NCEF Resource List: Disaster Preparedness and Response for Schools
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DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR SCHOOLS

Information on building or retrofitting schools to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, developing emergency preparedness plans, and using school buildings to shelter community members during emergencies.


References to Books and Other Media

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition Adobe PDF
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p

Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.
Report NO: NCES 2011320


Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
Trump, Kenneth
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.
TO ORDER: http://www.schoolsecurity.org/security_crisis_book.html

Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.

School Crisis Guide. Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis.
(National Education Association (NEA) and the National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN), 2011)
This web-based guide and toolkit were developed to help schools respond to both human and natural disasters. Included are tips, resources, ideas, and examples. The kit is divided into four sections that discuss: 1) being prepared before a crisis, 2) being responsive during a crisis, 3) being diligent in moving beyond crisis, and 4) hands-on assistance tools for educators.

Disaster Mitigation Planning Assistance Website
(Library of Congress Preservation Directorate, the Center for Great Lakes Culture and the California Preservation Program. , 2010)
Disaster plans for cultural institutions, including libraries, museums, historical societies and archives help to mitigate damage to collections in the event of a disaster. This site allows the user to view disaster plans submitted by libraries and archives as a model for developing your own plan. Resources are available in a database that can be searched geographically, by service, expert or supply. The search menu allows searching by state, multiple states nationally, or by type of service, expert, or supply. The results of a search can be downloaded for updating of your institution's disaster plan.

Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know.
Borland, Larry
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. 46p.

Emergency Management Standards. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). 2p.

Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction. Adobe PDF
(Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Presents a framework of guiding principles and general steps to develop a plan to address the disaster resilient construction and retrofitting of school buildings. The guidance notes consist of four components: 1) General information and advocacy points addressing the need and rationale for safer school buildings, along with success stories and list a number of essential guiding principles and strategies for overcoming common challenges. 2) A series of suggested steps that highlight key points that should be considered when planning a safer school construction and/or retrofitting initiative. Each step describes the processes, notes important decision points, highlights key issues or potential challenges, and suggests good practices, tools to facilitate the actions, and references resources to guide the reader to more detailed and context-specific information. 3)A compilation of basic design principles to identify some basic requirements a school building must meet to provide a greater level of protection. 4) A broad list of references to resources for more detailed, technical and context-specific information. 142p.

Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes. Adobe PDF
(United Nations Centre for Regional Development School Earthquake Safety Initiative , Jan 2009)
Describes the project on "Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes" that took place in four countries – Uzbekistan, Fiji, India and Indonesia. The project aimed to ensure that school children living in seismic regions have earthquake resilient schools and that local communities build capacities to cope with earthquake disasters. The project had the following key components: school retrofitting; disaster education, capacity building and raising awareness. Summarizes the good practices and lessons learned from the project countries and also highlights the task ahead to up-scale from model projects to countrywide activities on school safety. 94p.

School District Emergency Operations Plan for ShowMe School District. [Missouri]
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , 2009)
Provides an example of an emergency operations plan, written for a fictitious Missouri school district. The plan is intended to prevent avoidable disasters and reduce the vulnerability of students, faculty, and administration to any disaster that may strike; establish capabilities for protecting students, faculty and administration from the effects of disasters; respond effectively to the actual occurrence of disasters; and provide for recovery in the aftermath of any emergency involving extensive damage within the school. It consists of a basic plan that serves as an overview of the school s approach to emergency management, annexes that address specific duties and activities critical to emergency response and recovery, and appendices which support each annex and contain technical information, details, and methods for use in emergency operations. The annexes and appendices are found at http://education.umkc.edu/Safe-School/documents/District%20Emergency%20Operations%20Pl an%20-%20Annexes.pdf

The Disaster Decade: Lessons Unlearned for the United States. Adobe PDF
(Save the Children, Westport, CT , 2009)
Reports that only seven states are meeting crucial minimum standards to ensure that schools and child-care facilities are prepared to respond to the needs of children during a disaster. The four key standards identified include evacuation and relocation, reunification and plans for special needs children at child-care facilities, as well as multi-hazard plans at schools. The study calls for action at the federal level to better protect children through a five-point plan: 1) Establish national disaster preparedness standards for child-care centers and schools. 2) Establish an Office of Children's Advocacy at FEMA. 3) Make child care centers eligible for federal disaster aid. 4) Establish a White House Commission on the effects of the recession on children. 5) Create a federal public awareness campaign to educate families about protecting children during disasters. 41,42,44p.

Disaster Prevention for Schools: Guidance for Education Sector Decision-Makers; Consultation Version. Adobe PDF
(United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland , Nov 2008)
Provides guidance to school administrators, teachers, education authorities, and school safety committees. The guide introduces disaster impacts on and prevention for schools; creating and maintaining safe learning environments; teaching and learning disaster prevention and preparedness, educational materials and teacher training, and developing a culture of safety. 58p.

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Prepared in response to the June 2007 General Accountability Office report, "Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance" (GAO-07-609), this NCEF report reviews current practices in school building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs for the disabled. The report provides two recommendations: (1) School emergency management plans should include procedures and training for evacuating special needs and disabled students in a variety of emergencies and building conditions and by a variety of routes; (2) Schools should continue to work with emergency planners and building designers to ensure that facilities are equipped to shelter a range of individuals with special needs. 4p.

Earthquakes and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses earthquake basics, preparing a school for an earthquake, reducing nonstructural hazards, and seismic upgrading. A mitigation checklist is provided, as well as appendices on nonstructural hazards, past earthquake damage to U.S. schools, and a discussion of schools as earthquake shelters. 27 additional resources are cited. 8p.

Wildfires and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses conditions that feed wildfires, how a building catches fire, determining your school's risk, creating a survivable space for the school, the importance of maintenance, the fire-resistant school, meeting code requirements, related flood and mudslide risks, and an appendix on wildfire response. 22 additional resources are cited. 6p.

School Disaster Reduction and Readiness Checklist. Adobe PDF
(Risk Reduction Education for Disasters, California , Jul 15, 2008)
Offers a brief checklist that assesses the presence or absence of 33 elements of school disaster preparedness. 2p.

Natural Disasters and School Construction. [Podcast]
(United Nations Radio, New York, NY, Jun 25, 2008)
Presents an audio inteview that reviews loss of children's lives within schools that were damaged by recent natural disasters. The design and seismolological professionals interviewed advocate for better design and construction of schools worldwide, along with better and quicker restoration of school housing after natural disasters. Improvements in school construction undertaken after lessons learned from the disasters are noted. Also urged are improved preparation and acceptance of the inevitability of natural disasters, improved training for the building profession in developing countries, recognition of the disproportionate affect of disasters on vulnerable populations.

Emergency Response Information for School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Discusses the information required for managing school buildings, grounds, occupants, and rescue and recovery personnel during and after a crisis: neighborhood maps; aerial and ground photos; campus plans; command post and staging area locations; alternative evacuation routes and sites; school floor plans; fire alarm, sprinkler, utility, and television shutoff procedures; first aid supply locations; contact information for emergency responders, staff, and outside assistance; and the provision of building keys. 3p.

Emergency Management Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(Eastern Kentucky University, Kentucky Center for School Safety, Richmond , 2008)
Provides a template with which a school or school district can build a customized emergency response plan. The document offers sections with checklists for mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. These are followed by advice and resources for incident command, communication, a district plan, a school plan, emergency management for specific events, recovery, and a list of references and resources. 149p.

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
This NCEF publication describes a process for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds, making a hazard mitigation plan, and implementing the plan. Steps include: select an assessment tool; assemble an assessment team; look at the record; perform the assessment; write up the results; create a standing committee on hazard mitigation; prepare a hazard mitigation plan; understand risk; weigh passive vs. active safety; select security technology with care; improve school climate; calculate costs, locate funding; seek input; coordinate hazard mitigation with crisis planning; start small, think big; justify thoroughly; meet regularly, advocate continually; and benefit mutually. 4p.

NCEF School Safety Assessment Guides.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
The 25 guides found on the lower portion of this web page assist in the school safety assessment process. Each downloadable guide addresses a specific area or space within the school, presenting a series of "yes-no" questions that assess the safety and security of physical features typical for that area. 67p.

Vermont School Crisis Guide. Adobe PDF
(Vermont School Crisis Planning Team, Crittenden East Supervisory Union, Richmond , 2008)
Presents general information on school crisis management that individual schools or districts can tailor to fit local needs and capabilities. The Guide is a framework to implement local school policy and administrative procedures, which are based on a comprehensive school emergency operations plan and policies. Sections of the guide cover the crisis planning team, various committees, accidents, terrorism and criminal acts, natural disasters, medical emergencies, and additional policies and procedures. 83p.

Severe Weather Planning for Schools. Adobe PDF
Watson, Barbara; Strong, Chritsopher; Bunting, Bill
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
Advises on understanding, preparing for, and coping with weather emergencies at schools and with bus transportation. Events covered include severe thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes and storm surge, flooding, and extreme heat and cold. Six appendices contain detailed weather information. 18p.

School Emergency Management Planning: Hazard Vulnerability Assessments.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security , Oct 05, 2007)
Advocates hazard vulnerability assessments (HVAs) as essential elements of school emergency management planning. Schools can utilize HVA's to identify potential hazards and to prioritize prevention and mitigation efforts in cases of emergency. HVAs are typically conducted by risk assessment teams that include school personnel and representatives from the local emergency management community. A list of 22 resources is included. 7p.

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics , Sep 2007)
Uses data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, bomb threats, and hazardous materials threats are included. 75p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-361


New Jersey K-12 School Security Task Force Report.
(New Jersey Office for Homeland Security and Preparedness, Newark , Sep 2007)
Presents the discussion items and final recommendations of this task force, which include: 1. Distribution of model emergency policies to the State s law enforcement agencies with the direction that they are to begin implementing these policies with current operations plans and training. 2. Distribution of "companion" model policies for school administrators & teachers. 3. Joint training for the 21 county prosecutors and county schools superintendents to review school security strategies and programs together. 4. a uniform state memorandum of agreement between education and law enforcement to include annual review of the model policies issued by the school task force. 5. Enhanced training for school resource officers to include training on the aforementioned model procedures. 6. Teacher training for school crises. 7. Local school security councils/working groups, consisting of parents, educators, and state, county, and local law enforcement, fire, and emergency management personnel to address issues of school security. 8. Regular drills & amendments to the New Jersey fire code that require that monthly fire drills should be amended to incorporate drills and exercises for bomb threats, emergency evacuation/reverse evacuation, active shooters, lockdowns, and shelter-in-place. 26p.

School Emergency Operations Plan for Tiger High School.
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , Sep 2007)
Provides an example of an emergency operations plan, written for a fictitious high school. The plan is intended to prevent avoidable disasters and reduce the vulnerability of students, faculty, and administration to any disaster that may strike; establish capabilities for protecting students, faculty and administration from the effects of disasters; respond effectively to the actual occurrence of disasters; and provide for recovery in the aftermath of any emergency involving extensive damage within the school. It consists of a basic plan that serves as an overview of the school s approach to emergency management, annexes that address specific duties and activities critical to emergency response and recovery, and appendices which support each annex and contain technical information, details, and methods for use in emergency operations. The annexes and appendices are found at http://education.umkc.edu/Safe-School/documents/School%20Emergency%20Operations%20Pla n%20-%20Annexes.pdf 31p.
TO ORDER: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18253227/Tiger-High-School

AIA Handbook for Disaster Assistance Programs. Adobe PDF
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , Aug 24, 2007)
This handbook offers an overview of the initiatives, structures, resources, and policy that the American Institute of Architects follows to implement, support and expand its Comprehensive Response System (CRS), a framework developed to assist its members in its continued service to society. It stresses the importance of preparedness to respond to disasters, the steps that a region and its AIA components need to take to create an emergency response plan, as well as a disaster assistance program. It also outlines initial and long term disaster assistance efforts. 30p.

Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. Adobe PDF
(United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC , Jun 2007)
Assesses the roles of federal and state governments and school districts in establishing requirements and providing resources for emergency management planning, what school districts have done to plan and prepare for emergencies, and the challenges school districts have experienced in planning for emergencies. Surveys, interviews, and document reviews were conducted at the federal, state, and district level. Most states and school districts reported having requirements for emergency planning, and federal and state governments and school districts provide financial and other resources. Thirty-two states reported having laws or other policies requiring school districts to have emergency management plans. Most school districts have developed emergency management plans, but many plans do not include federally recommended practices. The GAO estimates that over one-quarter of school districts have never trained with any first responders and over two-thirds of school districts do not regularly train with community partners on how to implement their school district emergency management plans. 74p.
Report NO: GAO-07-609


Emergency Management: Status of School Districts' Planning and Preparedness. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accountability Office, Washington, DC , May 17, 2007)
Reports on the current state of emergency preparedness in U.S. school districts, illustrating percentages of districts that have plans for intruders, bomb threats, natural disasters, terrorism, radiation, anthrax, and pandemic influenza. Some plans and school districts have taken steps to plan for a range of emergencies, as most have developed multi-hazard emergency management plans. However some plans and activities do not address federally recommended practices. In an estimated 62 percent of districts, officials cited a lack of equipment and expertise as impediments to emergency planning. Absence of door locks necessary for implementing a lockdown and a lack of two-way radios are two examples of facility and equipment deficiencies. Also noted was a shortage of expertise in both planning for and managing emergencies, as well as an inability to incorporate special needs students in emergency management planning. An estimated 39 percent of districts with emergency plans experience challenges in communicating and coordinating with local first responders, lacking partnerships with all or specific first responders, limited time or funding to collaborate with first responders on plans for emergencies, or a lack of interoperability between the equipment used by the school district and equipment used by first responders. 25p.
Report NO: GAO-07-821T


Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.

Disaster Planning, Management, and Recovery Guide.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners,International, Scottsdale, AZ, 2007)
Assists school districts in the preparation of their emergency preparedness guide. This online publication takes the user through the responsibilities of essential staff, as well as providing checklists of tasks which department heads should complete before, during, and after an event, and issues to consider when creating your district's disaster preparedness guide. The guide is organized in eleven major categories that must be addressed, as they directly impact school district operations: people transportation, communications, food service, planning supplies, facilities, legal, technology, financial, and education. Each category has a short overview to explain the major objectives of the section, followed by an outline of items to consider when assembling a planning, management and recovery plan for the district.

Edwards Disaster Recovery Directory.
(Edwards Information, Ashton, MD, 2007)
Presents over 3,000 vendor listings covering 400 disaster recovery categories such as drying & dehumidification of paper & microfilm records, smoke odor counteracting services, and trauma counselors. The listings are organized under nine sections: disaster-recovery planning and assistance associations; emergency equipment replacement & repair; facilities, such as hotsites, warmsites, coldsites, mobile buildings and mobile computers; materials and publications, such as videos and journals; services, including clean-up and restoration, computer repair, consulting, and data-recovery; software for disaster-recovery and business-continuity planning, risk management, security control, disaster management, and emergency notification; specialty supplies, such as emergency food rations, fireproof containers, and personal evacuation equipment; and providers of specialty training for professionals and employees. [Registration required for free online searching.]
TO ORDER: Edwards Information, PO Box 31, Ashton,MD 20861; Tel: 301-774-5414; Toll free: 800-990-9936; Email: info@edwardsinformation.com
http://www.edwardsinformation.com

Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide for Utah Schools.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2007)
Assists Utah schools in compliance with state regulations mandating emergency preparedness plans for schools. The guide outlines responsibilities for school officials and staff; criteria, components, and organization of an emergency preparedness plan; hazard analysis; communications and evacuation plans; and specific advice for itemized threats. Appendices include the text of the state rule, additional advice for specific age groups, sample forms, and a list of recommended first aid equipment and supplies. 93p.

Pennsylvania Office of Attorney General School Safety Project.
(Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General, Harrisburg , 2007)
This CD instructs school districts on how to create an interactive and secure website with critical information about each school in the district that only can be accessed by first responders in the case of an emergency. Information to be placed on the website includes detailed floor plans of each school, interior and exterior photographs, a complete contact list of all teachers and administrators, and a crises management response plan for the district.
TO ORDER: education@attorneygeneral.gov.

Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, D.C. , Jan 2007)
School districts may be touched either directly or indirectly by a crisis of some kind at any time, including natural disasters, school shootings, or acts of terrorism. This guide is intended to give schools, districts, and communities the critical concepts and components of good crisis planning, stimulate thinking about the crisis preparedness process, and provide examples of promising practices. Sections include: 1) Mitigation/Prevention; 2) Preparedness; 3) Response; 4) Recovery; and 5) Resources. Each section contains an action checklist and action steps. 146p.
TO ORDER: http://www.edpubs.org/webstore/Content/search.asp

With the Public's Knowledge, We Can Make Sheltering in Place Possible. Adobe PDF
(New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY , 2007)
Identifies serious and unanticipated problems that currently make it neither feasible nor safe for many people to shelter in place in case of an emergency. The report is based on two years' work gathering the insights and experiences of nearly 2,000 people who live and work in four communities around the country. Among the many gaps uncovered was the fact that while schools have been preparing for emergencies that affect the school directly, children are also at risk if their parents and other guardians need to shelter in place because of an emergency and no other adult is available to pick the children up or be at home with them after school. 62p.

Hazard Identification And Risk Assessment For Schools.
(State of Maine, Augusta , Nov 2006)
Offers a workbook to identify and assess hazards to school property and occupants in order to develop a more thorough emergency response plan. 22p.

Lead & Manage My School: Conference on School Safety.
(U.S.Department of Education, Washington, D.C. , Oct 10, 2006)
Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings joined President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Attorney General Gonzales at a Conference on School Safety on October 10, 2006. Teachers, parents, administrators, law enforcement officials, and other experts discussed best practices and lessons learned about school safety. Panel I, Preventing Violence in Schools, was a "best practices" session to share practical ideas and solutions from law enforcement and security experts to help safeguard our schools from external and internal threats. The panel discussion focused specifically on facility security, threat assessments, specialized enforcement expertise, and law enforcement community outreach. Panel II, Prepared Schools and Communities Are Safer, discussed how school administrators and teachers, parents, students, law enforcement, and community groups can best coordinate their efforts to ensure their schools are prepared and safe. The panel highlighted effective prevention and intervention practices, model programs, and crisis plans that could be adapted by communities and districts. 63p.
TO ORDER: ED Pubs. P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827.
http://www.edpubs.org

Arizona School Site Emergency Response Plan Template.
(Arizona Dept. of Education, Arizona Division of Emergency Management, Phoenix , Sep 2006)
Provides school districts with comprehensive guidelines to follow in case of any of nineteen types of emergencies. Checklists, communication instructions, staff responsibilities, job descriptions, and a wide variety of forms for inventory, release, skills assessment, and site review are included. 79p.

Hurricane Katrina: Army Corps of Engineers Contract for Mississippi Classrooms. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Government Accountability Office, Washington , May 2006)
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) tasked the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) to purchase temporary classrooms for Mississippi schools. To accomplish its task, the Corps placed a $39.5 million order for the purchase and delivery of 450 such classrooms. GAO received an allegation on its Fraud Hotline that the Corps paid inflated prices for the classrooms, and in response, this report reviews the facts and circumstances related to the Corps' issuance of the order. The Corps had no prior experience, no advance notice, and the need to buy the classrooms as quickly as possible. Corps contracting officials lacked knowledge of the industry and information about classroom suppliers, inventories, and prices that would have been useful in negotiating a good deal. Faced with these circumstances, they chose to purchase the classrooms by placing an order, noncompetitively, on an existing agreement with a vendor certified under the Small Business Administrations Business Development Program. The Corps accepted the vendor's proposed price of $39.5 million although it had information that the cost for the classrooms was significantly less than what the vendor was charging. Based on analysis of a quote obtained by the vendor from a local Mississippi business, the price that the vendor actually paid for the classrooms, and prices for similar units from GSA schedule contracts, it was determined that the Corps could have, but failed to, negotiate a lower price. 17p.
Report NO: GAO-06-454


Working with Students with Disabilities in a Disaster.
Daylin, Chris; Vincent, Ray; Ybarra, William
(Los Angeles County Office of Education, California , 2006)
Advises on the accommodation of the disabled during a disaster, covering levels and types of disabilities, special equipment and supplies to have on hand for the disabled, and procedures for working with individuals impaired in hearing, vision, learning, and mobility, as well as their service animals. Advice on evacuation planning, psychological symptoms, stress factors, and communication is included. 45p.

Crisis Response Box: A Guide to Help Every School Assemble the Tools and Resources Needed for a Critical Incident Response. [California] Adobe PDF
Lockyer, Bill; Eastin, Delaine
(California Attorney General's Crime and Violence Prevention Center; California Department of Education's Safe Schools and Violence Prevention Office, 2006)
This is a guide to assist schools in preparing for a school emergency. The box contains crucial information needed to respond to a critical incident. The guide states that these elements should be part of a crisis response box: an aerial photo of the school campus; a map that identifies streets, intersections and vacant lots near a school and includes planned emergency routes; an up-to-date layout of classrooms and other campus facilities; architectural blueprints of school buildings; a list of teachers and other employees; master keys for all the rooms in a facility; turn-off procedures for fire alarms, sprinklers, utilities and cable television service; photos of all students; phone numbers for all key staff members, including those involved in coordinating with local emergency responders; identification of three separate staging areas for law enforcement and emergency personnel, for the news media, and for parents; an emergency resource list of people or groups that can assist in an emergency; identification of evacuation routes; student disposition forms so administrators can keep track of which students have been released and to whom; a list of which students are present at school that day; a list of students with special needs; and first-aid supplies, as well as a listing of where additional first-aid supplies can be found. 18p.

In Their Own Words: 9/11 Parents Help Other Parents and Schools with Lessons Learned. 2005 Edition. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc. Albany, NY, Sep 2005)
Through the constructive advice of experienced parents, this discusses emergency planning for schools. The events of September 11 and its aftermath have challenged health, environment, and education agencies to understand how children are different from adults in relation to environmental hazards, and how schools are different from offices in terms of their responsibilities for the occupants and the demands on the facilites. 8p.

School Nurse Role in Bioterrorism Emergency Preparedness and Response. Position Statement. Revised. Adobe PDF
(National Association of School Nurses. , Jun 2005)
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that school nurses should be designated and recognized as first responders to mass casualty emergencies, including those resulting from bioterrorist events. School nurses should be trained in protection, detection, and treatment of victims of such events and in the command and control management techniques of the logistics of such a situation. The strategic position of well-prepared nurses within the school environment has significant potential for minimizing the effects of a bioterrorist attack in school settings and, subsequently, in the community at large 3p.

Safer Schools and Hospitals Toolkit
(Intelligent Space Partnership and Home Office, London, UK, Apr 2005)
This British toolkit is an easy-to-use template for security risk assessment in schools. The practical guide helps one understand the reasons that crimes and incidents occur in a school site or building. It provides information on how to tackle these problems through design or management of the premises. The guide provides a step-by-step approach on how to: 1)Gather crime data; 2) Identify vulnerabilities by walking the site; 3) Model surveillance: identify areas that are overseen or well-used and areas that are hidden from view; 4) Assess which risks are most immediate; 5) Develop long and short term strategies to address the problems; 6) Implement the strategies. Includes case studies of a primary school and a secondary school.

Preparing for the "Big One"--Saving Lives through Earthquake Mitigation in Los Angeles, CA: Section 3, Schools.
(The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Policy Development and Research , 2005)
Reviews the overall positive performance of school buildings during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, with no collapsed buildings. The report notes that the quake did not occur during school hours, so there were no fatalities. However, significant non-structural damage occurred, and egress from many buildings would have been blocked by debris, were the buildings occupied at the time. Recommendations for retrofitting schools for nonstructural seismic hazards, and a review of what has been done to date are addressed. Includes 31 references. 6p.

Advice for Safeguarding Buildings Against Chemical or Biological Attack.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , 2005)
This web site is intended for emergency personnel and for building operators. It contains current advice for dealing with a biological or chemical release in a building. Immediate actions that should be taken, as well as long-term actions, are detailed. Includes training aids.

It Pays to Prepare! An Emergency Preparedness Guide for Child Care Providers. Adobe PDF
(Virginia Dept. of Health, Division of Child and Adolescent Health, Healthy Child Virginia, Richmond , Jan 2005)
Assists child care providers with collecting and posting emergency numbers, creating and executing an emergency evacuation plan, reviewing and posting guidelines on how to handle medical emergencies, training staff on specific roles and responsibilities during an emergency, and reviewing special considerations for children with special health needs during an emergency. 18p.

School Safety and Security: Lessons in Danger.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris , 2005)
Provides examples of how a variety of problems and solutions concerning school safety and security are addressed in 14 countries. Chapters by individual authors from the participating countries are organized under five themes related to school safety and security: risk assessment, crisis planning and management, infrastructural approaches, collaborative approaches, and education, training, and support approaches. 168p.
TO ORDER: OECD Publications, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.
http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?sf1=identifiers&st1=952004031P1

The Role of Schools in Homeland Security.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2005)
Presents 19 steps that a school should take to prepare for a terrorist attack, organized as items that one can do to establish a safe campus and preparing a response plan should an emergency occur. 5p.

Y.I.K.E.S. Your Inventory for Keeping Everyone Safe: Planning Guide for Emergency Response Planning in Child Care Planning Guide. Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care and Head Start, Augusta , Jan 2005)
Serves as a tool for emergency response planning in child care programs. This guide provides basic emergency preparedness and planning information that can be customized to fit the size and needs of differing programs. It covers specific disasters such as earthquake, flood, severe weather, bomb threat, contamination, power failure, fire, hazardous materials, abduction, transportation incident, medical emergency, and building collapse. A sample emergency relocation shelter agreement and a sample emergency transportation permission agreement are appended. 28p.

Innocent Targets: When Terrorism Comes to School.
Dorn, Michael; Dorn, Chris
(Safe Havens International, Macon, GA , 2005)
Examines the history of terrorism attacks at schools from a 1970 incident in Israel to the present. Chapters advise on the tendencies of terrorists, public reaction to terrorism, school buses and terrorism, planning for possible incidents, and hiring of security consultants. The probabilities, possible actions, and the emotional and political impacts of terrorism at school are discussed. The authors attempt to dispel myths and show how alarmists and reckless disinformation further the goals of the terrorists. Includes 28 references. 153p.
TO ORDER: Safe Havens International, PMB #201, 5540 Thomaston Road, Suite F, Macon, Georgia 31220.
http://www.safehavensinternational.org/shop

What If? Preparing Schools for the Unthinkable.
Stephens, Ronald; Arnett, June; Quiroz, Hilda
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2005)
Offers extensive advice on preparing schools against potential terrorist attack, focusing on partnership and planning with the community, understanding schools as targets for terror, prevention, mitigation, response, complex threats recovery, and drills. 58p.
TO ORDER: 141 Duesenberg Drive, Suite 11, Westlake Village, CA 91362; Tel: 805-373-9977
http://www.schoolsafety.us

Key Policy Letter Signed by the Education Deputy Secretary
Hickok, Eugene W.
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. , Oct 06, 2004)
In this letter to school administrators, the Deputy Secretary shares information regarding some lessons learned from the Beslan school incident so that they may be used to protect U.S. schools. The recommendations that are outlined include both short-term and long-term protective measures, including physical enhancements to school buildings. A list of resources available for schools in attached. 6p

Preparedness in America's Schools: A Comprehensive Look at Terrorism Preparedness in America's Twenty Largest School Districts. Adobe PDF
(The America Prepared Campaign, Inc., New York, NY , Sep 2004)
Reports on the crisis preparedness of America's twenty largest school systems. The systems were evaluated by steps outlined in the U. S. Department of Education's publication "Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities" (http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/crisisplanning.pdf). The steps were divided into categories of planning, drilling, and communicating. A team of six conducted interviews of administrators, principals, emergency management officials, community members, journalists, and parents from the twenty systems to evaluate their preparedness in each category. From these interviews the school systems were rated as follows: Best-three systems, Good-seven systems, Needs Improvement-seven systems, and Failing-two systems. The criteria that each system had to meet and the findings for each system are detailed. (Includes 157 references) 71p.

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Adobe PDF
Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan; Pollack, William S.; Borum,Randy; Modzeleski, William; Reddy, Marisa
(U.S. Department of Education; U.S. Secret Service, Washington, DC , Jul 2004)
Since June 1999, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service have been working as a team to better understand--and ultimately help prevent--school shootings in America. Findings indicated that incidents of targeted violence in school were rarely impulsive; that the students who perpetrated attacks usually planned them out in advance with planning behavior that was often observable; and that, prior to most attacks, other children knew that the attack was to occur. This document uses these findings to create a process for identifying, assessing, and managing students who may pose a threat of targeted violence in schools. Eight chapters include: (1) "Introduction: Threat Assessment and the Prevention of Targeted School Violence"; (2) "Creating Climates of School Safety: A Foundation for Reducing School Violence"; (3) "Key Findings of the Safe School Initiative's Study of Targeted School Violence"; (4) "Implementing a School Threat Assessment Process"; (5) "Conducting a School Threat Assessment"; (6) "Managing a Threatening Situation"; (7) "Action Plans for School Leaders: Creating a Safe and Connected School Climate and Implementing a Threat Assessment Program"; and (8) "Conclusion: Threat Assessment as a Decision-Making Tool". An appendix contains a list of annotated resources. (Contains 24 references and 2 resource websites.) 60p.

Pre-Incident Site Planning: Site Hazards.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC , Apr 19, 2004)
Site hazard information must be easily accessible in the event of a school emergency. Storing information and resources, ranging from a master key to evacuation routes, in a locked box near the site provides critical site data to the first responder in the first few minutes on scene. 2p.

School Safety in the 21st Century: Adapting to New Security Challenges Post-9/11. Adobe PDF
(National Strategy Forum, Chicago, IL , Mar 2004)
Presents the results of a conference intended to expand the school emergency preparedness to include an "all-hazard" approach. This is necessary so that catastrophic terrorism incidents (CTI's) can be accommodated. Difficulties peculiar to a CTI may be that the school might be required to feed and shelter students for an extended period of time without full access to emergency resources. Suggestions for emergency plans, crisis team formation, safety assessments, and additional resources are offered. 38p.

OECD Programme on Educational Building (PEB) and Geohazards International (GHI) Ad Hoc Experts' Group Meeting on Earthquake Safety in Schools: Recommendations. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France , Feb 2004)
Lists the guiding principles and major elements for recommended mandatory school seismic safety programs. The major elements described are community awareness and participation, building codes and code enforcement, risk reduction for new and existing facilities, proper training for building professionals, and disaster preparedness. 10p.

A Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs: Developing A Biosecurity Management Plan. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Services, Washington , 2004)
Offers information on developing a plan and checklists for storage areas, hazardous chemicals, foodservice equipment, foodservice and food preparation areas, areas outside the school building, water and ice supply, and handling mail. 49p.

Bomb Threat Response: An Interactive Planning Tool For Schools [CD-ROM]
(U.S. Department of Education Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools; U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Washington, D.C. , 2004)
This program will help school administrators and state and local public safety officials better prepare for bomb threats against the nation’s schools. The topics of the program include: Understanding Bomb Threats; Prevention; Planning; Bomb Threat Response; Explosion Response; Follow-up; Training Aids; and Implementation. The educational program delivers content via a CD-ROM, a supporting Web site, and quick-reference cards that allow school administrators to develop a plan customized to their individual school

Bombs and School Security: Are Your Schools Prepared for Bomb Threats and Bombs?
(National School Safety and Security Services, 2004)
High-profile school violence cases and other national incidents, along with easy access to formulas for homemade bombs on the Internet, have contributed to the growth of bomb threats, suspicious devices, and homemade bombs in schools, on school grounds, and on school buses. This discusses how to handle bomb threats and suspicious devices. 2p.

Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington , Jan 2004)
Provides design guidance for the protection of school buildings and their occupants against natural hazards, concentrating on K-12 facilities. The focus is on the design of new schools, but the repair, renovation and extension of existing schools, as well as the economic losses and social disruption caused by damage from these three hazards is also addressed. Two core concepts emphasized are multihazard design, where the characteristics of hazards and how they interract are considered together with all other design demands, and performance-based design, where the specific concerns of building owners and occupants a considered over and above what is covered in the building code. Chapters 1-3 present issues common to all hazards. Chapters 4-6 cover risk management for each of the three specific hazards of the title. 361p.
Report NO: FEMA 424


Educational Facilities and Risk Management: Natural Disasters.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Programme for Educational Buildings, Paris , 2004)
Discusses the sensitivity of educational buildings to earthquakes and other natural disasters, given that they are densely occupied, and that they are often used as refuge for the general population during and after disasters. Strategies and justifications for building disaster-resistant schools and retrofitting existing schools are presented. Programs and case studies from several countries are described, along with historical accounts of recent disasters and their effects on educational infrastructure. 119p.
TO ORDER: http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp

Head Start Disaster Preparedness Workbook
(UCLA Center for Public Health and Disasters, Los Angeles , Jan 2004)
Presents steps for Head Start programs to take to identify hazards and resources, train their staff and families, and build partnerships with other agencies in the community. The types of hazards that can potentially impact a Head Start program and the local community are described. Information, tools, and activities to assist the Head Start program in different aspects of disaster planning and preparedness are provided. The sections of the workbook include: 1) Setting the Stage Disasters and the Importance of Preparing, 2) Assessing Your Head Start Program's Risks and Resources, 3) Developing and Implementing a Disaster Plan, 4) Communicating Important Information to Staff, Volunteers, Parents, and Others, 5) Building Teams and Training for Effective Disaster Responses, and 6) Recovering After a Disaster. Forms are included that are designed specifically for printing, for filling in program-specific information, and for use in developing a disaster plan. Supplemental resources that can be helpful throughout the disaster planning process are listed. 130p.

Homeland Security for Schools: Threat Status Alert Worksheet.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2004)
This worksheet includes suggested actions for schools based on general recommendations from the Homeland Security Department according to the color-coded Homeland Security Advisory System Designation. 6p.

Kansas Disaster Assessment Program. Adobe PDF
(Kansas Emergency Management and AIA Kansas, Topeka; International Code Council, Falls Church, VA , 2004)
Provides guidance and forms to prepare for and conduct a disaster assessment survey. These include pre-disaster buildings inventory, collection of civil personnel information, disaster operations facilities and supply inventory, and map lists. An organizational structure of the disaster team is suggested, along with job titles, qualifications, duties, and the process for mobilizing this team in the event of a disaster. Post-disaster recovery procedures and responsibilities are also outlined. 66p.

Keeping Schools Safe in Earthquakes.
(Organisation for Co-Operation and Economic Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2004)
Reports on a 2004 conference of international seismic and educational facility experts. Part 1 discusses the recognition of obstacles to improving seismic safety of schools in various countries. Part II defines seismic safety principles for schools. Part III discusses assessing vulnerability and risks to schools and other public buildings. Part IV identifies strategies and programs for improving school seismic safety. Part V presents the group's recommendations for improving seismic safety in schools. 242p.

Safeguarding Schools Against Terror.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2004)
This learning module is designed to help school administrators and their law enforcement partners to preserve and enhance the educational mission in times of turmoil and prepare to effectively respond to a crisis. The module includes sections on understanding terrorism; the school violence connection; finding the appropriate response; the case for self-reliance; strategies for preparation and response; and web resources and tools. 15p.

Terrorism and School Safety: School Safety Issues Related to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States.
(National School Safety and Security Services, Cleveland, OH., 2004)
These school security and crisis planning strategies for preventing and responding to terrorism include information on heightened school security procedures during terrorist threats; general recommendations related to terrorism and school safety; anthrax, mail procedures, and other chemical and biological crises; 9/11 anniversary issues, and additional information sources. This information is provided by a consulting firm.

Designing For Homeland Security
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL, 2004)
This paper addresses how to reduce the threats and vulnerabilities in the built environment by changing how to design and use space. Design professionals can use three basic strategies for security design, also known as CPTED. They are natural access control, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. Each of the strategies can be implemented through three methods: mechanical, natural, and organized.

Jane's Safe Schools Planning Guide for All Hazards.
Dorn, Mike; Thomas, Gregory; Wong, Marleen; Shepherd, Sonayia
(Jane's Information Group, Alexandria, VA. , 2004)
Takes the user through the planning, implementation, response, and recovery processes of a safe school. Section one describes how to organize personnel and materials around the development of an emergency plan. Section two describes mitigation and prevention procedures which involve both facilities and school climate issues. Section three details preparedness procedures for critical incidents. Section four presents strategies for recovery after a critical incident. 450p.
TO ORDER: http://catalog.janes.com/catalog/public/index.cfm

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. , Dec 2003)
This primer provides guidance to protect students, faculty, staff, and their school buildings from terrorist attacks. It also provides guidance to the building science community of architects and engineers working for local institutions on school projects. This document is intended for use by schools who feel that they are at risk to terrorist attacks. It provides necessary guidance to those who desire to increase the performance of their school and related infrastructure. Not all schools are at risk of terrorist attacks. The decision-makers in each school district should use current and available threat information from the proper sources to make this determination. The use of experts to apply the methodologies contained in this document is encouraged. This primer references several sources for additional information, including publications completed by other government agencies. Chapters include: 1) Asset Value, Threat/Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk; 2) Site and Layout Design Guidance; 3) Building Design Guidance and Safety Plans; 4) Explosive Blast; 5) Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Measures; and 6) Safe Rooms Within Schools. 306p.
Report NO: FEMA 428


Model Safe School Plan. A Template for Ensuring a Safe, Healthy, and Productive Learning Environment. Volume 2--Emergency Procedures. [California] Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of Environmental Health and Safety, CA , Jun 05, 2003)
This volume covers emergency preparedness and response and is based on the California Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS). SEMS which is designed to centralize and coordinate emergency response actions among various Los Angeles district organizations and public agencies and provides an effective framework for managing emergencies ranging from minor incidents to major earthquakes. 120p.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12): Providing Protection to People and Buildings.
Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn
(Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg; U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 2003)
Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings. The manual consists of three parts. Part A, "Critical Decisions for Earthquake Safety in Schools," is for superintendents, board members, business managers, principals, and other policy makers who will decide on allocating resources for earthquake mitigation. Part B, "Managing the Process for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Existing School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, risk managers, and financial managers who will initiate and manage seismic mitigation measures. Part C, "Tools for Implementing Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation in School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, or those otherwise responsible for facility management, who will implement incremental seismic rehabilitation programs. (Appendices offer additional information on school facility management.) 73p.
Report NO: FEMA 395

TO ORDER: FEMA Publication Warehouse; Tel: 800-480-2520

Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks. Adobe PDF
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in collaboration with a working group at the Department of Homeland Security , Apr 2003)
This document discusses air-filtration and air-cleaning issues associated with protecting building environments from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack. It provides information about issues that should be considered when assessing, installing, and upgrading filtration systems. It is intended to provide guidance regarding measures that may be taken to prepare for a potential CBR attack, rather than in response to an actual CBR event. The intended audience includes those who are responsible for making the technical decisions to improve filtration in public, private, and governmental buildings, such as schools. 78p.
TO ORDER: NIOSH Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45226-1998. Tel: 800-356-4674
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pubs.html

The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness. Adobe PDF
Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill
Mar 2003
This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff had been exposed to anthrax. After describing the incident, the paper details the various procedures and plans created conjointly by district and school administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and officials from the local health department, police department, fire department, and medical community. The district looked to the Federal Emergency Management Agency for guidance. The plans included steps to prevent bioterrorism attacks; an update of the school’s and district’s crisis-management plan; a training program for all personnel, including part-time staff, substitute teaches, volunteers, and district office staff; the installation of a crisis team coordinator at each school in the district; and the creation of guidelines for helping children, and the community, cope with the aftereffects of a crisis.

Structural Design for External Terrorist Bomb Attacks. Adobe PDF
Schmidt, Jon A.
(Structure Magazine, Reedsburg, WI , Mar 2003)
This article summarizes the methods available to define an external terrorist bomb threat and estimate structural design loads and element responses using simple dynamic system models and principles. By maximizing standoff distances and hardening key elements, designers can give building occupants a reasonable chance of escaping death and serious injury during an event. 5p.

Risk Management Guidance for Health, Safety, and Environmental Security under Extraordinary Incidents. Report of Presidential AdHoc Committee for Health and Safety under Extraordinary Incidents.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Report of Presidential AdHoc Committee for Health and Safety under Extraordinary Incidents, Atlanta, GA, Jan 26, 2003)
The objective of this report is to provide guidance for new and existing buildings regarding protection of air, water, and food systems within buildings. The scope of the report pertains to public use and assembly buildings; commercial, institutional, and educational facilities; and other areas of public assembly such as stadiums, coliseums, and vehicle tunnels and subways. Chapters include: 1) Risk Management; 2) Infrastructure Support, Constraints, and Vulnerabilities; 3) Guidance and Recommendations for New Buildings; 4) Guidance and Recommendations for Existing Buildings. 76p.

Guide and Checklist for Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards in California Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Department of Education, Sacramento , Jan 2003)
Advises on the reduction of seismic hazards associated with the non-structural components of schools buildings, including mechanical systems, ceiling systems, partitions, light fixtures, furnishings, and other building contents. The Guide identifies potential earthquake hazards and provides recommendations for mitigating those hazards. The non-structural components and building contents identified in this publication are listed in one of the following three sections: ceiling and overhead, walls and wall-mounted, and furniture and equipment. Within each section, an information sheet is provided for each non-structural component or building content item. Each information sheet provides a description of the item, a description of the potentially hazardous condition, and recommendations to reduce the hazard. An "earthquake hazards checklist" is also provided at the back of the publication to assist district staff in conducting a non-structural hazards survey. 50p.

Homeland Security: The Role of Schools in a Post 9/11 Environment.
(National School Safety Center, West Lake Village, CA, 2003)
Many of the strategies that would be used in a natural disaster, such as an earthquake or tornado, have significant application for managing the effects of a terrorist attack involving explosions or chemical, biological, or radiological warfare. While dealing with a human-caused terrorist attack is more unsettling for many than dealing with a natural disaster, the key for both is to be prepared. This discusses: Is Your School Prepared?; Reasonable Expectations; A School Safety Focus; Planning for Safe Schools and Crisis Response; and Preparing for National Emergencies.

Proactive Guide for the Threat of Terrorism in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Texas School Safety Center, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX., 2003)
Although American schools have not been targeted for terrorist activity, circumstances do warrant that schools adopt a heightened state of awareness. This guide addresses the potential for terrorist activity within the context of September 11, 2001, and the new reality America faces. A significant portion of the information in this guide was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies that share responsibility for keeping the public safe and informed. It contains a prevention/awareness checklist that makes recommendations with steps and participants to consider, and completion dates. With regard to biological terrorism, the guide discusses how to recognize suspicious packages and what to do if a bio-threat is received by phone. It also contains questions and answers about anthrax, botulism, and smallpox. Chemical terrorism, and bombs and explosives are discussed. Disaster planning differs from most other types of planning because the utter chaos that commonly accompanies such situations needs to be considered; recommended steps are presented with that caveat in mind. Terrorism and emergency preparedness resources are listed at the end of the guide. The information is current and will be updated on a timely basis. (Contains 10 resource web sites.) 37p.
TO ORDER: Texas School Safety Center, Southwest Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666. Tel: 512-245-3696

Recommended Emergency Supplies for Schools.
(American Red Cross, Washington, D.C.,, 2003)
Information on what emergency supplies to store, how much to budget, how much to store, and where to store supplies. Includes lists of recommended supplies for individual kits, an individual classroom, and for the whole school. Also covers search and rescue equipment. This list was developed from lists created by the California Senate Select Committee on the Northridge Earthquake, Task Force on Education, and updated by the American Red Cross. 4p.

Resources on Emergency Evacuation and Disaster Preparedness for People With Disabilities.
(The Access Board, Washington, D.C. , 2003)
This is a list of resources on emergency egress, including design criteria, and on disaster preparedness that address the needs of persons with disabilities.

Risk Watch: Natural Disasters.
(National Fire Protection Association with funding from the Home Safety Council and support from the Federal Emergency Management Administration, 2003)
This program is designed to teach effective emergency response to natural disasters, and to reinforce the importance of preparedness for natural and other disasters, including hazardous materials spills and acts of terrorism. It is designed to teach children to take actions to prepare and properly respond to disaster. The program identifies and incorporates local resources, making it possible to tailor the program to regions and communities. The program is divided into grade levels with each age-appropriate section covering seven disaster areas: general preparedness, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires and severe winter storms. Technically accurate information is combined with fun educational activities.
TO ORDER: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. Tel: 617-770-3000.
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?pid=rwndset&src=nfpa

Be Prepared With Lighting: An Online Reading Room.
Bullough, John D.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Lighting Research Center, Troy, NY , 2003)
Lighting is a tool that, used wisely, can increase security and safety. This is a compilation of articles, published in various trade magazines, that collectively emphasize that where, when and how lighting is used are just as important as how much lighting is used for effectively increasing security and for responding to emergencies. The articles contain guidance and principles for architects, engineers, and facility managers.

A Practical Guide for Crisis Response in Our Schools. Fifth Edition.
Lerner, Mark; Volpe, Joseph; Lindell, Brad
(The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, Commack, NY. , 2003)
Provides a structure and process for managing a wide spectrum of school crises, from the seemingly mundane to the most severe. Incorporates a strategy for addressing emotional needs during traumatic events. Also provided are specific strategies and interventions for various age groups, frequently encountered psychological and social crises, disturbances, threats, and grief counseling. Several guidelines and sample documents for use with teachers, parents, and the media are included, along with a fictitious case study. Include 84 references. 123p.
TO ORDER: The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 368 Veterans Memorial Highway, Commack, NY 11725. Tel: 631-543-2217.
http://www.aaets.org/

Introduction to Natural and Man-made Disasters and their Effects on Buildings.
McDonald, Roxanna
(Elsevier, Architectural Press, Burlington, MA , 2003)
Provides guidance with all types of natural and man-made disasters and their effect on buildings. The forces of various disasters are described, along with a basic technical understanding of prevention, mitigation, and management of each with a checklist of preventive design elements for each situation. Case studies accompany each disaster type, illustrating information crucial for designing buildings with disaster prevention in mind. A special emphasis is placed on re-building as an opportunity to start over. 240p.
TO ORDER: Elsevier Inc. Science & Technology, 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA, 01803; Tel: 781-221-2212, Fax: 781-313-4880
http://www.elsevier.com

Lightning Safety for Schools--An Update. Adobe PDF
Roeder ,William P. ; Vavrek, R. James
(45th Weather Squadron, Patrick Air Force Base. , 2003)
Many school activities can put students at high risk from lightning. An effective integrated lightning safety plan requires four tiers of activities: 1) education, so people are aware of the hazard and know what actions to take when lightning threatens, 2) protection of facilities and equipment, 3) mitigation, for when protection fails, and 4) weather warnings to alert personnel to take action. 8p.

Schools of Ground Zero. Early Lessons Learned in Children's Environmental Health.
Bartlett, Sarah; Petrarca, John
(American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.; Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY. , Nov 2002)
This book examines the health and safety implications of September 11, 2001, for seven public schools that were in the World Trade Center impact zone. From accounts of students, parents, teachers, and administrators, the report describes: (1) evacuation procedures of these schools on September 11; (2) communication flow between the New York City Board of Education (BOE) officials and parents; and (3) the health and safety decision-making processes of BOE. In addition, it provides policy recommendations that government officials, schools administrators, and parents should consider with respect to emergency preparedness and school health and safety precautions. 400p.

2002 School Resource Officer Survey. Final Report on the 2nd Annual National Survey of School-Based Police Officers.
(National Association of School Resource Officers, Anthony, FL, Sep 25, 2002)
Findings from a survey conducted by the National Association of School Resource Officers show the vulnerability of schools. An overwhelming majority of school-based police officers feel that their schools are vulnerable to a terrorist attack, and that the schools are not adequately prepared to respond. Officers reported significant gaps in their school's security, and that school crisis plans are both inadequate and untested. School-based officers report receiving limited training and minimal support from outside agencies in preparing for a terrorist attack upon schools. This report includes detailed findings and graphic illustrations. 47p.

How to Prepare for and Respond to a Crisis.
Schonfeld, David; Lichtenstein, Robert; Pruett, Marsha; Speese-Linehan, Dee
(Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Sep 2002)
Dealing with the effects of a crisis on school children and staff is not the primary mission of schools, nor is it the reason why most educators or school administrators entered the profession. Not surprisingly, therefore, many schools do not plan for or prepare to respond to a crisis that might affect their students and staff. This book, designed to address this issue, covers: (1) the assumptions and logic underlying its approach to school crisis response; (2) presents a general model and practical guidelines to enable schools to prepare for crisis situations; (3) goes over the nuts and bolts of implementing crisis plans in the event of an actual crisis; and (4) provides sample plans, forms, checklists, and resources to be used in crisis training, preparation, and response. The response model empowers staff to initiate and sustain a response to crises that answers the physical safety, mental health, and emotional needs of students, community, and staff. Appendix A contains guidelines for developing a school crisis plan; Appendix B, sample notification letters; Appendix C, sample contents of a crisis information folder; Appendix D, sample contents of a school crisis kit; and Appendix E, vignettes for crisis team training. (Contains 26 references.) 96p.
TO ORDER: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1703 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311. Tel: 1-800-933-2723.
http://www.ascd.org/

Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks.
(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, May 2002)
In January 2002, the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) formed the Interagency Workgroup on Building Air Protection which includes representatives from agencies across the Federal government. One of the first tasks of the Workgroup was to produce guidance to building owners and managers that would contain a set of recommendations they could implement now to better protect the indoor environments of their buildings from terrorist threats. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in close collaboration with Workgroup members, took on the task of drafting this document. Preparatory recommendations cover knowing your building, and specific recommendations include things not to do; physical security; ventilation and filtration; maintenance, administration and training. 40p
Report NO: NIOSH 2002-139


Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. FEMA 154, Edition 2.
(United States Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , Mar 2002)
Presents a method to quickly identify, inventory, and rank buildings posing risk of death, injury, or severe curtailment in use following an earthquake. The procedure can be used by trained personnel to identify potentially hazardous buildings with a 15- to 30-minute exterior inspection, using a data collection form included in the handbook. A significant difference in this second edition is the need for a higher level of technical engineering expertise on the part of the users. The structural scoring system has been revised, based on new information, and the handbook has been shortened and focused to make it easier to use. 164p.
Report NO: FEMA 154, 2nd ed.


A Guide to Developing a Severe Emergency Plan for Schools.
Watson, Barbara McNaught
(National Weather Service, Eastern Region Headquarters, Bohemia, NY , Feb 15, 2002)
Assists school administrators and teachers with developing safety plans during thunderstorms and their accompanying hazards of lightning, hail, tornadoes, and flash floods. Information on designing and practicing the plan, recognizing the approach of severe weather, and school bus safety are provided. 51p.

International Meeting on Helping Schools Prepare for and Respond to Terrorist Attacks. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France., Feb 13, 2002)
Proceedings of an international meeting focusing on helping schools plan and respond to terrorist attacks. The meeting took place on February 13 and 14, 2002, in Washington, D.C., and was hosted by the U.S. Department of Education, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the U.S. State Department. The purpose of the meeting was to gain a better understanding of how other countries have dealt with the issue of possible attacks on schools and students; to look at the impact of such events; to explore lessons learned; to identify what works and what doesn't; and to develop an informal sharing group of international educators and others who work with security and crisis management issues. 14p.

Designing Safe Schools. Adobe PDF
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. , 2002)
Incorporating the principles and practices of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in the design and remodeling of schools can contribute to the safety of the school while reducing the target-hardening and fortressing effects of a bunker mentality. The basic CPTED premise is that through the effective use and design of the built environment, there can be a reduction in the opportunity and fear of crime and a resulting better quality of life. Architectural features, structural enhancements, and spatial definition can deter, detect, and delay potential violent offenders from entering school campuses and buildings. The paper offers details in key areas of safe school design that should include security layering and defensible space planning practices: site design, building design, interior spaces, and systems and equipment. It also contains a list of design and management tips for safer schools. 6p.

Disaster Planning and Recovery: A Guide for Facility Professionals. Second Edition.
Gustin, Joseph F.
(Fairmont Press, 2002)
This reference covers how to plan for, cope with and recover from disasters. It helps facilities planners determine, measure and reduce risks. Topics include contingency planning, loss prevention, facility evacuation, working with the media, computer and data protection, bomb threat response, standby power, self-inspection, and more. 304p.

The Final Report and Findings of the "Safe School Initiative": Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. Adobe PDF
Vossekuil, Bryan; Fein, Robert A.; Reddy, Marisa; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington,D.C. , 2002)
This publication results from on ongoing collaboration between the U.S. Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education. Its goals are to determine whether it could have been known that incidents of targeted violence at schools were being planned and whether anything could have been done to prevent them from occurring. Results from the Secret Service's Exceptional Case Study Project (ECSP) are used to organize planning. This report describes the Safe School Initiative, defines "targeted" school violence, and discusses the prevalence of school violence in American schools. The methodology of this study, sources of information, and an analysis of survey responses are also discussed. Incidents of targeted school violence are characterized, including characteristics of the attacker, conceptualization of the attack, and signaling, advancing, and resolving the attack. Implications of study findings and the use of threat assessment as a strategy to prevent school violence are presented. 51p.
TO ORDER: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827.

Building Security through Design: A Primer for Architects, Design Professionals, and their Clients.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. , Nov 2001)
This booklet includes chapters on defining security needs, shaping security responses, and practice considerations. Specific issues addressed include: 1) rethinking the security equation; 2) asset, threat, vulnerability, and risk analysis; 3) layering concepts, biochemical protection and building hardening; 4) finding a security consultant; and 5) liability and legal issues. 25p.

Introduction to NBC Terrorism. An Awareness Primer and Preparedness Guide for Emergency Responders. Adobe PDF
Heyer, Robert J.
(The Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association, Longmont, CO., Oct 15, 2001)
This primer in intended to provide an awareness-level introduction to the subject of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (NBC) for first responders and community officials who need to be ready to deal with any possible situation quickly, efficiently and professionally. This provides enough basic information for responders to safeguard themselves and those for whom they are responsible. This material is also suitable for use as talking points for public information officers and those training or educating volunteer organizations or the general public. 15p

The Report of Governor Bill Owens' Colombine Review Commission. Adobe PDF
(Columbine Review Commission, Denver, CO , May 2001)
Presents a chronology of the April 20, 1999 Columbine High School tragedy, in which two students killed a teacher and twelve students before committing suicide. Along with recommendations covering first responders, crisis preparation, school violence prevention, and victim treatment, the report presents the Commission's caution concerning enhanced security technology and limiting access in the high school environment. 174p.

Newer Technologies for School Security. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR. , Feb 2001)
This digest describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for specific coding and specific access. Such cards can also be immediately canceled in the event of loss or theft and can be used to control entrances to parking lots and other school property. Another security device, metal detectors, can be helpful in ensuring the safety of a school but should be employed only in those schools where the risk is the highest. These detectors are expensive and require additional employees to operate the equipment. Another option is an alarm system that can be used to detect smoke or fire, intruders, and other threats to safety. Surveillance equipment is another possibility, and it too can vary widely in cost and in sophistication. However, even with digital technology, surveillance remains more useful as a means of reviewing incidents rather than in stopping behavior as it occurs. Before investing in any system, schools should identify the specific problems that need to be solved. 3p.

911! A Manual for Schools and the Media During a Campus Crisis.
(California School Boards Association, Sacramento, Jan 2001)
School district communications planning rarely includes ways to work with the media during an emergency. This short guide is aimed at providing both school officials and media professionals with specific perspectives and recommendations for cooperating to deliver crucial information to parents and the community during a crisis on campus. The purpose of the guide is to assist school districts and the media in collaborative planning for a crisis such as a shooting, natural disaster, or other event requiring the attention of law enforcement. The guide touches on the following topics: (1) why it is important to plan for a crisis; (2) the needs of schools and the media; (3) who should be included in crisis communication planning; (4) what should be included in a crisis communication plan; (5) what to do when a crisis occurs; (6) legal interpretations regarding media access to school campuses; and (7) the role of law enforcement. The guide includes a resource information list and several checklists.
TO ORDER: California School Boards Association, 3100 Beacon Blvd., West Sacramento, CA 95691 ($10.95). Tel: 800-266-3382.
http://www.csba.org

School/Shelter Hazard Vulnerability Reduction Resource Page.
(Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project implemented by the Organization of American States Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment for the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Caribbean Regional Program, 2001)
Summarizes a long-term project to develop national plans to reduce vulnerability of school buildings to natural hazards in Latin America and the Caribbean. The project included a survey of existing school buildings to create vulnerability profiles and the development of school maintenance plans. In the Caribbean pilot project, a master manual of standards for the retrofitting or construction of schools/shelters and for estimating the costs was developed, as were individual reports describing results of property survey in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, and St. Kitts. Photos of selected school buildings are available for Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada and St. Kitts.

Preparing for Crisis in the Schools: A Manual for Building School Crisis Response Teams. Second Edition.
Brock, Stephen E.; Sandoval, Jonathan; Lewis, Sharon
(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ , 2001)
This step-by-step guide is intended to aid counselors, school psychologists, teachers, and administrators in developing an action plan for responding to school crises. Psychologists experienced in crisis response present a framework for a proactive response to tragedy. An introductory chapter presents an overview. Chapter 2 offers a brief review of crisis theory. Chapter 3 contains a review of strategies for starting crisis-response plans. Chapter 4 reviews recommendations for securing a commitment to the planning. Chapter 5 discusses the roles of the members of a response team. Chapter 6 focuses on the procedures to follow during a crisis. Chapter 7 discusses medical and psychological triage. Chapter 8 suggests how to help a person in a crisis cope with trauma. Chapter 9 deals with media and the prevention of adversarial responses. Chapter 10 examines the advantages and disadvantages of types of security and the need for collaboration with local law enforcement. Chapter 11 surveys what is known about the prevention of violent events and the identification or assessment of potentially violent students. Chapter 12 focuses on the duties of medical liaison during and after the crisis. Chapter 13 provides examples of drills and readiness checks needed before a crisis and examples of questionnaires for debriefing or evaluation after a crisis. Many charts, tables, handouts, and questionnaires are provided. 418p.
TO ORDER: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Distribution Center, 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ 08875-1272 (). Tel: 800-225-5945.

School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.
Smith, Judie
(Learning Publications, Inc., Holmes Beach, FL , 2001)
This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team members to implement the crisis-management plan: student with a gun, arrest of a teacher, death of a teacher, and suicide of a student. Part 2, intervention, includes samples of written communication to parents and faculty; guidelines for dealing with the media; and suggested steps for the management of 29 different crisis situations. Part 3, resolution, provides information for helping students cope with grief and loss, dealing with post-traumatic stress, and conducting crisis counseling. The manual concludes with sections on organizing and managing a community meeting, debriefing the crisis team, and stress-management care for the caregivers. 187p.
TO ORDER: Learning Publications, Inc., 5351 Gulf Drive, P.O. Box 1338, Holmes Beach, FL 34218-1338. Tel: 800-222-1525.

Jane's School Safety Handbook.
Wong, Marleen; Kelly, James; Stephens, Ronald D.
(Jane's Information Group, Alexandria, VA , 2001)
This book advises schools in a concise, detailed format about crisis management. Its chapters address: (1) crisis planning; (2) early warning signs; (3) crisis response; (4) crisis recovery; (5) case studies of schools that have encountered crisis situations; and (6) sample letters to be distributed in case of crisis. Appendices discuss conducting a safety/security audit and organizing for crisis intervention and managing threats. Also contains a glossary. 275p.
TO ORDER: Jane's Information Group, 1340 Braddock Place, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-1651; Toll free: 800-824-0768
http://catalog.janes.com/catalog/public/

School Earthquake Safety Guidebook.
(British Columbia Ministry of Education, Victoria , Dec 2000)
Covers earthquake drills, programs for reducing seismic hazards, response plans, and individual checklists for students, teachers, principals, parents, maintenance staff, and bus drivers. 27p.
Report NO: XX 0231


Crisis Management and the Responsible School District
(Institute for Environmental Assessment, Brooklyn Park, MN, Nov 2000)
Provides a set of reasonable options for how a school district can move to prevent, as well as quickly respond to, crises, whether premeditated violence or the much more common crises such as hazardous materials, weapons, severe weather, fire, general community crises, etc. Discusses crises management teams, security surveys, physical layout, media interaction guidelines, cross-agency communications, and potentially dangerous students. 20p.
TO ORDER: Institute for Environmental Assessment, 9201 West Broadway, Suite 600, Brooklyn Park, MN 55445; Tel: 800-233-9513.

Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jul 2000)
This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the impact of windborne debris during tornadoes, hurricanes, or other extreme-wind events; and internal shelters specially designed within an existing building to provide the same wind and missile protection. The shelters are intended to provide protection during a short-term, high-wind event, such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Shelter location, design loads, performance criteria, and human factor criteria that should be considered for the design and construction of such shelters are provided as are case studies to illustrate how to evaluate existing shelter areas, make shelter selections, and provide construction drawings, emergency operation plans, and cost estimates. Included in the appendices is a case study involving a school shelter design in Kansas. Other appendices provide site assessment checklists; a benefit-cost analysis model for tornado and hurricane shelters; another case study of a stand-alone community shelter (North Carolina); wall sections, doors, and hardware that passed the missile impact tests; and design guidance on missile impact protection levels for wood sheathing.This document is a guidance manual for engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners about the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornadoes and hurricanes. Includes chapters that cover protection objectives; shelter types, location, and siting concepts; performance criteria for debris impact; design commentary; emergency management considerations; and cost/benefit analysis. 276p.
Report NO: FEMA 361

TO ORDER: FEMA Publications Distribution Facility, Tel: 800-480-2520.
http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=1657

School Facilities Manual: Nonstructural Protection Guide. Safer Schools, Earthquake Hazards, Nonstructural. Second Edition. [Washington]
Noson, Linda Lawrance; Perbix, Todd W.
(Washington Office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Seattle Public Schools , May 2000)
Addresses the strengthening of nonstructural elements of a school building to resist earthquake-induced damage and improve school building safety. Nonstructural elements include the decorative details and those functional building parts and contents which support the activities in, and the performance of, the building such as mechanical and electrical systems, furnishings and equipment, and necessary hazardous materials. The first section discusses earthquake activity in Washington, earthquake-induced damage to Washington schools, the causes of earthquake damage, the school district nonstructural protection program, and the use of school site teams. The second section presents inventory forms and inventory process for nonstructural elements. A revision of this section is included at the end of the guide. The third section provides the details for protecting nonstructural elements from earthquake-induced damage. 155p.

How to Cope With Terrorism & Violence in our Schools. Adobe PDF
Della-Giustina, Daniel E.
(American Society of Safety Engineers Foundation, Des Plaines, IL., Mar 2000)
Researchers who completed a recent study on school emergency preparedness recommend that each school system develop customized guidelines that can be incorporated into a comprehensive plan that best serves its distinctive needs. They advise that school officials work with local authorities and submit current scale diagrams of their facilities to local first-responder authorities such as the police and fire departments; conduct school drills to prepare all for such a crisis. Additionally they suggest holding biannual assemblies to discuss conflict resolution and how to identify violent behavior and to improve school security by installing magnetic metal detectors and setting up other ways to keep a closed campus. 7p.

Are Your Tenants Safe? BOMA's Guide to Security and Emergency Planning.
(Building Owners and Managers' Association International, Washington, DC, 2000)
This book shows how to plan for such emergency situations in buildings as fire, flood, power failure, bomb threat, medical emergencies, and crime. It also covers specialized emergencies such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, airplane accidents, and elevator failures. This helps identify and evaluate the issues, then develop, analyze, implement, and maintain an emergency plan.
TO ORDER: http://www.boma.org/

Disaster Awareness for Schools. A Resource Guide for Caribbean Teachers. Adobe PDF
(Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency; European Humanitarian Office Disaster Preparedness Programme , 2000)
This is concerned with the policies, practices, and appropriate measures that can be taken to anticipate and reduce the hazard on a community. Included are a select list of books, articles, pamphlets, brochures, posters, and other items on hazards, risks, and disasters that are held in disaster management agencies in the Caribbean. The selections take into consideration the interdisciplinary approach of developing an understanding and a greater awareness of natural hazards and disasters. It is intended for teachers to use a source to locate materials for their lessons on disasters. Many of the items are annotated and indicate the age group for which they are most appropriate. 44p.

Tornado Preparedness Tips for School Administrators.
Edwards, Roger
(Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK, 2000)
Notes that the most important part of tornado safety in schools is to develop a good tornado safety plan tailored to the building's design and its ability to move people. Discusses identifying safe places in a school building, flying debris, building strength, portable classrooms, and the need to run tornado drills several times yearly.

School Crisis Management: A Hands-on Guide to Training Crisis Response Teams.
Johnson, Kendall
(Hunter House Publishers, Alameda, CA , 2000)
Covers preparation for "during the incident" response to significant emergencies such as earthquakes, suicide, terrorism, accidents, and gang violence. "After the incident" sections list the signs of trauma and give staff guidelines for helping affected children. Strategies are included for team selection, community involvement, and staff burnout. Full-page charts clarify each area of discussion and may be reproduced as overheads or copied for training sessions. Also included is a chapter outlining the 12 goals of school crisis management, designed to help administrators create systematic plans; a chapter outlining the "new wave" in school crisis management, as major professional organizations enter the field and national standards of care evolve; and sidebars by national experts discussing specific incidents and issues from the Columbine High School shooting to computer-based threat assessment programs. 234p.

Checklist for a Safe and Secure School Environment.
(Indiana Dept. of Education, Indianapolis , May 1999)
Offers a checklist with explanations for school safety policies and procedures, emergency preparedness plans, building and grounds assessment, and safety transportation needs. A list of 59 references, additional resources, and websites is included. 31p.

The Future of the Field Act for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Feb 11, 1999)
Summarizes the Seismic Safety Commission's efforts to evaluate the Field Act, it's findings, and recommendations. The Field Act was enacted in California in 1933 after the Long Beach Earthquake in which 70 schools were destroyed, 120 schools suffered major damage, and 300 schools received minor damage. The Field Act has been updated many times since its inception and continues to be one of the most effective risk reduction measures undertaken by California. The superior performance of public schools in modern earthquakes and their critical role in disaster relief facilities repeatedly demonstrates the Act's effectiveness. 4p.

Protecting Our Kids From Disasters: Nonstructural Mitigation for Child Care Centers. Adobe PDF
(Institute for Business and Home Safety, Boston, MA , 1999)
Includes a detailed "Nonstructural Safety Checklist" that identifies the common nonstructural hazards for child care centers. This document also includes a "Project Leader's Checklist" and "Retrofit Instructions". 65p.

Structural Design for Physical Security: State of the Practice.
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA , 1999)
Provides guidance to structural engineers in the design of civil structures to resist the effects of terrorist bombings. Eight chapters outline the steps commonly followed in this practice. These are the determination of the threat, methods by which structural loadings are derived for the determined threat, the behavior and selection of structural systems, the design of structural components, the design of security doors, the design of utility openings, and the retrofitting of existing structures. This Report is the first transfer of this technology from the military to the civil sector. 210p.

Picking up the Pieces: Responding to School Crisis.
Schoenfeldt, Mary
(Schoenfeldt & Associates, Marysville, WA, 1999)
This book takes fifteen different events that may effect a school community and outlines specific plans and considerations for each one. It provides general information about the specific type of event, special considerations, what resources may be needed and where to find them, how to set up safe rooms, and information about parent and community informational meetings. Then the book provides step-by-step plans from the moment of notification or the actual event. The last section of the book lists a variety of resources. 349p.

Missouri Public Schools Safe Facilities Guide. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Springfield , 1998)
Presents guidelines for developing a safe school environment. Responsibilities for instructors, nurses, students, and parents are covered. Safety checklists for internal and external building and grounds inspections are provided with emergency checklists, sample forms, and signs included. Twelve references and numerous additional resources are cited. 57p.

Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , 1998)
Provides case studies highlighting the steps that some businesses have employed to reduce their risks of suffering losses due to natural hazards. The businesses that have been subjected to a natural hazard event since taking mitigation action have benefitted from substantial returns on their investment. The report reviews the types of benefits that can accrue to different segments of society from mitigative measures, the types of costs that can be incurred by undertaking the actions, and the types of analyses needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness associated with the mitigation measure. 41p.

Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education and Science, London, England , 1997)
This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It includes major revisions in the requirements for means of escape and the requirements aimed specifically at the designers of new construction. It also provides recommendations on planning and construction of escape routes dealing primarily with the number, width, location and construction of these routes. The use of fire resistant construction in its ability to restrict the spread of smoke and flame are explored as are suggestions on installing wiring equipment; everyday precautions occupants should observe if other precautions are not to be nullified; the ways fires can be prevented through careful design, management, and maintenance practice; and ideas for limiting fire damage. 47p.

Seismic Retrofitting of Non-Structural Elements: Lighting in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 1997)
Focuses on the seismic retrofitting or replacement of pendant lights and associated components at thousands of schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District following the 1994 Northridge earthquake in order to reduce injury risk to more than 800,000 students and meet current building code standards. (Begins on page 22 of the online anthology.)

The A.B.C. of Cyclone Rehabilitation
Macks, K.J.
(UNESCO, Architecture for Education Unit, Paris, France , Jan 1996)
This manual contains technical guidelines for the repair and rehabilitation of existing educational buildings following cyclone damage, including guidelines for reinforcing buildings to mitigate cyclone damage. The guidelines are written to be comprehensible to people who possess little technical knowledge. Includes drawings, photographs, sketches, etc. 133p.

Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities. Adobe PDF
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1995)
Provides technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. Users of the document will typically: (1)identify a maintenance/capital improvement project about to be planned or undertaken and go to the applicable matrix or matrices; (2)identify the building types in which the project will be undertaken and note all the applicable seismic retrofit opportunities; (3)review the applicable retrofit measure descriptions provided and incorporate some or all of the applicable measures; and (4)use risk analysis to help in prioritizing a large number of applicable retrofit measures. (This document has been superceded by "Incremental Siesmic Rehabilitation of School Buildings, 2003, found at http://www.ncef.org/pubs/schools.pdf). 71p.

Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage: Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications.
(National Research Council, Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technologies and Design Methodologies from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings., 1995)
This book provides a brief overview of worldwide terrorist activity and reviews technologies and methods for designing blast resistant buildings. These techniques, primarily developed by the military, have applicability and relevance to the design of civilian structures. The volume recommends that a program of applied research and technology transfer be undertaken to hasten the availability and utility of these techniques to the civilian building community. 112p
TO ORDER: National Academy of Sciences
http://books.nap.edu/

Risks to Students in School. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC , 1995)
This examines the scientific data on the risks for student injury and illness in the school environment. The report focuses on the risks that students between 5 to 18 years old encounter while they are at school, on the school grounds, at school-related activities, and traveling to and from school. Key findings include: (1) The two leading causes of death in school-aged children are motor vehicles and firearms; however, relatively few of these deaths occur in schools or on school buses; (2) quite often, the relative safety of schools, on a national average basis, is unknown; and (3) schools contribute to the risks of injury or illness in school-aged children; however, little is known about schools' contribution to nonfatal illness and injury. Finally, national data, particularly for environmental hazards, were usually inadequate to assess the risks to students. Data are presented for incidence of unintentional injuries, including playground-related, school-athletics, transportation, school-bus-related, pedestrian injuries, along with data for intentional injuries, including school-associated violent deaths and weapons. Information is presented for illness caused by environmental hazards, such as asbestos and lead, and for those that arise from exposure to infectious agents. Suggestions for comparing and managing risks are offered. 221p.

Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites. [California]
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento,CA , 1995)
This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal responsibilities to their students and communities before, during, and after a disaster. Guidelines for coordinating interagency sheltering plans and making pre-disaster agreements are offered in the third chapter. The fourth chapter describes procedures for inspecting buildings and making assessments as to their safety. Standardized Emergency Management System (SEM) regulations for sheltering are provided in chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses considerations in arranging for the resumption of school. Chapters 7 through 9 discuss plans for conducting shelter training and drills, financial considerations, and application of the law to private schools and special programs. 144p.
TO ORDER: Governor's Office of Emergency Services
http://www.oes.ca.gov/

Emergency Procedures for Schools: A Guide and Disaster Plan Framework for Rural and Small School Districts.
Ritchie, Ralph W.
(Ritchie Unlimited Publications, Mohawk Valley, OR , 1995)
This is designed to provide a school or district with background and a framework for a disaster plan, including a checklist of contingencies. Covers legal implications, emergency food and water supply, computers in a disaster, disaster tools, emergency security, data and record saving, and disaster stress trauma. 169p.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook for Use in the Screening of School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, MD , Dec 1994)
Augments the Federal Emergency Management Agency's publication entitled "Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook" (FEMA 154). It offers additional explanatory and supportive information for school districts that own their own buildings, have significantly more information about these facilities beyond what can be gleaned from a quick review of their exteriors, and wish to conduct a more comprehensive Rapid Visual Screening effort. The guidebook requires a side-by-side reading with FEMA 154. Appendices present earthquake problems of elementary and secondary schools and modified data collection forms. 55p.

Critical Time: Earthquake Response Planning and Schools. [Videotape]
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 26, 1994)
Describes what earthquakes are and examines the disaster planning schools can develop during the first few minutes following an earthquake to assure students and staff survive. The kinds of destruction likely to happen during a damaging earthquake are highlighted. It stresses the need for children and staff to know what to do during and after an earthquake; the evacuation procedures to use; and the potential hazards to avoid, inside and outside the school building, following an earthquake. It stresses that a school's disaster preparedness plan must assume that there will be no outside help right after an earthquake and explains the important areas to address. The videotape discusses the decision making needs during the first hour right after an earthquake, including staff training for hazards such as fires and searching procedures; and explains that plans should be tested and retested as the school's conditions change.
TO ORDER: FEMA, P.O. Box 2012,Jessup, MD 20794-2012. Tel: 800-480-2520.
http://www.fema.gov

Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape]
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC. , 1994)
Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this 13-minute videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the community to rebuild destroyed school buildings is large, but just as important is that schools often help support the community's recovery efforts following a disaster, so the loss of the school building impedes that effort. School's can be designed to resist earthquakes and the types of design considerations needed to avoid structural collapse are examined. Both exterior and interior considerations in seismic design are explored, and the proof that seismic design works in preventing school building damage and the relative cost of incorporating this design approach are discussed.
TO ORDER: FEMA, P.O. Box 2012, Jessup, MD 20794-2012. Tel: 800-480-2520.
http://www.fema.gov

Disaster Preparedness Planning Manual for Day Care Centers.
(Normandy Books, San Jose, CA , 1994)
Guides day care staff in assessing hazards and preparing a disaster response plan. It can also be used by parents concerned about their child's safety in a day care center or after school program. It covers what to expect in an earthquake, responses, drills, hazard assessment, emergency supplies, psychological factors, alternative siting, and release or relocation of children. Appendices offer sample emergency plans, forms, nonstructural hazard assessment guidance, and first aid/survival advice. 122p.

Facilities Management of Existing School Buildings: Two Models. Adobe PDF
(Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, MD; National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.; Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1994)
This document presents two models that offer ways a school district administration, regardless of size, may introduce activities into its ongoing management process that will lead to improvements in earthquake safety for its existing buildings. Model A is intended for districts where facilities planning is mainly reactive, and crisis management is practiced. Model B is for districts where facilities planning is a proactive function within their overall facilities management process. 139p.

Ready to Respond Emergency Preparedness Plan for Early Care and Education Centers.
(Bright Horizons, Watertown, MA , Jan 1994)
Assists child care directors and staff in responding to emergency situations. Overall operational crisis/emergency roles and responsibilities are described, with the following situations covered: 1) evacuation procedures and process, 2) sheltering in place, 3) medical emergencies, 4) natural disasters, 5) utility disruption, 6) fire/smoke emergencies, 7) hazardous materials, 8) bomb threat, 9) suspicious articles, 10) potentially violent situations, 11) random acts of violence, 12) disgruntled/impaired parents, 13) hostage situations, and 14) a missing child. Attachments include an emergency numbers list, an emergency evacuation plan, emergency kit supplies list, guidelines for handling medical emergencies, procedures for conducting a fire drill, bomb threat report form, and organizational roles and responsibilities. 29p.

School Site Preparedness for the Safety of California's Children K-12. Adobe PDF
(California State Legislature, Sacramento , 1994)
Should a disaster equaling the magnitude of the Northridge earthquake occur, the current varying levels of site preparedness may not adequately protect California's children. The report describes why the state's children are not safe and recommends that local fire departments assume responsibility for oversight and enforcement of disaster preparedness programs. The first section offers detailed recommendations for cost estimates, teacher credentials, nonstructural hazard mitigation, and cargo container organization. The second section presents task force committee reports on seven major areas of concern: supplies, training, communication, structural evaluation, schools as shelters, funding, and proposed legislation for school compliance with earthquake-preparedness standards. 96p.

Seismic Mitigation Strategies for Existing School Buildings Adobe PDF
Hattis, D. B.; Krimgold, F.; et al
(Building Technology Inc., Silver Spring, MD , 1994)
Examines specific examples of the seismic mitigation process for schools, a process showing that seismic retrofit in existing schools in other parts of the country are possible and could lead to more general seismic rehabilitation in other buildings. The report suggests that school facilities at risk for earthquake damage need a strategy of integrating the planning and implementation of seismic strengthening into the overall process of facility maintenance and capital improvement planning. Such a strategy is already being implemented in eight school districts in various regions of the United States. 99p.

Post-Earthquake Damage Evaluation and Reporting Procedures: A Guidebook for California Schools. [California] Adobe PDF
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, Office of the State Architect, Sacramento, CA, 1993)
The California Office of the State Architect, Structural Safety Division (OSA/SSS) is responsible for evaluating public school structures after an earthquake. However, final authority on whether a building should be reoccupied after damage lies with the school district. This guidebook is designed to help school officials assess earthquake damage before a qualified engineer arrives at the site and report building conditions to OAS/SSS to assist in establishing a priority list for site visits by structural engineers. 19p.

Tornadoes: Nature's Most Violent Storms. A Preparedness Guide Including Safety Information for Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Red Cross, Washington, DC; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD; Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1992)
This preparedness guide explains and describes tornadoes, and includes safety information for schools. The guide explains the cause of tornadoes, provides diagrams of how they form, describes variations of tornadoes, and classifies tornadoes by strength. Maps and statistics are given for several outbreaks across the United States. The guide shows how weather radar provides information on developing storms. Maps and charts reveal the frequency of tornadoes and number of deaths caused by tornadoes in each state. 13p.

Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 1990)
This brochure is designed to help architects design facilities which offer higher levels of protection against high winds from tornados and hurricanes. It provides the characteristics of a tornado, the intensity of damage it can cause and how it is caused, and the potentially hazardous elements that every building contains are highlighted as well as those protective elements that buildings contain which can help provide safe spaces for occupancy. Three school buildings are detailed that experienced wind damage from tornadoes resulting in their being partially or totally destroyed as a result. Each school's design relative to its hazardous and protective elements are revealed, including its damage assessment and commentary by administrators and students. The final section provides guidelines for tornado safety preparations. 31p.
Report NO: TR-83B

TO ORDER: Federal Emergency Management Agency
http://www.fema.gov

Seismic Considerations--Elementary and Secondary Schools. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series. Adobe PDF
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC , 1990)
Seismic safety provisions, when incorporated in a sound design from the very beginning, usually amount to only about l.5 percent of the cost of construction. General information concerning the seismic hazard and seismic design for elementary and secondary schools is contained in part 1 of this publication. Part 2 contains more technical considerations for school designers including basic design problems that affect the seismic performance of schools, and the ways in which the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) "Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings" can work to protect elementary and secondary schools. 102p.

Report of the Earthquake Preparedness Task Force Adobe PDF
Andrews, Bill; And Others
(California State Dept. of Education, Div. of School Facilities Planning, Sacramento , 1989)
An Earthquake Preparedness Task Force report presents California school districts with direction for complying with existing earthquake preparedness planning laws. It first contains two sets of recommendations. The first set requires state action and is presented to the Legislature for consideration. The second set consists of policy statements and requires action by local school authorities. The document then details a model earthquake emergency procedure system, examines public schools as community shelter sites, describes an earthquake damage assessment procedure, and presents a list of equipment and supplies that schools should consider having on hand to provide minimum support during an extended crisis. 85p.

Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. Adobe PDF
Auf der Heide, Eric
(The Center of Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance, Honolulu, HI, 1989)
The book is an interdisciplinary examination of the general problems of disaster response, with an emphasis on emergency medical care. Identifies the problems as being primarily systemic and organizational, related to procedures, management structures, and designation of responsibilities. Primarily for those with management, planning, and policy-making reponsibilities.

School Buildings and Natural Disasters
Vickery, D.J.
(United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France, 1982)
This study was undertaken for the purpose of identifying those areas affected by cyclones and other natural disasters and classifying them according to the particular nature of the disaster. It also attempts to analyse the main problems involved in designing and constructing school buildings resistant to natural disasters. Finally documentation and other types of information available on the subject are listed and analysed. 85p.
TO ORDER: Documentation and Information, Education Sector, UNESCO, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP, France.Tel: 33-1-45-68-10-29.
http://www.unesco.org/education/

A Case for Underground Schools. Adobe PDF
(School Plant Services, State Department of Education, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma , 1979)
The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made disasters, and schools offer the additional advantage that they are generally located central to the highly populated regions where emergency shelters may be most needed. In many cases, these shools were built with the understanding that the schools would provide sanctuary for the community in the event of tornadoes. There are indications that revenue requirements for energy and maintenance of underground schools are likely to be significantly less than requirements for comparable above ground schools. There are possibilities of making dual use of available land by building underground. Case studies of 12 schools show capacity, construction costs, floor plans, and photographs. 63p.

References to Journal Articles

Recovering from Tragedy
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must move forward after catastrophes to make sure students continue to learn and grow. Discusses the aftermath of tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Joplin, Missouri.

Knowledge Center: School Security Crisis Communications
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Feb 2012
When a school or university is dealing with an emergency, communicating to constituents and the public is critical. To get the word out most effectively, administrators must choose methods that deliver information quickly to the greatest numbers of people who need to know. Discusses how education institutions need to be using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to communicate important news to students, staff, family members and the community at large.

Ready, Set, Emergency!
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.

Emergency Plan Inclusion
O'Meara, Shamus P. and Mullin, M. Annie
American School Board Journal; , p32-33 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that when school emergency plans are created or revamped, the needs of special education students are considered. Discusses the four phases of school emergency management planning, and legal implications.

Critical Calculations to Stay Cool.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p9,10 ; Aug 2011
Emphasizes need for determining the type of emergency likely to occur in a facility's setting and to anticipate access to appropriate portable cooling needs. Calculations for accurate required needs are essential.

Who Is In Charge?
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.

R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.

Managing a Crisis.
Badzmierowski, William
American School and University; v83 n8 , p29,30,32,33 ; May 2011
Considers human factors in crisis communication plans. The author proposes that an understanding of human responses during a crisis is even more important than facilities, hardware, and systems planning. A plan for people should be developed in addition to facilities planning.

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.

At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
Sharp, Linda
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.

Ready to Respond.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n7 , p38-41 ; Mar 2011
Summarizes the role of departmental faculty, administrative staff, bus drivers, cafeteria works, custodial staff, counselors and nurses in creating an emergency preparedness plan and establishing a crisis intervention team, also known as an incident management team (IMT).

The Secret of NIMS.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p40-44 ; Feb 2011
Describes the National Incident Management System, citing its components, history, appropriateness for and successful use in school emergencies, and the availability of NIMS training.

Emergency Preparedness: It's the Planning, Not the Plan.
Casavant, David
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n1 , p19 ; Jan 2011
Outlines how to develop a plan for maintenance and engineering managers to respond to a variety of emergencies, whether natural or related to fires, chemical spills, and power outages. The plan should include defining possible emergencies, ensuring proper buy-in and budgeting, indentifying staff roles and duties, procuring equipment and materials, and ensuring training and communication.

Disaster-No Exageration!
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Education s four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.

Caught off Guard? [Overlooked Steps in Emergency Planning]
Muszynski, Lacey
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p47,48,50,52 ; Oct 2010
Advises facility managers on some of the most commonly overlooked areas of emergency planning. Not having a plan at all, having an outdated plan, and not practicing the plan head the list. A discussion of communication with occupants and local authorities complete the discussion.

Don't Be Caught without a COOP Plan.
Schwartzer, Ginny
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n5 , p10,12,13 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Advises on the creation and testing of a Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP), discussing creating the planning team, gathering departmental information, and prioritizing functions. Elements of the plan include delegation of authority, order of succession, alternate locations, "go kits," resource contracts, and communications and data issues.

Emergency Preparedness.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p8,9 ; Jul 2010
Presents comments from three facilities managers addressing the essential elements of an emergency preparedness plan, the role of facilities staff in compiling the plan, rehearsal of the plan, educating the occupants, relationship to vendors, and cost considerations.

Critical Communications.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.

What Is Your Plan?
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p20-25 ; Dec 2009
Advises on comprehensive school disaster planning for natural disasters, terrorism, and epidemics. Examples of school plans successfully executed are included.

H1N1: Reducing Your Risk. [H1N1 Preparedness.]
Lorenz, Brandon; Millan, Naomi
Building Design and Construction; v56 n10 , p22-24,26 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the spread so far and predicted severity of H1N1 influenza. Identifying and cross-training backup employees to cover essential building functions, preparing occupants for varying service levels in case of an outbreak, social distancing of occupants, increased opportunities for hand sanitization in common areas, and daily disinfecting of heavily touched objects such as doorknobs are also addressed.

Keeping the Community in the Know.
Dyrli, Kurt
District Administration; v45 n7 , p41-43 ; Aug 2009
Discusses mass notification systems for schools, which are more frequently being used for everyday, non-emergency communication. Internet-based services do not require hardware, software, or additional phone line installation. Some fully hosted online notification services are briefly reviewed.

What Will You Do? Effective Responses Come From Great Preparation.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Describes how a Florida school system handled a crisis effectively through thorough planning that incorporated the National Incident Management System (NIMS).

Developing a Critical Mass Communication Plan.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Offers 11 suggestions for developing a mass communication plan, including integrating multiple forms of communication, researching and selecting the best systems, communication with first responders, staff and student awareness and training, a clear communications.

Crisis Communications. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p11 ; May 2009
Presents an interview with a school security professional that discusses reactions to the recent swine flu outbreak, improvements in school security since the 1999 shooting at Columbine High School, and a short-term forecast for school security.

Shocking Statistics.
Bingham, Dave
American School and University; v81 n7 , p32-34 ; Mar 2009
Discusses automatic external defibrillators in schools, citing arguments for and against their installation. An installation program should be accompanied by training of key personnel, maintenance of the units, and placement in key locations.

Facility Survival Guide. [Emergency Planning Strategies.]
Lang, Robert
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2009
Advises facility managers on emergency response, with eight recommendations: 1) Develop an emergency action plan, not a guidebook. 2) Don't plan to rely solely on first responders. 3) Use Department of Homeland Security mandated NIMS courses. 4) Establish tabletops, drills, and exercises. 5) Establish a working relationship with first responders. 6) Create a perimeter group. 7) Use technology. 8) Don;t rely on product sales pitches.

Communicating Safety.
Trump, Kenneth
American School Board Journal; v196 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Advises what should and should not be said to the public in the event of a school tragedy, withmany typical messages being discouraged as being over-used or indicating a lack of recognition of the victims. A list of safety communication ideas for disaster preparation, rumor and threat management, and during and after a crisis are included.

How to Prevent a Document Disaster from Crippling Your Institution.
Hoey, Stephen
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n6 , p14,16,17 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on protection of document from disaster, including creating digital archives, especially of building blueprints that can help direct the way out of a disaster. Advice on creating a reliable archive is included.

Prepared for the Worst.
Lemmon, Karla
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p38,40,42 ; Oct 2008
Discusses mass notification systems for school emergencies, citing their advantages over traditional phone trees and even local television and radio stations. Examples of how mass notification systems have been used by school systems with weather, hazardous material, and suspicious persons situations are included.

The Evolution of Notification Systems.
Devoe, Jeanne
District Administration; v44 n9 , p40-44 ; Aug 2008
Reviews features of current emergency notification systems that combine text, email, and telephone communication. Examples of how various systems have been deployed are included, as are costs to institutions and to families who subscribe to them.

Do You Know the Drill?
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v44 n9 , p32-34,36-38 ; Aug 2008
Emphasizes the rehearsal of school emergency preparedness programs, and cites three districts that have noteworthy programs with drills that vary with each exercise and are complemented with follow up analysis.

How to Protect Your Building from Severe Weather.
Aker, Jenna
Buildings; v102 n7 , p84-86 ; Jul 2008
Advises on preparing buildings for severe weather by knowing the facts about what types of severe weather affect your location, assessing building weaknesses, fortifying buildings, creating a disaster plan, and being alert to weather advisories.

CASBO Members Called to Action During Fires.
Faneldes, Julie
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p28-30 ; Jun 2008
Describes how school business officials in San Diego County responded to recent wildfires with a new mass notification system, software that matched affected areas to employee addresses, and use of schools as evacuation centers.

IT Emergency Preparedness.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p38-40,42 ; Jun 2008
Details a three-phase approach to IT emergency preparedness, consisting of identifying the assets to be protected, making a list of potential threats, and finding tools, policies, and procedures to protect them. Redundancy, remote storage of data, types of natural and human threats, and recovery are addressed.

Staying Ahead: Building a Culture of Preparedness.
Gingera, Donna; Masson, Aaron
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p8,10-12 ; Jun 2008
Discusses school emergency preparedness plans, citing established national standards, the roles of leadership structures and senior management, risk assessment, mitigation strategies, and the components of the plan. Keeping the plan current, professional development for staff, and plan testing are emphasized.

Sounding the Alarm.
Kneen, Jayson; Welch, Beth
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p68-74 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the evolution of simple fire alarm systems to emergency mass notification systems that increasingly use wireless technology and are more impervious to destruction by the event. Components of mass notification systems are discussed, as are applicable codes, and effective communication to occupants with disabilities.

Emergency Power: The ABCs of UPS.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p18 ; Apr 2008
Describes three types of passive standby uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and advises on selection, proper sizing, and maintenance of UPS units.

Put Your Disaster Plan to the Test.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n3 , p46-48,50 ; Mar 2008
Discusses organization of a disaster plan drill, including scenario selection, designation of responsibilities, observations, and follow-up after the event.

Surviving Disasters.
Henke, Karen Greenwood
Technology & Learning; v28 n8 , p20 ; Mar 2008
Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. This article presents ten lessons that demonstrate how district leaders have used technology to respond to fires, hurricanes, lockdowns, and other emergencies: (1) Clean contact data is essential, for communications; (2) The network infrastructure must be ready for peak traffic; (3) Backups are not enough to rebuild critical applications; (4) Moveable systems get you back online when facilities are destroyed; (5) The essential operations of the district must continue; (6) Timely and trusted communications provide a sense of security; (7) Emergency credentials are needed by critical personnel; (8) Two data centers are better than one; (9) Students are texting, why aren't you?; and (10) People are the key to crisis management. (Contains 13 online resources.)

MNS Solutions for a Changing World.
Welch, Beth
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n2 , p14-16 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews the origins of mass notification systems (MNS), criteria for these systems found in military and National Fire Protection Association codes, and current technology for marriage of fire alarms and MNS.

For the Record.
Carlisle, Van
American School and University; v80 n6 , pSS48,SS50-SS52 ; Feb 2008
Discusses protection of vital records in schools, defining which records are essential, assessing threats to records, protective strategies and storage, and recovery after a disaster.

Preparing for the Unthinkable. (Is Your District's Safety Plan Up To Date?)
Salmans, Gary
American School Board Journal; v194 n12 , p32,33 ; Dec 2007
Briefly reviews major points of school emergency mitigation and prevention, preparation, response, and recovery, as part of a comprehensive emergency plan.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com

Five Lessons Learned from the Platte Canyon School Schooting.
Dempsey, Kate; Hodges, Lori
Hospital, School, & University Campus Safety; v15 n6 , p34,37-39 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Summarizes five lessons learned, as identified by local authorities after this shooting, including principles of design for traffic control and crime prevention through environmental design.

Pandemic Preparation: Hoping for the Best, Preparing for the Worst.
Van Sant, Kate; Stewart, Patricia
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p26-33 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Discusses the history of influenza pandemics and who is most at risk, as well as likelihood, potential sources, and timelines of pandemics. Advice on pandemic response includes details on creating and equipping logistics areas, safeguarding staff and students, and reductions of personnel due to illness. Eleven references are included, along with eight additional online resources for pandemic preparation and response.

Making Schools Safe from Earthquakes Through Retrofitting, Training, and Disaster Education.
Ando, Shoichi; Pandey, Bishnu; Fujieda, Ayako
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p122-130 ; Fall 2007
Details four on-the-ground case studies in Fiji, India, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan. A useful manner of retrofitting schools while linking to wider education and capacity-building is described: in Indonesia, retrofitted structural components of schools are painted in bright colors to highlight these components’ importance for earthquke safety. Then, parents and families are encouraged to consider how they could make their houses as safe as the school because, after all, earthquakes happen outside of school hours too. Thus, the school retrofitting is completed but the community education impacts continue for long after the official opening ceremony.
TO ORDER: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do

Seismic Risk in Existing School Buildings in Algeria.
Benouar, Djillali; Meslem, Abdelghani
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p50-65 ; Fall 2007
Reports on seismic risk for Algerian school buildings. A review is provided of the history of the construction of Algerian school buildings, along with earthquake damage which has been experienced. To try to avoid similar destruction in the future, a method is provided and tested: to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of existing Algerian school buildings to prevent damage which may occur during future earthquakes, particularly those which are located in or around the city of Algiers.

Iran's School Earthquake Safety Initiative.
Parsizadeh, Parokh; Ghafory-Schtiany, Mohsen; Hesmati, Vida; Seif, Ali-Ehsan
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p35-49 ; Fall 2007
Emphasizes the importance of Iran’s school earthquake safety initiative due to the young age structure of Iran and the loss of schoolchildren during earthquakes. The authors detail the formal and informal education processes which occur in Iran for earthquake safety, including publications, school earthquake safety councils, extra-curricular activities, competitions, workshops, continuing education, school building safety, and the annual national earthquake safety drill. An assessment of these programs is included, demonstrating their effectiveness.
TO ORDER: http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do

Disaster Risk Reduction Education Material Development, Organization, and Evaluation.
Petal, Marla
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p1-22 ; Fall 2007
Describes a vision for developing, organizing, and evaluating disaster-risk reduction education material. The author defines the purpose of disaster risk reduction education as being that everyone “comes to understand the risks of inaction, and recognizes and embraces its own role in a cooperative effort” with regards to disaster risk reduction. Then, a brief description is provided of some historical highlights in disaster-related education which helps to justify the need for a more systematic and comprehensive approach to the material already available and for developing new material. Possible indicators of success for educational initiatives along with research findings for disaster risk reduction education are summarized in order to formulate an evaluation approach for material submitted to the library. The evaluation method is designed to solicit feedback from all possible developers and users of material, including students, teachers, trainers, and disaster-affected people.

Building Community Resilience through Education: School Safety as a Route to a Culture of Prevention.
Sharma, Anshu; Gupta, Manu
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p23-34 ; Fall 2007
Details within the context of building a culture, a culture of community resilience through education and a culture of disaster prevention through school safety. Schools as “the cradle of each community” along with education as the key to building a culture of themes to set the stage for highlighting children, especially in school, as the starting point for disaster risk reduction education. Community-building through schools is described with application to India.

Safe Schools in Safe Territory.
Wilches-Chaux, Gustavo
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p122-130 ; Fall 2007
Advocates for “Safe Schools in Safe Territory.” He proposes approaches for achieving this, most notably “co-evolution” where environments and inhabitants develop side-by-side, building on each other’s strengths rather than separating themselves to exploit each other’s weaknesses.

Experiences with and Preparedness for Emergencies and Disasters among Public Schools in California.
Kano, Megumi; Bourque, Linda B.
NASSP Bulletin; v91 n3 , p201-218 ; Sep 2007
This study assesses schools' experiences with, and preparedness for, emergencies and disasters. Data are collected by mail survey from 157 public schools in California. The majority of schools have experienced emergencies in recent years. Although respondents generally feel their school is well prepared for future emergencies, limitations are identified in their disaster plans, availability of emergency supplies, training, and interagency coordination, with some differences between primary and secondary schools.

Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster.
O'Hanlon, Charlene
T.H.E. Journal; v39 n9 , p36-44 ; Sep 2007
An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can bring down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit in the summer of 2004. Through the foresight of Charlotte County's director of technology, Chris Bress, the school was able to resume operations only two weeks after the hurricane struck. This article provides tips on how districts may implement a disaster recovery plan, and explains several myths and realities about disaster recovery plans

When Young Lives Are at Stake.
Dorn, Michael; Dorn, Chris
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p38,40,42,43 ; Jul 2007
Discusses emergency preparedness plans for schools that include all hazards, all levels of the organization, the National Incident Management System, a reliable communications and media relations strategy, cooperation with local public safety agencies, plain and logical formatting, redundancy, incorporation into the school culture, consultation with an emergency management professional, and regular updating and distribution.

Preparing the Plan.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl. 12-14 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the results of a 2007 U.S. General Accounting Office report (http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07609.pdf) assessing the effectiveness of school districts in establishing requirements and providing resources for emergency management planning, what school districts have done to plan and prepare for emergencies, and the challenges school districts have experienced in planning for emergencies.

Seeking Secure Schools.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl 6,8,10 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the recommendations of federal agencies on ways to improve school security, following the April 16, 2007 shooting at Virginia Polytechnical University.

Calming Fears, Creating Partners.
Flanigan, Robin
American School Board Journal; v194 n6 , p32-36 ; Jun 2007
Advises on aggressive communication for emergencies at schools, emphasizing prompt, open, and detailed notification of families, accommodation of non-English natives, close alliances with other community agencies, and counseling that is prepared to handle situations that arise long after the event.
TO ORDER: http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2007/June/CalmingFearCreatingPartners.aspx?DID=37575

Pandemic Planning for Schools: Keep It Simple. Adobe PDF
McGiboney, Garry; Fretwell, Quentin
American School Board Journal; v194 n6 , p46,47 ; Jun 2007
Describes the structure of the DeKalb County, Georgia, School System's pandemic response protocol, using it as an example of how to cope with pandemics in stages, as they unfold. Plans for continuing instruction through the worst case scenario of a total school closure are included, as are the steps for reopening the schools when it is time.

Get a Head Start on Mass Notification Code Regulations.
Kempel, Jim
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p23-25 ; May 2007
Reviews current and upcoming codes for mass notification systems that are coupled with fire alarm systems. These include multi-channel systems that accommodate customized messages for different areas or situations and high audio intelligibility.

Safe Schools: Experts Look to Technology to Help Make Schools Safe.
Perry, Amy
School Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p19,20 ; May-Jun 2007
Advises on selecting and installing school security systems, school access control, surveillance, emergency communication and response, and formation of a long-range security plan.

Communications Systems.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , p22-24 ; Apr 2007
Discusses school emergency communications plans and systems, illustrating these with a case from the Clark County (Nevada) School District, in which schools were locked down during a police shootout across from an elementary school. Lockdowns, parent notification, and technologies of varying sophistication are covered.

Preparing for a Pandemic.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , p19-21 ; Apr 2007
Advises on planning for pandemics in schools, covering staff and student health, continuity of business and education, and community response. Considerations for a response plan should include appropriateness for the size and demographics of the district, use of national standards, working with local health experts, a school-wide infection control plan, reduction of work force, alternative learning, involvement of the transportation department, and maintenance of the plan as a living document.

Critical Operations Power Systems: The Generator in Your Backyard.
Anthony, Michael
Facilities Manager; v23 n1 , p36-40 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Outlines new requirements for critial operations power systems that will appear in the 2008 National Electrical Code, and will impact educational facilities managers. Recommendations for compliance and the perspective of those opposed to the requirements are included, along with four references.

Beyond Fire Drills.
Black, Susan
Threshold; v3 n1 , p5-9 ; Fall 2006
Discusses new and complex natural and man-made threats to school safety, citing statistics indicating a widespread lack of preparedness. Tools and resources to assist with disaster mitigation and preparation are listed, and checklists to develop or revise a school emergency preparedness plan are included.

It Takes a Community.
Holland, Holly
Threshold; v3 n1 , p28-31 ; Fall 2006
Reviews Spokane's effective school emergency preparedness plan, which is coordinated with first responders, uses custom software, and has proved valuable in actual emergencies. Five steps to community-wide preparedness are also included.

In the Eye of the Storm.
Howitt, Arnold; Leonard, Herman
Threshold; v3 n1 , p10-13 ; Fall 2006
Advises school leaders on emergency preparedness, detailing four steps that they must take. These involve putting emergency preparedness on the action agenda of all school stakeholders, reaching out and coordinating with first responders, creating an emergency plan, and developing response systems.

Food Safety and Food Defense for Schools. Adobe PDF
ERCMExpress; v2 n5 , 6p. ; Jun 23, 2006
It is recommended that schools adopt a multi-hazard approach to addressing their vulnerabilities. Food service operations--including school cafeterias, central kitchens, warehouses or food delivery services--pose risks to schools. Emergency management plans should not overlook the possibility of food service operational disruptions such as equipment failures, loss of power or contamination.

Reducing Risk: Mitigation vs. Management.
Mellinger, Bob
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p14,15 ; Jun 2006
Discusses mitigation of safety risk, which is typically more effective than managing incidents after they occur. Advice on risk determination, prioritizing risks to be mitigated, and effective communication as an element of mitigation is offered.

Using Technology to Connect with Parents--Instantly.
O'Brien, Tim
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p25,26 ; Jun 2006
Describes use of broadcast messaging to alert school parents to school events, changes in scheduling, and emergencies. Parents may elect to be notified by phone or email, and may vary the way they are contacted according to the urgency of the message.

Effective Crisis Communications and Emergency Notification.
Shafir, Nedda
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p6-8,10 ; Jun 2006
Advises on the elements of effective crisis communications that are brief, clearly stated in non-technical language, target only those affected, provide the official basis for the warning, indicate appropriate response, and provide a source for more detailed information. Methods of communicating with parents are also listed. Includes four references.

Wisconsin's Safe Schools.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p38,39 ; May 2006
Describes Wisconsin's program to train school personnel to in turn train district staff to assess their facilities and be better aware of school security issues.

Mass-Casualty Events at Schools: A National Preparedness Survey.
Graham, J.; Shirm, S.; Liggin, R.; Aitken, M.; Dick, R.
Pediatrics; v117 n1 , p e8-e15 ; Jan 2006
Presents the results of a survey of U.S. school superintendents assessing preparedness for prevention of and response to a mass-casualty event. From 2137 responses, 86.3% superintendents reported having a response plan, but only 57.2% have a plan for prevention. 95.6% have an evacuation plan, but 30% had never conducted a drill. 22.1% have no disaster plan provisions for children with special needs, and 25%reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. 42.8% had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures.

Protecting Vital Records in a Crisis.
Carlisle, Van
The School Administrator; v62 n11 , p47 ; Dec 2005
Advises awareness of which administrative and academic records that must be protected indefinitely and recommends Underwriters Laboratory approval for all safekeeping equipment. Products claiming to be built to UL class specification are typically not actually UL tested.

When Disaster Strikes.
Henderson, Douglas.
American School and University; v78 n4 , p29,30 ; Dec 2005
Advises on the creation and constitution of emergency management teams made up of senior school officials, which in turn establishes the emergency response team that actually carries out disaster response. A continuity of operation plan (COOP) is also recommended, which includes steps for immediate action, initial recovery, campus recovery, campus opening, and plan review.

The Preparedness of Schools to Respond to Emergencies in Children: A National Survey of School Nurses. Adobe PDF
Olympia, Robert; Wan, Eric; Avner, Jeffrey
Pediatrics; v116 n6 , p e738-e745 ; Dec 2005
Examines the preparedness of schools to respond to pediatric emergencies and potential mass disasters, using published guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. Although schools are in compliance with many of the recommendations for emergency preparedness, specific areas for improvement include practicing the medical emergency response plan several times per year, linking all areas of the school directly with emergency medical services, identifying authorized personnel to make emergency medical decisions, and increasing the availability of automated external defibrillators in schools.

The Beat Goes On.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v29 n10 , p50-54,56-58,60 ; Oct 2005
Cites numerous cases in which automated external defibrillators might have saved student athletes lives, had they been available. Various campaigns to require their installation, largely led by bereaved parents, are described, as are the various manufacturers installation programs in certain state and local school jurisdictions. Opposition to requiring their installation are largely based on the cost of the units, which is decreasing.

Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools.
Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda
Journal of School Health; v75 n8 p327 , p327 ; Oct 2005
School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school districts in Arkansas have plans for responding to a mass casualty event, but less than one half have a plan for prevention or mitigation of such an event. Since this survey was conducted, Arkansas has passed a law requiring all school districts to develop such an emergency response plan. The findings highlight a need for continued planning and preparation. For example, most schools had not conducted a mass casualty drill. Most superintendents had not met with local EMS officials, and only a few have regularly scheduled meetings. Schools should continue to plan and prepare for the unwelcome prospect of a disaster at a school.

Always on Call.
Exall, Marian
American School and University; v77 n10 , p60,62,64 ; May 2005
Discusses the use of 24-hour hotlines for reporting of safety and security threats. Hotlines are recommended to encourage anonymous reporting of situations to a person who is trained to separate the critical from the mundane, and to route information to the correct staff person. The type of training needed for hotline staff and possible outsourcing to ensure confidentiality are also discussed.

Emergency Preparedness: Path to Safety
Harrington, Gregory
Building Operating Management; Apr 2005
An emergency plan is more than just paperwork. A carefully prepared and regularly practiced plan might be the difference between life and death. This discusses evacuation or defend-in-place, facility fire protection and life safety systems, decision-making in emergencies, and the facilities executive's role.

Prepare Your School for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Threats.
Sechena, Ruth
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review; v70 n8 , p6-9 ; Apr 2005
Recent accidents highlight that chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) agent exposure risk isn't just about terrorism. In this article, the author, a parent and public health physician, wrestles with the fact that total protection from CBRs is probably not feasible in her son's or in the majority of American schools. Capital investments, for special air filtering and pressurization, protective equipment, exhausting and purging, etc., that might reduce risk, are huge. Therefore, she urges, that to maximize protection, school districts must approach CBR planning from a community-wide perspective. The author discusses the importance of conducting a (CBR) exposure readiness in schools. In general, two basic tools are used to protect children and staff. The first is school evacuation, and the second is shelter-in-place.

A Plan of Your Own.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2005
In the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., many anxious educators worried whether schools and universities might become targets of similar strikes. This article advises on the creation of specific campus emergency-preparedness plans, rather than the use of generic plans which might not address the particular issues of a given facility. Elements of a proper plan and sources of grant funding are discussed.

Defining Risk.
Matchett, Alan
American School and University; v77 n4 , p28-31 ; Dec 2004
Discusses the steps of a campus risk assessment, beginning with determination of assets to be protected and the types of threats that the school may encounter. From that information, the institutution should: 1) Investigate the annual frequency expectancy (AFE) for each threat. 2) Determine what type of loss occurs with each asset. 3) Determine vulnerabilities. 4) Determine existing safeguards. Current compliance with existing codes, policies, and procedures should be determined by survey. All information gathered should be used to determine annual and single loss expectancies and acceptability of the various risks uncovered.

When Terrorism Comes to School: The Sky Is Not Falling.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS-6,S-8 ; Nov 2004
Describes recent notable terrorist attacks on schools, but cautions against alarm, because these events are still extremely rare.

Angry Skies.
Jehlen, Alain; Winans, Dave
NEA Today; v23 n3 , p38,39 ; Nov 2004
Describes how administrators, teachers, cafeteria workers, and bus drivers worked together through the four Florida hurricanes of 2004.

Preparing for the Worst is Your Best Defense.
Ridgeway, Tim
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS-2, S-4 ; Nov 2004
Suggests an effective crisis management plan that addresses prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Every plan should include a crisis team; policies and procedures for various types of crises; evacuation routes, on-site safe areas, and off-site shelters; communication protocols; supplies; a complete collection of school site plans and keys; and drills.

Trends in School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning: Keeping School Administrators "In the Know" and Out of the Spotlight.
Trump, Kenneth
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS16-S21 ; Nov 2004
Advises on how to prepare for emergencies without being alarmist, what to include in safe school planning, typical gaps in planning, selection of school security consultants, and how to practice the plan.

Districts Rethink Availability of Data on School Security.
Cavenaugh, Sean; Manzo, Kathleen
Education Week; v24 n8 , p1, 18 ; Oct 20, 2004
Reports on reactions to the detention of a man in Iraq who possessed computer disks containing information about crisis planning, emergency procedures, and possibly even floor plans of schools. The laws and issues surrounding restricted access to this information versus rights to publicly-funded information are discussed. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll.
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Education Week; v24 n1 , p1,22, 23 ; Sep 2004
For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for emergency manpower, special equipment, makeup instructional time, and other costs. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Beefing Up Security.
MacGregor, Fletcher.
American School and University; v77 n1 , pSS8,SS10,SS11 ; Sep 2004
Advocates a risk management culture in school security, where everyone participates in identifying, managing and reducing all risks, including natural disasters, facility problems, and social factors. Specific suggestions for identifying and organizing response to risks are provided.

Road to Recovery — Fourth Phase of Emergency Management
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n8 , p10 ; Aug 2004
The U.S. Department of Education and Jane’s models for safe school planning urge schools to develop a comprehensive and detailed recovery plan. Both models are based on the emergency management model that has proven its effectiveness in many settings for decades.

Update on the National Electric Code. Adobe PDF
Anthony, Michael A.
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p35-37 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes changes in the 2005 National Electric Code, which introduces a variety of safety and survivability enhancements brought about by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the major power outage of August 14, 2003.

When Disaster Strikes.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; Jul 2004
When danger strikes, schools need to be able to respond with lockdowns and other crisis management strategies. Federal, state, and local governments have taken steps to safeguard schools, including providing resources for additional training, new equipment, and technical assistance in developing crisis management plans. Experts believe these preparation efforts are commendable, but some argue that school crisis-management plans are based on scant research and evaluation. The lack of well-controlled research on the effectiveness of school crisis preparation and response leaves many unanswered questions.

Improving Your Emergency/Crisis Response Plan.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v43 n5 , p34,36,38,40 ; May 2004
Advocates improved communications with the school and community, continuous crisis training for staff, networking with other school districts and public safety professionals, practice drills, and inclusion of recovery plans to create a thorough emergency response plan.

Responding to Tragedy.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n9 , p16-20 ; Apr 2004
Describes safety measures undertaken after notable school tragedies such as violent crimes or natural disaster. These include security and fire safety upgrades and the placing of law enforcement personnel within schools.

Getting Serious about Power Failures.
McClure, James
School Business Affairs; v70 n4 , p14-17 ; Apr 2004
Describes internal combustion electrical generation systems for emergency use and for "peak shaving" power production when the cost of peak electricity makes it economically feasible to generate power in-house. Case studies from four school systems are included.

California Schools Pass Up Earthquake Safety Study.
FacilitiesNet.com; Mar 2004
Few school districts have requested results of a 2002 California survey that found 7,537 buildings that might perform poorly and imperil students in the event of a big earthquake, and even fewer have attempted to upgrade buildings. The study found that about 10 percent of the total number of school buildings in California, could fall short of "achieving life-safety performance in future earthquakes." It estimated retrofitting them to this standard would cost $4.7 billion.

Emergency Evacuation Kit Revisited
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; Mar 2004
The emergency evacuation kit is a portable container that allows school officials to easily take critical information on the people in the school, emergency phone numbers, emergency checklists, and important information about the building with them should the need to evacuate or manage a crisis arise.

On Alert.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n6 , pSS4-6,SS8 ; Feb 2004
Recommends security steps to be undertaken at each of the federal government's threat levels of green, blue, yellow, orange, and red.

Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the Setting of Child Care.
Gaines, Sherry; Leary, Janie
Community Health; v27 n3 , p260-265 ; 2004
Discusses child care emergency preparedness, offering recommendations for consultants working with child care providers. The complexity of emergency preparedness in child care calls for the involvement of community health professionals, such as child care health consultants (CCHCs), who can assist child care providers in preparing to respond to a crisis. CCHC's are uniquely positioned to address emergency plans and are aware of resources that can support child care facilities during a crisis. Plans should describe how child care fits in with the larger public health and emergency management response to a community-wide event. A list is included of recommended child care emergency supplies.

Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings in Japan. Adobe PDF
Nakano, Yoshiaki
Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering; v4 n3 , p218-229 ; 2004
Describes efforts directed toward upgrading seismic performance of vulnerable school buildings following the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu (Kobe) earthquake. Damage statistics of school buildings due to the Kobe earthquake, criteria to identify their vulnerability, the subsidy program for seismic rehabilitation, and their implementation examples, are described, together with recent efforts for further promotion of seismic rehabilitation on a nationwide basis.

The Role of Schools in Meeting Community Needs During Bioterrorism.
Stein, Bradley D.; Tanielian, Terri L.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Rhodes Hilary J.; Burna, M. Audrey
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science; v1 n4 , 273-281p. ; Jan 2004
This article examines the potential role of schools and school districts in meeting community needs during a bioterrorism attack. The authors draw on research describing school responses to previous disasters and consider some of the specific challenges and emotional and behavioral issues associated with bioterrorism. This discusses how existing strategies and tools might be improved, and suggests that schools and school districts become active and full partners in communitywide public health responses to any event involving a biological weapon.

School Security, Crisis Preparedness and Related School Safety Publications.
Trump, Ken
National School Safety and Security Services; 2004
Articles and other publications written from 1998 through 1994 by Ken Trump, president and CEO of National School Safety and Security Services, a training and consulting firm on school security, crisis preparedness, and associated school safety issues.

Gimme Shelter.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v76 n3 , p295-97 ; Nov 2003
Describes the features of school buildings that help protect occupants during natural and man-made disasters. Masonry and concrete construction, proper roof and glass selection, and creation of safe rooms are highlighted.

The State of School Security: Preparing for School Violence Spikes, Terrorism and New Safety Threats.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v42 n11 , pS8,S10,S11 ; Nov 2003
Reviews current threats to school safety from violence within and terrorists without. Gaps in preparedness, budgeting, and mindset are discussed, along with suggestions for improvement.

School Safety After 9/11.
McGiboney, Garry W.
American School Board Journal; Sep 2003
In Georgia, the DeKalb School District's preparations for school safety include: fast-track evacuation procedures for schools near potentially dangerous sites; a plan that relocates students who are displaced from their schools; a capacity to provide shelter in case of emergency; and three means of internal communication.

Disaster Drills Emphasize Plans To 'Shelter' Pupils at School.
Jacobson, Linda
Education Week; v22 n33 , p6 ; Apr 30, 2003
Districts around the country—especially those in high-profile metropolitan areas such as Washington—are conducting more safety drills. One drill that is becoming more prevalent is the creation of a "shelter in place," in which school authorities order that students, and anyone else in the building, stay inside and often move to interior rooms without a lot of windows in the event of an emergency. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Schools Across Nation Redrawing Crisis Plans.
Herszenhorn, David
New York Times; Apr 12, 2003
Schools in New York City, and elsewhere across the nation, have been redrawing crisis plans, ordering more drills and briefing their staffs on new emergency procedures. For many principals, dealing with the issue has meant walking a fine line, sending home letters detailing their precautions while trying not to terrify everyone.

Agencies Offer Security Advice— And Money.
Robelen, Erik W.
Education Week; v22 n27 , 17, 20 ; Mar 19, 2003
Discusses new federal grant program and a Web resource to help schools better prepare for an emergency, such as a terrorist act, violent incident, or natural disaster. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Government Announces Emergency- Preparedness Web Resource For Schools.
Robelen, Erik W.
Education Week; Mar 07, 2003
Announcement of a new Department of Education Web resource aimed at helping schools better prepare for an emergency, such as a terrorist act, violent incident, or natural disaster. The department will also award $30 million in grants to help school districts improve and strengthen emergency-response and crisis-management plans. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

No Safe Havens.
Trump, Kenneth S.; Lavarello, Curtis
American School Board Journal; v190 n3 , p19-21 ; Mar 2003
This article discusses the results of a survey of U.S. school-based officers on terrorism and school safety. The survey found that a majority of officers believe that schools are vulnerable to a terrorist attack. This advises school officials to develop prevention strategies and emergency measures to plan, prepare, and practice for the worst possible incidents of violence.

As Alert Issued, Schools Urged To Review Security.
Bowman, Darcia Harris; Galley, Michelle
Education Week ; v22 n23 , p1, 14 ; Feb 19, 2003
Security experts are advising schools to review and practice their crisis plans and to communicate emergency procedures to parents and students in response to warnings to the nation of an increased chance of terrorist attacks. This discusses the concept of sheltering-in-place for schools. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Preparing Schools for Terrorism.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v42 n2 , p42-46 ; Feb 2003
Describes various efforts schools have made toward "homeland security" to combat the threat of terrorism directed at schools, despite a lack of legislation or funding.

Defensive Filtration.
Miller, James D.
ASHRAE Journal; v44 n12 , p18-28 ; Dec 2002
A building's air filtration system can serve as a significant defense component during an airborne chemical and/or biological attack from an external release. To assist building owners and designers in risk analyses and management decisions, this article provides a general introduction to biological and chemical agents considered most likely to be used in a terrorist attack. HVAC safeguards are discussed, followed by a description of air filters suitable for use in the chemical and biological arena.

School Preparedness for Terrorism.
Lavarello, Curtis; Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , pS2-S4 ; Nov 2002
Discusses a survey of U.S. school-based police which revealed gaps in security, emergency plans, and training.

Shelter from the Storm. Tornado Shelters Move to Public Buildings.
Urbaniak, Al; Farber, Yuriy
The Construction Specifier; , p84-87 ; Nov 2002
While uniform codes have yet to be established for resisting the complex combination of forces found in a tornado, some localities living under a higher threat of tornado damage have implemented various local codes or guidelines to ensure key public buildings, such as schools, can provide adequate shelter (safe rooms) from severe winds. Research into the viability of above-ground safe rooms has not only helped save lives, it has spawned a new generation of doors built to withstand tornadic winds and the missiles they hurl.

The Impact of Terrorism on School Safety Planning.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , p22-26 ; Jul 2002
Discusses why history and "thinking outside of the box" should encourage schools to acknowledge that they are potentially vulnerable targets of terrorism. Presents new safety and security issues raised by the threat of terrorism, including anthrax scares, cell phone use, and field trips. Describes "heightened security" procedures and crisis preparedness.

Comprehensive Threat Assessment Plan for Schools and Communities: Cooperation + Collaboration in Communities = Safe and Secure School Environments.
School Business Affairs; v68 n6 , p8-12 ; Jun 2002
Describes how Geneva School District (Illinois) built a positive school-police relationship and developed a community intervention team, which includes the position of community intervention specialist. Describes the purpose, principles, structure, and composition of a threat-assessment team. Includes threat-assessment procedures, based on a four-pronged threat-assessment model.

Disaster Management and Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Kenny, Grace
PEB Exchange; v2 n46 , p17-21 ; Jun 2002
Summarizes discussions from a seminar focusing on earthquakes and educational facilities, including findings related to educational buildings; partnerships; training; standards, regulations, and procedures; finance and legislation; and research and support.

Be Prepared, Not Scared.
Trump, Kenneth S.
Principal; v81 n5 , p10-12, 14 ; May 2002
Suggests steps principals should take to increase school security and crisis preparedness: Involve school community members in security needs-assessment process; reduce risk based on assessment by establishing partnerships with law-enforcement agencies, strengthening security, and establishing crises guidelines.

September 11: An Elementary School at Ground Zero.
Lehmuller, Pierre; Switzer, Anna
Principal; v81 n4 , p52-54 ; Mar 2002
Describes what happened at New York City's Public School 234 after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11. The prekindergarten through grade 5 elementary school of 655 students was located near ground zero. Emphasizes efforts to ensure students' immediate safety and security, provide rapid evacuation, and move to another building

Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p37-39 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness.

Preparing Against Threats. School Security Supplement.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2002
Discusses the September 11 terrorist attacks' implications for school safety. Explores various schools' security procedures and any changes that have been made in the aftermath. Includes a sidebar on dealing with suspicious packages.

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Emergency Planning in Athletics.
Andersen, J. C.; Courson, Ronald W.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; McLoda, Todd A.
Journal of Athletic Training; v37 n1 , p99-104 ; Jan-Feb 2002
Presents a position statement by the National Athletic Trainers' Association on emergency planning in athletics, examining the professional and legal importance of emergency plans and looking at components of emergency plans, which include implementation, personnel, equipment, communication, transportation, venue location, emergency care facilities, and documentation.

Schools Plan Responses to Bioterrorism.
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Education Week; v21 n9 , p1, 12 ; Oct 31, 2001
Describes what schools need to do for bioterror defense. Includes websites of organizations and government agencies that offer guidance on how to respond to bioterrorism threats. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Shelter from the Storm.
Schultz, Corey; Metz, John
American School and University; v74 n2 , p51-53 ; Oct 2001
Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane shelters.

Rural Schools Need Disaster Plans, Too!
Lemley, Charles; Lemley, Diane
Principal; v81 n1 , p30-32 ; Sep 2001
Describes principal-initiated process to develop and implement a disaster preparedness plan for a rural elementary school.

The Colors of Crisis.
Hull, Bob
American School and University; v74 n1 , p44-45 ; Sep 2001
Presents tips on how to make school emergency communication procedures more efficient and effective. Highlights use of simple codes, and offers advice on staff training and emergency drills.

Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team
Blythe, Bruce T.
School Business Affairs; v67 n7 , p16-18 ; Jul 2001
Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are discussed.

Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?
Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank
School Business Affairs; v67 n7 , p10-11 ; Jul 2001
Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking.

Handling an Emergency: A Defining Moment.
Polansky, Harvey B.; Montague, Richard
School Business Affairs; v67 n7 , p13-15 ; Jul 2001
Following a fire and a costly PCB cleanup at a Connecticut high school, the administrative staff learned valuable lessons. Districts must have an emergency management plan, provide accurate information, pursue alliances with media and agencies, issue daily press releases, develop a phone chain, and share the spotlight.

Emergency Response Teams in Action.
Watson, James A.
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p29,31-32 ; Jul 2001
Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion.

Disaster's Aftermath: Rebuilding Schools Is One Thing--Rebuilding Children's Lives Is Quite Another.
American School Board Journal; v188 n4 , p52-54,56 ; Apr 2001
Children who experience disasters such as Hurricane Andrew in southern Florida, are prone to severe and debilitating stress. Districts can prepare by designating a disaster management commander, a search-and-rescue team, and a reuniting team. Planning should include drills, recovery, and restoration elements.

Emergency 101.
Grosse, Susan J.
Principal Leadership; v1 n8 , p56-59 ; Apr 2001
Although emergency preparedness is a high priority for administrators, training staff can be challenging. A scenarios approach involves all staff members. Changing scenarios every year relieves boredom. Customizing scenarios to specific building and program characteristics makes training more realistic for articipants. Sample scenarios are included.

Bomb Threat Basics.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p57-59 ; Feb 2001
Discusses the increasing concern of bomb threats and explosive devices in today's public schools. The scope of the problem is explored as are planning tips for decreasing these threats.

Maintaining Security in an Insecure World. New Strategies are Emerging to Help Architects Design Without a Bunker Mentality.
Nason, Randy
Architectural Record; Dec 2000
Discusses security issues of buildings in the public and private sector, including schools, that may be vulnerable to malevolent actions. Describes the fundamentals of a design model known as crime prevention through environmental design. Includes a case study of Chesterton High School in Chesterton, Indiana, a new school incorporating 125 surveillance cameras that is considered state of the art in creating a safe place for learning.

Teamwork: Emergency Response.
Global, F. M.
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p14-17,27 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses the steps in developing an emergency response plan or updating an existing one. Five areas are addressed: determining site needs that can help or hinder an emergency response; writing policies; planning the levels of response; training personnel; and performing audits.

The Importance of Having an Effective School Crisis Response Plan.
Watson, James A.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , ps4,s6 ; Oct 2000
Details the components of a public school safety plan and how to develop a crisis response plan with emergency responders. The importance of crisis response team members knowing their roles and being held accountable are stressed.

FEMA Program Helps Schools Develop Emergency Response
Education World; May 30, 2000
Outlines guidelines recently introduced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to help schools develop procedures to respond to all types of disasters, including school violence. Discusses FEMA's multistep program that focuses on several aspects of emergency response, including planning, practicing evacuation drills, and setting up ways to handle both on-site and off-site communications. Identifies the six primary steps in creating an emergency plan.

Weathering the Storm.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n6 , p30,32,34 ; Feb 2000
Discusses the importance of knowing the type of climate a school is likely to endure as a decision element for selecting a school roofing system. The influence of extreme temperature shifts, wind, and excessive heat in the decision making process are discussed as are ways of improving maintenance and monitoring practices.

Paradise Built.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p26-28 ; Nov 1999
Describes the special advantages and unique problems of building a school in Hawaii as revealed in the design of Kauai's Kapaa Middle School. Using the environment to help reduce construction costs is described as are the economic tradeoffs to adapt buildings for earthquakes and hurricanes.

A True Community School.
Cecil, Daniel; Boynton, Rodney
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p44-45, 48-50 ; Apr 1999
Discusses how one community middle school, whose creation was the result of involvement of the town it resided in, became a lifesaving facility for many of the town's residents when disaster struck. The community-wide effort in the school's construction planning and its benefits to the community after its completion are examined.

How To Handle Bomb Threats and Suspicious Devices.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v38 n2 , p28,30,32 ; Feb 1999
Discusses ways schools can handle bomb threats and suspicious devices and describes risk reduction steps in preparation for these events. It suggests security risk reduction can be accomplished through proper use of policies and procedures, conducting staff training, establishing security agreements, and creating crisis preparedness guidelines.

Ice Storm: Reacting to a Natural Disaster in Quebec. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n35 , p6-7 ; Oct 1998
When a severe freeze hit Quebec in January 1998, schools and universities were forced to remain closed for up to 23 days. Here is an account of how school authorities handled the crisis and the lessons they learned.

Meeting Demand.
Daneman, Kathy
American School and University; v70 n12 , p129-30 ; Aug 1998
Addresses how a school district can use temporary classroom space to meet increasing student enrollment while additional space is being built. Provides examples of using portable facilities to supplement educational sites, including how to protect students who are in portable classrooms when tornadoes appear.

Boxed-up Students Not Safe in Winds
Kunerth, Jeff
Orlando Sentinel; Jun 21, 1998
More than 100,000 Central Florida students go to school in box-like, portable classrooms that offer little protection from high winds, are often poorly inspected and in some cases are not even attached to the ground. With recent killer tornadoes focusing attention on the anchoring of mobile homes in Central Florida, the Orlando Sentinel newspaper began investigating the safety of 5,443 portable classrooms at elementary and secondary schools in six counties. This includes the results of that investigation, plus several related stories.

They've Seen Fire and They've Seen Rain
Chandler, Kurt
Education FM; v1 n2 , p18,20-22 ; May 1998
Recounts what school district facilities managers did and what they learned from the flood and fire disaster in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Examines the taxing and complex cleanup effort, which required officials to scramble to locate sufficient architectural and construction crews to meet repair demands. Identifies unforeseen problems that leaders faced, such as toxic biological growth. Also describes the damage and repair expenses.

Braving the Elements: Protecting Schools Against Weather-Related Disasters
Breighner, Mary
School Business Affairs; v63 n4 , p37-42 ; Apr 1997
Discusses common weather-related hazards (floods, windstorms, and winter storms) and provides some steps administrators can take to protect their schools. Suggests administrators periodically assess their school's commitment to loss control, housekeeping, suitable building construction and reinforcement, sprinkler systems, water supply, emergency-response teams, regular inspections, building and equipment maintenance, and special-hazards-protection system.

How Prepared Are Our Schools? Natural Disasters, School Awareness, and District Plans
Burling, Wynona K.; Hyle, Adrienne E.
Educational Planning; v11 n2 , p3-16 ; 1997
Identifies, evaluates, and ranks disaster preparedness planning in school districts nationally. Findings reveal great diversity in disaster planning from no plans whatsoever to action planning covering before, during, and in the aftermath of a disaster.


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