DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR SCHOOLS
Information on building or retrofitting schools to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, developing emergency preparedness plans, and using school buildings to shelter community members during emergencies.
References to Books and Other Media
Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p
Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p
Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.Report NO: NCES 2011320
Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.TO ORDER: http://www.schoolsecurity.org/security_crisis_book.html
Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.
School Crisis Guide. Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis.
(National Education Association (NEA) and the National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN), 2011)
This web-based guide and toolkit were developed to help schools respond to both human and natural disasters. Included are tips, resources, ideas, and examples. The kit is divided into four sections that discuss: 1) being prepared before a crisis, 2) being responsive during a crisis, 3) being diligent in moving beyond crisis, and 4) hands-on assistance tools for educators.
Disaster Mitigation Planning Assistance Website
(Library of Congress Preservation Directorate, the Center for Great Lakes Culture and the California Preservation Program. , 2010)
Disaster plans for cultural institutions, including libraries, museums, historical societies and archives help to mitigate damage to collections in the event of a disaster. This site allows the user to view disaster plans submitted by libraries and archives as a model for developing your own plan. Resources are available in a database that can be searched geographically, by service, expert or supply. The search menu allows searching by state, multiple states nationally, or by type of service, expert, or supply. The results of a search can be downloaded for updating of your institution's disaster plan.
References to Journal Articles
Recovering from Tragedy
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must move forward after catastrophes to make sure students continue to learn and grow. Discusses the aftermath of tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Joplin, Missouri.
Knowledge Center: School Security Crisis Communications
American School and University; Feb 2012
When a school or university is dealing with an emergency, communicating to constituents and the public is critical. To get the word out most effectively, administrators must choose methods that deliver information quickly to the greatest numbers of people who need to know. Discusses how education institutions need to be using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to communicate important news to students, staff, family members and the community at large.
Ready, Set, Emergency!
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.
Emergency Plan Inclusion
O'Meara, Shamus P. and Mullin, M. Annie
American School Board Journal; , p32-33 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that when school emergency plans are created or revamped, the needs of special education students are considered. Discusses the four phases of school emergency management planning, and legal implications.
Critical Calculations to Stay Cool.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p9,10 ; Aug 2011
Emphasizes need for determining the type of emergency likely to occur in a facility's setting and to anticipate access to appropriate portable cooling needs. Calculations for accurate required needs are essential.
Who Is In Charge?
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.
R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.
Managing a Crisis.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p29,30,32,33 ; May 2011
Considers human factors in crisis communication plans. The author proposes that an understanding of human responses during a crisis is even more important than facilities, hardware, and systems planning. A plan for people should be developed in addition to facilities planning.
Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.
At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.
Ready to Respond.
American School and University; v83 n7 , p38-41 ; Mar 2011
Summarizes the role of departmental faculty, administrative staff, bus drivers, cafeteria works, custodial staff, counselors and nurses in creating an emergency preparedness plan and establishing a crisis intervention team, also known as an incident management team (IMT).
The Secret of NIMS.
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p40-44 ; Feb 2011
Describes the National Incident Management System, citing its components, history, appropriateness for and successful use in school emergencies, and the availability of NIMS training.
Emergency Preparedness: It's the Planning, Not the Plan.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n1 , p19 ; Jan 2011
Outlines how to develop a plan for maintenance and engineering managers to respond to a variety of emergencies, whether natural or related to fires, chemical spills, and power outages. The plan should include defining possible emergencies, ensuring proper buy-in and budgeting, indentifying staff roles and duties, procuring equipment and materials, and ensuring training and communication.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Educations four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.
Caught off Guard? [Overlooked Steps in Emergency Planning]
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p47,48,50,52 ; Oct 2010
Advises facility managers on some of the most commonly overlooked areas of emergency planning. Not having a plan at all, having an outdated plan, and not practicing the plan head the list. A discussion of communication with occupants and local authorities complete the discussion.
Don't Be Caught without a COOP Plan.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n5 , p10,12,13 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Advises on the creation and testing of a Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP), discussing creating the planning team, gathering departmental information, and prioritizing functions. Elements of the plan include delegation of authority, order of succession, alternate locations, "go kits," resource contracts, and communications and data issues.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p8,9 ; Jul 2010
Presents comments from three facilities managers addressing the essential elements of an emergency preparedness plan, the role of facilities staff in compiling the plan, rehearsal of the plan, educating the occupants, relationship to vendors, and cost considerations.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.