing, and Hearing Children.
Bednarczyk, Angela; Alexander-Whiting, Harriett; Solit, Gail
Children's Environments; v11 n1 , p6-19 ; Mar 1994
Describes how a quality early childhood program can be successfully expanded to accommodate deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing children, with in-service training, the addition of staff who can communicate with the deaf and hard of hearing children, and with physical changes. Modifications to aspects of the environment are discussed. The authors interpret environment to include a visually stimulating and safe physical layout, deaf or hard of hearing as well as trained hearing staff members to work with deaf and hard of hearing children, the most appropriate communication milieu, and appropriate curriculum activities. Includes six references.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Preschool Comes to School: Design Concerns of Preschool Facilities.
Passantino, Richard J.
School Business Affairs; v60 n1 , p26-30 ; Jan 1994
Addresses design and safety issues of which school business administrators should be aware when they become involved in integrating a preschool facility with an elementary school. Discusses building environmental factors, safety, health codes, play surfaces, energy conservation, and architectural considerations.

Amiable Space in the Schools of Reggio Emilia: an Interview with Lella Gandini.
Bartlett, Sheridan
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p23-38 ; 1993
Presents an interview that discusses the acclaimed early childhood schools of Reggio Emilia in northern Italy. The history, educational principles, and how the space supports those principles are discussed. The individual spaces, classrooms, studios, common areas, bathrooms, and kitchens are also described. A great degree of transparency in the structures, furnishings, and even in storage assists the significant role of display and connection to the outdoors within the educational program.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Children in Reggio Emilia Look at Their School.
Bondavalli, Magda; Mori, Marina; Vecchi, Vea
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p39-45 ; 1993
Presents excerpts from a pamphlet prepared by the five- and six-year-olds at Diana municipal pre-school in Reggio Emiglia for three-year-olds who are about to enter. The pamphlet presents a child's-eye view of the facility and furnishings.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Importance of Spatial Arrangements for Young Children in Day Care Centres.
Campos-de-Carvalho, Mar; Rossetti-Ferreira, M. Clotilde
Children's Environments; v10 n1 , p23-41 ; 1993
Discusses implications of spatial arrangements for educational objectives in day care centers. An educational proposal for day care centers is presented that emphasizes the importance of both adult-children interactions and peer interactions for development and indicates how a semi-open spatial arrangement may promote those interactions. An empirical study that investigated the relations between spatial arrangements and the distribution of two- to three-year-old children in their playrooms in two Brazilian day care centers for low-income families is also presented. The data in that study were important for the elaboration of the educational proposal. Their relevance for designing children's collective environments is discussed. Includes 39 references.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Early Childhood Education Facilities.
Dancu, Daniel; Passantino, Richard J.; Johnson, W. Frank
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n4 , p4-5,10-17 ; 1993
Discusses the early childhood learning center; the architecture of children's centers; and an approach to early childhood educational facilities in urban school districts.

Privacy in the Preschool Environment: Gender Differences in Reaction to Crowding.
Lowry, Pat
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p46-61 ; 1993
Presents research investigating the need for privacy of the preschool child, conducted with 3 to 5-year-olds in two campus child care facilities. Two types of privacy spaces are provided for the children. Each has an interior measure of 30' x 30'. One structure furnishes enclosure and the other is more open in nature. The use by the children of these structures is observed with a video camera during free play on three consecutive days in each facility. The variability in the use of the structures due to the degree of enclosure (open or closed), the gender of the children using each structure, and the type of social play (solitary or interactive) exhibited by the children is studied. The results provides strong evidence for the value of the closed structure for both types of play. Includes 37 references.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

Effects of Preschool Environments on Nonverbal Social Behavior
Burgess, J.W.; Fordyce, W.K.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines; v30 n2 , 261-276 ; 1989
Toddler's interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environmental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions.

Easing the Transition to Kindergarten: The Affective and Cognitive Effects of Different Spatial Familiarization Experiences.
Cohen, Robert; Goodnight, Judith; Poag, Chloee; Cohen, Sheila; Nichol, Gerry; Worley, Patricia
Environment and Behavior; v18 n3 , p330-345 ; May 1986
Reports on a study of 73 boys entering kindergarten. One group was introduced to the campus with a tour, a second viewed slides of the campus walk, a third received no prior introduction to the campus. Children in both familiarization groups reported more positive attitudes for academic, spatial, and social affairs in school than children in the control group. Includes 14 references.


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