DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Information on building or retrofitting colleges and universities to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, and developing emergency preparedness plans. Compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p
Mass Notification Layers Fail to Reach the Classroom.
(Emergency Management, Jul 08, 2011)
The two primary emergency notification system (ENS) issues inside the classroom arise by architectural design and classroom culture. It is a space architecturally designed to minimize distractions from the outside. There is also a long-standing culture enforced by teachers to minimize distractions inside classroom walls. The one-two punch of these two classroom dynamics has a big impact on the effectiveness of the methods used for emergency notification. The most predominant methods of mass notification used on university campuses — cell phone/text messaging, e-mails and Web announcements — are minimally effective in the classroom. This describes precision notification systems that has dedicated, networked alerting devices inside the classroom.
Mass Notification for Higher Education.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Discusses essential considerations when designing a campus-wide mass notification system, and the pros and cons of current notification systems. 8p.
The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech.
(Midwestern Higher Education Compact, Minneapolis, MN , May 2008)
Reports how higher education institutions have addressed campus as a result of safety audits conducted after recent shootings at Virginia Tech and other campuses. Survey methodology, a summary of safety audits, prevention, mitigation, recovery, notification systems, security monitoring and enhancement, recognizing and responding to student behavior, and budgetary impacts are addressed. 32p.
Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida]
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.
The Presidential Role in Disaster Planning and Response: Lessons from the Front.
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2007)
Details eight "lessons learned," as synthesized from the advice of ten higher education presidents who led their respective institutions through a natural or man-made disaster. The lessons focus on leadership, communication, recovery, minimizing enrollment loss, and dealing with "matters of the heart." 12p.
Campus Public Safety Preparedness for Catastrophic Events: Lessons Learned from Hurricanes and Explosives.
(International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, West Hartford, CT , 2006)
Presents the demographic information, chronology of priorities, emergency plans, command and coordination, equipment and logistics, communications, staff and critical incident stress management, recall and staffing, lessons learned, and unmet needs of fifteen higher education institutions affected by Hurricanes Katrina or Rita, or by bomb incidents. 148p.
Macon State College Emergency Response Plan.
(Macon State College, Macon, GA , May 25, 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for explosions, aircraft crashes, fires, earthquakes, storms, snow, ice, floods, hazardous materials spills, bomb threats, violence or criminal behavior, and civil disturbances. Evacuation procedures and a bomb threat reporting form are included. 15p.
Sinclair Community College.
(Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH , 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for bomb threats, civil disturbances, earthquakes, evacuations, fire, explosions, hazardous material spills, human bodily fluid spills, lockdowns, medical emergencies, power outages, suspicious packages and envelopes, an severe weather. Locations of emergency telephones are included. 30p.
A Practical Guide for University Crisis Response.
Lerner, Mark D.; Volpe, Jospeh S.; Lindell, Brad
(The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, Commack, NY , 2004)
Provides a structure and process for managing a wide spectrum of university-based crises, from the seemingly mundane to the most severe. Incorporates a strategy for addressing emotional needs during traumatic events. Also provided are specific strategies and interventions for various age groups, frequently encountered psychological and social crises, disturbances, and threats. Practical documents provided include checklists to guide crisis response team-building and identify at-risk students, advise on grief counseling, and a fictional case study. 102p.TO ORDER: The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 368 Veterans Memorial Highway, Commack, NY, 11725, Tel: 631-543-2217, Fax 631-543-6977
Building a Disaster-Resistant University.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 2003)
This guide is intended to support efforts by universities to reduce and manage their vulnerability to hazards. It includes a description of a disaster-resistant university; how to perform a risk assessment; developing interest and support; developing a loss reduction plan; maintaining interest; and additional information. This is both a how-to guide and a distillation of the experiences of six universities and colleges that have been working to become more disaster-resistant 55p.
Emergency Preparation and Crisis Planning.
(Indiana University, Safe and Responsive Schools Project, Bloomington , 2003)
Outlines steps for emergency crisis preparation, emphasizing communication preparedness, a single person in charge, informed access for fire and police personnel, controlled media relations, handling of parents, containment procedures, access to vital personal information, first aid preparedness, and conflict de-escalation procedures. Includes four references. 2p.
Mission Continuity Planning: Strategically Assessing and Planning for Threats to Operations.
Qayoumi, Mohammad H.
(National Association of College and University Business Officials, Washington, DC. , 2002)
This book covers the principles of risk and risk management and offers a framework for analyzing the significant, often unforeseen threats facing higher education institutions today. It examines the critical elements of a disaster preparedness plan and addresses business continuity and mission continuity planning. The book also provides tools for calculating system reliability and examines facilities-related risks. The book guides institutions in putting plans in place to minimize or eliminate service interruption to the processes that are critical to the organization. The chapters are: (1) "Risk Management"; (2) "Disaster Preparedness"; (3) "Business Continuity Planning"; (4) "Calculating System Reliability"; and (5) "Addressing Facilities-Related Risks." (Contains 26 references.) 69p.TO ORDER: National Association of College and University Business Officials, P.O. Box 362, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-0362 Tel: 866-348-6300.
Earthquake Preparedness 101: Guidelines for Colleges and Universities.
(California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, Earthquake Program , Nov 2000)
Detailed information on earthquake preparedness, earthquake response, and post-disaster recovery, written for university and college emergency managers. 98p.
References to Journal Articles
Knowledge Center: School Security Crisis Communications
American School and University; Feb 2012
When a school or university is dealing with an emergency, communicating to constituents and the public is critical. To get the word out most effectively, administrators must choose methods that deliver information quickly to the greatest numbers of people who need to know. Discusses how education institutions need to be using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to communicate important news to students, staff, family members and the community at large.
Can Mass Notification Really Change the Outcome of Emergencies?
Alter, Oren; Burt, Ernest
Campus Safety; Dec 12, 2011
Two college administrators question the effectiveness of emergency notification systems. In an economy and industry of limited resources, decision makers need to better understand the core limitations of mass notification and clearly define mass notification goals, in realistic terms, prior to selecting and implementing a mass notification system.
How Prepared Are America's Colleges and Universities for Major Crises?
Mitroff, Ian; Diamond, Michael; Alpasian, Murat
Change (Reprinted by SCUP); Nov 2011
Outlines a set of recommendations to college and university leaders and governing bodies on how to develop crisis-management systems to ensure that their institutions are as well prepared as possible for a wide range of crises. These recommendations are based, in part, on crisis-management programs developed for various business organizations. Results of a survey of colleges and universities to determine the general level of crisis-management preparation are also included.
School Safety: Safeguarding Your Campus. Maximizing School IP Investments with Emergency Mass Notification.
American School and University; Jul 01, 2011
Discusses investing in a network-centric emergency mass notification system that leverages the existing IP infrastructure and integrates with existing fire alarm notification systems or public address systems. This has proven to be the most effective way of alerting the most people in the shortest amount of time—regardless of the danger.
Bracing for Disaster.
Campus Technology; v24 n10 , p40-42,44,46 ; Jun 2011
Advises on forming a higher education campus disaster plan. Elements of making and testing the plan, and procuring appropriate technology are detailed.
Here Comes the Rain--Again.
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the damage done by 1993 and 2010 floods to Iowa State University in Ames. The different behaviors of the floods, how buildings succumbed or survived, and plans to flood-proof vulnerable buildings are addressed.
Mass Notification Systems: Approaching Critical Mass.
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p52,53 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Discusses the advent and current necessity of mass notification systems for higher education campuses. While many types of natural and man-made hazards are covered, the article details recent updates of the National Fire Protection Association standard 72 for fire alarms. The Standard is typically not considered optional by local jurisdictions.
American School and University; Mar 2011
Education administrators face challenges in responding to the need for timely notification in the event of an emergency. This discusses planning ahead, precision emergency notification systems, and targeted warnings.
In Case of Emergency.
College Planning and Management; v14 n2 , p32,34,36 ; Feb 2011
Advises on managing critical incidents on campuses, with special attention to different modes of evacuation or shelter-in-place, as well as special needs populations.
Journal of Access Services; v8 n1 , p37-41 ; Jan 2011
Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library; (4) University of North Carolina Wilmington Randall Library; (5) Vanderbilt Central Library; (6) Bay County Library System; (7) Wayne State Universities Library; (8) Central University Libraries-Fondren Library Center; and (9) University of Southampton.
In Case of Disaster: Emergency Operations Centers.
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p38,40-43 ; Nov 2010
Discusses higher education emergency operations centers (EOCs), addressing how they can be economically set up in existing facilities, and how they should be equipped and staffed. Examples from three institutions are included.
Business Continuity Plan Refresh.
University Business; v13 n9 , p52-54,56,58 ; Oct 2010
Discusses business continuity plans for higher education institutions during emergencies. Examples of data backup arrangements, testing the plan, and partnering with off-campus institutions are described.
Power to the People.
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p29-32 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the rise in power outages not related to a natural disaster, and illustrates sophisticated laboratory situations where valuable work can be ruined due to a loss of power. Backup generators , communication to occupants, and uninterruptable power supplies are addressed.
Students Helping Students: Collegiate Emergency Medical Services.
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p32,34,36,38 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the option of providing emergency medical services on campus, addressing building, equipment, and insurance issues, as well as the opportunity for students in medical studies to learn "on the job."
Weathering the Storm.
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p44-48 ; Jul 2010
Addresses higher education disaster planning, using the University of Houston's experience with Hurricane Ike as an example. The University had ample insurance coverage, which eased the process when thermal inspection of their roofs revealed far more damage than was visible with the naked eye. Prompt and thorough inspection of all structures after a severe storm is encouraged.
Is It an Emergency if No One is Listening?
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jun 2010
Discusses implementation of emergency alert systems at Jackson State and Lewis and Clark College. Prudent engagement of the system during incidents and frustration with low number of students and faculty who enroll to receive alerts are addressed.
Risk Managers Extend Their Turf to Every Corner of the Campus.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v56 n14 , pA1,A16,A17 ; Nov 27, 2009
Discusses the advent of risk managers on higher education campuses, who monitor a variety of issues including facility design and construction, hazardous materials, special events, and compliance.
Towson University Notifies the Masses.
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p49-51 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the integration of emergency notification systems at this institution, which previously required activation from within separate buildings. The system is self-monitoring, can survive a catastrophic event that damages any part of it, and delivers messages with high intelligibility.
Ready to Respond: IP-Based Emergency Mass Notification.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p14,16,17 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Discusses the third generation, or network-centric mass notification systems. These systems can deliver alerts to all species of communications and computing devices, as well as to traditional sirens, radio, and television. They also accommodate response from recipients confirming their status. Examples from two universities are included.
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS32,SS34,SS35 ; Sep 2009
Reviews the use of sirens, text messages, e-mail blasts, outdoor voice systems, intercoms, and LED signs for campus emergency notification. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are discussed, as are potential interoperabilities.
NIMS/ICS: The National Incident Management System/Incident Command System.
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Describes the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS). The divisions of the systems are described, followed by a discussion of its advantages to standardization, interoperability, federal preparedness funding, and cost effectiveness. Examples of campus applications of the system and advice on training staff are included.
Disaster Preparedness: Do You Know Where Your Chemicals Are?
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Identifies typical and unexpected locations of hazardous chemicals on campuses, describes disasters that may compromise their safety, or release chemicals from places where they were not known to exist, and discusses hazardous response and recovery plans.
Road to Recovery.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n7 , p6,8 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the University of Iowa’s response to 2008 flooding, which reached the 500-year flood threshold and exceeded the existing disaster response plan. Protection of building systems where possible, restoration of minimal operations in time for Fall classes, mold control, and deployment of temporary and off-campus facilities are discussed.
University Business; v12 n6 , p41-44 ; Jun 2009
Highlights programs at Virginia Tech, Boston University, Bryant University, Kent State University, and the University of Philadelphia, that strengthen ties and cooperation between college and university security and emergency officials and their local, regional, and state counterparts. The programs connect cell phones, land lines, computers, 400 megahertz and 800 megahertz radios, and walkie-talkies to the common denominator of an IP network, enabling system-wide with one call.
Campus Technology; v 22 n4 , p26-30 ; Dec 2008
Presents an interview with John Turner of Brandeis University that describes the mass notification systems and strategies used by the school. Software selection and implementation, coordination with phone systems and speakers, and some early instances when it was used for weather emergencies are described.
Campus Emergency Management: It Takes a Village.
Templeton, Dennie; Ellerman, Gary; Branscome, Todd
Campus Safety; v18 n6 , p30,32-35 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Elaborates on themes of the varying nature of potential campus emergencies according to location, and the necessity of coordination of campus and community emergency response. The example of Virginia's Radford University is cited, where an office for emergency preparedness was established. The continuing work of the office in preparing an emergency response plan, and the details of its coordination with the community and neighboring higher education institutions is detailed.
This is Not a Drill!
College Planning and Management; v11 n10 , p33,34,36 ; Oct 2008
Discusses campus-wide emergency alert systems, using UCLA's "BruinAlert" and its successful engagement after a July 28, 2008 earthquake as an example. UCLA's selection process, along with the features and operation of the system are detailed.
Get the Word Out.
Campus Technology; v22 n1 , p30-35,34,36,38,39 ; Sep 2008
Reviews considerations for mass notification systems on college campuses. Creating a system in-house or outourcing it, targeted alerts, contact methods, standalone or integrated systems, and examples of deployments at a variety of institutions are discussed.
Your Key to Effective Lockdowns.
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p32-34 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Advises on strategies to create an effective campus lockdown policy. Lockdown protocols should address various scenarios, involve all campus and local law enforcement stakeholders, identify securable space, incorporate self-directed decision making, be appropriate to the age levels of occupants, and incorporate extensive staff, faculty, and student training.
When Seconds Count.
American School and University; v81 n1 , pSS48,SS50,SS52 ; Sep 2008
Discusses elements of an effective campus emergency plan, including widespread participation of and coordination between the occupants and local officials, practicing drills, and mass-notification systems.
Rise in Tornadoes, Floods Poses Risk to Colleges.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n32 , pA1,A14 ; Jul 03, 2008
Discusses the effects of climate change on college facilities, with increasing incidents of severe weather and flooding. Increasing scrutiny by insurance companies, and the recent increase of damage at inland campuses that were formerly considered safe are discussed.
California Community Colleges Get Prepared.
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p50,52,53 ; Jul 2008
Profiles California's efforts to improve crisis preparedness at its community colleges. The statewide effort addressed preparedness at 109 community colleges by providing centralized assistance with disaster mitigation, prevention, planning, preparedness, response, and recovery. Wildfires and dangerous winds in 2007 offered a first test of the new preparedness, which was deemed successful.
Finding the Right Emergency Notification System.
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p54 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Advises on sorting through the more than sixty vendors and their various emergency notification products. Points to consider are: 1) an "apples-to-apples" comparison through a careful RFP, 2) the stability and viability of the vendor, 3) the volume of messages the system can handle, 4) foreign language messaging ability, 5) ease of use, and 6) auxiliary features.
Snow and Ice Removal: No Offseason.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p36,37 ; Jul 2008
Discusses how some campuses have moved from informal programs for snow removal, to organized and prioritized plans that list all campus assets and the person and equipment responsible for clearing that area. Reduction in the use of rock salt helps meet environmental goals and reduces infrastructure and landscape damage. Standardization and off-season maintenance of the equipment improves the effectiveness of the plan.
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p41,42,44 ; Jun 2008
Reviews how New Orleans universities modified the emergency preparedness plans after Hurricane Katrina. Steps included lengthening evacuation and return times, as well as coordination between the institutions and local authorities.
Get the Word Out-Fast and Accurate.
Security Magazine; , p76-78 ; Jun 2008
Reviews wide-area emergency mass notification systems, addressing their components and function. Special considerations for campus systems are illustrated with an example of the system in place at The University of California, Los Angeles.
He's Got Your Back.
Security Magazine; v45 n6 , p26,29,30,32 ; Jun 2008
Reviews higher education options for security management, criminal justice, and homeland security professionals, and lists the magazine's selection of the 100 best U.S. training programs.
Best Practices Breakdown.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p10,12 ; May-Jun 2008
Lists ten best practices in campus emergency text messaging.
Can You Hear Me Now?
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p2-4,6,7 ; May-Jun 2008
Advises on creating campus emergency notification systems with thorough coverage. Evaluation of systems already in place and what is needed, along with features that can be added to existing systems are discussed. Examples, benefits, and disadvantages of outdoor loudspeakers, signage, paging, and e-mail alert systems are described. Charts illustrate reasons for mass notification systems deployment, reasons for non-deployment, solutions currently in use, and those soon to be deployed.
Take It from the Experts When Crafting Your Text Message.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p14,15 ; May-Jun 2008
Outlines tips on crafting campus emergency messages, including repeating audible announcements; keeping messages short, clear, originating from an authority, and location specific; and having messages approved by communications officials.
Text Message Troubleshooting: Four Challenges Your Campus Should Address.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p8,9 ; May 2008
Discusses challenges with slow transmission, low enrollment, privacy and database security, and authority to issue alerts with emergency text messaging.
Your Mass Notification Cheat Sheet.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p16,18,20-22 ; May-Jun 2008
Presents a detailed table that outlines strengths and weakness of 17 types of audible, electronic, and visual emergency alert modalities.
Ready, Set, Respond.
University Business; v11 n3 , p40-46 ; Apr 2008
Reviews the rapid expansion of emergency notification systems (EMS) on higher education campuses, in response to recent high-profile shootings. Multimodal alert systems include text messaging, emails, IP signage, and telephone calls. Examples of specific systems and strategies deployed at various institutions are detailed.
Virginia Tech One Year Later: How Campuses Have Responded.
Campus Safety; v16 n2 , p18-20,22-26,28 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews improved higher education campus security since the April, 2007, Virginia Tech shooting, based on a survey by this magazine. Areas of improvement discussed are mental health services, information sharing, emergency planning, funding for security, and access control. Charts and graphs illustrate the percentages of increase.
Planning for Battle.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
American School and University; v80 n7 , p30,32,33 ; Mar 2008
Discusses communication strategies for campus emergencies, with particular attention to electronic messaging systems (EMS). System selection, implementation, and use during a crisis are addressed.
Creating a Plan: 10 Ways to Tame the Beast.
Campus Safety; v16 n1 , p32,34-37 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Outlines ten steps in creating a campus emergency plan: 1) Designate a program coordinator. 2) Develop a known hazards and assets list. 3) Create a comprehensive all hazards list. 4) Determine campus vulnerability and risk. 5) Analyaze how hazards will impact your organization. 6) Check the laws that affect the plan. 7) Align the assets list to the hazards. 8) Define responsibilities via the incident command structure. 9) Plan mitigation activities. 10) Enhance the plan with mutual aid agreements.
Enhancing Campus Safety and Preparedness.
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS12, S14,S16-S19 ; Nov 2007
Proposes twelve recommendations to higher education institutions as they assess existing campus life safety systems and enhance emergency preparedness. These recommendations focus on long-range thinking that considers the entire campus and even beyond, involves all stakeholders, phases in changes, seeks creative funding, and involves proper compliance, flexibility, training, and maintenance.
A Phased Approach to Campus Safety and Security Planning.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS3,S4,S6 ; Nov 2007
Describes a phased-in approach to campus security at South Texas College. Phase one included threat assessment based on statistics, information from campus focus groups and cooperation with local emergency responders. The second phase brought the development of various plans to deal with natural and man-made emergencies. The third phase involved implementation of the plans and emergency communications systems. The fourth phase established regular drills and regular review of the plans.
Emergency and Safety Communications.
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p21,22 ; Nov 2007
Describes a "multimodal" approach to school security notification, involving mobile and desktop phones, e-mail, and faxes. Internet-based solutions are favored, and varieties of equipment and service delivery options are discussed.
After Va. Tech, Campuses Rush to Add Alert Systems.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n6 , pA1,A31,A32 ; Oct 05, 2007
Reviews combinations of low- and high-tech alerting techniques that are rapidly being deployed on college campuses in response to recent violent incidents. Challenges in getting students to sign up for alert services are discussed, as are the widely varying participation rates on selected campuses.
Managing Disaster Recovery Centers on Campus.
Lawrence, Heather; Shafer, Duane
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p40-53 ; Oct 2007
Narrates the experience of Southeast Louisiana University's use of their facilities as shelter during Hurricane Katrina, and as a staging area for relief efforts afterward. Lessons learned, future plans, and emergency planning are covered. Includes 12 references.
Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnerships Approach to Large-Scale Crisis.
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p54-64 ; Oct 2007
Proposes a framework for emergency management at higher education campuses that includes planning, response, management, and recovery. Roadblocks and program evaluation are discussed, and special emphasis and detail is given to consortium-style planning that involves cooperation between campuses. Includes two references.
Seven Best Practices for Emergency Notification.
Campus Technology; v20 n12 , p16-18,20,22,24-26 ; Aug 2007
Advises on communication strategies for school emergencies, recommending that institutions thoroughly assess their resources and alternatives, internalize and practice emergency plans, be able to make decisions on incomplete information, limit the number of people involved in decision-making, generate alerts in different formats, pre-define what constitutes an emergency and communicate it to the community, and layer approaches to communication.
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl. 16,18,20,21 ; Jul 2007
Discusses high- and low-tech methods for campus emergency notification, illustrated with examples of how some institutions and districts use their systems, require appropriate redundancy, and craft the emergency messages that they send.
American School and University; v79 n10 , p40,42,43 ; May 2007
Discusses evacuation plans for college campuses, keeping all types of natural and man- made threats in mind. The institution's plan, to be reviewed by local emergency responders, should include a fully equipped command station, a trained early-stage response team, safety information and training for building occupants, and special considerations for high-rise buildings.
Prepared for the Worst.
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p18-20 ; Apr 2007
Advises on preparing higher education campuses for disease outbreaks. Inclusion of communicable disease experts, plans for quarantining and isolation, facilities requirements for protected areas, and plans for soft and hard campus closings are covered.
What's Your Emergency?
Semer, Jeri; Ostrom, Dave; Peabody, Chris
American School and University; v79 n6 , pSS44,SS46,SS48 ; Feb 2007
Discusses the use of IP telephony to assist in location of emergency callers and enhance campus security. This enhanced 911 (E911) capability for multi-line phone systems is the law in a growing number of states. Issues of phone location identification and the necessity for meticulous maintenance of this information are also covered.
Shake, Rattle, and Roll.
American School and University; v78 n13 , p158-161 ; Aug 2006
Describes the forces that earthquakes, tornadoes, and hurricanes exert on buildings and offers some school siting, design, and construction suggestions to mitigate damage from these disasters.
All-Hazards Campus Safety: From Tornadoes to Terrorism.
College Planning and Management; v8 n11 , pS-2,2-4,S-6 ; Nov 2005
Emphasizes the importance of a risk and vulnerability assessment before dramatic and expensive campus security measures are put in place. Four types of assessment tools are outlined, accompanied by advice on hiring consultants and how to write a plan that covers prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery.
Disaster Recovery: The Time is Now.
Campus Technology; Nov 2005
Reviews the Hurricane Katrina experiences of some prepared and unprepared higher education institution technology departments, suggests steps for developing a disaster recovery plan and list items it should include, discusses concerns both unique and mundane, describes a pan-departmental disaster team, and types of backups.
Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions.
PEB Exchange; v2005/3 n56 , p13-24 ; Oct 2005
Examines trends, issues, and case studies in higher education facilities planning, design, and management. These were gathered from an April, 2005 conference sponsored by APPA and the OECD Programme on Educational Building. Discussions of megatrends and myths that influence facilities management, the technology-enabled learning space, and natural hazard risk mitigation are followed by three case studies from Montreal, Spain, and Veracruz.
When Disaster Strikes.
University Business; v8 n9 , p42-46 ; Sep 2005
Describes backup procedures followed at several higher education institutions to protect their data during disasters.
A Plan of Your Own.
American School and University; v77 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2005
In the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., many anxious educators worried whether schools and universities might become targets of similar strikes. This article advises on the creation of specific campus emergency-preparedness plans, rather than the use of generic plans which might not address the particular issues of a given facility. Elements of a proper plan and sources of grant funding are discussed.
American School and University; v77 n4 , p28-31 ; Dec 2004
Discusses the steps of a campus risk assessment, beginning with determination of assets to be protected and the types of threats that the school may encounter. From that information, the institutution should: 1) Investigate the annual frequency expectancy (AFE) for each threat. 2) Determine what type of loss occurs with each asset. 3) Determine vulnerabilities. 4) Determine existing safeguards. Current compliance with existing codes, policies, and procedures should be determined by survey. All information gathered should be used to determine annual and single loss expectancies and acceptability of the various risks uncovered.
Is Your Safety Plan up to the Best Practices?
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , pS-2,S-4 ; Nov 2004
Recommends that higher education institutions follow the example of K-12 schools where more comprehensive safety planning practices have been established. Two significant publications for school safety planning are reviewed.
Weathering the Storm
University Business; Nov 2004
Following the worst hurricane season in memory, some Florida universities talk about how they kept students safe, minimized damages, and provided communication channels.
Preparing for Disaster.
American School and University; v76 n11 , p16-18,21,22 ; Jun 2004
Discusses tornado and earthquake safety preparations, citing examples of damage and recovery at an Illinois middle school after a tornado, and at California State University, Northridge, after the 1994 earthquake.
Preparing for Disaster.
College Planning and Management; v7 n2 , p34,36,37 ; Feb 2004
Describes protective measures undertaken at two universities in advance of 2003's Hurricane Isabel, the minimal property damage sustained, and procedural changes that were made afterward.
Campus Shootings-Could Your School Be Next? How to Reduce and Prevent Weapons Violations and Assaults on Campus.
Dorn, Michael S.
College Planning and Management; v6 n11 , pS16-S20 ; Nov 2003
Outlines concepts for reducing weapons violations and assaults including strict policies with diligent enforcement, screening of employees and proactive mental health services.
Homeland Security Hits Home.
Building Operating Management; May 2003
This discusses how the war in Iraq and a Code Orange alert brought tighter facility security. Facilities managers took small, sometimes temporary steps intended to make it a bit harder to get into facilities, to improve lines of communication, and to assure that plans work as expected. Examples incude actions taken by several universities, such as Georgia Institute of Technology, University of Miami, and Emory University.
Safety and Security: Lessons Learned from 9/11.
Schmitz, William J.
College Planning and Management; v5 n12 , p20-22 ; Dec 2002
Discusses issues faced by the Borough of Manhattan Community College following the September 11th terrorist attacks: the expense of recovery and budgeting for it, developing an emergency preparedness plan, the characteristics of emergency management and disaster recovery plans, technology and its role in emergency management, being prepared for obstacles in recovery, documentation, HVAC and air handling systems, building and facility design, and business management and purchasing.
What the Disaster Planning Lessons Didnt Teach You.
College Planning and Management; v5 n10 , p17-18 ; Oct 2002
Describes how officials at the Borough of Manhattan Community College dealt with the emergency created by September 11, and offers a list of tips for dealing with out-of-the-ordinary emergencies.
We Have Seen the Enemy...
University Business; Sep 2002
One year after 9/11, colleges and universities are using the impetus to jump-start disaster response plans for 'more likely' scenarios. This discusses focusing on more likely threats, the cost of feeling secure, recovery measures, communication, and the greatest vulnerability. Includes a list of firms specializing in assessing security vulnerabilities and creating contingency plans.
Shelter from the Storm.
Urbaniak, Al; Farber, Yuriy
College Planning and Management; v5 n3 , p36-39 ; Mar 2002
Discusses how door manufacturers are introducing products designed to pass the rigorous tests needed to withstand tornadoes, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 320 and 361 directives.
Connect the Dots in Disaster Planning.
Knapp, Jolene; Benton, Kathy; Calhoun, Terry
Business Officer; v35 n7 p25-27 Jan 2002 ; v35 n7 , p25-27 ; Jan 2002
In the second article in a series on the implications of September 11 to colleges and universities, executives at the Society for College and University Planning outline an integrated approach to preparing for disasters.
Expect the Best, Plan for the Worst.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p22-24,25,28 ; Jan 2002
Makes some observations on college and university disaster planning as these schools attempt to prepare for the possibility of campus terrorism following the attacks of September 11. Several highlighted articles provide additional thoughts on outsourcing security services, using security card systems, and learning how security will change in the future.
Are You Ready? Basics of Emergency Operations Planning.
College Planning and Management; v4 n12 , p23-25 ; Dec 2001
Describes the steps colleges and universities can take to build an effective emergency operations plan to keep students and staff safe when disasters strike.
American School and University; v74 n4 , p48-50 ; Dec 2001
Examines strategies that some universities are using to make their stadium sporting events more secure in the post September 11 era. Schools reveal how they are minimizing their terrorism risks and providing a greater security presence.
Keeping the Madness at Bay.
Business Officer; v35 n6 , p22-28 ; Dec 2001
In the first of a series on terrorism's affect on higher education, college officials describe security steps their schools are taking against terror attacks.
What We Learned from Hurricane Floyd.
Harrell, George W.
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p23-27 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses what one university learned about disaster planning when struck with a serious and long-lasting environmental emergency. Notes that campus backup systems weren't able to sustain emergency operations over a prolonged period and that the situation called for a crisis response plan that could be changed hourly. Includes specific recommendations resulting from the experience.
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p31-32 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the sizable earthquake that struck there in January 1994. Reviews the lessons learned from handling this emergency, including experiences with setting up and operating command centers, mounting search and rescue operations, procuring emergency, cleanup and renovation supplies, documenting recovery costs, and dealing with unexpected consequences such as loose asbestos.
Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p19-21,39 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Provides an overview of recent campus emergencies faced by Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers members and how they coped. Emergencies evaluated include campus crime, a snow storm, and violent campus demonstrations.
Disaster Planning 101: Not Just Waiting for the Rainbow Sign.
Business Officer; v34 n4 , p39-42 ; Oct 2000
Recounts the experience of East Carolina University (North Carolina) in responding to the disaster of Hurricane Floyd in 1999. Identifies 10 operational lessons such as ensuring that the institution's emergency response team is prepared for quick decisions and planning with the assumption that all vital utilities will be lost for not less than a week.
Because One Day the Emergency Will Be Real.
College Planning and Management; v3 n6 , p29-30 ; Jun 2000
Explores the importance of disaster drills for colleges and universities and the key factors in planning these drills. Important factors in planning disaster drills include starting early in the planning process, marketing the event to increase attendance, and using school resources to cut costs. How to make these drills more realistic is also covered.
Surviving a Crisis.
School Planning and Management; v38 n10 , p31,32,36 ; Oct 1999
Discusses crisis management planning for college and university campuses that can contribute to effective and rapid response and wise decision making during not only natural disasters, but also those that are manmade.