DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR SCHOOLS
Information on building or retrofitting schools to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, developing emergency preparedness plans, and using school buildings to shelter community members during emergencies.
References to Books and Other Media
Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p
Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p
Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.Report NO: NCES 2011320
Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.TO ORDER: http://www.schoolsecurity.org/security_crisis_book.html
Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.
School Crisis Guide. Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis.
(National Education Association (NEA) and the National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN), 2011)
This web-based guide and toolkit were developed to help schools respond to both human and natural disasters. Included are tips, resources, ideas, and examples. The kit is divided into four sections that discuss: 1) being prepared before a crisis, 2) being responsive during a crisis, 3) being diligent in moving beyond crisis, and 4) hands-on assistance tools for educators.
Disaster Mitigation Planning Assistance Website
(Library of Congress Preservation Directorate, the Center for Great Lakes Culture and the California Preservation Program. , 2010)
Disaster plans for cultural institutions, including libraries, museums, historical societies and archives help to mitigate damage to collections in the event of a disaster. This site allows the user to view disaster plans submitted by libraries and archives as a model for developing your own plan. Resources are available in a database that can be searched geographically, by service, expert or supply. The search menu allows searching by state, multiple states nationally, or by type of service, expert, or supply. The results of a search can be downloaded for updating of your institution's disaster plan.
Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know.
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. 46p.
Emergency Management Standards.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). 2p.
Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction.
(Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Presents a framework of guiding principles and general steps to develop a plan to address the disaster resilient construction and retrofitting of school buildings. The guidance notes consist of four components: 1) General information and advocacy points addressing the need and rationale for safer school buildings, along with success stories and list a number of essential guiding principles and strategies for overcoming common challenges. 2) A series of suggested steps that highlight key points that should be considered when planning a safer school construction and/or retrofitting initiative. Each step describes the processes, notes important decision points, highlights key issues or potential challenges, and suggests good practices, tools to facilitate the actions, and references resources to guide the reader to more detailed and context-specific information. 3)A compilation of basic design principles to identify some basic requirements a school building must meet to provide a greater level of protection. 4) A broad list of references to resources for more detailed, technical and context-specific information. 142p.
Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes.
(United Nations Centre for Regional Development School Earthquake Safety Initiative , Jan 2009)
Describes the project on "Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes" that took place in four countries – Uzbekistan, Fiji, India and Indonesia. The project aimed to ensure that school children living in seismic regions have earthquake resilient schools and that local communities build capacities to cope with earthquake disasters. The project had the following key components: school retrofitting; disaster education, capacity building and raising awareness. Summarizes the good practices and lessons learned from the project countries and also highlights the task ahead to up-scale from model projects to countrywide activities on school safety. 94p.
School District Emergency Operations Plan for ShowMe School District. [Missouri]
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , 2009)
Provides an example of an emergency operations plan, written for a fictitious Missouri school district. The plan is intended to prevent avoidable disasters and reduce the vulnerability of students, faculty, and administration to any disaster that may strike; establish capabilities for protecting students, faculty and administration from the effects of disasters; respond effectively to the actual occurrence of disasters; and provide for recovery in the aftermath of any emergency involving extensive damage within the school. It consists of a basic plan that serves as an overview of the schools approach to emergency management, annexes that address specific duties and activities critical to emergency response and recovery, and appendices which support each annex and contain technical information, details, and methods for use in emergency operations. The annexes and appendices are found at http://education.umkc.edu/Safe-School/documents/District%20Emergency%20Operations%20Pl an%20-%20Annexes.pdf
The Disaster Decade: Lessons Unlearned for the United States.
(Save the Children, Westport, CT , 2009)
Reports that only seven states are meeting crucial minimum standards to ensure that schools and child-care facilities are prepared to respond to the needs of children during a disaster. The four key standards identified include evacuation and relocation, reunification and plans for special needs children at child-care facilities, as well as multi-hazard plans at schools. The study calls for action at the federal level to better protect children through a five-point plan: 1) Establish national disaster preparedness standards for child-care centers and schools. 2) Establish an Office of Children's Advocacy at FEMA. 3) Make child care centers eligible for federal disaster aid. 4) Establish a White House Commission on the effects of the recession on children. 5) Create a federal public awareness campaign to educate families about protecting children during disasters. 41,42,44p.
References to Journal Articles
Recovering from Tragedy
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must move forward after catastrophes to make sure students continue to learn and grow. Discusses the aftermath of tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Joplin, Missouri.
Knowledge Center: School Security Crisis Communications
American School and University; Feb 2012
When a school or university is dealing with an emergency, communicating to constituents and the public is critical. To get the word out most effectively, administrators must choose methods that deliver information quickly to the greatest numbers of people who need to know. Discusses how education institutions need to be using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to communicate important news to students, staff, family members and the community at large.
Ready, Set, Emergency!
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.
Emergency Plan Inclusion
O'Meara, Shamus P. and Mullin, M. Annie
American School Board Journal; , p32-33 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that when school emergency plans are created or revamped, the needs of special education students are considered. Discusses the four phases of school emergency management planning, and legal implications.
Critical Calculations to Stay Cool.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p9,10 ; Aug 2011
Emphasizes need for determining the type of emergency likely to occur in a facility's setting and to anticipate access to appropriate portable cooling needs. Calculations for accurate required needs are essential.
Who Is In Charge?
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.
R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.
Managing a Crisis.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p29,30,32,33 ; May 2011
Considers human factors in crisis communication plans. The author proposes that an understanding of human responses during a crisis is even more important than facilities, hardware, and systems planning. A plan for people should be developed in addition to facilities planning.
Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.
At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.
Ready to Respond.
American School and University; v83 n7 , p38-41 ; Mar 2011
Summarizes the role of departmental faculty, administrative staff, bus drivers, cafeteria works, custodial staff, counselors and nurses in creating an emergency preparedness plan and establishing a crisis intervention team, also known as an incident management team (IMT).
The Secret of NIMS.
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p40-44 ; Feb 2011
Describes the National Incident Management System, citing its components, history, appropriateness for and successful use in school emergencies, and the availability of NIMS training.
Emergency Preparedness: It's the Planning, Not the Plan.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n1 , p19 ; Jan 2011
Outlines how to develop a plan for maintenance and engineering managers to respond to a variety of emergencies, whether natural or related to fires, chemical spills, and power outages. The plan should include defining possible emergencies, ensuring proper buy-in and budgeting, indentifying staff roles and duties, procuring equipment and materials, and ensuring training and communication.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Educations four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.
Caught off Guard? [Overlooked Steps in Emergency Planning]
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p47,48,50,52 ; Oct 2010
Advises facility managers on some of the most commonly overlooked areas of emergency planning. Not having a plan at all, having an outdated plan, and not practicing the plan head the list. A discussion of communication with occupants and local authorities complete the discussion.
Don't Be Caught without a COOP Plan.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n5 , p10,12,13 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Advises on the creation and testing of a Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP), discussing creating the planning team, gathering departmental information, and prioritizing functions. Elements of the plan include delegation of authority, order of succession, alternate locations, "go kits," resource contracts, and communications and data issues.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p8,9 ; Jul 2010
Presents comments from three facilities managers addressing the essential elements of an emergency preparedness plan, the role of facilities staff in compiling the plan, rehearsal of the plan, educating the occupants, relationship to vendors, and cost considerations.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.
What Is Your Plan?
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p20-25 ; Dec 2009
Advises on comprehensive school disaster planning for natural disasters, terrorism, and epidemics. Examples of school plans successfully executed are included.
H1N1: Reducing Your Risk. [H1N1 Preparedness.]
Lorenz, Brandon; Millan, Naomi
Building Design and Construction; v56 n10 , p22-24,26 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the spread so far and predicted severity of H1N1 influenza. Identifying and cross-training backup employees to cover essential building functions, preparing occupants for varying service levels in case of an outbreak, social distancing of occupants, increased opportunities for hand sanitization in common areas, and daily disinfecting of heavily touched objects such as doorknobs are also addressed.
Keeping the Community in the Know.
District Administration; v45 n7 , p41-43 ; Aug 2009
Discusses mass notification systems for schools, which are more frequently being used for everyday, non-emergency communication. Internet-based services do not require hardware, software, or additional phone line installation. Some fully hosted online notification services are briefly reviewed.
What Will You Do? Effective Responses Come From Great Preparation.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Describes how a Florida school system handled a crisis effectively through thorough planning that incorporated the National Incident Management System (NIMS).
Developing a Critical Mass Communication Plan.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Offers 11 suggestions for developing a mass communication plan, including integrating multiple forms of communication, researching and selecting the best systems, communication with first responders, staff and student awareness and training, a clear communications.
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p11 ; May 2009
Presents an interview with a school security professional that discusses reactions to the recent swine flu outbreak, improvements in school security since the 1999 shooting at Columbine High School, and a short-term forecast for school security.
American School and University; v81 n7 , p32-34 ; Mar 2009
Discusses automatic external defibrillators in schools, citing arguments for and against their installation. An installation program should be accompanied by training of key personnel, maintenance of the units, and placement in key locations.
Facility Survival Guide. [Emergency Planning Strategies.]
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2009
Advises facility managers on emergency response, with eight recommendations: 1) Develop an emergency action plan, not a guidebook. 2) Don't plan to rely solely on first responders. 3) Use Department of Homeland Security mandated NIMS courses. 4) Establish tabletops, drills, and exercises. 5) Establish a working relationship with first responders. 6) Create a perimeter group. 7) Use technology. 8) Don;t rely on product sales pitches.
American School Board Journal; v196 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Advises what should and should not be said to the public in the event of a school tragedy, withmany typical messages being discouraged as being over-used or indicating a lack of recognition of the victims. A list of safety communication ideas for disaster preparation, rumor and threat management, and during and after a crisis are included.