Information on designing school buildings, including school design guidelines, trends, principles, and examples, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. See also NCEF Resource Lists on Campus Architecture, Case Studies, Selecting Design Professionals, and many more related topics.
References to Books and Other Media
10 Current School Facility Features that are Obsolete
(School Design Matters, Jun 20, 2012)
Looks at school facility features that are obsolete today and yet are still in wide use: departmental organizations; learning in prescribed spaces; school corridors; traditional school libraries; computer labs; gyms without natural daylight; teacher centered classrooms; isolate classrooms; institutional food service; and large gang restrooms.
Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies
National Forum on Education Statistics
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Mar 2012)
This guide provides a framework for collecting, evaluating, and maintaining education facilities data. It is written to help officials design a school facility information system that supports policy and decision making; management and operation; capital budgeting and project management; public participation in school facilities planning; and the integration of facilities data into other education and municipal data sets. Best practices are given for the design, development, implementation, and use of facilities management information systems, along with a list of standard data elements. These elements can be used to develop indicators for measuring and comparing the quality of education facilities; and, in turn, answering policy questions and informing new education policies. The facility data elements presented in this guide are described in greater detail in the NCES Handbooks Online at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/handbook. 80p
Learn for Life. New Architecture for New Learning.
S. Ehmann, S. Borges, R. Klanten
(Gestalten, Feb 2012)
Diverse collection of inspiring architecture and interiors that support progressive models of acquiring knowledge. New interpretations of kindergartens, schools, universities, and libraries are featured along with architecturally innovative offices and conference rooms. These examples are rounded out by more experimental projects that offer further perspectives on the rapidly evolving topic of how best to learn in the new millennium.TO ORDER: http://usshop.gestalten.com/catalog/product/view/id/4630
The groundbreaking spaces promote learning by inspiring us, providing us with helpful tools, and facilitating opportunities for productive cooperation and the exchange of ideas within groups. In short, the work makes clear that the creative use of architecture and interior design not only provides a new physical framework for acquiring knowledge, but also revitalizes and advances the process of learning as a whole. 288p
EPA: IAQ Design Tools for Schools
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
Website developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help school districts and facility planners find the information resources they need to design new school facilities, and repair existing facilities. Topics include: high performance schools, school siting, pre-design, materials selection, HVAC, controlling pollutants, moisture control, construction, commissioning, operations and maintenance, renovation and repair, portable classrooms, IAQ Tools for Schools.
A History of School Design and its Indoor Environmental Standards, 1900 to Today.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2012)
Looks back at the designs of school buildings of the recent past, identifying trends in energy consumption, ventilation, heating, air quality, lighting, and acoustics. Sections include: Safety, Permanence and Endurance--School Building Prior to 1930; The Progressive Era (1930-1945); Post-war Boom (1945-1960); The Impulsive Period (1960-1980); Declines of the 1980s and the New Movements of the 1990s and 2000s; 21st Century School Environments: What does the future hold? 30p
Sims, Joel K.
(School Designer, Dec 2011)
Explores K-12 schools from all over the world that incorporate areas that students find both beneficial and enjoyable. Provides comments from students who have utilized the spaces and enjoyed the benefits first-hand. 118pTO ORDER: http://www.lulu.com/product/ebook/schooldesigner-student-spaces/18739202
Building Energy- Efficient Schools in New Orleans
(U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Dec 2011)
This case study presents the lessons learned from incorporating energy efficiency in the rebuilding and renovating of New Orleans K-12 schools after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The experiences of four new schools—Langston Hughes Elementary School, Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School (which was 50% new construction and 50% major renovation), L.B. Landry High School, and Lake Area High School—and one major renovation, Joseph A. Craig Elementary School—are described to help other school districts and design teams with their in-progress and future school building projects in hot-humid climates. 23p
Collective Intelligence. Facility's Response to the International Baccalaureate Curriculum.
(Perkins Eastman K-12 Group, Oct 2011)
Provides plans for accommodating the ideals of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program within an existing school facility, including Primary Learning Modalities, General Meeting & Collaboration, General Teaching Training, and Diploma College Preparation. Focuses on the library as a dynamic and active place for collaboration and exploration. Includes strategies to minimize costs while providing a first class 21st century educational experience. 16p
Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011
(OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments , Sep 2011)
Showcases over 60 exemplary recently built or refurbished schools and universities from 28 countries and includes examples of early childhood, primary, secondary, vocational and higher education facilities spanning countries in six continents, from India, Uruguay and Portugal, to Australia, United States and Burkina Faso. Collectively, these projects demonstrate state-of-the-art design in this field and each one is lavishly illustrated with colour photos, plans and descriptions.TO ORDER: http://www.oecd.org/
Creating Quality School-Age Child Care Space.
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation/Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, Sep 2011)
Provides strategies for planning, designing, and equipping after-school physical environments for school-age children from kindergarten through eighth grade. After-school spaces offer an opportunity to create special crossover environments where children can learn in a low-stress setting, explore new interests, and develop meaningful relationships with friends and mentors. Covers the following topics: getting started, adjacencies; accessibility; greening your space; tips for maximizing shared space; entry/gathering area; program activities; indoor and outdoor active play; dramatic play, quiet games, and construction-based play; science; music and arts; academic support; computer/technology spaces; adult spaces; children's bathrooms; storage; maintenance; ambiance and aesthetics; equipment and furnishings; 40p
The Best School in the World: Seven Finnish Examples from the 21st Century
(Suomen Rakennustaiteen Museo, Jun 2011)
This catalog of a museum exhibition The Best School in the World features three expert essays and a detailed visual presentation of the schools. Architect Kaisa Nuikkinen discusses the various challenges of designing a school in her article Learning Spaces: How They Meet Evolving Educational Needs. Finland’s PISA performance is the main focus of Educational Progress in Finland and What We Can Learn from It, an expert article contributed by Pasi Sahlberg, Director General of the Finnish Centre for International Mobility (CIMO). Sirkka-Liisa Jetsonen, an architect at the National Board of Antiquities, provides an historical outline of the Finnish education system and its buildings in her article Setting the Scene for Learning. 80p
Database of Best Practices in Educational Facilities Investment
(OECD/CELE and the European Investment Bank , 2011)
The purpose of the database is to inform the planning, design, construction, management and evaluation of educational spaces by providing an international resource of exemplary school and university facilities, combined with a bibliographical reference tool for strategic investment in educational infrastructure. This database draws on two sources of information: Information collected in the framework of the joint CELE/European Investment Bank project on “Strategic Investment Planning for Educational Infrastructure”. The 60 exemplary schools and universities featured in CELE’s publication Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011. The database provides detailed information on each project, in addition to high-quality photos and plans and contact information for schools and architects. The database classifies each design project by category: flexible learning settings, school regeneration, access, new technologies, outdoor spaces, furniture, safety, comfort, community use and involvement, integrated services, special needs provision, multi-sensory environment, cultural and historical value; environmental sustainability, energy efficiency, cost efficiency, library/resource centre, music facilities, fine art facilities, science laboratories, vocational facilities, sporting facilities, etc). In due course, details of all the 166 submissions received during the publication’s preparatory phase will be uploaded on the database.
Optimal Learning Environments: Societal Expectations, Learning Goals and the Role of School Designers.
(Designshare.com, Minneapolis, MN , 2011)
Explores the effects of societal expectations on schools and investigates the relationship among those expectations, learning goals, and the learning theories that undergird schools. Through historical descriptions and practical ideas, advice is offered that can help designers of learning environments create flexible and responsive physical contexts. 7p.
Hille, R. Thomas
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2011)
Presents a survey of exceptional 20th- and early 21st-century K-12 school designs, by architects from Frank Lloyd Wright to Morphosis. This in-depth design study explores the fundamental relationship between architecture, education, and the design of contemporary learning environments. Its focus is on the underlying design themes and characteristic features that support and enhance basic aspects of learning and, in the process, create an architectural expression that is both meaningful and lasting. Its scope covers influences of contemporary educational ideas and practices, related design concepts and strategies, and the resulting impact of both on real environments for learning. More than 900 contemporary and historical photographs and 200 plans of schools by many of the outstanding design architects of the modern era are included. The book is divided into three parts: Part I is an overview of school design, Part II and III present key paradigms of school design and in-depth case studies of projects, with applicable lessons for today's architect. 528p.
Educational Trends Shaping School Planning, Design, Construction, Funding and Operation.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Sep 2010)
Assists educators and facilities professionals to prepare for an increasingly diverse, conflicted, and constantly evolving world of education. Fifteen trends are presented that are redefining education in the united states, and along with each, how it relates to the field of educational facilities. For each trend, a synopsis and discussion of consequence is offered. These trends cover demographic projections, analysis of disabled student populations, pre-school preparation, school size, teacher/pupil ratios, grade configurations, length of school year, attendance zones, technology integration, shifts in curriculum, green schools, and teacher census. 57 references are included. 16p.
Design for the Creative Age.
Illustrates international examples of collaborative and individual learning opportunities in a variety of learning spaces where large and small groups, as well as individuals in personal spaces can study. School/community connections, revealed structural elements, and dedicated interdisciplinary project spaces are addressed.
Designing Primary Schools for the Future.
Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer; Doherty, Cliona
(Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland , Jun 2010)
Explores the perceptions of students, teachers and key stakeholders of the interaction between school design and teaching and learning in the Irish context, specifically focusing on primary schools. In particular, the study draws on interviews with key stakeholders along with detailed case-studies of six primary schools. The research encompasses perceptions on existing primary schools, covering the range from older buildings to those built according to current design guidelines. School and classroom size, indoor and outdoor spaces and arrangements, and technology integration are addressed 169p.Report NO: Research Series #16
School 2.0 - Designing Tomorrow's Schools.
(Fielding Nair International , 2010)
Advocates the design schools to accommodate various modalities of learning: aural, visual, and tactile. Spaces where students can work in groups and problem-solve are described. These include creation of small learning communities within the classroom, social spaces. The opportunity to modifying an existing building in this manner is emphasized.
Building Better Schools: Methodological Concerns and The Need for Evidence-Based Research.
Edgerton, Edward; McKechnie, J.; McEwen, S.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Describes how the difficulty in building high-quality school environments has more to do with a lack of knowledge rather than a lack of finance. Research supported decisions in planning schools are still badly needed. According to the author, there are many reasons why there is little high quality research on school environments, but, perhaps the main reason concerns the practical and methodological difficulties that exist in this "real-life" field of research. Issues such as access to schools and users, specifying what variables to measure, selecting appropriate tools and obtaining large, representative samples, result in many barriers that need to be overcome. With reference to two school environment studies (one completed and one on-going), the paper focuses on tool development, operationalization of variables and the necessity for longitudinal research. 9p.
Sustainable School Architecture: Design for Primary and Secondary Schools.
Gelfan, Lisa; Freed, Eric
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Offers guidance on the planning, architecture, and design of schools that are healthy, stimulating, and will conserve energy and resources. The book emphasizes how eco-friendly practices for school construction can create an environment that students will emulate and carry into the world. Also included are a focus on the links between best sustainable practices and the specific needs of educational institutions, 19 international case studies of contemporary sustainable schools, information on the California Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, resources for incremental modernization and operation strategies as well as comprehensive transformation, tips on running an integrated, and contributions by experts on approaches to the sites, systems, maintenance, and operation of sustainable schools. 335p.TO ORDER: http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/en/books/ISBN978-0-470-44543-3
Schools: Educational Spaces.
(Braun Publishing, Salenstein, Switzerland , 2010)
Presents 60 international schools of notable programming and design, offering a brief description of each, accompanied by plans, sections, and abundant photographs. 271p.TO ORDER: http://www.braun-publishing.ch/index.php?id=18&L=1&tx_ttproducts_pi1[backPID]
Evidence-Based Design of Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises design professionals on how to create schools that are an extension of their communities. With assistance from research-intensive principles, theories, concepts, research methodologies, and the behavioral sciences, the book provides strategies for establishing a design approach that is responsive to the changing needs of educators and their students. The book presents an overview of the current research and learning theories in education and how they apply to contemporary school design, explores the history of school design in the United States; examines the role of information technology in education, includes case studies of more than twenty school designs, and connsiders what learning environments may be in the near future. It also analyzes the current shift toward a modern architectural paradigm that balances physical beauty, social awareness, and building technologies with functionality to create buildings that optimize the educational experience for all learners. 348p.
Designing New Learning Environments to Support 21st Century Learning Skills.
(DesignShare.Com, Minneapolis, MN , 2010)
Uses examples of innovative school buildings designed for collaborative learning to illustrate how the familiar box-based design of most current schools was designed for an outdated factory-model agenda. The new learning formats of engagement, problem solving, and communication are accommodated by these "form follows function" designs. Includes 26 references. 32p.
Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
Perkins, Bradford; Bordwell, Raymond
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises architects, planners, engineers, and their clients through all aspects of school facilities design. Chapters address predesign, circulation, design concerns and process, site planning, codes, sustainability, systems, technology, materials, acoustics, lighting, interiors, wayfinding, renovation, international design issues, operation and maintenance, and financing. Appendices provide sample space programs for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. The book examines technology's influence in the classroom, along with current research that shows how school buildings can impact teaching and learning. Design guidance is illustrated with school case studies, photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 350p.
Learning and The Physical Environment-A Research Overview from Scandinavia.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Presents a review of research done in Scandinavia on the relationship between learning and the physical environment. The paper discusses the interaction between children's learning and the physical environment of schools and their adjacent outdoor environments. The author stresses that learning in schools comprises both formal and informal learning, including play. She argues that both play spaces and learning spaces should have workshop-like qualities, preferably with clearly demarcated areas for different activities. Children need environments that inspire them to different types of practical activity. Learning environments should provide rooms for meeting and mixing with friends but also for seclusion. One way of assuring students' right to safe and developmental environments is to give them influence over the planning of their physical landscape. The local environment around the school is an opportunity in this respect. 6p.
Elementary School. [Whole Building Design Guide]
Vaughan, Ellen Larson
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , 2010)
Elementary school buildings are the setting for the first four to eight years of a child's formal education. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide describes the types of spaces in elementary schools and design considerations such as accessibility, aesthetics, cost effectiveness, functionality, historic preservation, productivity, safety and security, and sustainability. Includes emerging issues, relevant codes and standards, and major resources.
Secondary School. [Whole Building Design Guide]
Vaughan, Ellen Larson
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.c. , 2010)
Secondary school buildings provide the setting for the second phase of a child's formal, compulsory education in the United States—high school or grades 9 through 12. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide includes junior or "community" colleges in the secondary school category. This describes the types of spaces in secondary schools and design considerations such as accessibility, aesthetics, cost effectiveness, functionality, historic preservation, productivity, safety and security, and sustainability. Includes emerging issues, relevant codes and standards, and major resources.
Rethinking Schools: A System of Adaptable Design.
(Thesis, University of Maryland, School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation, 2010)
This thesis rethinks how schools adapt to change, by exploring themes of flexibility and adaptability. Flexibility in the short term allows learning spaces to be a platform for changing pedagogy or technology. In addition, adaptability in the long term allows for the architecture to absorb changes in enrollment. Education facilities around the world are constantly fluctuating between being over-crowded and under utilized. This thesis explores opportunities for the architecture of the school, from the master planning and organization of program to the construction methods of the building, to adapt to this change. A systematic approach is established where a pre-fabricated kit of parts is defined and utilized to create learning communities, which incrementally expand or contract from the core of the school. This thesis proposes this system of adaptable design as a solution to optimizing space utilization in public schools, grades pre-kindergarten through eight, in Washington D.C. [Author's abstract] 94p.
Designing Schools for 21st Century Learning. [Video]
(The Pearson Foundation and The Mobile Learning Institute with the Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Oct 18, 2009)
Architect Randall Fielding discusses cutting-edge school design while taking the viewer on a tour of schools. Presented at the CEFPI 86th Annual World Conference & Expo.
Optimal Learning Spaces: Design Implications for Primary Schools.
Barrett, Peter; Zhang, Yufan
(University of Salford, Salford Centre for Research and Innovation in the Builint an Human Environment, Salford, United Kingdom , Oct 2009)
Frames the multitude of opportunities within just a few major design principles derived from the basics of how people experience spaces in response to the environmental data they gain through their senses and synthesize in their brains that are more effective and comfortable. The report provides in-depth and practical suggestions for improving the quality of the internal and external learning environment so ensuring that pupils and teaching staff enjoy effective communication in comfortable spaces. This leads to a focus on naturalness, individualization and level of stimulation. The resulting practical opportunities are illustrated with case studies. When a new building is complete and is handed over to the teachers, the school can only be a finished beginning in which adaptations will occur. Only when spaces are seen to support learning and create a positive experience, can it be said that it was designed successfully. 55p.
Take 8. Learning Spaces: The Transformation of Educational Spaces for the 21st Century.
Newton, Clare and Fisher, Kenn
(Australian Institute of Architects, Oct 2009)
Focused predominantly on primary and secondary schools, this collection of interviews, articles and case studies presents a series of reflections by educators, designers and government policy initiators on the current landscape of learning space design and educational innovation in Australia. Articles commonly acknowledge the emergent relationship between pedagogy and space, leading to both revolutionary learning spaces and transformational teaching practice. While it is Australian-centric, the experiences and case studies reflected upon transpire relevance across the globe and will surely strike a chord of familiarity for those researchers, designers and practitioners who are negotiating similar pathways. 148pTO ORDER: http://www.architecture.com.au/
The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall; Lackney, Jeffery
(DesignShare.com, Minneapolis, MN , Sep 2009)
Presents 28 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, entries, student display space, "home base" and individual storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, supervision, dispersed technology, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Appendices include illustrated essays on school design, the future of built schools, author biographies, and 21 references. 214p.TO ORDER: http://www.designshare.com/index.php/language-school-design/order-process
Directory of Acronyms.
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Aug 26, 2009)
Lists typical acronyms used in the school facilities industry. The list addresses government agencies, planning, financing, design, construction, project management, operations, and maintenance. 28p.
15 Cool High School, College and University Building Designs.
(Web Urbanist, Apr 2009)
Profiles 15 mostly avant-garde designs of high school and university buildings from around the world. Photographs accompany each description.
(Autodesk, San Rafael, CA, 2009)
This online game helps educate everyone–from industry professionals to teachers, parents and students–about green building issues. The game presents in a quiz show and fast finger action format. RetroFits builds awareness about the benefits of green building renovation as players compete for a place on the high points leader board. Players can also stay up-to-date with the latest on green building issues by following RetroFits Twitter.
The Third Teacher: 79 Ways You Can Use Design to Transform Teaching and Learning.
(OWP/P Architects, Chicago, IL , Jan 2009)
Examines the link between how one learns and where one learns. Case studies, interviews, and written contributions are organized under 79 practical topics for how design can be used to transform teaching and learning. The book is a collaborative effort among school architects, school furniture suppliers, and designers. The Third Teacher encourages teachers to develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions of designers and understand that we all create the world in which we live. This book also shows how even the students can become designers of their learning environments. 257p.
Thinking Space: A Workshop Resource to Support Visioning of Learning Spaces for the Future.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2009)
Provides a workshop resource to support people who are thinking about, or currently undertaking school renovation or rebuilding projects. It includes a set of activities, tools and techniques that can be used to facilitate workshop sessions to help people in the visioning and pre-engagement phases of projects. It specifically aims to engage practitioners with activities to support critical and creative thinking about the future of education, related practices, approaches, relationships and technologies, and the implications these might have on future educational spaces. It also offers a set of workshop activities that can be undertaken with pupils as part of a wider commitment to actively engage and involve them in the redesign process. 122p.
Public Art for Public Schools.
(Random Hous/Monacelli Press, New York, NY , 2009)
Reviews the collection of more than 1,500 artworks has been assembled over nearly 150 years by the New York City Public School . The diverse collection ranges from stained glass by Tiffany Studios to mural cycles commissioned by the WPA to modern and contemporary works by Hans Hofmann, Ben Shahn, Romare Bearden, Faith Ringgold, and Vito Acconci. School construction and public art have expanded dramatically under current leadership, with new school buildings and art commissioned from noted architects artists. The book provides an account of the history and future of this program, illustrated with archival images and new photographs specially commissioned for this publication. 240p.TO ORDER: http://www.randomhouse.com/monacelli/
Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.
Life Between Classrooms: Applying Public Space Theory to Learning Environments.
Nair, Prakash; Gehling, Annalise
(www.designshare.com, Minneapolis, MN , Jan 2009)
Applies theories of space between buildings to space between classrooms. Corridors should be social, not just transit spaces. Formal and informal learning spaces replace classrooms. Outdoor spaces should provide a variety of group and individual spaces. 4p.
Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press
Schools of the Future.
Walden, Rotraut, ed.
(Hogrefe and Huber, Cambridge, MA , 2009)
Provides a brief overview of the historical development of school buildings in different countries, followed by contributions from authors discussing how school buildings can work together with users' own creative responses and result in educational environments that are "alive." The give-and- take relationship between architecture and its users (students, teachers, parents, and the community at large) is emphasized from the point of view of architectural psychology and emerging considerations such as information technology. The "schools for the future" vision is to create spaces that people are pleased to return to, time and again, and that allow options for future modification in line with changing user requirements. Also proposed are criteria for the assessment of schools derived from a dual approach. The first is the call for a common language to be used by designers and educators, exemplified by a number of patterns that have been found to be salient in school design. Their common underlying premise is that learning environments should be learner-centered, appropriate to age and developmental stage, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, and equitable, in addition to being cost effective. The second approach presents instruments for the systematic assessment of school buildings according to facet theory, a tool that helps to structure the large number of possible influences and subjective indicators such as learning performance, expressions of well-being, and social behavior. 264p.TO ORDER: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
Classroom Design for Student Achievement.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC, Dec 02, 2008)
This video reviews some of the fundamentals of learning styles, how this impacts classroom shape, what resources can be developed outside of the classroom to support instruction, and how facilities will continue to adapt as we move through the 21st century. This is a beginner level presentation aimed at architects who have never designed a school before or are just beginning to practice in the educational market.
The Optimal Learning Environment: Learning Theories.
(DesignShare , Nov 2008)
Explores various learning theories, the learning environments associated with each theory, the physical contexts designers have created to support them, and a perspective from which designers can conceptualize the creation of an optimal learning environment. 5p.
School of the Future Design Competition.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ, Aug 2008)
Showcases School Building Week's School of the Future Design Competition, which offers an opportunity to illustrate the kind of creativity that students bring to the planning and design process. The competition highlights the importance of well-planned, high performance, healthy, safe and sustainable schools that foster student achievement and enhance community vitality. The annual competition, open to middle school students, challenges student teams to design their schools to enhance learning, conserve resources, be environmentally responsive and engage the surrounding community.
Winter 2008 School Design Institute.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , Feb 2008)
Reflects the comments and recommendations related to specific facility projects presented by two school districts: Seminole County Public Schools (Florida), and Wichita Unified School District 259 (Kansas). The superintendent and two representatives from the district were invited to participate in a design charrette with four national experts specializing in the field of K 12 design and education. The process involved districts in a discussion about the benefits of good design and planning so that they could lead their districts in supporting innovative solutions. The report chronicles each school districts submission with a project description, demographic information about the community and the school district, a list of the recommendations resulting from the design charrette, and biographies for all participants. 32p.
30% Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers; Atlanta, GA , 2008)
Assists design teams in constructing energy-smart schools using off-the-shelf technology that can cut energy use 30 percent or more annually. It provides recommendations for various climate zones and implementation advice via a series of case studies. Also included are suggestions for achieving LEED energy credits and supplemental strategies for achieving advanced energy savings beyond 30 percent. Design suggestions from the guide include: 1) Daylight the classrooms and gym so that lights can be off most of the day, but design it carefully so that additional cooling needs are not required. 2) Design lighting that uses the most current energy-efficient lamps, ballasts, and integrated controls. 3) Control the HVAC system based on actual occupancy of each space at a given time. 4) Design a well-insulated envelope, including good wall and roof insulation and low-e windows. 5) Use high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment. 174p.
Interview with John Weekes, AIA.
(American Institute of Architects, 2008)
Presents an audio-only interview with school architect John Weekes, in which he discusses the need for school construction due to a history of neglect of buildings and population shifts that require new facilities in developing areas. Also discussed are key design elements of effective schools, schools as a community centers, school size, technology integration, safety, sustainable design, high performance learning environments, and resources for architects interested in school design.
The Education Environment Program.
Anstrand, David; Kirkbride, Edward
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , 2008)
Proposes an "education environment program" (EEP) as a replacement for traditional educational specifications. The EEP describes information and relationships as a trilogy, becoming the foundation for the future design of a new or renovated learning facility. This trilogy systematically describes the desired community environment, learning environment and physical environment. The community environment addresses civic design, program planning and partnership development. The learning environment focuses on interpersonal relationships, learning activities and learning time. The physical environment examines the relationships of building to inhabitants, building to site and building to the greater environment. The resulting Education Environment Program frames the "design problem" in a broader, more comprehensive way than possible in the old "ed. spec." format. 6p.
Linking Learning and School Design: Responding to Emerging Ideas.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2008)
Outlines emerging educational concepts that affect school design, including student engagement, personalization, connectivity of school to community, technological enhancement, lifelong learning, accountability, equity, accessibility, and investment. 66p.
Smart Kids, Bad Schools.
(St. Martins Press, New York, NY, 2008)
Decries "prison-like" schools and suggests a complete national overhaul in school design. Among the author's additional 38 ideas to save America are the lengthening the school day and school year. 320TO ORDER: http://us.macmillan.com/smartkidsbadschools
Space and Learning: Lessons in Architecture 3
(010 Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands , 2008)
Brings together Hertzberger's knowledge and ideas in a theoretical study of the spatial conditions of learning, with illustrations throughout of the architect's own work and that of others. More than thirty schools designed by Hertzberger have been built to date. School building, according to Hertzberger, is one of the few areas in architecture today where designers are still able to define and influence human conditions. In his opinion, school buildings require striking a balance between use, performance and an architecture informed by education. School buildings need re-inventing on each new occasion, particularly given current developments in education which are shifting away from the traditional approach to one more targeted at the individual. 208p.TO ORDER: http://www.010.nl/index_ie.htm
Design and Construction Procedures.
Identifies a number of procedures, regulations, and agencies associated with the construction of school facilities in North Carolina, and provides information that can expedite logical and efficient planning. The document covers the project development phase, plans and specifications procedures, and post-construction procedures. Modular units and charter schools are also addressed. 34p.
Fall 2007 School Design Institute.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , Oct 2007)
Reflects the comments and recommendations related to specific school facility projects presented by the school officials of four districts: Broward County Public Schools (Florida), Cleveland Metropolitan School District (Ohio), Hillsborough County Public Schools (Florida) and Miami-Dade County Public Schools (Florida). District officials were invited to work with four national experts specializing in the field of K 12 design and education. The process involved the school officials in discussion about the benefits of good design and planning so that they could lead their districts in supporting innovative solutions. This report chronicles each school district's submission with a project description, demographic information about the community and the school district, a list of the recommendations resulting from review by the entire group, and biographies for all participants. 51p.
Integration Patterns of Learning Technologies.
Elmasry, Sarah Khalil
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Sep 10, 2007)
This research proposes sets of design patterns of learning environments as an innovative approach towards an intelligent architectural design process. These patterns are based on teachers’ spatial and pedagogical use of their learning environments. The study is based in the desired condition that learning environments are expected to host learning technologies efficiently, to adapt to the fact that its life span is much longer than that of any technology within it, and to accommodate a variation of teaching modes and learning styles. In an effort to address these issues; calls for designing flexible learning spaces have emerged, as well as recommendations for alternative layouts. Yet, more challenging questions emerge; how efficiently do these technologies integrate with other systems in the classroom space? What should architects and facility planners consider for a successful systems’ integration which incorporates learning technologies in the design of the classroom space? And how can these spaces support variations in pedagogical practice. This study attempts to answer these questions by developing a pattern language to support the early design phases of a technology-rich learning environment. [Author's abstract] 139p.
Future-Proofing Schools: Strategies and Implementation, Part 2.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , Aug 21, 2007)
Offers specific design suggestions to ensure adaptability of a learning space to future educational delivery. Advice on how to create a suite of connected and varied learning spaces, convert circulation space to learning space, and create flexible casework are accompanied by examples of where these strategies have been implemented. (Part 1 is titled "Future-Proofing Schools." 2p.
What's in a Name? The Decline in The Civic Mission of School Names.
Greene, Jay; Kisida, Brian; Butcher, Jonathan
(Manhattan Institute for Public Research, New York, NY , Jul 2007)
Reports on the decrease in schools named after presidents or people in general, and increase of schools named after natural features. This shift from naming schools after people worthy of emulation to naming schools after hills, trees, or animals raises questions about the civic mission of public education and the role that school names may play in that civic mission. Statistics from seven states, representing 20 percent of all public school students, illustrate the decline. The causes for the shift in school names may include broad cultural changes as well as changes in the political control of school systems. Includes 8 references. 9p.
Learning Spaces Living Places.
(Arts Council England, Engaging Artists in the Built Environment Project, and Birmingham City Council, Jun 2007)
Invites students in Birmingham, England, schools to identify their concerns for space use in new and renovated schools. The students expressed a desire for personal safety, a “sense of space,” an accommodation of basic human needs, more nature and green areas, space for social contact and for quiet and prayer, complete handicap accessibility, and access to technology.
First Design the Fundamentals, Then Design a School of the Future.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , May 18, 2007)
Addresses the practicality of certain current design trends in schools. The potential flaws of ceiling height and exposed systems in great rooms, arrangement of windows and dimensions in multimedia rooms, arrangement of furnishings for personal privacy and tidiness of all spaces, and coordination between the designers of systems are addressed. 3p.
Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International Building Code for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven R.; Collins, David S.; and Juroszek, Steven P.
(Wiley, Apr 2007)
This illustrative guide presents the complex code issues inherent to designing schools in a clear, easily understandable format. It highlights major changes between the new international code and previous model building codes to help readers better understand how these changes will affect their practice. 432p.
Winter 2007 School Design Institute: A Report of Findings.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , Feb 2007)
Presents the comments and recommendations of specific projects presented by the superintendents of six school districts, working with a team of five experts specializing in the field of K 12 design and education. This process involved the school officials in discussion about the benefits of good design and planning so that they could lead their districts in supporting innovative solutions. A section of the report is devoted to a summary of each school district and its demographics, a project description, and a discussion of recommendations. Embedded in the comments and design recommendations are best practices regarding a range of issues, such as school size, technology, trends in learning, siting and location, the public process, and community school collaboration. 46p.
Building Schools for the Future: The Role of a Design Champion.
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Outlines the qualities and duties of a person designated in a school building project to lead and coordinate efforts toward good design. A step by-step response guide for key points in the building process is included. 6p.
Designing Quality Learning Spaces: Introduction and Interior Design, Function and Aesthetics.
(New Zealand Ministry of Education, Wellington , 2007)
Provides guidance to school boards and principals to help them understand the importance the internal environment plays in the design of quality learning spaces. It also helps boards of trustees brief consultants and tradespeople on their schools' requirements when planning new buildings, alterations or maintenance. The document offers an overview of interior design and human need and preferences. This overview is followed by sections on finishes, furnishings, requirements for various subject areas, accommodation of special needs students, and planning. A flow diagram for assessing interior design, a n interiors survey form, and 19 references are included. 56p.
InnoArch: Places and Spaces for Learning.
(Laboratory of Urban Planning and Design, Otakaari, Finland , 2007)
Reviews a research project where ten year-old Finnish children were given mobile phones and allowed to roam freely while being tracked with GPS loggers. During their roaming they recorded notes on and took photographs of things and places of interest. This data was used to discern desirable properties for places of learning. 12p.
The Color of Debate: Chapter 1
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Presents a debate between school designers over the impact of color in the learning environment. The debate contrasts the designers' instincts against the existence and quality of actual research-based evidence on the emotive effect of various colors in learning environments. 7p.
Architecture for Achievement: Building Patterns for Small School Learning.
Bergsagel, Victoria; Best, Tim; Cushman, Kathleen; McConachie, Lorne; Sauer, Wendy; Stephen, David
(Eagle Chatter Press, Mercer Island, WA , 2007)
Proposes a "pattern language" with which planners can explore architectural details that can enhance their schools design. The designs focus on smaller, more personalized learning communities that can boost student achievement. A wide range of indoor and outdoor design features are presented, organized as guiding principles for student success. These are personalized, learning-focused, collaborative, community connected, and adaptable. 156p.TO ORDER: http://www.eaglechatterpress.org/products.html
Kindergartens, Schools and Playgrounds.
Canizares, Ana; Fajardo, Julio, eds.
(Loft Publications, Barcelona, Spain , 2007)
Presents an international collection of recently built school facilities selected for their successful learning environments, promotion of togetherness and the exchange of ideas, and community use. The buildings all attempt to maximize energy savings, natural light, and ventilation. Each example is richly illustrated with plans and photographs. 255p.TO ORDER: http://www.loftpublications.com
Facility Planning: Principles, Technology, Guidelines.
Emphasizes the relationships of classical planning principles to the layout of space and illustrates ways in which these principles apply to design programs of the past and present. CAD and CAFM applications are emphasized throughout, and two advanced chapters discuss relational databases and their use in computer-aided facility management. The book also covers aspects of facility management related to programming, space planning, building codes and accessibility requirements, as well as advanced techniques such as relational databases and their use in computer-aided facility management. 504p.TO ORDER: http://vig.prenhall.com
Schools and Kindergartens: A Design Manual.
(Birkhaeuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland , 2007)
Illustrates the specialized field of school design with over 70 case studies from Europe, North America and the Pacific Region. The design of schools according to varying educational theories is explained in the context of varying national and regional approaches. Among the key themes analyzed are aspects such as the impact of modern communication technology, urban integration or internal circulation. Various authors contribute chapters on spatial configurations, acoustics, lighting, sustainability, outdoor spaces, nursery design, and facilities under reconstruction. 255p.TO ORDER: P.O. Box 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland
Designing the Sustainable School.
(Images Publishing Group, Melbourne, Australia , 2007)
Profiles 45 K-12 Schools from around the world that combine good aesthetics, sustainability, and high performance design. The projects represent a wide range of design solutions, location, and scale, ranging from a three-room schoolhouse in Burkina Faso to a 2500-student high school in California. Plans and photographs accompany each example. 256p.TO ORDER: http://www.imagespublishing.com
A Sense of Entry: Designing the Welcoming School.
Ford, Alan; Hutton, Paul
(Images Publishing Group, Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia , 2007)
Profiles the schools of a single architectural firm, whose designs emphasize entrances and circulation. Project descriptions are accompanied by elevations, sectional views, plans, and abundant photographs. 160p.TO ORDER: http://www.imagespublishing.com
Smaller, Safer, Saner Successful Schools.
Nathan, Joe; Thao, Sheena
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC and Center for School Change, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota. , 2007)
Provides a summary of research on small schools and shared facilities showing that, on average, smaller schools provide a safer and more challenging school environment that leads to higher academic achievement and graduation rates, fewer disciplinary problems, and greater satisfaction for families, students, and teachers. Also includes 22 case studies of public schools in 11 states, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities; district-run and charter public schools; and co-housing of almost 50 schools and social service agencies. These studies document the ability of smaller schools to improve academic achievement and behavior in safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments. The studies further suggest that sharing facilities with other organizations can enable schools to offer broader learning opportunities for students, provide higher quality services to students and their families, and present a way to efficiently use tax dollars. 68p.
Educational Trends Shaping School Planning and Design: 2007.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines 12 educational trends influencing the planning and design of school facilities. The trends were identified by reviewing the latest research on school facilities and student outcomes; current issues, problems, and initiatives in the educational field; emerging demographic patterns; and the authors previous work on this subject. The trends are: (1) School choice and equity will redirect facilities planning. (2) Small schools may be favored over large ones. (3) Class size may continue to be reduced. (4) Technology will be increasingly used to lower personnel costs and to deliver instruction. (5) School missions may change. (6) Classrooms will be reconfigured to accommodate various learning styles or tasks. (7) Schools will see extended hours of use to accommodate year-round schooling, non-traditional students, and community use. (8) Electronic media will increasingly replace paper. (9) Grade configurations will change. (10) Special education will continue to be mainstreamed. (11) Early childhood programs will expand. (12) Schools might disappear altogether in favor of home and distance learning. Includes 40 references. 8p.
Skulls and School Boxes: Student Brains that Want Out.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Discusses brain function, the brain's relationship to movement, and emphasizes school design that encourages movement. 4p.
Tackling the Crime of School Design.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Describes how architecture embeds cultural and educational values, and how schools often send negative messages about institutional life. International examples illustrate both nurturing and non-nuturing environments, with the respective favorable and unfavorable values of design details and materials included. 30p.
Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven; Collins, David; Juroszek, Steven; Ching, Francis
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2007)
Analyzes and illustrates the intent and potential interpretations of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) as it applies to educational facilities. The book discusses how the Code was developed and how it is organized, and should be used along with the Code. The chapters of the book correspond to those of the code, and cover building dimensions, types of construction, finishes, safety, accessibility, interior environment, energy efficiency, exteriors, roofs, foundations and structural considerations, and soils. 412p.TO ORDER: 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030; Tel: 201-748-6011
Educational Environments No. 3.
Yee, Roger, ed.
(Visual Reference Publications, New York, NY , 2007)
Presents examples of innovative new educational facilities, organized by the architectural firms that designed them. The examples are largely higher education projects in the United States, with a few K-12 projects included. A short description of each project is accompanied by photographs. 240p.TO ORDER: http://www.visualreference.com
Power of Aesthetics to Improve Student Learning.
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , Nov 2006)
Briefly reviews the affect of aesthetically pleasing environments on student learning and behavior, and describes Denmark's Kingoskolen school as an example. 6p.
Educational Facilities within the Context of a Changing 21st Century America.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Sep 2006)
Presents possibilities and critical issues related to the future of education and educational facilities. A scenario of educational technology that eliminates the school facility and decreases social interaction through "virtualized" distance learning is presented, followed by a discussion of eight educational and social trends that may greatly impact education in the upcoming decades. Each trend is described, along with its accompanying issues and the effects that it might have on school facilities. These trends reflect political and ideological struggles in education, influence of technology, school location and size, class size and grade configuration, and school facility condition. Includes 70 references. 47p.
21st Century Learning Environments.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris , 2006)
Presents innovative designs for schools and analyzes needs for schools of the future, drawing on material presented at the OECD Programme on Educational Building's 2004 conference in London. The richly illustrated text offers analysis of seven themes in school design, thirteen conference presentations from international practitioners, and eleven school visits. The conclusions summarize planning and construction issues and make suggestions for the construction industry. 108p.
A-Z Sketchbook for School Build and Design.
(School Works, London, United Kingdom , Jan 2006)
Presents a visual guide to the key areas which must be considered when renovating or building a school. The publication is in an hand illustrated cartoon format, with each drawing isolating an issue of design, space use, adjacencies, educational appropriateness, etc. The drawings are organized in chapters according to school room or space type, design issue, or amenity. The purpose of the publication is to help students and others participate in the school design process. Though a British publication, it has application to school design anywhere.
CHPS Best Practices Manual.
(The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), San Francisco, CA , 2006)
Offers guidance on creating high performance schools in California. The manual consists of six volumes. Volume I describes why high performance schools are important, what components are involved in their design, and how to navigate the design and construction process to ensure that they are built. Volume II contains design guidelines for high performance schools. These are tailored for California climates and are written for the architects and engineers who are responsible for designing schools as well as the project managers who work with the design teams. It is organized by design disciplines and addresses specific design strategies for high performance schools. Volume III is the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Criteria. These criteria are a flexible yardstick that precisely defines a high performance school so that it may qualify for supplemental funding, priority processing, and perhaps bonus points in the state funding procedure. School districts can also include the criteria in their educational specifications to assure that new facilities qualify as high performance. Volume IV (2004) covers maintenance and operations. It provides M&O staff, teachers, and administrators with strategies for avoiding improper use of building systems and poor maintenance practices that can diminish the energy performance of a school. Topics covered in this volume inlcude cleaning and calibrating building systems, selecting cleaning products, and reducing waste. Volume VI (2006) covers relocatable classrooms, ofering an overview of the pros and cons of relocatables, specifications for a high performance relocatable, and advice on requisitioning, siting, and commissioning relocatables. 717p.TO ORDER: http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/288
Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities, Third Edition.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2006)
Profiles 65 school buildings from OECD member countries that illustrate good architectural programming and design. The schools were selected on behalf of the Programme for Educational Building by an international jury on the basis of their flexibility, involvement of community, sustainability, safety and security, and alternative financing. The profile for each school includes building statistics, project participants, a brief narrative, a plan, and several photographs. 177p.TO ORDER: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2, rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France
Old Laundry Turns Charter School.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C., 2006)
A team of clients, architects, and a contractor discuss how they worked together to turn an abandoned laundry building into a vibrant new charter high school. The process created a school that feels like home to the students, and helps revitalize their New Jersey community. The different phases of the project are explained using a series of online videos, models of the project, photographs of the before and after, and photographs of the final project.
Report from the National Summit on School Design: A Resource for Educators and Designers.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC; Knowledgeworks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH , 2006)
Presents the results of the 2005 National Summit on School Design, convened by the American Architectural Foundation and KnowledgeWorks Foundation. The report details eight overall recommendations made by Summit participants on a range of school design topics: 1) Design schools to support a variety of learning styles. 2) Enhance learning by integrating technology. 3) Foster a "small school" culture. 4) Support neighborhood schools. 5) Create schools as centers of community. 6) Engage the public in the planning process. 7) Make healthy, comfortable, and flexible learning spaces. 8) Consider non-traditional options for school facilities and classrooms. Each recommendation is accompanied by brief case studies and a list of additional resources. Plans for advancing a national school design agenda are highlighted, and the results of a team exercise in solving the problems of five hypothetical school districts are included. The Summit’s 200-plus participants are listed, including teachers, parents, students, school administrators, education experts, architects, community groups, mayors, and other elected officials. (This is a large PDF file and may take awhile to open.) 72p.
Spring 2006 School Design Institute: A Report of Findings.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , 2006)
Presents the findings from a workshop with five school districts which addressed designing a high school prototype, replacing an elementary school, design of a new comprehensive high school, design of a K-8 school and community learning center, and the linking of an elementary and middle school. A description of each school district and its demographics is followed by a review and comments on the projects and its challenges. 36p.
Educational Facilities: Discipline, Surveillance and Democracy.
Attia, Mohammed E.
(Master's Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee , 2006)
Discusses the redesign and renovation of an open-plan middle school that is incompatible with the instructional policies practiced. TEAMS (Technology Enhancing Achievement in Middle School), an advanced educational system is proposed to be implemented at the school, will be reflected in the educational philosophy of the school and the new proposed design. The project will seek to create an environment that is an expression of the school's educational approach and make the school a place that students look forward to entering. The proposed design covers site conditions, types of construction and materials, energy conservation, and other "green" design features. 97p.
Design for Disassembly in the Built Environment: A Guide to Closed-Loop Design and Building.
Guy, Brad; Ciarimboli, Nicholas
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 2006)
Discusses design of buildings with their ultimate demolition (or disassembly) in mind. Construction products and techniques are covered, and examples of buildings at Carnegie Mellon University, the California College of the Arts are detailed. Includes 53 references. 66p.
On the Road of Aesthetics towards Better Education.
(Danish Center of Educational Environment, Randers, Denmark , 2006)
In 2001, the aesthetic element of all Danish public and private education was introduced by law. In the Danish Act on the Educational Environment of Pupils and Students it is written that all pupils and students in Denmark have the right to a good psychological, physical and aesthetic educational environment. This paper presents a Danish perspective on the impact of aesthetics on learning, emphasizing the need for sensory stimulation in the educational environment. The paper discusses not only the impact of architectural and interior design aesthetics, but also attention to aesthetics in the curriculum and activities of the students. 7p.
What If...Re-Imagining Learning Spaces.
Rudd, Tim; Gifford, Carolyn; Facer, Keri
(Futurelab, London, UK , 2006)
Presents the outcome of a workshop bringing together individuals from a range of design, teaching, mentoring, policy and research backgrounds. The workshop aimed to re-imagine learning spaces, and actively encouraged the development of "what if" scenarios that push the boundaries of current thinking and encourage debate of the relationship between educational goals and the design and resourcing of spaces for learning. These scenarios are presented in the paper, not as recommendations, but as a stimulus for discussion. 57p.
In Detail: Building Skins.
Schittich, Christian; Lang, Werner; Krippner, Roland
(Birkhauser, Cambridge, MA, 2006)
Focuses on the wide-ranging aspects of facade design, from the selection and use of materials to the advanced technical possibilities now open to the architect. An array of international examples show the theory in practice. Plans, details, and large scale sections of the facades are included. 198p.TO ORDER: http://www.springer.com/birkhauser?SGWID=0-40290-0-0-0
Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/
Importance of Informal Spaces for Learning, Collaboration, and Socialization.
Gee, Lori; Hajduk, Terry
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Sep 15, 2005)
Illustrates principles that are central to the importance of informal learning spaces: 1) The entire campus is a learning environment that provides opportunities for further learning. 2) Informal spaces for learning, collaboration, and socialization are critical components of both scheduled and unscheduled campus spaces. 3) Space drives behaviors and behaviors need to change for our society to realize its learning goals. The presentation explores these principles across a range of institutional examples 37p.
Informal Learning Spaces and the Institutional Mission.
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Sep 14, 2005)
Addresses a shared understanding of what might fall under the heading of "informal learning spaces," discusses what constitutes the "institutional mission" and its various dimensions, identifies how institutional mission and space intersect, examines different spaces and determines what they say about learning, and identifies informal learning space issues about which we need a greater understanding. 4p.
Scaling Up the Big Picture. Summary of Findings.
(Institute for Education and Social Policy, Jun 2005)
The research project describes a Providence-based non-profit organization called the Big Picture Company (BP), and its efforts to replicate its small high school design in multiple communities throughout the United States (with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation). It refers implicitly also to BP's ambition (and that of the Gates Foundation) to have influence beyond these schools -- to change American high schooling in fundamental ways. The researchers wanted to know what challenges BP would encounter as it took on these tasks, and to infer from its experience what other school designers might encounter. They also wanted to document the strategies that BP might employ to manage these challenges, and to assess their relative strength. They laid out the challenges and strategies in essays, situating both with the context of other scaling-up efforts within and beyond the field of education. In the first two essays, the authors name what they take to be the seven challenges of scaling up new school designs, and illustrate five of them with data gathered from studying both the BP experience and the literature of scaling up educational and other innovations. The third essay explores the 6th challenge, the challenge of obtaining and managing resources sufficient to scale. The fourth and final essay, explores the seventh challenge -- negotiating the politics of local adoption. 171p.
Can GSA's Design Excellence Program Be Used as a Model for Improving School Designs in the United States?
Bogle, Ronald; Peck, Robert; Feiner, Edward; Hardy, Hugh
(American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
A panel of architects discusses their experiences with the General Services Administration's Design Excellence Program, what made it work, and how the same principles might be brought to school design. 3p.
Picturing School Design. A Visual Guide to Secondary School Buildings and Their Surroundings Using the Design Quality Indicator for Schools.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK , Jan 2005)
Presents seven British case studies that illustrate solutions to overcoming recurring pitfalls in school design, using the Design Quality Indicator for Schools, which was developed by the DfES in partnership with the Construction Industry Council. The publication illustrates various approaches to key design issues within the school site and building, and share best practices as well as identifying common problem areas. 28p.
School Plus: Exploring Educational Spaces.
(Eindhoven Technical University, Eindhoven, Netherlands , 2005)
Summarizes this 2004 workshop, which brought architectural students, architects, and urban designers together to an Amsterdam site designated for a school. The students participated in workshops exploring multifunctional educational facilities and the roles of schools a public spaces. The site was explored and analyzed, and then the students returned to their home universities. This book presents the 24 design proposals that they subsequently submitted for the site. 68p.TO ORDER: Hüsnü Yegenoglu, tel: 31 40 247 4666, e-mail: email@example.com; or Geoffrey Timmer, tel. 31 62 481 9442, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Design Solutions That You Will Not Believe or Maybe You Don't Even Want To.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , 2005)
Describes with text and photographs four faulty school design elements that could easily have been avoided, and suggests what should have been done instead. 6p.
The Great Learning Street Debate.
(www.designshare.com, Minneapolis, MN , 2005)
Describes the attributes that a school "learning street" should possess, so that it is not just another double-loaded corridor. The space should be a social artery, enabling informal meeting and unhurried movement. It should possess nooks and crannies for various compatible school activities. It should be spacious, with ample daylight, and provide educational value that justifies its cost. 4p.
The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall
(DesignShare.com, Minneapolis, MN , 2005)
Presents 25 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, common areas, storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Includes 21 references. 118p.TO ORDER: http://www.designshare.com/patterns/default.asp?article=110
The Non-Architect's Guide to Major Capital Projects: Planning, Designing, and Delivering New Buildings.
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2005)
Introduces the steps and sequence of planning, designing, and delivering a capital project. The six stages of the project delivery process (planning or pre-design, schematic design, design development, construction documents, construction administration, and occupancy) are covered in order, with emphasis on the pre-design phase, where non-architects are the most involved. A glossary is included, as are appendices which explain how to interpret architectural drawings, suggest further reading, and categorize design services. Includes 30 references. 128p.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/pubs/books
Educational Environments No. 2.
(Visual Reference Publications, New York, NY , 2005)
Presents examples of innovative educational facilities, organized by the architectural firms that designed them. The examples are largely higher education projects in the United States, with a few foreign and K-12 projects included. A short description of each project is accompanied by photographs. 211p.TO ORDER: 302 Fifth Ave., New York, NY, 10001; Tel: 212-279-7000
21st Century Schools Design Manual.
(New Jersey Schools Construction Corporation, Trenton , Sep 30, 2004)
Establishes a uniform and detailed approach to school facilities design for the New Jersey School Construction Corporation. The guide sets forth 24 required criteria that inform the design process and sets individual goals for each. Required design and construction standards follow, organized by CSI Divisions. Required deliverables for each major phase of work are described. Appendices explain how project progress reports will be made and provide a LEED checklist. 237p.
Schools for the Future. Exemplar Designs. Concepts and Ideas.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , Feb 2004)
Exemplar designs aim to improve the design quality of school buildings in England. The designs — five primary schools, five secondary schools and one 'all-through' school — have been created by eleven leading British architectural practices and are based on close work with administrators, teachers, and students. The designs are intended to to provide inspiration for LEAs and schools developing their educational vision and requirements for new schools, in order to drive up the standard of school building across the country. The designs aim to help develop a shared vision of what are 'Schools for the Future'; create benchmarks for well designed schools; push forward the boundaries of innovation and inspiration; support the delivery of the Building Schools for the Future program; and encourage industry to develop new ways of delivering school buildings. Many of the designs include 'extended schools' facilities for use by the wider community and all have been developed to respond to the demands of current teaching styles while looking to the possibilities of the future. Includes plans, drawings, and color photographs. 121p.
Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule: Measuring The Community's Commitment to Adopting and Enforcing Building Codes.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 2004)
Describes how the Insurance Services Office (ISO) helps distinguish between communities in the United States with effective building code enforcement and those with weak enforcement through a comprehensive program called the Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule. The ISO collects information on a community's building code adoption and enforcement services; reviews the administration of codes, building plans and field inspections; and then assigns a Building Code Effectiveness Classification. 7p.
Creating Connections: The CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning.
(Council of Education Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Guides new and experienced school planners from the conception of educational needs through occupancy and use of the completed facilities. Chapters follow the planning, design, and occupancy processes in sequence as follows: forming the educational plan, creating community partnerships, establishing a master plan, writing educational specifications, addressing design guidelines, evaluating and selecting the site, infusing technology, integrating sustainable design, working with a design team, evaluating project delivery options, identifying cost and funding options, monitoring construction, integrating maintenance and operations, and assessing the completed project. Numerous references, photographs, drawings, figures, and a glossary are included. 386p.TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org/i4a/ams/amsstore/category.cfm?product_id=90
Fundamental Concepts and Principles for Assuring Acceptable Performance of Schools and the Education System.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 2004)
Presents the principles of satisfactory school building design, through the use of qualified engineers, an adequate building codes, independent review and hazard investigations, and satisfactory building construction through the use of qualified builders and independent inspection and testing. It also discusses the history of school construction in California, including the adoption of the 1933 Field Act and its subsequent enforcement by the Division of the State Architect. 6p.
Perspectives of School Facility Design Held by Planners, Architects, and Educators.
McMichael, Christopher; Tanner, Kenneth
(University of Georgia, College of Education, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens , 2004)
Presents results of a study that examined the perspectives of elementary school facility designers, elementary school teachers, school district superintendents, and elementary school administrators regarding three progressively specific sets of school facility design characteristics and their influence on elementary education. The research methodology is carefully described, and the varying responses from the study groups to over 125 design principles from different researchers and agencies are compared. 37p.
Taking School Design to Students.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , Jan 2004)
This digest describes seven strategies for effectively involving students in school design. These methods include using student artwork, using disposable cameras, hosting student forums, involving students in planning committees, organizing a student design competition, providing design programs during out-of-school hours, and integrating design activities into class work. A sidebar quotes architects and planners who found working with students a rewarding and meaningful professional experience. Includes a list of online student design resources. 9p.
The Middle School of the Future: a Focus on Exploration.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Myler, Patricia; Davis, Daniel; Oja, Richard
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that middle schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. A detailed educational specification and case studies of recent school construction projects are included. Issues of site design, acoustics, security, indoor air quality, sustainability, and accessibility are each accorded their own chapter. (Includes 34 references.) 181p.
The High School of the Future: A Focus on Technology.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Sells, Jeffrey
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that high schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. Methods for involving stakeholders in the specifications, design, and project management are detailed. General and curriculum-specific design issues are covered along with conceptual drawings. Indoor air quality, technology, and accessibility considerations are covered in individual chapters. (Includes 11 references.) 151p.
The Elementary School of the Future: A Focus on Community.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Sells, Jeffrey; Oja, Richard
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that elementary schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. A detailed educational specification and case studies of recent exemplary school construction projects are included. Issues of site design, acoustics, security, indoor air quality, sustainability, and accessibility are each accorded their own chapter. (Includes 14 references) 163p.
Branded Environments. Defining the Restructured High School Campus.
Rubin, Adam; Gunton, Brad
(New Visions for Public Schools, New York, NY , 2004)
Using New York City's former South Bronx High School as an example, this document discusses techniques for distinguishing by graphics the small schools that share a large building. These include exterior banners and signage that feature distinctive typefaces, colors, and symbols. 34p.
Charter School Facilities: A Resource Guide for Planning School Space and Understanding Building Codes.
Weeks, William; Hollins, Susan
Assists with space and facility planning for charter schools, with particular attention to New Hampshire's charter school laws. The document outlines the work of the facility committee or team, offers succinct space planning considerations for the various instructional and non- instructional spaces, and advises on air and water quality, asbestos, fire safety, hazardous materials, security, playgrounds, and transportation. Additional space cost considerations for new construction or existing spaces, as well as re-use of civic, organization, commercial, retail, or industrial spaces are also included. 106p.
Schools as Centers of Community: A Citizens' Guide For Planning and Design. Second edition.
Bingler, Steven; Quinn, Linda; Sullivan, Kevin
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Council of Educational Facility Planners, Building Educational Success Together, Coalition for Community Schools , Dec 2003)
This publication outlines a process for planning schools that more adequately addresses the needs of the whole learning community. It explores six design principles for creating effective learning environments, provides 13 case studies that illustrate various aspects of the six design principles, and examines the facilities master planning process for getting started and organized, including developing and implementing a master plan. It provides references, sources for additional information, photographs and plans. 76p.
The One-Room Schoolhouse: A Tribute to a Beloved National Icon
(Universe Publishing, Nov 2003)
From 1750 through about 1950, the one-room schoolhouse was a common fixture on the American landscape, with as many as 200,000 in total across the land. Today, approximately 450 one-room schoolhouses are still in use. This book is a celebration rather than a serious study of this American icon. It provides a tour of these structures still standing, detailing the best examples from forty-eight states, exploring working schools, some in existence for more than 100 years, schools restored as historic museums, and schools converted into private residences. 208p.
Flexible School Facilities.
Locker, Frank M.; Olson, Steven
(Design Share, Minneapolis, MN , Sep 2003)
Planning flexible school facilities requires planners to embrace and facilitate inevitable change through careful planning and a willingness to speculate on the future of teaching and learning. This article identifies five stages of restructuring school buildings, from the most traditional to the most radical, and examines ways that planners can anticipate needs of the future. 5p.
The Future of Our Schools: Inside and Out. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , 2003)
The classroom environment is a factor in the instructional process and student performance. In this 60-minute videotape, acoustics, energy, education, and building design experts discuss alternative solutions and ideas used in new school construction and renovation projects. Schools in New York, North Carolina, and Washington, DC that have been renovated or newly built are profiled to demonstrate the results of building intended to address the challenges of more complex education curricula.TO ORDER: Information Television Network
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, May 2003)
This book introduces 29 elementary through high school projects in various countries, the majority of which are from the UK, the US, and Germany as well as featured buildings from India, Japan, Singapore, Norway, and Canada. Through these case studies, the book presents educational philosophies and needs, as well as cultural and climatic considerations across the world. A wide range of issues are reflected in these projects, including the technology-led classroom, sustainable green schools, flexible spaces, tight urban sites, optimum school size, community involvement, and safety and security concerns. Contains plans, illustrations, drawings, and many full color photographs. 224p.
Thirty-Three Principles of Educational Design.
Lackney, Jeffrey A.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
This provides a framework of educational design principles from which educators and design professionals can structure the content of their educational facility development process, from the earliest strategic and educational planning right through to design, construction, occupancy and facility management. The principles are divided into educational facility planning and design process principles, principles for site and building organization, principles for primary educational space, principles for shared school and community facilities, principles related to the character of all spaces, and those related to site design and outdoor learning spaces. 18p.
Big Picture School Facilities Design and Construction Step-by-Step Guide.
(Big Picture Company, Providence, RI , 2003)
Presents design principles for innovative school architectural designs that can enhance learning. The emphasis is on human-scaled buildings that connect to the outside world and support training for real work. The organization's recommended steps for organizing the community, designing the educational program, obtaining funding, navigating politics, selecting and acquiring a site, and selecting and working with designers are detailed. Types of spaces and their configurations, square footages, environmental goals, safety recommendations, furnishing suggestions follow. Case studies and project management tips are provided. Includes 14 references. 35p.
Educational Spaces: A Pictorial Review, Volume 3.
(Images Publishing Group, Melbourne, Australia , 2003)
Presents recent international educational facility designs as examples of contemporary and inspirational trends in school architecture. Photos showcase exterior and interior design features from primary and secondary, and adult educational facilities. Biographies of some of the architectural firms involved are provided. 224p.TO ORDER: http://www.imagespublishinggroup.com/
The Esthetics of Education.
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Advocates clear communication from school architects to clients regarding esthetics. Elements of style, scale, symbolism, color and finishes will affect how students and faculty perceive the school. If these elements are all studied as pieces of a working whole, esthetic design can be integrated more fully with the mission of educators and communities. Good esthetics can take a functional building to a new level of effectiveness, inspiring students and faculty as well as sheltering them. 9p.
Standards for School Design.
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Briefly discusses space standards, functional standards, and design standards for schools, within the context of equity, better learning environments, and cost-effective facilities. 2p.
Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.
(PageSouthlandPage, Arlington, VA. , 2003)
This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools; life cycle costing; facility standards; facility costs; maintenance; bond issues; site issues; accessibility; building codes; asbestos; working with architects; construction delivery options; and sustainabilty issues. 28p.
Architecture for Education: New School Designs from the Chicago Competition.
Robbins, Mark; Moelis, Cindy S.; Clarke, Pamela H.; Hendrickson, Jamie; Nowaczewski, Jeanne L.; Haar, Shar
(Art Publishers , 2003)
This volume documents the work that resulted from the Chicago Public Schools Design Competition, explaining research and policies underlying the competition's criteria. The volume has three parts. Book 1, "The Chicago Experience," written by the competition's organizers, describes the competition's process and explains how it allowed community members, educational experts, and architects to collaborate in the design of schools that will foster the education of students, support quality teaching, and increase community involvement. It also chronicles the changing trends in public school architecture in Chicago. Book 2, "New School Designs," offers plans and ideas for schools designed for the 21st century. The competition's two winning designs and those of the finalists are extensively documented in drawings and renderings. Book 3, "Policies and Principles," explores policies that provided the impetus for the Chicago competition. It discusses the advantages of smaller learning environments; the benefits to students, teachers, and communities of universal design; application of sustainable design to the creation of public schools; and the importance of cost feasibility when building on a public budget. The section ends with a complete list of the winning, finalist, and notable architectural firms involved in the competition and a list of professional resources for creating new schools. 136p.
Innovative Pedagogy and School Facilities.
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN. Publication based on doctoral dissertation, Johnson & Wales University, Providence, Rhode Island, entitled Translating Innovative Pedagogical Designs Into School Facilities. , 2003)
This research examines the translation of innovative and complex school reform models, based upon nontraditional pedagogy, into school facilities design. Factors facilitating and impeding the process are identified, as are the relationships between the numerous constituencies. The study analyzes the three major forces determined to be at work in the process, which were: 1) political, 2) social, and 3) economic. The school examined is the Metropolitan Regional Career and Technical Center (MET) in Providence, Rhode Island. 93p.
H.D. Cooke Modernization: Questions, Concerns and Recommendations.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC. , Sep 17, 2002)
In a series of questions and answers, this paper looks at the biggest problems with the current proposed design of Henry D. Cooke Elementary School in the District of Columbia, making recommendations on how to improve the plans and best use the space. With an in-depth analysis of the schematic plans and education specifications, the paper examines issues such as student enrollment projections, parking, and environmental concerns. It is designed serve as a model for other communities in evaluating designs being prepared for their local schools and as a blueprint for action for the H. D. Cooke community. (Appendices contain the site analysis and modified building plans.) 21p.
National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , 2002)
This guide was developed specifically for architects and engineers who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, and for the project managers who work with the design teams. The design strategies presented here are organized into 10 chapters covering important design disciplines and goals: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource-efficient building products. An additional chapter addresses commissioning and maintenance practices. Each chapter contains a list of related resources. 457p.Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1610
Schools Designed with Community Participation.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2002)
This publication presents case studies of school buildings to demonstrate the application of a post occupancy evaluation (POE) during various stages of the design and planning process. It explains that because POE is a process for gathering information about a building in use, it can be applied effectively both to renovation and expansion projects and to new construction. The case studies were selected because each addresses community and user participation as an integral part of the school planning process. In Jamestown, North Carolina, a POE incorporating a school building assessment survey was used for the Millis Road Elementary School addition to help architects learn about existing conditions and improvements expected in the new classroom addition. The Davidson Elementary School project in Davidson, North Carolina, linked all stages of the school building process, from user participation in the development of the program to the evolving design solution, and a building evaluation after completion. The Centennial Campus Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina, began with a vision shared by university educators and county school officials about the creation of schools within a school. The Rosa Parks Elementary School in Berkeley, California, (formerly the Columbus School) demonstrated a participatory process that included parents, teachers, children, and community members who initiated and passed a bond measure to rebuild the earthquake-damaged school. The case studies include building plans and photographs. Appendices contain a six-factor school building checklist, a school building rating scale, an inclusive school building assessment checklist, and a classroom arrangement rating scale. 67p.
Crosbie, Michael J.
(Images Publishing Group, Victoria, Australia , Feb 2002)
This compendium contains more than 40 schools that show new directions in design and the changing demands on this building type. It discusses the design challenges in new schools and how each one of the projects meets the demands of an architecture for learning. An introduction by architect Raymond Bordwell explains many of the trends in new school design which are illustrated in the book's collection. The facility descriptions contain numerous photographs and well as building plans. 144p.TO ORDER: Images Publishing Group, ACN 059 734 431, 6 Bastow Place, Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia; Tel: +61-3-9561-5544
Schools That Fit: Aligning Architecture and Education.
(Cuningham Group, Minneapolis, MN , 2002)
This booklet presents one architectural firm's understanding and application of the latest educational research in real-world settings. It asserts that architects can make significant contributions to education by designing schools that uniquely facilitate improvements in organizational structure, learning methods, or both. It presents lessons learned about designing schools and about the process and the planning that are required to align facilities with programs, and architecture with education. The booklet provides examples of environments shaped by attention to communities' individual needs, including small schools, project-based learning, and community schools. Following an introduction, the discussion is broken into the following chapters: (1) "Schools That Fit;" (2) "Toward Better Schools;" (3) "Schools That Fit Communities;" (4) "Schools That Fit Education Leaders;" (5) "Schools That Fit Teachers;" (6) "Schools That Fit Learners;" and (7) "Schools That Fit Children." 64p.
(Carles Broto i Comerma, Barcelona, Spain , 2002)
Renowned architects exhibit their most innovative and creative designs for educational and cultural buildings including schools, institutes, universities and educational centers. It offers a selection of 19 designs in this field of architecture, illustrated with numerous photographs, plans, and construction details that help to illustrate some of the essential aspects of educational architecture. 179p.TO ORDER: Carles Broto i Comerma, Ausias Marc 20, 4-2, 08010 Barcelona, Spain; Tel: +34-93-301-21-99
Learning Environments Designed for the Occupants: Three Case Studies of Innovative Elementary School Design.
Shrader-Harvey, Erika; Droge, Martha
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville , Jan 2002)
This research project examined how educational facilities are perceived and used by the occupants. It sought to inform the design of effective learning environments in elementary schools through a heightened awareness of the needs of the occupants and an understanding of how they use their school facilities. Project objectives included the following: (1) to increase awareness of the needs of facility users by encouraging a dialogue between designers, educators, and facility occupants; (2) to develop a knowledge base that will lead to the design of effective learning environments; and (3) to assemble a set of visual examples of effective learning environments that can be used as a resource to facilitate communication between architects and educators. The project involved the case study of three elementary schools: Irwin Avenue Open Elementary School in Charlotte, North Carolina; Grasonville Elementary School in Grasonville, Maryland; and Cougar Elementary School in Manassas Park, Virginia. In addition to detailed building descriptions with photographs, significant findings were: (1) a sense of community at multiple scales provides students with a sense of belonging and a sense of place; (2) functional spaces that allow for multiple uses and a variety of tasks encourage students to make choices for themselves, fostering the development of individual responsibility; and (3) experiential learning takes place when a student is engaged in an activity; active participation allows students to apply what they learn and helps them define their interests, thereby contributing to a sense of self. 44p.
(Visual Reference Publications, Inc., New York, NY. , 2002)
This book presents examples of the United States' most innovative new educational facilities for decision makers developing educational facilities of the future. The projects in this book are visual evidence of how a number of the United States' top architecture and design firms are meeting the challenge of constructing learning spaces with creativity and vision. The architecture and interior design featured in the book illustrate how educational facilities create a value for their owners, making long-term investments in building products, interior furnishings, and technological infrastructure to establish enduring physical assets that optimize life cycle costs. The book concludes with "Can Johnny Compute?" (Roger Yee), which discusses the need for a massive and very expensive overhaul needed to make U.S. schools competitive in the new millennium. 283p.TO ORDER: Visual Reference Publications, Inc., 302 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10001; Tel: 212-279-7000
Classrooms of the Future: Thinking Out of the Box.
Lackney, Jeffery A.
Sep 04, 2001)
This presentation on educational facilities design emphasizes the overarching strategy of observing the activities of learning that take place in and out of the classroom setting, and the importance of taking a fresh look at what children do in school so that new ways can be found of approaching school design. The presentation addresses these questions: (1) Where is educational practice headed? In other words, what is or are the emergent paradigms of education that should be designed for? (2) How has the classroom changed over time to accommodate educational change? (3) What strategies can be used to start anticipating educational change? and (4) What are the big trends in school planning that designers should be aware of? The presentation also contains 14 school design case studies illustrating examples of "out-of-the-box" responses to 21st-century educational change. 18p.
Design Standards for Elementary, Middle/Junior High, and High School Counseling Facilities.
Booher, Carrie Ann Colvin
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Aug 2001)
This study sought to increase the knowledge base in the area of the facility needs of school counselors. School conselors were surveyed regarding their perceptions about actual and ideal counseling facilities. The School Counseling Facility Survey was developed from a review of the school counseling and facility literature. Counselors responses were compared across the variables: age of the building, level of facility satisfaction, level of job satisfaction, academic level of the students served, and the type of community. Design standards included counselor-identified design items for counseling offices, reception areas, conference rooms, playrooms, career/college rooms, storage areas, and the location of the counseling facility. 517p.Report NO: 3025250
TO ORDER: http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb
Smaller, Safer, Saner: Successful Schools.
Nathan, Joe; Febey, Karen
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C.; Minnesota University, Center for School Change, Humphrey Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota. , Aug 2001)
Provides brief case studies of 22 public school buildings in 12 states, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities, including both district-run and charter public schools. The studies demonstrate these schools' ability to improve academic achievement and behavior in safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments. Case study analysis reveals that on average, smaller schools can provide a safer and more challenging school environment that creates higher academic achievement and graduation rates, fewer disciplinary problems, and greater satisfaction for families, students, and teachers. The studies also suggest that sharing facilities with other organizations can enable schools to offer broader learning opportunities for students, provide higher quality services to students and their families, and present a way to efficiently use tax dollars. 64p.
Concrete Masonry Designs: Educational Issue.
(NCMA Foundation,Herndon, VA 20171 , Jan 2001)
This special journal issue addresses concrete masonry in educational facilities construction. The issue's feature articles are: (1) "It Takes a Village To Construct a Massachusetts Middle School," describing a middle school constructed almost entirely of concrete masonry and modeled after a typical small New England village; (2) "Lessons Learned," about why concrete masonry can be the material of choice for educational facilities; and (3) "CM Profiles: A High Performance School in Panther Country," discussing a concrete masonry school in Texas exhibiting best practices in school design and construction. The issue's regular departments discuss Utah prototype schools and energy-efficient school designs for new construction. 24p.
Designs for Learning: 55 Exemplary Educational Facilities.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2001)
This document examines 55 educational facilities throughout the world whose quality designs were deemed instrumental in providing an environment for a quality educational process to emerge. Each entry provides facility statistics such as number of students, the facility's age and type, and name of the architectural firm responsible for its design. Included are several photos, floor plans (where available), and a brief description of the school. The book is divided into designs for improving existing facilities, schools of the future, tertiary facilities, and designs whose innovative approaches can aid facility management. 143p.TO ORDER: OECD Publications, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris, France
Ensuring That Structures Built on Fill In or Near Special Flood Hazard Areas Are Reasonably Safe From Flooding.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 2001)
Provides guidance on the construction of buildings on land elevated above the base flood elevation (BFE) through the placement of fill. Several methods of construction are discussed, and those that result in the entire building being above the BFE are recommended. This bulletin gives additional guidance on how to determine that buildings with basements will be reasonably safe from flooding during the occurrence of the base flood and larger floods. 26p.
Morphosis: Diamond Ranch High School. Source Books in Architecture No. 1.
(Monacelli Press, Inc., New York, NY , 2001)
This book represents the first installment in a series based on the Herbert Baumer seminars hosted at the Knowlton School of Architecture at Ohio State University. These publications will focus on a single work by a particular architect and on special topics in contemporary architecture. The book opens with an interview with Thom Mayne, principal of the California architecture firm Morphosis. The interview outlines Mayne's working methods and chronicles his development as an architect from his years as a student through the realization of such influential projects as the Crawford House. This is followed by a detailed presentation of a single project, Diamond Ranch High School, outside of Los Angeles. Every crucial architectural decision is illustrated with conceptual sketches, models, renderings, working drawings, and photographs of the project under construction and after completion. 204p.
Creating a New Vision of the Urban High School. Carnegie Challenge, 2001.
(Carnegie Corporation of New York, NY , 2001)
This paper focuses on how urban high schools may be not only revitalized but also transformed into institutions that are designed to help students at the crossroads of their academic careers. It discusses the rationale for change, historic highlights of this effort, and a new vision for American high schools. Some of the promising approaches to change include: transforming large impersonal schools into small schools; using whole-school design; reaching out to parents and other community members to increase their involvement in education; and partnering with businesses and universities. The paper highlights the Carnegie Corporation's Schools for a New Society initiative, which has awarded planning grants to 10 community-school district partnerships working on urban high school reform. The paper also focuses on principles outlined by the New Century High Schools for New York City Consortium, a $30 million commitment to high school reform in New York City announced in December 2000 by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Open Society Institute, and the Carnegie Corporation. 14p.TO ORDER: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Tel: 212-371-3200
Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY , 2001)
This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of energy issues and mechanical systems, structural concerns and acoustic control, lighting, internal traffic, and security. Further, the book asks and answers 20 questions that frequently arise in the early phases of a project commission; and provides project photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 250p.
A Visioning Process for Designing Responsive Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2001)
This manual presents guidance for creating a constructive dialogue between school officials and the surrounding community on the design of schools that contribute to enhancing educational quality. The benefits of community participation are addressed as are descriptions of the principle parts of the participation process, including strategic planning, goal setting, and long term planning. Finally, the manual presents the Charrette process as a method for generating design ideas. 18p.
(Governor's Education Reform Study Commission, Education Facilities Committee, Atlanta, GA , Nov 28, 2000)
This paper discusses five key issues in the design phase of a construction project that can improve the quality, cost, or time of construction. These five ways are: education specifications, design standards, prototype designs, value engineering, and selecting a qualified architect. To facilitate discussion, the background section of this paper first explains the overall project delivery process. In the background section educational specifications, design standards, prototypes, value engineering, and selecting an architect are defined and each is discussed based on current best practices. Then there is a discussion of the level of input a state may have when implementing each of these practices. Next, in the "Current Conditions" section, the paper explains what is currently being done regarding each of the five topics in Georgia and nationally. The third section of the paper highlights key findings about these topics. The final section of the paper presents various alternatives for each topic discussed. 40p.
Making Current Trends in School Design Feasible.
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Div. of School Support. Raleigh, NC , Nov 2000)
This North Carolina report describes new and innovative approaches to school facilities as they relate to their communities by exploring the trends towards smaller schools, walkable schools, sustainability and green building practices, recycling older small community schools, and joint use arrangements. The pros and cons of small schools are examined. The report finds solutions by applying strategies in smart growth planning. Concluding sections contain links and references where stakeholders can obtain in-depth material on these subjects. (Contains 60 references.) 57p.
Programming and Design of Public Schools Within the Context of Community.
(Presented to the Stein and Schools Lecture Series: Policy, Planning, and Design for a 21st Century Public Education System, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY , Oct 2000)
This paper translates the best of educational practice into school design criteria for architects and communities wishing to build innovative schools that reflect community excellence. First discusses the school zone model, an integrated system for addressing school design and curriculum. This educational system is then linked to the built, natural, and cultural environment so that the resultant architecture can act as a three-dimensional textbook. The paper then discusses 16 case studies that reveal basic patterns for reform in school curriculum and facilities design that illustrate the philosophical framework behind the school zone model. Four key issues or patterns extrapolated from the studies are examined that show how involving children in the design process has implications for the role schools play in the community. Patterns for reform using design criteria from multiple sources are outlined so that communities may take action to build and evaluate programs that synthesize community and educational needs. 60p
Engineering Checklist for Public School Facilities.
(Public Schools of North Carolina, Division of School Support, Raleigh, NC , May 2000)
This reference document for public school facility designers includes code items, principles that experience has shown to be desirable and practical, and best practices from a variety of professional sources. Organized into the four major engineering categories of electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and structural, these guidelines represent the thinking of a cross-section of design professionals and are consistent with the North Carolina Public Schools Facilities Guidelines. 54p.
McWillie School - Jackson, Mississippi.
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Apr 2000)
Presents the planning team report for this school, including a project description, workshop and interview methodology and findings, and the recommended facility program. Numerous plans and tables illustrate the results. 95p.
Educational Spaces: A Pictorial Review, Volume 2.
(Images Publising Group, Melbourne, Australia , Jan 2000)
Presents recent international educational facility designs as examples of contemporary and inspirational trends in school architecture. Photos showcase exterior and interior design features from primary and secondary, and adult educational facilities. Biographies of some of the architectural firms involved are provided. 212p.TO ORDER: http://www.imagespublishinggroup.com/
Learning by Design: A School Leader's Guide to Architectural Services, 1995-1999.
(National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA , 2000)
Five issues examine each year's trends and innovations in effective school architectural design in North America from 1995 through 1999, covering new school construction and renovations and additions for K-12 schools. Also included are award-winning designs selected as examples of the latest in educational design technology and functionality, and designs that allow schools as community centers. Other topics include creating healthy educational environments, making schools accessible, and planning for change in educational trends. 500+p.
Design Guidelines for Montessori Schools.
De Jesus, Raquel
(University of Wisconsin, CAUPR, School of Architecture and Planning, Milwaukee , 2000)
This report presents guidelines for use by architects, designers, and teachers in designing an environment that will complement and enhance the Montessori teaching method. Provides a history of the Montessori Method, analysis of books written by Montessori and her followers, review of methods and settings, and a section containing interviews and inventories done in six Montessori schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Appendices contain school interview forms and pages describing "muscular education" from the book, "Montessori Method." 80p.TO ORDER: http://www4.uwm.edu/caupr/publication.htm
Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments.
(Architectural Press, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, Massachusetts , 2000)
This guide focuses on the architecture of primary and pre- school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture along with an overview illustrating the link between progressive educational ideas and experimental architecture. Chapter 2 explores the classroom environment and its importance to child development and learning, including the interweaving of the esoteric factors such as the effects on behavior of color, light, and texture with the practical aspects of designing for comfort, health, and education. Chapter 3 analyzes and discusses the best new examples of school design within the wider architectural and political context. Chapter 4 examines the issues outside the classroom such as environmental factors defining healthy, comfortable buildings for education and the structure of school funding within the United Kingdom. The book also analyzes 20 school or educational buildings in diagrammatic and visual terms revealing how wit and imagination applied in a discerning manner can be as inspiring as cutting-edge technologies adapted in previous eras. 238p.
Design Standards for Children's Environments.
Ruth, Linda Cain
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2000)
This 3-part book addresses the design or maintenance of spaces where children are the primary users covering both commercial and residential designs and products. Part I chapters provide anthropometric data of children from birth to age 18, offers dimensions for typical objects within the child's built environment; synthesizes the Consumer Product Safety Commission's safety guidelines for play areas; and provides dimensions of typical, and sometimes untypical, products that are often found in children's environments. Part II features a source list developed for designers that lists products appropriate for use in children's environments. Part III chapters outline the development of children's abilities and perceptions in the first stages of life from birth to age 10, and offers a bibliography of the most effective and highly regarded resources in the area of children's design. 306p.
The School Design Assessment Scale.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(University of Georgia, Dept. of Educational Leadership, School Design & Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA , Nov 1999)
The Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools (DASES) assists educators and architects in the planning and designing of developmentally appropriate learning environments for elementary schools by evaluating existing patterns of schoolhouses and outdoor learning areas. This report describes the development of the DASES and its components; and examines the final step in the instrument’s validation process, the reliability coefficients, and weights assigned by planners and architects. Appendices provide summary data of responses by item. 23p.
A Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA , 1999)
Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools (DASE) assists educators and architects in evaluating, planning, and designing developmentally appropriate learning environments for elementary schools. This article examines the DASE, its introduction and development, and the first step in the instruments validation process, and the initial reliability coefficients. Also described are each of the DASE facility design assessment components for measuring the degree of functionality, security, adequacy, environment, and overall impression. 15p.
The Jefferson Center Principles of Good Educational Design.
Duke, Daniel L.
(Paper presented at the 1999 Rowlett Lecture Series, sponsored by the CRS Center and the Texas A&M College of Architecture, Feb 12, 1999)
Following each of five principles of good educational design are a checklist of indicators in the form of questions one should ask to determine if good design has been implemented. 5p.
Reinvigorating Our Schools.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 1998)
This step-by-step guide helps communities think and talk about school renewal through innovative planning and design, and high quality construction. It begins with an overview of need and available funding, then describes potential members of a school-improvement team. These include: architects, state school agents, community groups, local elected and appointed officials, bankers, engineers, developers and lawyers. How an experienced architect enhances value is described, as well as options for saving time and money on school projects. Guidelines for planning a school is set out in six discussion elements: (1) structural condition; (2) environmental quality; (3) size and capacity; (4) safety and security; (5) site location and (6) symbolic value and aesthetics. References for further information are included. Local American Institute of Architects components that can help communities in finding an experienced school architect are listed by state and city. 13p.
National Symposium on School Design: Schools as Centers of Community.
National Symposium on School Design: Schools as Centers of Community, Creative Solutions Group
(Deptartment of Education, Washington, DC , Apr 1998)
This provides nine unique models of communities working together to design and modernize schools. Each entry provides a description of the model school, a list of principle decision makers and architects involved, and contact information. 6p.
School Design Factors for Improving Student Learning.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia , Mar 1998)
Both built and natural environments embellish student learning, however, it is believed that there are far too many functional and structural design problems in schools. Basic design factors are presented from three perspectives: environmental; educational; and architectural. Selected developmentally appropriate characteristics of students are reviewed and linked to affective, behavioral, and cognitive learning categories. These characteristics are then matched with learning goals and activities. Appropriate architectural/natural support systems are defined and designs that match the learning goals are recommended. 26p.
Remarks As Prepared for Delivery By U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC.
(Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , Feb 05, 1998)
The U.S. Secretary of Education, Richard W. Riley, addressed the American Institute of Architects on the problem of school safety resulting from building age and/or building code violations. The Secretary stated that the problem is a large national embarrassment and reveals the Clinton Administration's response through new construction bonds and tax credits for holders of these bonds. Mr. Riley indicated that the school construction explosion is beginning and that this affords architects and their colleagues an opportunity to create better and more engaging learning environments. Finally, the Secretary stated that the Administration is seeking new ways to engage Americans in the process of school designs that can be vital centers of the community, and challenges architects to build buildings that not only accommodates the schools' functional needs, but can lift children up towards the information age. 5p.
Perceptions of Educators about School Design Issues.
Beth Schapiro and Associates
(Beth Schapiro & Associates, Atlanta, GA , Feb 1998)
Research results are presented from focus groups and telephone surveys concerning the attitudes and opinions of public school educators on the issue of school design, including an additional report summarizing what educators would want to see in a millennial school design. The first section presents the findings from two focus groups conducted among metropolitan Atlanta educators concerning general school design, schools and their communities, classroom design, common areas, and other design issues. The second section analyzes the results from a telephone survey of educators from seven different metropolitan areas throughout the United States. Survey questions addressed the importance of school design, the teacher's role, rating design elements, time management, and collaboration. Brief summaries of the findings from both study approaches are provided. 43p.
Educational Spaces. A Pictorial Review of Significant Spaces. Volume 1.
(Images Publishing Group, Mulgrave, Australia , 1998)
A pictorial review presents educational facility designs from around the world as examples of contemporary and inspirational trends in school architecture. Photos showcase exterior and interior design features from primary and secondary, and adult educational facilities. Biographies of some of the architectural firms involved are provided. 224p.TO ORDER: Images Publishing Group, Images House, 6 Bastow Place, Mulgrave, Victoria 3170, Australia; Tel: +61-3-9561-5544
The Log School: A Case for Appropriate Design
Barnhardt, Ray; Dubbs, Patrick J.
(University of Alaska, Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, Fairbanks , 1998)
For many remote northern communities, especially Native American communities, the renovation or design construction and heating of the school would be more culturally and technologically appropriate if local materials and expertise were utilized. In addition there would be widespread beneficial outcomes for the quality of life in the local community. This paper focuses on the de-localization of northern rural communities. The second part of the paper explores how the design, construction and maintenance of the log school could reduce de-localization and contribute significantly to the cultural, economic and technical well-being of the community particularly its educational system. 22p.
Planning and Designing Schools.
Brubaker, C. William
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY , 1998)
This book offers and examines a number of suggestions for school architecture. The book consists of a review of 22 school projects from around the United States. The text opens with a brief history of school design in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but the focus throughout the book focuses on several distinct elements: designing schools with beauty and character; the planning and building process; computers and their impact on learning and design; interior design, including color, light, space, furnishing, and equipment; how educational restructuring affects architecture; and campus planning-site analysis. The design ideas presented here apply to a broad array of school types: community schools, high schools, shared facilities, elementary schools, expansions, renovations, and new projects. Each case deals with a unique problem and shows how the architects worked with the educators to create a tailored solution. Graphics and other illustrations are provided for each project reviewed. Special chapters address issues such as how to prevent obsolete schools, how to transform the learning environment, and how to design schools with character. 205p.
Expecting the Most from School Design.
Bradley, William S.
(Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia , Jul 10, 1997)
This document discusses five principles thought essential to breaking with the past and establishing a new standard for school facilities design. These principles demand that schools be exemplary examples to students in pursuing new frontiers; that they direct students by encouraging proper behaviors; and that they evoke a spirit of place, represent three-dimensional opportunities to support teaching, and affect positive change in education. Final comments briefly highlight why school districts often fail to design schools that fall short of these principles.
The Design-Down Process: An Alternative to the Traditional Education Specification Process for Defining Learning Environments.
Jilk, Bruce A.; Copa, George H.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jul 1997)
Describes a process of defining educational specifications called design-down, which recognizes the importance of societal changes and community involvement when building or renovating schools. Identifies a progressive, collaborative step-by-step approach that can help planners and designers move methodically through the steps of developing a school building design. The steps described help team members work through all the elements of the design process quickly, while allowing commonly-held ideas to surface, unresolved issues to be tracked, and questions to be held for follow-up. The process ensures that the learning signature (the school's uniqueness) and learning expectations are keystone specifications, the base from which all the others are to be derived and rationalized. 4p.
Making a World of Difference: Elementary Schools. Impact on Education Series.
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , 1997)
To demonstrate the impact facilities can have on learning, some exemplary elementary schools that made the decision to provide a good educational environment are presented. To assess the impact of these facilities, students, teachers, parents, superintendents, and other administrators were interviewed. The book opens with a discussion of whether the building does make a difference in education and concludes that the physical surroundings wield a profound effect on children and personnel. Discussed next are various philosophies that influence structural design and how classrooms should be constructed to help children learn. The school environment should stimulate and motivate children, and it should support educational initiatives, not hinder them. Some of the specific areas that are discussed at length include communications and technology, enrichment and support space, and outdoor learning and play. The theme of the text, "a place where people want to be", is the focus of the last chapter. Each section features numerous interior and exterior photographs of school buildings. 135p.
(Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1997)
The positive impact from changing the environment of a school as a way of improving the quality of education is often overlooked by educators. This book shows how to create more effective schools through a design process that involves teachers, students, parents, administrators, and architects. The design process creates school environments that develop the whole child, instills enthusiasm for learning, and encourages positive social relationships. The practical methods detailed show how to link behavioral objectives to spatial needs; achieve spatial efficacy without compromising education; match children's developmental needs to facility requirements; promote greater variety in physical facilities to accommodate various teaching and learning styles; and gain more valuable feedback from teachers, parents, students, and local citizens on building performance. Additionally discussed are how relatively minor design modifications can significantly improve school performance; and the cost-effective ways a design can change students' spatial behavior, increase interaction with materials, decrease interruptions, promote more substantive questioning, and improve academic achievement. (Contains 158 references). 215p.
A Tale of Two Schools: The Role of the Elementary Principal in School Design.
Rose, James O.
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wyoming, Laramie , May 1996)
Examines the roles of the building principals assigned to the schools, their perceptions of the building design and construction process, and how their respective roles in the process are manifested in ownership of their schools. The focus of the study was two schools designed by the same architectural firm and constructed at the same time by the same general contractor. The results suggest a relationship between a principal's involvement in the school design process and resultant ownership. 129p.Report NO: 9630629
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: email@example.com
Schools for Today and Tomorrow: An International Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities.
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris,France , 1996)
Offers descriptions of buildings from OECD member countries that illustrate good architectural design and management in schools. The schools were selected on behalf of the PEB by an international jury. The innovative facilities were nominated for their: (1) special contribution to teaching and learning; (2) special awareness of the architectural heritage or their surrounding environment; (3)particular contribution to urban renewal or to the resolution of urban problems; (4) particular contribution to education and community life in rural areas; or (5) imaginative use of buildings and grounds. 146p.
The School Design Primer: A How-To Manual for the 21st Century.
(Little Institute for School Facilities Research, Charlotte, NC , 1996)
This document was developed to provide those individuals involved in school construction with an easy-to-understand resource. Ten chapters address facility and educational planning, budgeting and funding, organizing the planning team and process, site selection, space planning, contracts and negotiating, the design and building process, special features of an educational facility, security and vandalism prevention, and indoor air quality. Includes a school evaluation and a site selection criteria checklist, theoretical space profiles for three educational facility levels, a table detailing adequate space allocation, and a standard school project schedule and construction timeline. The appendix provides the following samples: "Request for Proposal" questionnaire, policy statement, letter of intent for subcontractor, commitment form, school construction project directory, construction data sheet, and project cost data sheet. 125p.TO ORDER: Little Diversified Architectural Consulting, 5815 Westpark Dr., Charlotte, NC 28217. Tel: 704-525-6350
Classroom Design Manual. Third Edition.
Allen, Robert L.; Bowen, J. Thomas; Clabaugh, Sue; DeWitt, Beth B.; Francis, JoAllen; Kerstetter, John P.; Rieck, Donald
(University of Maryland, Office of Information Technology, College Park, MD , 1996)
This manual identifies the essential design elements of modern, higher education high quality learning environments and includes discussions on facility programming, management, utilization, evaluation, and planning for the future technology. Classrooms examined include general purpose classrooms, lecture halls, seminar rooms, and specialized classrooms such as distance education and interactive video classrooms. Separate guidelines are presented for each classroom type. It also explores the use of technology in classrooms, discusses a team planning approach to programming for classroom design, offers advice on equipment security and on meeting accessability regulations, and provides practical applications for surveying classrooms using illustrative checklists. Appendices provide designing issues involving accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act; regulations, codes, and compliance agencies; a bibliography of books and articles on classroom design; a list professional organizations involved in facility design; the author's biographies; and photos of sample classroom designs. 93p.
Concordia Papers: All for One; Common Ground; E. Pulribus Unum; and The Lincoln Plan.
(Concordia, New Orleans, Louisiana , 1996)
Four papers are presented on learning environments, accommodating special needs students, and educational facility design and construction trends towards integration and inclusion. The first paper, "All for One: Inclusion in the Learning Environment", addresses the change from the past tendency of educational facility design and construction to exclude special needs students to more inclusive and community-friendly facilities. The second paper, "Common Ground", explores educational facility design that is now responding to the evolving curriculum of interdisciplinary, hands-on, and integrated learning. The third paper, "E Pluribus Unum: The New American Community School", explores the emerging trend towards integration and inclusion in educational facility design. The fourth paper, "The Lincoln Plan", examines the designing of educational facilities as thematic learning centers, each with an integrated curriculum covering all of the necessary core content and its own interdisciplinary team for implementation. 27p.
A Study of the Architecture and Curriculum of Virginia High Schools.
Worner, Scott Charles
(Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , Apr 1995)
Provides a written and pictorial history of the architectural and curricular features of Virginia high schools. 284 high school buildings which best represented an architectural period, beginning with the oldest high school building still in use to the most recently constructed schools, were surveyed. Seventeen schools were chosen based on: 1) date of original construction; 2) completeness of original structure; 3) overall rating by the building principal; 4) noteworthy architectural or unique educational features; and 5) subjective comparison of floor plans and photographs. Each building was visited to obtain data relating to curricular emphasis in the design. Each architectural period was researched for significant educational and curricular trends that may have influenced high school design. 251p.Report NO: 9529882
TO ORDER: http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb
Middle School Facilities for the Twenty-First Century: An Identification of Critical Design Elements By Selected Architects, Administrators and Teachers.
Burch, Arthur Lee, Jr.
(Texas A&M University, College Station , 1994)
This study determined the perceptions of selected architects, administrators, and teachers concerning essential design elements for new middle schools. Professionals from 14 south and southeastern states ranked statements from not applicable to essential in the following 5 categories: planning, design, site selections; environmental factors; space utilization; technology; and school and community service. Proactive planning, user-friendly facilities, exploratory spaces, and safe environments were confirmed as essential elements. Architects perceived significantly fewer essential criteria than administrators or teachers indicating that those who use schools are either not providing significant design input, are being ignored in the process, or the data are being filtered. 133p.
The Effects of Teacher Involvement on the Planning of Secondary Schools.
Montoya, Carl A.
(Doctoral Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces , May 1994)
Explores the effects of teacher involvement in the planning of new secondary schools. The study found that the more teachers were involved in planning the new school, the more positive their attitude was towards the facility. The study found that three-fourths of the teachers surveyed were not involved in new school planning. It also found that most teachers, whether or they had previously been involved in planning their schools, wanted an active role in the planning process. 169p.Report NO: 9510414
TO ORDER: http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb
Architectural Concerns for Future Learning Environments.
McMillan, Kelvin Loren
( Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln , Apr 1994)
A research study examined the factors that will affect future educational programs and the resultant effect of these factors on future school facilities. Additionally, the study developed an architectural program for future educational facilities based upon the anticipated educational specifications and determined the underlying themes concerning the development of future education facilities. Surveys were sent to architects, futurists, and educators to gain a reasoned consensus on the factors involved. Following survey rounds, the participants were given either qualitative or quantitative feedback to generate a higher order of responses and group consensus. Findings indicated 28 probable social or technological futures that may affect education. Also revealed were 12 major themes concerning the effect of these futures on school architecture. Each theme has supporting architectural considerations that could be incorporated in future school facilities. Recommendations for other researchers are noted. An appendix, comprising over half the document, includes the survey instruments used in the study. (Contains 132 references.) 584p.
Schoolhousing: Planning and Designing Educational Facilities.
Ortiz, Flora Ida
(State University of New York Press, Albany, NY , 1994)
This book presents a theoretical and practical portrayal of how, when, and why public school districts build new schools as well as specifying school district reorganization and the subsequent steps necessary to implement plans. It discusses how school districts relate to state agencies on regulatory, fiscal, and support bases; and addresses questions considered important to school district officials and others engaged in projects requiring long-term management. Topics address preconstruction considerations, issues involving the construction of new schools, postconstruction processes, and provide conclusions and policy implications. Author and subject indexes are include as is an appendix containing references for additional information. (Contains 228 references.) 194p.
The Elementary School Planning Guidelines.
(Institute for Development of Educational and Welfare Facilities, Tel Aviv, Israel , Apr 1993)
Presents Israeli elementary school planning guidelines, including participation of the teachers in planning, educational specifications, flexibility of the school structure, programming, planning guidelines, and extensive specification for special purpose rooms. Includes 37 references. 64p.
Current Design Trends in School Facilities, 1993.
Castellana, John J.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 1993)
The American Institute of Architects has produced a slide presentation addressing the 1993 trends in school facilities design with illustrative examples of school projects. The 200 plus slide program explores projects representing a broad cross section of work completed across the country that include K-12 facilities, new technology, specialized facilities, prototype schools, and child care/day care facilities. 22p.
School Ways: The Planning and Design of America's Schools.
Graves, Ben E.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1993)
This sourcebook draws upon award-winning educational projects to examine emerging trends and new technology in educational facilities design. It presents profiles of the best designed schools of the last decade; new trends in school layouts; essential programming information on space needs, classroom size, and other design criteria; design tips for accommodating computers and audio-visual equipment; and guidance on organizing the programming and design phases of school construction. Additionally, it explains how to prepare long-range facility plans, how to inventory and evaluate existing facilities, and how to prepare educational specifications as well as providing a detailed summary and directory of information and planning resources. 237p.
School Design Notebook: Case Study Analysis of Exemplary Schools.
Stuebing, Susan; Martin, Elisabeth; Wolfshorndl, Anton; Cousineau, Leslie
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, School of Architecture , Oct 1992)
This book reviews Seattle public school design from organizational and aesthetic perspectives that can give facility designers references of schools that are innovative and environmentally appropriate for learning. The book's sections examine elementary, middle, high schools, and special schools. Each section begins with a summary of the key concepts of the schools examined, followed by a six-page case study for each facility. Each case study offers an overview of the school and discusses specifics of the school design relating to teaching and learning methods. A glossary and 37- item bibliography conclude the book. 200p.
Guidelines for Planning Public School Facilities: A Trends-Oriented Approach.
Coffey, Harold Edward
(Ph.D. Dissertation, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN , 1992)
This study establishes guidelines for planning future public schools based upon identified global, societal, and educational trends that most likely will impact the types of school facilities built. Sixty- six guideline elements were developed and judged as essential, highly desirable, and significant by 13 national educational facility planning specialists. Major conclusions from the study are that educational practitioners advocated systematic, proactive, long- and short-range facility planning; that aesthetic, psychological, and behavioral environmental enhancement factors were key areas in future school designs; and that schools should be designed to offer optimal comfort to all inhabitants with flexible spaces where teachers and students can learn, relate, and explore. 287p.Report NO: AAG9222251
New Designs for the Comprehensive High School.
Copa, George H.; Pease, Virginia H.
(Western Illinois University, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Macomb, IL , 1992)
Intended to influence school districts that have the opportunity to build new schools, this document provides new designs for comprehensive high schools that would overcome the mismatch between school and life, the inequity of educational outcomes, and the lack of organizational effectiveness that plague many contemporary high schools. The designs were developed by teachers, administrators, support staff, state education office staff, teacher educators, and policy makers. Following an introduction, the document contains the following sections: Learning Signature; Learner Outcomes; Learning Process; Learning Oganization; Learning Decision Making; Learning Partnerships; Learning Staff; Learning Technology; Learning Environment; Learning Costs; a summary of unique contributions, lessons learned, and recommended next steps. A list of 81 references concludes this volume. 121p.
Current Design Trends in School Facilities, 1992.
Castellana, John J.
(American Institute of Architects, Wasington, DC , 1992)
The American Institute of Architects has produced a slide presentation addressing the 1992 trends in school facilities design with illustrative examples of school projects. The 200-plus slide program explores projects representing a broad cross section of work completed across the country that include K-12 facilities, new technology, specialized facilities, prototype schools, and child care/day care facilities. 19p.
Children, Learning, & School Design. A First National Invitational Conference for Architects and Educators.
Hebert, Elizabeth; Meek, Anne
(Winnetka Public Schools, Winnetka, IL , 1992)
Presents papers from a conference marking the 50th anniversary of Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, held in November, 1990 to examine how collaboration between educators and architects could be advanced to meet the nation's pressing need for new and remodeled school buildings. The conference brought together architects, educators, researchers, and educational facilities planners to define and refine their understandings of the relationship between children's learning and the design of the learning environment. Chapters include: 1. The Importance of Conversation in Designing Schools (Elizabeth Hebert); 2. Working Together (Steven Bingler); 3. School Design in the 1990s: Outlook and Prospects (Lisa Walker); 4. The Connection Between Learning and the Learning Environment (James H. Banning); Crow Island: A Place Built for Children (Elizabeth Hebert). The conference program, list of attendees, and author biographies are included as appendices. 82p.TO ORDER: Crow Island School, 1112 Willow Road, Winnetka, IL 60093; Tel: 847-446-0353.
A Comparative Analysis of the Importance of Selected Elementary School Building Characteristics to Teachers, Principals, and Architects.
Chapman II, Marvin Watzel
(Doctoral Disseration, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill , 1991)
Examines the perceptions of teachers, principals, and architects relative to a set of building characteristics for a new elementary school. The data suggests that each group perceives school design features differently and that the professional training of each subject group influences their perception. Teachers and principals demonstrated the most similarity in responses, while teachers and architects demonstrated the least similarity. Analysis of the statistical values produced for the different design categories suggests that the expertise of all three subject groups should be used when new schools are designed. This planning should take place in a cooperative, professional atmosphere. 183p.Report NO: 9135212
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
Moore, Deborah P., Ed.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1991)
Advises on planning educational facilities from the conception of needs through occupancy and use. Each unit contains numerous photographs, drawings, and figures that illustrate the contents. Unit subjects are as follows: historical perspectives; planning resources; developing a master plan; the planning professionals; educational specifications; the site; spaces for learning; auxiliary spaces; environment for learning; equipping the facility; project budget and cost control; financing the capital program; the construction program; renovation, alteration, conversion; orientation and post-occupancy evaluation; college and university planning; and buying, selling, and leasing. 244p.
School Planning and Design.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1990)
Presentation material and dialog is provided from the Council of Educational Facility Planners International's Workshop designed to acquaint educators, planners, designers, and other interested parties with contemporary issues impacting the planning and design of educational facilities in the 1990s'. The workshop examined the critical elements and trends in school planning and design, discussed how quality planning and design can enhance the educational process, and explored how to best address tomorrow's technology in today's school facilities. Two educational facility design case studies conclude the document. 66p.
Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
Jenkins, Judith, ed.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1985)
Presents a compilation of information to be used in the planning of educational buildings from the conception of needs through occupancy and use. Each unit contains numerous photographs, drawings, and figures that illustrate the contents. Unit subjects are as follows: historical perspectives; planning resources; developing a master plan; the planning professionals; program requirements; the site; spaces for learning; auxiliary spaces; the learning environment; equipping the facility; project budget and cost control; financing the capital program; the construction program; renovation, alteration, and conversion; orientation and evaluation; college and university planning; and buying, selling, and leasing. 233p.
A Case for Underground Schools.
(School Plant Services, State Department of Education, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma , 1979)
The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made disasters, and schools offer the additional advantage that they are generally located central to the highly populated regions where emergency shelters may be most needed. In many cases, these shools were built with the understanding that the schools would provide sanctuary for the community in the event of tornadoes. There are indications that revenue requirements for energy and maintenance of underground schools are likely to be significantly less than requirements for comparable above ground schools. There are possibilities of making dual use of available land by building underground. Case studies of 12 schools show capacity, construction costs, floor plans, and photographs. 63p.
Design and Planning: The New Schools.
(Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York , 1972)
Presents designs 65 American schools from the late 1960's and early 1970's, serving ages preschool through high school. Many of the schools also make provision for adult education programs and other community uses, and there are some schools for special students. Nearly all the schools shown give evidence of the recent transformation from the double-loaded corridor to open plan, flexible design, which transformation this volume documents. Plans, building statistics, and a list of project participants are included for each example. 128p.
Trends in School Design: Informal Schools in Britain Today.
(Citation Press, New York, NY , 1972)
Uses a number of small, contemporary primary schools to illustrate a trend toward residential-scale school buildings whose classrooms are informally arranged and flexible. 82p.
Open Space Schools.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1971)
Presents numerous examples of noteworthy open space schools. In addition, the authors have drawn from their own experiences with the planning, design, and construction of open space schools. The book explains the justification for, programming, and creation of open space schools, and offers suggestions that might prove helpful, and to report on the state of the art. Includes photographs and plans. 112p.
Henry Barnard's School Architecture.
Barnard, Henry; McClintock, Jean; McClintock, Robert
(Columbia University Teachers College, New York, NY , 1970)
This is a 1970 reprint of an 1848 text, with an extensive introduction and analysis by Robert and Jean McClintock. In the original text, Barnard discusses common errors in school construction and general principles of school architecture, proposes planning considerations for various school levels, presents several then-extant plans as examples, and outlines classroom organization, furnishings, teaching aids, the library, and heating and ventilation considerations. 350p.
Guide for Planning Educational Facilities.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, Columbus, OH , Sep 1969)
Provides planners with basic principles of educational facility planning; serves as a basic guide for the application of recognized local and State criteria, standards, and principles to the planning of effective educational facilities; emphasizes the relationship between educational facilities and the educational programs they must accommodate; shows the importance of human resources and the relationship of human involvement to functional planning of successful educational facilities; and examines the broad steps necessary to plan and construct new facilities. An index and a bibliography are included. 204p.
Creative Planning of Educational Facilities.
(Rand McNally & Company, Chicago, IL , 1969)
Focuses on the translation of psychological and educational needs into physical form and design. Ways are suggested in which principles of creativity can be used in the planning and design of educationally effective buildings. Rehabilitation, modernization, and remodeling are also treated in detail. 370p.
Schools for America.
(American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC , 1967)
Presents a broad survey of current educational concepts and their related physical needs. Projected programs of implementation are related to new instructional procedures, while diverse educational situations are presented with possible physical solutions. Such factors as aesthetics, finance, and federal legislative programs are presented in an education context, while such situations as the community junior college and vocational-technical schools are explored in terms of design solutions. The examination of the various concepts, methods, and solutions is clarified through the use of numerous photographs, sketches, and diagrams. 186p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Schools Without Walls.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jun 1966)
Discusses California’s approach to building open space schools for the elementary grades. Open space schools provide an environment which encourages innovation and interaction. However, acoustics, space, and scheduling are problems that have to be dealt with in construction and use. Floor plans are included. 60p.
NCSC Guide for Planning School Plants.
(Michigan State University, National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, East Lansing , 1964)
Discusses school planning in five sections that deal with the various phases of the planning stage. Section one includes the determination of the educational plan, plant survey, enrollment projection, educational specifications, and architectural planning. Section two deals with school location and the types of spaces to be included. Section three deals with non-instructional facilities such as corridors, halls, lobbies, vestibules, ramps, stairways, toilets, storage, parking, lockers, closets, elevators, laundry, and utility systems. Section four considers spatial, aesthetic, and safety factors. Section five discusses all aspects of economy in building. 163p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Two Middle Schools, Saginaw Township, Michigan.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Sep 1960)
Presents profiles of two middle schools designed to improve the transition of elementary pupils to a modern high school program featuring individualized, self-directed study and research. One school uses a cluster plan, the other a compact design. The descriptions emphasize why the schools were designed as they were and how they were designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with evaluations of the schools in relation to the program for which they were planned. 29p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Hillsdale High School, San Mateo, California.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jun 1960)
Presents a profile of a high school designed so that its academic spaces are completely adaptable--changes in the program can be quickly reflected in the building through the easy rearrangement of partitions. The profile emphasizes why the school was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school. 25p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: A & M Consolidated Senior High School, College Station, Texas.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , May 1960)
Profiles a high school designed to provide versatile interior space and provisions for future expansion. Emphasis is placed on why the school was designed as it was; and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school in relation to the program for which it was planned. 21p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Rich Township High School, Olympia Fields Campus, Rich Township, Illinois.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , May 1960)
Profiles a high school designed to accommodate the organization of teachers into teams working with student groups of varying sizes--this organization is housed in a compact building with the teaching teams centered in clusters of classrooms. The building is heated in winter and cooled in summer by a heat pump system. The description emphasizes why the school was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school in relation to the program for which it was planned. 30p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Newton South High School, Newton, MA.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Feb 1960)
Explores why Newton South was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Such topics as the community background; reasons for building the new high school; class organization; the unique house plan of the school; the buildings that constitute the school plant; and cost information are discussed. 34p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: North Hagerstown High School, Hagerstown, MD
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Feb 1960)
Presents a profile for a high school designed to house a closed circuit television system as a basic part of the instructional program. The description of the educational bases of the design emphasizes why the school was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school. 27p.
Profiles of Significant Schools: Wayland Senior High School, Wayland, Massachusetts.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jan 1960)
Profiles a high school designed to accommodate a team teaching approach to education. The description emphasizes why the school was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school in relation to the program for which it was planned. 33p.
McQuade, Walter, ed.
(Simon and Schuster, New York , 1958)
Advises on school building by first considering what the community and children want in a school, and continuing with architect selection, financing, site and building features. A photograph tour of exemplary schools completes the book. 271p.
School Planning and Building Handbook.
Engelhardt, N.L; Leggett, Stanton
(F.W. Dodge, New York, NY , 1956)
Advises on planning and building schools, detailing board and superintendent responsibilities, educational specifications, public relations, planning for equipment and furniture, site selection and acquisition, working with design professionals, landscaping, contracting, project management, bonding, and a variety of additional cost and administrative details that accompany the creation of a new school. 638p.
Good and Bad School Plants in the United States as Revealed by School Facilities Survey.
(U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare; Washington, DC , 1954)
Presents examples of well-and poorly planned school facilities, with some dating back as far as 1800. The intent is to assist planners in selecting practical features for their own schools, and to present the problems facing many communities in providing adequate school facilities. 83p.
American School Buildings.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1949)
This yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators offers nineteen essays on school construction, covering the topics of the school boards responsibility, organizational and administrative procedures, site planning, auxiliary facilities, design service, mechanical and service facilities, building for safety, materials selection, economies in construction and design, light and color, furnishings, renovation, preventive maintenance, financing, and major steps in building a school. 363p.
Planning Secondary School Buildings.
Engelhardt, N; Leggett, Stanton
(Rheinhold Publishing Co., New York, NY , 1949)
Discusses design and space requirements for secondary school classrooms, administrative areas, shops, libraries, auditoriums, science facilities, restrooms, common areas, athletic facilities, cafeterias, homemaking, visual arts, and music. [Available online from Google books.] 128p.TO ORDER: http://books.google.com/books/
Modern American School Buildings, Being a Treatise Upon, and Designs For the Construction of School Buildings.
(John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY , 1906)
Discusses the design of schools that are architecturally sound, as well as properly lit and ventilated. The author discusses the particulars of various school spaces; steps in the planning, design and project management process; and suburban and urban schools. Includes 89 full-page illustrations. [Available online from Google books.] 411p.TO ORDER: http://books.google.com/books
References to Journal Articles
Education Design Showcase 12. Outstanding Design + Architecture in Education.
College Planning and Management; Jun 2012
Research and best practices lead to innovative yet practical solutions in planning, design and construction. Round up of schools, colleges, and universities projects submitted to the Education Design Showcase.
The Four Energy Zones of Schools
Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p49-53 ; Jun 2012
Discusses how schools can provide each child with an environment where they can grow and thrive by creating facilities that support quality educational delivery and promote a high level of engagement. The authors describe the regression, stagnation, corruption, and actualization zones.
Fusing Technology Into the School Design Process For Today and Tomorrow
Strube, Marilyn; Thompson, Ann L.
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p39-42 ; Jun 2012
Discusses the many ways that students are bringing technologies into the classroom and the design implications for school design.
An Emerging Framework for School Design Based on Children’s Voices
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p125-144 ; Spring 2012
This paper explores the views and expectations of children regarding their school environments and has constructed a framework for the school design process based on children’s information and reflections. The research objectives required analyzing secondary data, as well as qualitative and quantitative empirical studies— each one leading to the next. The issues raised by children about school design emerged through an analysis of three previous studies in the UK. The empirical study involved 260 children (11-12 years old) in two secondary schools in England. The findings highlight the importance children attribute to various issues. The overall findings have been developed as a school design framework to guide the design and decision-making processes of architects and designers. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
Forming Playscapes: What Schools Can Learn from Playgrounds
Arch Daily; Mar 07, 2012
When designing classrooms, designers should look at spaces that welcome interaction with the environment and encourage the free reign of energy and imagination--the playground. Describes numerous schools around the world that can inspire the classrooms of the future.
Community-Oriented Architecture in Schools: How Extroverted Design Can Impact Learning and Change the World
Arch Daily; Mar 05, 2012
According to this article, the design of a school cannot just incorporate the necessary physical conditions for students; it must be designed with its cultural value to the community in mind, cognizant of the fact that a young mind’s commitment to learning is affected greatly by his/her family, society and culture’s value of education.
Citizens Fit for the 21st Century? The Role of School Design in Facilitating Citizenship and Self-Governance in Young People
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice; n1 , p19-31 ; Mar 2012
This article explores the relevance of school design in providing an important social-spatial context for promoting citizenship in young people. Drawing on a small-scale study that investigated the perspectives of pupils and teachers, it contrasts the ways in which the social control and monitoring of pupils differed in two secondary schools. Comparing features of everyday life in one new and one old-build school, this study found that school design could either heighten or lessen the need for teacher control of pupils. As a consequence the layout of the schools could enable or restrict young people's opportunities for self-determination, as well as encourage the normalization of the acceptance of control by others. The implications of this for the production of autonomous and self-governing citizens will be addressed. [Author's abstract]
Creating an Ultra-Flexible Learning Space
THEJournal; Feb 08, 2012
Designers of the Minnesota School of Environmental Studies (SES) were years ahead of the curve when it came to creating collaborative classrooms that would one day accommodate learning technologies that in 1995 had yet to be conceived--let alone developed and marketed to the educational sector. Cumulatively the various features that went into SES' design have withstood both the test of time and the onslaught of technology in the high school classroom.
Building Types Study: K-12 Schools
Architectural Record; Jan 2012
In-depth analyses of fifteen K-12 school buildings, with photos, drawings, specifications, descriptions and design solutions. Includes Evelyn Grace Academy, Zaha Hadid Architects London, United Kingdom; Gloria Marshall Elementary School, SHW Group, Spring, Texas; Leutschenbach School, Christian Kerez, Zurich, German; Machias Elementary School NAC Architecture, Snohomish, Washington; Marysville Getchell High School Campus, DLR Group,Marysville, Washington; Nathan Hale High School, Mahlum, Seattle, Washington; Pritzker Science Center, William Rawn Associates, Architects, Milton, Massachusetts; Samuel Brighouse Elementary School, Perkins+Will, British Columbia, Richmond, Canada; South Shore International College Prep High School, John Ronan Architects, Chicago, Illinois; Stoddert Elementary School & Community Center, EE&K a Perkins Eastman company, Washington D.C.; Summit Elementary School, Lee H. Skolnick Architecture + Design Partnership, Casper, Wyoming; W. F. Kaynor Technical High School, The S/L/A/M Collaborative, Waterbury, Connecticut; Cedar Ridge High School, Perkins+Will, Round Rock, Texas; Charles W. Morey Elementary School, Flansburgh Architects, Lowell, Massachusetts; Gary Comer College Prep, John Ronan Architects, Chicago, Illinois.
Innovations for Educational Facility Design
Architectural Record; , 7p ; Jan 2012
Describes the main issues affecting high-performance school design. Discusses strategies for enhancing learning environments using retrofit or renovation strategies to improve daylighting, flexibility of use, or energy efficiency. Provides examples of building techniques and technologies specifically designed to improve student health or the life cycle and durability of educational buildings.
School Architecture: Numerous Factors at Play
School Construction News; Dec 27, 2011
When it comes to school architecture, there is no one size fits all approach. A variety of design elements are at play — no matter if the facility is an elementary or middle school, high school or college — largely due to the various socioeconomic backgrounds, physical characteristics, learning styles and emotional intelligences that exist within the educational sphere. Discusses interactive design, building as a teaching tool, and how cluster design encourages learning. Includes several case studies.
Smart Building Spaces Redefine Traditional School Environments
School Construction News; Dec 13, 2011
Discusses serendipity spaces that manifest themselves in a variety of forms — from quiet study alcoves in a library, to a main traffic lounge complete with computer terminals and a nearby café; or a comfortable niche seating area adjacent to a window with a scenic view. These areas often reduce the sterility of classroom-oriented settings by featuring useful amenities such as private workstations, power outlets, wi-fi, convenient access to refreshments, televisions and reading material. Typically, these incorporate comfortable seating, such as couches and loungers with appropriately sized work tables. Such serendipity spaces are truly essential to allow the most efficient use of space and to offer reasons for students and faculty to interact outside the classroom walls.
Genius Loci: MacConnell Award Projects + Ewan Mclntosh's Seven Spaces
Baibak, Rebecca; Ruiz, Karina; Parker, Ross and Peters. Edward J
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p9-11 ; Dec 2011
Given the surge of technology use in the 21st century, explores the defining characteristics of schools of the future: group spaces, secret spaces, publishing spaces, performing spaces, participation spaces, and watching spaces.
STEM for All
Hutton, Paul and VandenBurg, Todd
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p19-23 ; Dec 2011
The authors share their insights into the proper role of and implementation for STEM within the K-12 sector. Discusses the following: lab function and layout; sustainable STEM buildings; buildings as sustainable teaching tools; buildings teaching math and science; thoughtful planning of technology.
21st-Century Learning Q&A
American School and University; Nov 2011
Twenty-five architects comment on the latest innovations in designing for future learning, as well as how design can support these trends. Questions answered include: What are the latest ideas/innovations in designing to support 21st-century learning?; How can the built environment support emerging trends in education?' What are some design trends in specialized classrooms or programs to support future learning styles/methods? and How is technology for today’s learning affecting school design?
Cost-Effective Design for Green Schools.
Hoyle, Terry and Corona, Rich
American School and University; Oct 2011
An integrated approach to green school design is the best bet for education institutions. When budget and sustainability are a priority, architects should design a project with a comprehensive understanding of how the final building systems will operate and make thoughtful design decisions that will enable these systems to work together to serve multiple purposes.
10 Ways to Create Schools Where Students Thrive
Learning by Design; , p14-17 ; Fall 2011
Describes 10 innovative strategies for creating 21st century schools: engage all stakeholders in the design process; seek education partnerships and joint use; maximize sites well connected to the community; adapt and reuse existing facilities; utilize the neighborhood and the world as a campus; use sustainable design for a high-performance learning environment; integrate technology throughout; facilitate learning everywhere; break down the scale of the school; and design in support of learning.
A Model School Facility for Energy
Spangler, Seth and Crutchfield, Dave
American School and University; Sep 2011
Building energy modeling predicts a facility's energy use and it can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. This describes energy modeling that can be carried out during the design, pre-construction and post-construction phases.
What Schools Can Learn From Google, IDEO, and Pixar.
Turckes, Steven; Kahl, Melanie
Fast Company Co Design; Aug 26, 2011
The process of planning and designing a new school requires both looking outward (to the future, to the community, to innovative corporate powerhouses) as well as inward (to the playfulness and creativity that are at the core of learning. This articles suggests learning from the country's strongest innovators that embrace creativity, play, and collaboration -- values that also inform their physical spaces.
What I’ve Learned After 15 Years of Designing Schools
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
Architect Steve Southerland picks nine favorite lessons to help lift school projects from merely functional to inspirational: know your client; classroom shape; rooms as backdrop; harden the finishes; refuge and prospect; teachable moments; social spaces; program the site; and access to the natural world.
Designing Schools for a Changing Future.
Ascent Magazine; , p26-31 ; Summer 2011
Discusses how new teaching techniques and sustainable-design requirements are reflected in design concepts that impact K-12 schools. Recommends learning spaces that offer a variety of group settings and focusing on green design. Designing on a budget leads to a growth in precast concrete use.
Education on Display.
School Construction News; v17 n5 , p17,18 ; Jul-Aug 2011
Relates principles of museum design, especially hands-on immersion, with best practices in new school design.
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p38,40,42 ; Jun 2011
Documents the following benefits of using metal for school construction and renovation projects: sustainability, durability, long-term cost savings, aesthetics, design flexibility, facility retrofits, and price.
Designed to Curb Obesity.
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p41-47 ; Jun 2011
Argues that convenience-based school design must be reconsidered and advocates design that encourages greater activity and physical movement in the drive to curb obesity.
Alternative Construction Methods.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p38-41 ; May 2011
Describes insulated concrete forms, precast, tilt-up, cast-in-place, and autoclaved aerated concrete methods of construction.
New Rules for Educational Interiors.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p20,22,24,26 ; May 2011
Proposes criteria for educational interiors that emphasize flexibility; enticing colors; and blurring the distinction between the corridor, the classroom, and the outdoors.
Learning Curve. How Museum Design Taught a New Elementary School.
Skolnick, Lee H. and Secor, Jo Ann
Museum; , p35-36 ; May-Jun 2011
Describes the design of Summit Elementary School in Casper, Wyoming that was influenced by approaches that are central to the best museum design practices: immersive environments, an array of multisensory experiences, entry point activities, and an interpretive look-and-feel approach.
Appropriate in Any Climate.
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p55-57 ; May 2011
Advocates the use of modular, insulated concrete form, and precast concrete construction for exterior walls in school. Construction ease, affordability, durability, and high insulating value are the main benefits.
When a Zero on the Report Card Is Good.
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p30,32-34 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the use of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in school construction. The modular insulation panels create super-insulated and extremely airtight building envelopes, enabling the specification of smaller HVAC equipment and extending its life.
Impact on Learning.
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p21,23,25,27,29,31,32 ; Mar 2011
Provides evidence and quantifiable results that the learning environment has an effect on students and staff. Innovative solutions are demonstrated at Christ Church Episcopal School, Greenville SC; St. Elizabeth Ann Seton School, Keller TX; Roy Martin Middle School, Las Vegas NV; Pleasant Grove High School, Pleasant Grove AL; and Cedar Creek High School, Cedar Creek TX. Topics include visual environment, use of color, room temperature, safe and supportive learning environments, and flexible furniture.
Clicks and Bricks: How School Buildings Influence Future Practice and Technology Adoption.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p33-37 ; 2011
Describes six specialized school spaces that encourage digital learning and customized learning. These are secret, group, publishing, performing, participation and watching spaces.
School as a Place: A Phenomenological Method for Contemplating School Environments
Zur, Ayala; Eisikovits, Rivka A.
International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education; v24 n4 , p451-470 ; 2011
The study presents a phenomenologically based research procedure, whose intent is to examine people's school experience and the meaning they ascribe to "school." Participants in this investigative endeavor are instructed to sketch an "ideal school," present their plan in a visual-schematic manner, and provide an oral and written description of their design. Proposals are presented through a Location Task--a tool originally intended for use by architects in their routine work with clients. We discuss the rationale behind this procedure and describe the research tool and its application potential. Finally, we illustrate the data processing via the analysis of one proposal designed by a 17-year-old male student.[Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/tqse/2011/00000024/00000004/art00004
Designing in a Tough Economy.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p235-245 ; Nov 2010
Presents responses of 27 architects to questions on how the economic downturn has affected education construction, how they are surviving, and how they have trimmed costs and used creativity to create high-quality schools.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p212-215 ; Nov 2010
Describes features of a learner-centered educational facility, including spaces that foster active engagement in learning, group-friendly collaboration areas, and technological connectivity.
New Design Concepts for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Sullivan, C.; Horwitz-Bennett, Barbara
Building Design and Construction; v51 n6 , p53-56 ; Oct 2010
Anticipates an upturn in school construction in the near future, with indoor environments and energy savings being top concerns. Daylighting, displacement ventilation, and energy recovery from HVAC systems are emphasized.
Voice of the Teacher.
Catalyst (Publication of American Architectural Foundation); , p8-19 ; Summer 2010
Explores the relationship between school design and teaching. The American Architectural Foundation visited seven schools that have been recognized nationally for their innovative design, turning to the educators who work in them for insight. Describes two trends in particular revolutionizing the design of the learning environment: 1.the shift from the teacher as a “sole practitioner” to interactive team teaching and 2.the recognition that students have a variety of learning styles requiring varied and flexible learning situations.
Twenty Years of Interiors.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p145-156 ; Aug 2010
Presents the responses of 34 school designers to the following questions: 1) What are the biggest changes in educational interiors over the past 20 year? 2) What do you see as the future of the interior education space in the next few years? and 3) How as the emergence of green/sustainability changed the interior space?
American School and University; v82 n13 , p142-144 ; Aug 2010
Cautions against poor school design as a result of economic pressures, and offers affordable suggestions for producing a quality new school. These include a library that is as inviting as the local bookstore, destination dining, community-oriented athletic facilities, a "main street" common area, and adherence to environmental sustainability.
Student-centered Schools Put Learning First.
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Advocates for school design that expresses the individual learning needs of the student. San Diego's High Tech High is briefly profiled as an example of such a flexible environment.
Camino Nuevo High School Los Angeles, California.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this school on a long and narrow urban site, bounded by four busy streets. The solution was to create the common area on the interior of the building, as an open courtyard between two two-story wings. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.
Walls, Ceilings, and Learning.
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p28-31 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the role of prevention of water intrusion into the school building envelope, ceiling tile selection, and insulation in creating a healthy, quite, and comfortable learning environment.
Whole Building Design Objectives.
Facilities Manager; v26 n4 , p20-23,25,26 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG) Design Guidance Model to address safety and security design needs in the open spaces surrounding educational buildings. Sections of the article cover design guidance, objectives, and disciplines, and then safety, security and system dynamics.
Atriums and Energy: Designing for Performance.
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p52-56 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the benefits of atriums to educational facility aesthetics, occupant circulation, air quality, and lighting. Casual design of an atrium as merely an ornament is discouraged, and building modeling tools and technology that help incorporate into the whole building design are described.
The Secret of BIM.
Learning By Design; n19 , p18-20 ; Spring 2010
Discuses Building Information Management (BIM) and how its three-dimensional design renderings are advancing school design. Examples of how BIM was used to model existing educational facilities are described.
Pushing the Envelope.
School Planning and Management; v49 n3 , p36-39 ; Mar 2010
Discusses advances in Building envelope technology and materials that improve the energy performance of schools. Insulating foam and moisture barriers are emphasized.
Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research.
Learning Environments Research; v13 n2 , 127-145 ; 2010
Develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching, and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching and learning. Supporting evidence for this argument is drawn from research on school climate and organization, as well as from the author's study of three open-plan high schools. Facilities design, educational practice, school culture, and student learning are found to be interrelated aspects of a school's total learning environment. [author's abstract]TO ORDER: https://springerlink3.metapress.com/content/3tn372p337737866/resource-secured/?target=fulltext.pdf&sid=tisgdnq0vqyewe55oms1vg45&sh=www.springerlink.com
Planning for Change: Flexible Design Solutions.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p17-20 ; Jan 2010
Cites Washington's Federal Way School District to illustrate cost-effective plans for constructing schools that do not need to be razed and re-built every 10 to 20 years. Plans for flexibility allow for easier adaptation of the existing facilities as educational philosophies change.
Schools as Architecture for Newcomers and Strangers: The Perfect School as Public School?
Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten
Teachers College Record; v112 n2 , 533-555 ; 2010
Reflects on the public role of education on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education." Based on Arendt's essay, the article explores that peculiar setting and architecture between family and world that is called “school.” The leading concern for this investigation is the school's public meaning. The point of departure is that today, the public role of education is an urgent concern, that is, the school's public role is questioned in view of the current processes of privatization, and what is critically described as the "capitalization of life." In this contribution, based on a reading of Arendt's essay and relying on the analysis of a specific school design by the architect Wim Cuyvers, two different ways of thinking the public meaning of school education are explored. The article shows that it is impossible to think "a new beginning in our world" without thinking the school as public space. It offers an outline for elaborating the Arendtian thinking of the "perfect school." This school is conceived of as a space where people are exposed to things, and being exposed could be regarded as being drawn outside that is, into public space. NoteTO ORDER: http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=15743
Building Blueprints: Classrooms/Small Learning Spaces.
Payne, William; Tyler, Charlesa
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p80,81 ; Jan 2010
Discusses four characteristics of effective classrooms: agility, transparent technology, optimized acoustics, and proper daylighting.
Pictures are Necessary but Not Sufficient: Using a Range of Visual Methods to Engage Users about School Design.
Woolner, Pamela; Clark, Jill; Hall, Elaine; Tiplady, Lucy; Thomas, Ulrike; Wall, Kate
Learning Environments Research; v13 , p1-22 ; 2010
Describes a consultation that was undertaken in a British secondary school as part of a participatory design process centered on the rebuilding of the school. A range of visual methods, based on photographs and maps, was used to investigate the views of a diverse sample of school users, including students, teachers, technical and support staff and the wider community. This article documents the experience of using these tools, considering the success of different visually-based methods in engaging a broad cross section of the school community and revealing useful information. The study, therefore, contributes to knowledge about specific visual research methods, appreciation of the relationship between tools, and a general methodological understanding of visual methods' utility for developing understanding of the learning environment. 46 references are included.
Don't Fall into the Box.
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p18,20,22 ; Dec 2009
Proposes creating educational spaces that conform to the habits of today?s multi-tasking students, with a variety of spaces of different sizes, configurations, and furnishings.
Cool for School: Architects Design for Education and Get an A+.
New York Times Magazine; , p16 ; Nov 08, 2009
Discusses recent schools designed by notable architects that challenge typical design aesthetics for schools. Photographs are included.
Some Very Welcome Changes.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p6 ; Oct 2009
Reflects on the increase in smaller learning communities and extended learning areas in school facilities.
Integrated Sustainable Architecture.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p44,45 ; Oct 2009
Outlines four key characteristics of a sustainable school master plan: 1) supporting learning through integration of varying spaces, furnishings, and technologies; 2) putting schools at the centers of communities; 3) creating high-performance facilities; and 4) taking a long-term view.
AIA Education Awards.
Architecture Week; , N1.1 ; Sep 23, 2009
Profiles the 13 schools named as 2009 winners by the American Insitute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education. Detail on projects are provided with additional links from this online article. The schools selected include elementary, secondary, charter, higher education, and specialty schools.
How Codes become Law.
Facilities Manager; v25 n5 , p44,45 ; Sep 2009
Explains how building codes are written, how governing bodies incorporate them into law, where the boundaries of authority lie, and how to address perceived overreach of legislation.
Four Questions Can Lead to Better Ceiling Selection. [Four Ways to Evaluate Ceiling Quality.]
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p10,12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses considerations of aesthetics, acoustics, durability, and sustainability in ceiling selection.
Creating a Small School from Scratch.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , p54 ; Jul 2009
Advises on how to create a high school for 400 or fewer students, with recommendation for siting and co-locating the facility with other community facilities, as well as creating a gathering place that can accommodate the entire school population.
Alternative School Construction Methods.
Baty, Jim; Blyth, Todd
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , p34-37 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the use of insulated concrete forms, modular units, and tilt-up concrete in school construction. The advantages to energy efficiency, construction speed, and cost are cited.
Piecing it Together.
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , p37-39 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the use of insulated concrete forms and modular units in higher education construction. The advantages to energy efficiency, construction speed, and cost are cited, along with an example of a modular-built dormitory at the University of Scranton.
Locker Options: Thinking outside the Box.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS12-S14 ; Jul 2009
Addresses the aesthetics, acoustics, and contraband of school locker installations. Typical dysfunctions of design, construction, and placement are noted, as are solutions such as incorporating lockers into human-scale gathering places, noise abatement techniques, natural surveillance opportunities.
Dublin High School Looks to the Future with its Campus-Wide Master Plan.
CASH Register; v30 n5 , p14,15 ; May 2009
Reviews this California district's multi-year, multi-phase plan to increase the size and program of its high school without increasing its footprint or building a second high school.
Opening Up Learning: from Spaces to Environments.
Educause Review; v44 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Reflects on the evolution of learning areas from spaces to environments, with the interweaving of classroom, libraries, labs, and informal spaces, as well as the call for all stakeholders to join in designing and developing the learning environment.
Don't Just Rebuild Schools-Reinvent Them.
Education Week; v28 n28 , p24,25 ; Apr 08, 2009
Advocates for rethinking of school design, rather than just renovating and repairing the current model. The author encourages recipients of federal stimulus funds to create personalized learning communities, integrate technology, connect to the outdoors, focus on student comfort, include the arts, embed sustainability, and engage the parents and community.
La Mirada High School.
CASH Register; v30 n4 , p12,13 ; Apr 2009
Profiles this California high school expansion that features four geometric structures connected by breezeways with planter seating to encourage socialization.
Trends in Urban School Design.
Schooldesigner; Apr 2009
Discusses sustainability, finding space, special education needs, and the school as community anchor, all of which figure prominently in the creating of inner-city schools.
Grow up, not out, with Green Design.
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p22-24,26,27 ; Apr 2009
Presents lessons learned in the creation of the CHPS-certified Brea Olinda High School in Orange County, California. These include designing the school like a custom home, hiring a good design team and trusting them, and looking for efficiency in every category of the building.
Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices.
Open House International; v34 n1 ; Mar 2009
This issue of Open House International explores and investigate qualities and characteristics of learning environments at different scales and in different contexts, from classroom typologies to campus outdoor spaces. The 12 articles emphasize emerging paradigms in learning environments that involve a number of underlying issues including the academic house clustering, the school as heart of the community, the rising interest in new classroom spaces and forms, the user-centered processes, utilizing the learning environment as an open textbook, and the impact of recent advances in information technologies and globalization on the future of learning settings.TO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
Topographies and Shrines: Creating Responsive Learning Environments.
Open House International; v34 n1 , p45-54 ; Mar 2009
Proposes an approach to creation of learning environments through the intertwining of topographies - the owned and continual space of everyday life and dwelling; shrines - the spaces for the new, the exalted, the non habitual; and making by the community - the continual collaboration of the community, teachers and pupils in the design and re-design of the learning environments. All three counterparts are profoundly context related, soundly local and of uttermost significance to identity, belonging and hence wellbeing. The paper examines diverse sources, ranging from scientific to phenomenological research, from non-conventional community-specific learning environments to historical precedents, and from architectural theory to practical- professional experience of the authorTO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
Spatial and Educational Patterns fo Innovation for Charter Schools.
Open House International; v34 n1 , p55-67 ; Mar 2009
Presents ten school patterns and design examples, revealing some of the most relevant trends in educational design, drawn from research on charter schools. An interdisciplinary team of students in architecture, urban planning, business, education, and psychology have complied this series of case studies of best practices, as well as profiled charter schools locally, to develop patterns and guidelines for the facility planning and educational development of charter schools. This research addresses the connections between the designed physical environment and the learning innovations it supports, while encouraging the entrepreneurial charter school vision, emphasizing creativity in the renovation, adaptive reuse, and non-traditional use of existing buildings, efficiently maximizing student safety and learning, and adhering to best-practice standards of ecological design.
Research Based Design of an Elementary School.
Open House International; v34 n1 , p9-16 ; Mar 2009
Examines current learning styles and teaching methods in order to suggest a new form of learning environment for young students. Features such as different activity settings and small group activities aimed at enhancing learning resulted from the participation of students, teachers and parents in the design of the Gibsonville (North Carolina) Elementary School. Teachers, working in small groups, compared different classroom arrangements along with criteria to compare and evaluate each alternative and unanimously selected an "L" shape classroom, which became the basis for the design of the school. Another critical design feature that emerged from the teacher workshop was direct access from each classroom to the outdoors, allowing teachers to create outdoor classrooms that could enhance student's ecological awareness. The final design featured four academic houses of six L shaped classrooms each around an open courtyard. A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted several months after completion of construction and revealed a high level of satisfaction; however, the findings pointed to the need for a subsequent workshop to focus on the effective arrangement of furniture in L shaped classrooms. The participatory process was identified by the students and teachers as the key factor contributing to the design.TO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
Giving Change a Chance.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p54 ; Feb 2009
Reflects on schools that were designed with collaborative and flexible spaces, but whose spaces are not being used as intended. Encouraging administrators and educators to adapt educational delivery to contemporary spaces is proposed.
Makovsky, Paul; Pederson, Martin; Cameron, Kristi; Greenberg, Randi
Metropolis; , p71-82 ; Feb 2009
Profiles eight K-12 school projects submitted by design firms as demonstrating an innovative approach, application, or idea. These facilities include wind turbines, green roofs, and buildings that serve as teaching tools.
In a World of "Us-Ness."
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p5-8 ; 2009
Discusses improving a child's sense of belonging to a school community by designing schools around students' needs, creating open plans that are adaptable to future learning modalities, and creating personal spaces within schools.
Theory vs. Bricks and Mortar-Forming, Norming, Storming, and Performing.
Robbie, Philip; Pickett, Fran
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n4 , p16-18 ; 2009
Reviews a 2009 design charette that examined three Florida schools in need of rebuilding, remodeling, or expansion. The elements of the design exercise are described, and the participants left with more understanding of what constitutes a high performance school.
Transparency Builds community.
Learning By Design; n18 , p168 ; 2009
Explores the advantages of transparency in educational facilities. Admitting daylight, supervision, and visual communication between groups is discussed.
Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p32,34-36 ; 2009
Details five key points that frame an approach to linking architecture and education. These are: 1) Begin with aesthetics and a philosophical frame of reference. 2) Develop and use a curricular organizing system to govern the school facility planning and development process. 3) Design and learn from the environment. 4) Aim for the future. 5) Foster ecological stewardship.
Ten Steps to Success.
American School and University; v81 n4 , p18,20,22,24 ; Dec 2008
Proposes ten steps that schools and universities can take to provide stimulating learning spaces, even during difficult economic times. These are organized into categories that include budgeting, community outreach, health and safety, security, environmental stewardship, and maintenance.
Harvesting Hardwood: Native Hardwoods in Green Design.
The Construction Specifier; v61 n12 , p74-86 ; Dec 2008
Discusses the variety and properties of American hardwoods and certification of sustainably produced hardwoods. Recent higher education buildings that made effective use of hardwoods, and sustainability comparisons of hardwood to manufactured flooring products are included, along with ten references.
Metal Buildings: Green and Good Looking.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n6 , p6,8,9 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses the advantages of metal building exteriors, comparing the energy performance of two recent identical schools, one with a metal roof, and one without.
Lessons from the Mall: A School with a Commercial Aesthetic Makes Young Minds More Receptive.
Fielding, Randall; Gehling, Annalise
Discusses features of shopping mall design that should be considered in the context of school design. Creating an inviting social area, use of enticing merchandising techniques to display learning resources and student work, light, flow, and choice. Examples of how this has been addressed in some schools are included.
Can Good Design Boost the Case for School Consolidation?
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 28, 2008
Discusses some benefits of consolidating under-utilized schools, and how thoughtful facility design can ease the trauma of consolidation, and even better serve the educational program.
A Thoughtful Blend.
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p22-24 ; Aug 2008
Discusses three keys to the successful partnership of school curriculum and construction. These are: concepts that cross grade and subject boundaries, hands-on experiences, and relevant core values. The incorporation of the school facility into each of these concepts is particularly stressed.
Giants 300 Report: K-12 Schools Report.
Building Design and Construction; v49 n9 , p36,37 ; Jul 2008
Briefly discusses current and projected K-12 construction spending, and lists the top 20 school firms and the top 20 school contractors, based on 2007 billings.
Hawthorne Elementary School.
CASH Register; v29 n7 , p10,11 ; Jul 2008
Profiles this 600-student school on an historic site in Riverside, California. Deference to the neighborhood and historic setting is emphasized in the use of the site and building design.
Let's Make Better Choices This Time.
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p12 ; Jul 2008
Reviews unfortunate effects of the 1970's energy crisis on school design and cautions against making some of the same design mistakes when responding to current high energy prices.
Instruction Drives Construction...Or Should.
Education Week; v27 n42 ; Jun 30, 2008
Advocates for the consideration of instruction, technology, time, architecture, and money together when designing schools that will not become obsolete.
Pods vs. Corridors.
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p72,7382 ; Jun 2008
Advocates for the organization of classrooms around open, or common, spaces, noting the requirements for and advantages of the open space.
A Concrete Solution.
Clary, Carl; Golden, Joe
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p56,58-61 ; Jun 2008
Cites the virtues of precast concrete for school construction. These include lower construction costs, shorter construction time, high seismic and blast resistance, a wide variety of design options, and acoustical isolation.
A Model Performance.
Thornton, Bradley; Smalley, Robert
American School and University; v80 n9 , p50-52 ; May 2008
Discusses the use of building information modeling (BIM) to create 3-D simulation of educational facilities designs so that all project participants can accurately design and construct their systems. Advice on coordinating a BIM project is included.
L.A.'s Learning Curve.
The Architect; v97 n4 , p70-75 ; Apr 2008
Profiles the Los Angeles Unified School District's multi-billion dollar capital improvement program, highlighting early failures, the hiring of large number of architects, the innovative and community-oriented designs, and a few of the most notable facilities, designed by renowned architects.
College Planning and Management; v11 n3 , p30,33,34,36 ; Mar 2008
Reviews considerations for glass curtain walls on academic buildings, including operable windows, thermal performance, moisture control, acoustics, blast resistance, and fire safety.
A Chance to Change Codes.
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p74 ; Feb 2008
Laments the negative effect of some state codes on innovative school design, and proposes participation in an upcoming conference to help resolve the problem.
Waterproofing and Insulation.
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p47,49,50,52,53 ; Feb 2008
Discusses the importance of securing the school building envelope against moisture, beginning with the site plan and design phase, and continuing through construction and maintenance. Recommendations for roofing, windows, skylights, doors, exteriors, below-grade drainage, waterproofing, and wall systems are included.
High Schools Children Want to Attend.
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n1 , p36-39 ; 2008
Proposes principles for designing better high schools, including focusing on 21st-century thinking skills, digital fluency, interdisciplinary learning, individualization, connection to the outside world, around-the-clock availability of learning opportunities, and personal space. Includes four references.
What Will School Look Like in 2050?
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n1 , p15-20 ; Jan 2008
Analyzes twelve trends and counter-trends that may affect educational delivery, and educational facilities, over the upcoming decades. These trends cover demographics, school choice, outreach and isolationism, school size, teacher/pupil ratios, technology integration, testing, learning styles, school scheduling, grade configuration, and community schools. Includes 27 references.
Building Blueprints: Connect with Courtyards.
Lentz, Michael; Monberg, Gregory
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p44,45 ; Dec 2007
Reviews benefits of thoughtfully designed school courtyards, and typical uses such as dining, outdoor learning, and special events. Suggestions for design, security, technology integration, and maintenance are included.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p362-383 ; Nov 2007
Presents selected responses of 57 active school architects to five questions concerning trends in school design and school security.
Communities Need More Flexibility in School Design.
Primer; v2 n9 ; Nov 2007
Sets forth 36 recommendation of an Ohio working group, emphasizing empowering local districts with flexibility in school planning, funding, and design. Beginning with the assessment process, the recommendations encourage local options geared toward educational outcomes rather than statewide formulas, increased accommodation for building renovation, flexibility throughout the design process, and general relief from the prescriptive state mandates.
Designer Schools: The Role of School Space and Architecture in Obesity Prevention.
Obesity; v15 n11 , p2521-2530 ; Nov 2007
Discusses the link between school space and architecture and obesity prevention by reviewing and synthesizing available literature in architecture, environmental psychology, and obesity research, in an effort to propose promising ideas for school space design and redesign. The school environment is defined through 5 dimensions: physical, legal, policy, social, and cultural domains. Theories underlying environmental interventions and documented associations between the environment and health behaviors and outcomes are reviewed to illustrate how existing environmental research could translate to obesity prevention. Design strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthful eating are proposed, with particular emphasis on the design of cafeterias, activity spaces, connectivity with the larger community, and student health centers. Includes 52 references.
Building Blueprints: Schools Elementary through Community College.
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p42,43 ; Nov 2007
Profiles art installations that engage students at the Beecher School and Columbus Family Academy in New Haven, Connecticut, as well as in the Norwalk Community College.
Dittoe, William; Porter, Nat
American School and University; v80 n2 , p26,28,29,30,32 ; Oct 2007
Discusses the trend away from traditional school space design based on numbers of students, toward design based on achieving educational outcomes. Features of improved learning space and furnishings in classrooms, hallways, libraries, and residences are included.
Efficiency by Design.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p6,7 ; Oct 2007
Profiles the cooperation of design and maintenance personnel in the Milwaukee Public Schools, resulting in buildings that are easier and less expensive to maintain.
Building the Perfect School.
American School Board Journal; v194 n10 , p16-21 ; Oct 2007
Reviews current issues in school design, including flexible classroom design, designing a technology backbone, smaller school size, neighborhood schools, sustainability, community input, and use of prototypes.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Variety Is the Spice of Education! (Part 2)
Schooldesigner Newsletter; Aug 2007
Examines distinctive educational interiors, profiling nine facilities that feature exemplary learning spaces, conscientious finishes, and engaging common areas.
Vail Mountain School, Vail, Colorado.
Architectural Record; Jul 2007
Profiles this facility that embraces materials associated with "mountain architecture," such as rough-sawn cedar board and Colorado moss stone with timber and copper accents. Expansive windows and extended overhangs in the dining hall capture the view of the dramatic Booth Falls to the south and the extended valley views to the west. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.
Wood Makes a Statement.
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p50,52-55 ; Jun 2007
Profiles the all-wood Gunter Primary School in Aubrey, Texas. Wood construction was less expensive and more timely. Fire codes were met with engineered woods, parts of the school were pre-assembled, and wood decking within the building was exposed for aesthetic appeal.
Exhale: How Strengthening School Design Can Help Reduce Childhood Obesity.
Schooldesigner Newsletter; n10 ; Jun 2007
Reviews exterior school facility features that promote student fitness. These include longer walking distances between classes, year-round synthetic athletic surfaces, and activity-promoting playgrounds.
The Building Envelope.
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , p24,26,28 ; May 2007
Discusses durable school building exteriors that contribute to a healthy indoor environment, conserve energy, and fit aesthetically into the neighborhood.
Building Blueprints: Entries and Common Spaces.
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , p54,55 ; May 2007
Emphasizes the importance of a school's entrance and common areas to public perception and enjoyment. Architectural features that enhance entrance identity, welcoming, accessibility, and perceived values are reviewed. Features for common areas that convey quality education, encourage social interaction, and improve morale are also covered.
How to Tackle Tough Facility Design Considerations.
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers ; v82 n4 , p40-41 ; Apr 2007
This focuses on some of the planning and design concepts one may be asked to consider in providing direction to a design and construction team. These include technology, aesthetics, and environmental responsibility. This article is part of a series that has offered insight on planning a facilities project, hiring professionals, delivery system options and owner's responsibilities.
Is Precast Concrete Right for Your Next Project?
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p22,24,26 ; Apr 2007
Reviews desirable features of precast concrete with particular attention to its application in educational facilities. Aesthetic and exterior versatility, design flexibility, durability, fast construction, safety and security, sustainability, and cost are covered.
Visual Methods and the Visual Culture of Schools
Visual Studies; v22 n1 , p13-30 ; Apr 2007
This article examines visual methods for understanding the visual culture of schools. It adopts an institutional culture perspective to equate the visual culture of schools with the 'hidden curriculum' of schooling. A range of visual sub-cultures is touched upon including architecture, non-teaching space and postures of teaching and learning. The possibility of conceiving the visual culture of schools as a holistic entity raises the problematic of devising broader more encompassing visual-centric methodologies combining mixed methods and cross-disciplinary approaches. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a772308702~db=all
Standardization and Interoperability in Educational and Healthcare Facilities.
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n1 , p10,12,13 ; Jan 2007
Reviews the benefits of strategic standardization in educational facility management, citing improvements to service, performance, and economics. The particular benefits to training and maintenance incurred by sharing of information are detailed.
Designing for Achievement: Processes, Principles and Patterns.
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 , p3-6 ; 2007
Explores how a school's physical space can influence philosophy and culture. Three recommended patterns are display of student work, transparency within the structure, and learning clusters. Several guiding principles for smart school design are offered, and perpetuation of comprehensive high school system is discouraged. Includes three references.
Best Practice in Action: Six Essential Elements that Define Educational Facility Design.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n2/3 , p13-17 ; 2007
Details the authors view of the six most important elements of educational design: 1) Supporting teaching and learning, 2) Maximizing physical comfort and well being, 3) Demonstrating environmental responsibility, 4) Serving the community, 5) Establishing design principles that make buildings work better, last longer, cost less to renovate and maintain, and inspire and adapt to changing needs, and 6) Applying open, transparent and collaborative processes that allows the school and community assume ownership of planning and design.
American School and University; v79 n5 , p59-63 ; Jan 2007
Presents scenarios for school design in the future, citing precedents in technology integration, scheduling, and independent learning in K-12 education. Higher education institutions will use their facilities to compete for fewer students entering college.
Charrettes Get Results.
Architectural Record; Supplement , p64,65 ; Jan 2007
Reviews the American Architectural Foundation's National School Design Institute, and advises on the benefits, difficulties, procedures, and expectations related to having such a design charrette in one's own school district.
Transforming School Spaces. Five Trends Driving Educational Design.
Learning By Design; n16 , p16-19 ; 2007
Identifies five trends driving educational design: providing educational choice, ensuring equality and access, linking between learning levels, linking school and community, and meeting client's needs. Each trend is illustrated with examples of recently built schools.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: email@example.com
Learning By Design; n16 , p20-23 ; 2007
Discusses the importance of well-designed non-program school space (corridors, lobbies, common areas, etc). Creating opportunities for social interaction, designing safe and observable spaces, and connectivity to program space are covered.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Metal Shines As an Exterior Building Component.
College Planning and Management; v9 n12 , p20,22 ; Dec 2006
Discusses the strength, durability, environmental friendliness, maintainability, cost effectiveness, and aesthetics of metal as an exterior building element. A list of professional organizations that provide guidance on metal building products is included.
Making it Readable.
American School and University; v79 n3 , p326-328 ; Nov 2006
Discusses "legibility" in school buildings, where architectural details, space configurations, hierarchies of passageways, windows with views, and consistency enable wayfinding. Examples of highly legible academic buildings from the 19th century and the present are offered.
The Learning Building.
Richards, Jay; Peterson, Lawrence
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , p34,35 ; Nov 2006
Describes school building features that can enhance learning, such as exposed plumbing, gauges, and meters; interactive whiteboards, and education trivia games played on screens throughout the building.
A School Building Designed to Teach.
AIArchitect; Jul 2006
Profiles the Roanoke Academy for Mathematics and Science, a K-5 magnet school whose use of brick, mortars, beams, trusses, and purlins can be used for math and science teaching. Floor tiles, window patterns, and plantings reinforce geometric principles. Large amounts of glass and more than 80 colors in the building create interest and help define work and play areas.
School Design That's Not by the Book.
Building Design and Construction; v47 n7 , p24-28,30,32 ; Jun 2006
Profiles the innovative design and use of technology in Philadelphia's School of the Future and two other schools that also use a "main street" plan lined with flexible learning and social spaces.
Power to the People.
College Planning and Management; v9 n5 , p26,30-32 ; May 2006
Describes the benefits of cellular flooring systems to schools. Delivery of electrical, data, and HVAC services through raised floors allows more flexibility, along with improved fire safety and environmental benefits. Raised floors are typically more expensive to install than conventional floors, but costs are recovered with savings realized at each move or reconfiguration of the space.
Choices for the 21st Century.
Roger, Thomas; Svigals, Philip
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p31,32,34-36 ; May 2006
Examines issues that school districts face when considering materials for the school building envelope. The most frequently used wall system is still masonry on block, with occasional prefabricated panel systems for large spaces. Roofing systems should be multi-ply EPDM or modified bitumen for flat roofs, with asphalt shingles or standing seam metal for peaked roofs. Windows should contain low-E glass, and either metal or metal-clad wood frames. A case study of a collaborative effort to create an engaging, durable, and cost-effective exterior on a Connecticut school is included.
Bail Out: Campuses Strive for Leakproof Buildings.
College Planning and Management; v9 n5 , p14,16,18,20,21 ; May 2006
Reviews approaches to controlling moisture in school buildings, including vapor barriers, insulation, masonry techniques, sloped roofs, ground slope, entryway design, and sloped intake plenums.
Dome Sweet Dome.
District Administration; v42 n5 , p54-58 ; May 2006
Discusses the record of monolithic domes as schools. The building type is generally esteemed where it has been implemented, but has yet to gain a widespread following. Advantages and disadvantages of the design are included.
If the Building Fits, Use It.
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , p14-17 ; Apr 2006
Describes two adaptive reuse projects that created schools in former commercial facilities. Nine issues to address when considering adapting a building for educational use are included.
Schematic Design Giveth and Design Development (CAN) taketh Away
SchoolFacilities.com; Feb 28, 2006
Schematic design, the first phase of the design process, can often set the framework for the entire project and identify all the “wish-list” items desired by the client. After schematic design, many people leave the process happy and assured in the knowledge that they have been heard, their needs identified, and the building will be perfect, futuristic, and flexible. There involvement is over…unfortunately. It is during the remainder of Design Development and Construction Document preparation that items thought to be “in the project” (may be) taken away. This article advises involving the client in the whole process, from Schematic design right through to construction documents.
Moveable Walls Allow for Space Flexibility.
College Planning and Management; v9 n2 , p50,52,54-57 ; Feb 2006
Describes portable and hung moveable wall systems and examples of how they are used to reconfigure spaces and enhance aesthetics. Staff training and acoustics are also discussed and a list of items to be considered in wall selection is included.
Deck the Walls on a Budget.
AIArchitect; Jan 2006
Explains a process by which one can affordably obtain a large mural for a school wall, in which an original work of art is digitally enlarged to occupy the space. Advice on choosing the texture and materials for the application is included.
Design that Supports Learning, Human Development, and Appropriate Behavior.
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p37-40 ; 2006
Discusses three areas of thought addressing the disconnect between how students learn and how school facilities are designed. These areas cover approaching projects, understanding concepts of how the physical environment supports learning, and applying those concepts to the context of a facility.
The Design of Instructional Space: What We Know, What We Do, and What We Need to Do.
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p22,23 ; Jan 2006
Addresses five educational issues that affect school architecture: increased accountability for each student, increased use of technology, increased community use of school facilities, increased focus on students learning to learn, and increased competition.
From Our House to the "Big House": Architectural Design as Visible Metaphor in the School Buildings of Philadelphia
Thomas, George E.
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 ; 2006
Philadelphia public schools have been products of the culture and values that made them. When education was embedded in the home, schools looked like houses; when education became civic, schools took on a civic character; when Philadelphia gave itself over to the forces of industry, schools were derived from industry. In the twentieth century, as schools became places of conflict, they took on the character of the architecture of reform—prisons. This article examines the evolution of the Philadelphia school from the eighteenth century to the present.TO ORDER: http://jph.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/3/218
"Little Red School House, What Now?" Two Centuries of American Public School Architecture.
Weisser, Amy S.
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 , p196-217 ; 2006
This article examines two centuries of public school architecture in the United States with attention to the relationship between architectural form and reformist educational philosophy. Building types reviewed include the one-room schoolhouse, the metropolitan school at 1900, the early twentieth-century suburban school, and the late twentieth-century urban school. The siting, building plan, and exterior articulation of both ideal plans and built structures are reviewed as evidence of the expectation and realities of the public school as a democratic institution.TO ORDER: http://jph.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/3/196
Metal Makes the Grade.
College Planning and Management; v8 n12 , p35,36 ; Dec 2005
Discusses metal composites for exterior cladding of buildings, describing their construction, versatility, economy, installation, longevity, and environmental virtues.
A Time to Look Back.
School Planning and Management; v44 n12 , p9 ; Dec 2005
Reviews school facilities topics that were of particular interest in 2005: a continuing debate on what constitutes a small school, technology integration, and community use of schools.
School Construction News; v8 n7 , p16-18 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Describes the Paschal Sherman Indian School, which serves the 12 tribes of Washington's Colville Reservation. The K-12 boarding school features locally obtained natural materials, abundant tribal motifs, ample daylighting through both floors, and an ingenious heating system that recycles heat between the dormitory and classroom building.
Eight Strategies for Middle School Design.
Battaglia, August; Randall, Robin
American School Board Journal; v192 n10 , p16-19 ; Oct 2005
Describes, in a middle school context, design for schools within schools, with suggestions for specific, exploratory, and inspirational spaces, outdoor access, and community involvement and use.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
At the Drawing Board.
American School and University; v78 n2 , p46,48,50,51 ; Oct 2005
Describes how architects are responding to innovative teaching methods through building flexibility, technology integration, and sustainable design.
Thom Mayne's Diamond Mind.
Edutopia; v1 n6 , p32 ; Sep 2005
Presents a short interview with Diamond Ranch High School architect Thom Mayne.
Diamond Ranch High: Can a School Be Too Cool?
Edutopia; v1 n6 , p28-31 ; Sep 2005
Reviews teacher and student reactions to Diamond Ranch High School, whose bold design draws positive and negative responses. Landscaping that was cut out of the budget and lack of color are among the negatives, but the school's users are generally pleased with the affect that the building has on student interaction and its singular, unorthodox design that inspires school pride.
No More Bland Interiors.
School Planning and Management; v44 n8 , p27,28,31,32-33 ; Aug 2005
Cites five schools for the creative interiors that respectively bring surrounding outdoor elements into the design, reflect the maritime history of the neighborhood, express a finished industrial look, give an aquatic center a zoo theme, and create excitement with innovative furniture.
Space Trends for Modern Design.
College Planning and Management; v8 n8 , p26,28-30 ; Aug 2005
The Layered Campus.
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p58,59 ; Jun 2005
Describes campus design that encourages social interaction through common areas that are adjacent and well-connected to classroom, study areas, residences, and each other. Single-loaded corridors that border public areas and multiple access points to social spaces are emphasized.
Djidi Djidi Aboriginal Primary School: Celebrating a Noongar Heritage.
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n4 , p14-17 ; 2005
Describes the design process for this school, which involved extensive exploration of the indigenous culture through meetings with teachers, tribal elders, and parents. The informal, open design reflects indigenous parent/staff attitudes and borrows detailing from the native flora and fauna.
Design for First Nations Schools: Learning in Four Directions.
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n4 , p6-9 ; 2005
Explores the importance of storytelling in First Nations communities and describes three lessons learned by an architectural firm that has designed over 20 First Nations schools: engaging the community, building with local labor and businesses, and building a vision. Five exemplary First Nations schools are described.
Schools Good for Children?
DesignShare; , 6p. ; Jan 2005
Challenges the notion that conventional school buildings naturally create a quality learning atmosphere and reviews India's nurturing Gurukul School.
Educational Interiors: Designing Schools from the Inside Out.
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , pF3-F5 ; Dec 2004
Discusses the key educational spaces of classrooms, labs, media centers, and public areas that are evolving and require flexibility to meet changing program requirements
Advancing Concepts About Activity Settings Within Learning Environments.
Lippman, Peter C.
SchoolFacilities.com [Originally issued: CAE Net Quarterly Newsletter for the Committee on Architecture for Education PIA]; , 1-9p. ; Dec 2004
This paper considers the physical environment of the school setting as a transactional system. The concepts of interactionalism and probabalism is examined to support this perspective. The notions of an integrated, flexible, and mediating system are described and evaluated in relationship to the social and learning environments. The purpose of this article is to explore and gain an understanding of schools as activity settings in which people acquire knowledge, and as a tool to extend the understanding so that these perspectives may be considered and used to produce, as opposed to reproduce, learning environments. [Author's abstract]
School Architecture and Complexity.
Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education; v1 n1 , p19-38 ; Dec 2004
Addresses the influence of facilities on learning non-core subjects (the arts), on skills that go untested, and on the way students and teachers function in the "learning collective." These issues are first explored through a brief discussion of the main themes in school architecture research, followed by a description of how Froebel kindergartens, Reggio Emilia schools, and Waldorf schools have given attention to some of the physical elements that affect learning. Then follows a discussion of the ways that schools can be seen as collectives, using complexity science theory as a theoretical framework. Finally, the complexity science model is extended by including the actual physical spaces as important ‘agents’ in influencing a non-linear and dynamic system, and by drawing implications for school design based on the principles of complexity.
A Few Common School Issues.
School Planning and Management; v43 n10 , p62 ; Oct 2004
Describes four problems that all school systems seem to face at some point: how to plan and design middle schools, how to accommodate updated science instruction, how to include special education students in regular classes, and how to effectively use open space.
System Built Concept.
School Planning and Management; v43 n10 , p49-51 ; Oct 2004
Describes the materials and methods of one architectural firm's codified school building system. The system has been applied to more than thirty projects and has saved fifteen to twenty percent over conventional construction methods.
The L-Shape Classroom: A Pattern for Promoting Learning.
Lippman, Peter C.
DesignShare; , 9p. ; Oct 01, 2004
Re-examines the "Fat L" classroom as a design that supports a range of classroom activity settings, defines the activity settings, examines the shape in practice, evaluates examples from the United States and the Netherlands, and considers how this classroom shape might influence learning activities throughout the school environment.
The Key to Success.
School Planning and Management; v43 n10 , p8 ; Oct 2004
Cites the major points of a successful building strategy in the categories of energy efficiency, safety, community involvement, and flexibility of space.
Maybe It's Time to Rethink How We Construct School Buildings.
School Planning and Management; v43 n8 , p9 ; Aug 2004
Proposes that schools might be built with eventual disassembly in mind, rather than for permanence, given that the pace of educational programming changes might render a building obsolete before it completes its life span.
Athletic Business; v28 n8 , p65,66,68,69 ; Aug 2004
Describes technology which can create a highly realistic digital virtual tour of a prospective facility. These tours can be customized and updated with relative ease, and are useful in generating donor support.
A Beautiful School Is a Caring School.
Jarman, Delbert; Webb, Linda; and Chan, T.C.
School Business Affairs; v70 n6 , p37-38 ; Jun 2004
Beautiful school buildings are often associated with higher cost, extravagance, or both. This article reviews several studies on school building aesthetics and concludes that, in addition to promoting student achievement, a beautiful school building sends the message to parents and community leaders that the school district cares about the education of the children by creating an attractive environment to support student learning. The community’s appreciation may lead to constructive support of the school and its educational process. Consequently, the positive effect of constructing an attractive school for educational use cannot be underestimated.
Uruguayan Schools, An Inclusive Architecture.
Abrahan, Marina; Barran, Pedro; Sitya, Carlos
DesignShare; , 4p. ; Winter 2004
This article provides a short history of educational buildings in Uruguay and discusses design strategies for the large number of schools that now need to be constructed in a short time.
What Can $3.6 Billion Buy? Los Angeles School Construction Has a Choice.
DesignShare; , 5p. ; Feb 2004
Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) is pioneering a more efficient method for managing a $3.6 billion construction program so that decisions are made faster and vendors are paid in a timely manner. This questions whether or not Los Angeles' focus on delivering seats in schools will stand the test of time from an educational perspective. The author recommends that LAUSD focus more on sustainable, high performance design.
Seattle Design Guidelines Progressive Educational Reform via Building Design Guidelines.
Lang, Dale Christopher
DesignShare; , 4p. ; Feb 2004
Seattle Public Schools recently underwent a revolutionary change in their educational specifying process. The district now requires that their funded projects follow a student centered "dynamic" rather than a limited "prescribed" methodology in their approach to school design. The Seattle approach holds much promise for schools and school districts nationwide.
Design Aesthetics: Creating Warmth with Wood.
School Construction News; v7 n1 , p13,14 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Discusses the increasing use of wood in school construction, its aesthetic and cost advantages, and some popular misconceptions regarding its safety and durability.
Graphic Impact: Texas Christian University Recreation Center.
College Planning and Management; v7 n1 , p82 ; Jan 2004
Describes the graphics program for the renovated and expanded Texas Christian University Recreation Center. The graphics were designed to enhance the architectural program of the building, orient and engage the user, and enrich the TCU culture.
The Idea of Campus.
Gisolfi, Peter A.
Learning By Design; n13 , p16-18 ; 2004
Discusses the difference between a school and a campus, and advises ways to take a campus point of view which considers the indoor and outdoor spaces of a school together. Steps toward realizing a campus point of view with existing facilities are described, and examples of three public schools that realized this goal are offered.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: email@example.com
School Construction News; v7 n1 , p16,17 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Describes the Wheatley School in Old Westbury, N.Y., which was designed in a "corporate" style, with the media center at the front entrance as an expression of the school's futuristic outlook.
Finding Your Way.
Styles-Lopez, Robin L.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p304-06 ; Nov 2003
Outlines elements of planning, signage and numbering schemes that enable easy wayfinding within educational facilities.
The Building Envelope.
School Planning and Management; v42 n10 , p21,22 ; Oct 2003
Describes various exterior systems used in school construction, their advantages, disadvantages, climatological appropriateness, and mold resistance.
Architecture; v92 n9 , p60-64 ; Sep 2003
Describes the addition of a library and gymnasium addition to the Rose and Alex Pilibos Armenian School in Los Angeles. Significant savings were realized by using a customized Butler building for the gymnasium. Detailing reminiscent of Armenian culture was used throughout.
The Business of Learning: Texas Students Move Up with Hands-On Instruction.
School Construction News; v6 n5 , p13-15 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Describes a high school designed to make students act and feel like professionals as they study in the context of a retail store, conference center, courtroom, architecture studio, and medical offices. Students from this high-poverty district may attend the academy full- or part-time. The school strives to steer students in to the most promising employment sectors, so the building is flexible enough to respond to job market shifts.
Creating Warm and Exciting Environments.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p38-45 ; Jun 2003
Using three examples, illustrates how interior design for schools is moving away from an institutional appearance, using ideas such as a main street/neighborhood look and student art work. Schools described are Ft. Recovery Elementary/Middle School in Ft. Recovery, Ohio; Detroit Country Day School in Beverly Hills, Michigan; and Ocotillo Elementary School in Arizona.
History in the Making.
American School and University; v75 n10 , p20-34 ; Jun 2003
Reviews trends and developments over 75 years that have shaped todays schools and their educational facilities needs, and speculates on what the future may hold. Includes a timeline of important educational events.
What Went Wrong. Detours in the History of School Construction.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
American School Board Journal; v190 n6 , p39-40, 42 ; Jun 2003
Discusses design and construction problems of schools built in the 50s and 60s including open classrooms, bigger schools, underground schools, and schools without windows.
Balancing Multiple Needs through Innovative Facility Design.
Romano, C. Renee; Hanish, Jan
New Directions for Student Services; n101 , p3-15 ; Spring 2003
Designing buildings that incorporate and integrate a number of departments and functions is one way that colleges and universities are balancing financial challenges and facility needs. These buildings can transform the campus, but they require planning and coordination from a carefully assembled design team. The authors outline steps to follow when developing multipurpose facilities and highlight common pitfalls. (Contains 18 references.)
Going Up? The Pros and Cons of Vertical Expansion.
Myler, Patricia A.; Boggs, Richard C
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p28-33 ; Dec 2002
Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the vertical expansion of school buildings. Considers such factors as fire protection, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and cost. Discusses alternatives to vertical expansion.
Building Strength in Schools: Why Steel Makes Sense.
Praeger, Charles E.
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p20-22 ; Dec 2002
Discusses the advantages of metal building and roofing systems, especially the use of steel. Considers such factors as installation ease and design flexibility, reliability and durability, and cost-effectiveness.
Designing a High School for Collaborative, Project-based Learning.
Design Share; Jun 2002
Case study of the design for the Harbor City International School, a public charter school in downtown Duluth, Minnesota. The floor plan includes a social team area, quiet team area, student work stations, science project lab, seminar/incubator, and a presentation forum.
Entryways, Foyers, and Hallways.
Minnigan, David W.; Brown, Wendell D.
School Planning and Management; v41 n5 , p48-49 ; May 2002
Discusses the symbolic statement made by schools' entrances and lobbies and explores design issues of these areas.
Designing Public Schools.
Connections; v9 n1 , p14-16 ; Spring 2002
Presents an interview with Steven Bingler, an expert on community-based planning and design, about the design of public schools. Topics include the contribution of architecture to student learning, mega- versus small schools, the authentic economics of design decisions, and the role of the community in the design process.
Principles that Guide School Design.
Horace ; v18 n1 ; Fall 2001
This outlines the guidelines schools follow when designing new space to support learning. Noble High School in North Berwick, Maine and the Julia Richman Educational Complex, six autonomous schools under one roof in New York City, provide examples of the operating principles that guided their planning and decision-making.
Innovative School Design for Small Learning Communitites.
Horace Journal; v18 n1 ; Fall 2001
A cadre of Coalition of Essential schools aims to change the vision of educational architecture. They have remade the physical structures of schools to support small learning communities and include radiant streams of sunlight, wireless networks and handheld computers, window seats, balconies, triple-story atriums, curved passageways, upholstered furniture, multi-function meeting rooms, huge closets and rooftop gardens.
School Design: An Architect's View.
Horace; v18 n1 ; Fall 2001
Architect and educator Jeffery A. Lackney created "Thirty-Three Principles of Educational Design" to focus school planners on the goal of creating intimate, human-scaled, flexible, and enduring educational spaces. A handful of the principles are adapted in this article to help schools take advantage of opportunities to create small effective learning environments both within new school buildings and within existing spaces.
Buildings of Distinction.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p158-61 ; Aug 2001
Explains the ingredients of a signature building and the things that school and university administrators must do in order to create one. Discusses the need to plan for signature buildings with a long- range outlook. Explains the importance of these buildings as reference points.
Designing for Change.
American School and University; v73 n9 , p62-63 ; May 2001
Discusses how educational facility designers can design schools for greater building flexibility. Understanding how corridors and hidden spaces can be better utilized is highlighted, and better design of the scale and syntax of a school's parts is discussed.
The Responsive Designer.
Learning By Design; n20 , p31-33 ; Spring 2001
Discusses the use of evidence-based design and responsive research when designing learning environments. Four built examples illustrate the results of engaging the community in the design process.
Design That Makes a Statement.
Peck, Calvin H.
College Planning and Management; v4 n2 , p28,30 ; Feb 2001
Discusses the university design-intensive facility: an architectural expression of and for the school that speaks to its values and authenticity. Examples are highlighted illustrating how design expression is being realized on several campuses.
From the Reviewers: Rethinking School Design.
Day, C. William
Learning By Design; n10 , p4-6 ; 2001
Discusses the impact current educational reforms and new teaching styles are having on school design and the themes and trends that are emerging in designs for 2001. Design themes discussed are prototype schools, multistory elementary schools, learning environments and extended learning areas, and vocational education integration.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Evolution of School Design: Thirty Years of Change in Public Classrooms.
Texas Architect; v51 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Reviews the evolution of changing educational needs and school design solutions that have enriched public education and provided new, and flexible schoolhouses which can be integrated into the community. Some of the struggles encountered during this evolution are discussed.
Architecture Minnesota; v27 n1 , p21,54 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Shows how architects are designing new schools to function as community centers, reflect contemporary teaching methods, address demands for technology, and meet increased standards in health and safety.
American School and University; v73 n2 , p14-18 ; Oct 2000
Discusses design features schools can use to compliment and enhance education, including six design principles for learning environments that help schools provide effective education. School linkage with the surrounding community is also addressed.
How Educational Design Enhances the Learning Process.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v3 n6 , p20-22 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses designing schools that blend intense educational planning with school architecture and the notion of shared school and community facilities. Additionally discussed are differences between urban and rural school designs, technology in school design, differences in design requirements of foreign schools, and the direction of the school design industry.
Prototype Schools for 21st Century Learning Environments.
School Construction News; v3 n6 , p23-25 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses creating prototype learning centers: designs that combine education theory with design. Also provided are ideas for new schools that offer a departure from traditional classrooms.
Designed for Learning -- And for Safety.
Reid, David L.
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p43-44,46,48 ; Aug 2000
Provides analyses of how school design solutions can have an impact on enhancing student learning and lessening school crime. Design issues cover site planning and building layout considerations and solutions, along with available communications and security technologies.
Rethinking School Design.
Smith, Jana J.
Buildings; v94 n8 , p50,56,59 ; Aug 2000
Describes the design process of a revolutionary high school design that melds technology and the arts to provide students with employable skills that future job markets require.
New York's School for the Physical City: Architectural Design Concerns.
PEB Exchange; n40 , p6-7 ; Jun 2000
Discusses how design features of a typical New York City public school are being replaced by the School for the Physical City theme school concept. The school uses the city's infrastructure as a vehicle for studying traditional academic disciplines.
Progressive Designs for New Curricula.
Turner, William A.; Belida, Loren; Johnson, William C.
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p58-59 ; May 2000
Explores how school building design influences the success of children in preparing for the future. Considerations when renovating and upgrading school design to enhance learning are discussed, including issues of sustainability, collaboration, lighting, and ventilation.
One Room, Many Lessons.
Schoolhouse of Quality; v4 n1 , p8-11 ; Winter 2000
Explores the lessons learned about education revealed from the one-room schoolhouse, including what these types of schoolhouses would look like today if they were resurrected. Parental bonding and involvement, teaching across grade levels and subjects, and the non- threatening atmosphere one-room schoolhouses offered are discussed.
Trends in School Design.
Day, C. William
Learning By Design; n9 , p4-6 ; 2000
Discusses school design trends for K-12 public schools focusing on such issues as school size, interdisciplinary learning, team teaching, and less rigid classroom structure and more independence for students. Strategies and questions to consider for achieving design goals for the future are highlighted, including classroom shapes for elementary schools and thoughts on achieving design goals for the 21st century.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: email@example.com
Hassell, Kim Dale
Learning By Design; n9 , p13-15 ; 2000
Discusses the common mistakes in school design and construction and how to avoid them. Mistake avoidance in master planning, site acquisition, drawing changes, budgeting, school design process, construction management, and the architect's role are highlighted.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Custodian: Your New Building Design Consultant.
Sims, Joel K.
College Planning and Management; v3 n1 , p59-60 ; Jan 2000
Discusses how today's classrooms and other campus buildings are driving the need to consider the requirements of maintenance personnel when designing new facilities. Issues such as planning for adequate staff and equipment, low- versus high-maintenance areas, and short- term cost versus long-term durability are addressed.
Elementary School Plan Grows Up.
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p35,37-38,39 ; Nov 1999
Describes the planning process and changes needed for converting an elementary school prototype design into a prototype design for a middle school. Three key influences that affected design are examined: the educational program; the instructional methodology; and the social concerns of an adolescent population.
Michigan Architects Discuss School Construction
Michigan Constructor; v5 n2 , p12-18 ; Aug 1999
Discusses how a collaborative partnership between facility designers and contractors can help solve school construction problems given the growing design complexities now being demanded. Various problematic design innovations are addressed, including the use of pods, quads, and community centers; and how these designs create opportunities for collaboration are explained with examples from Michigan school construction projects.
Information Age Design Process
Design Share; May 21, 1999
An interview and summary of a power point presentation by architect Larry Rosen of EdDesigns Group on the subject of designing schools for the Information Age, presented at the April, 1999 CEFPI Conference in Columbus, Ohio. This includes a discussion of ideal school size, technology in schools, values-based design, school organizational shifts, and private sector alliances.
New York City's Cool Schools; Within the Country's Largest School System, Architectural Innovation Finds a Foothold
Gould, Kira L.
AIArchitect; v6 , p13 ; May 1999
Describes how extraordinary collaborations between agencies, educators, architects, and others created special places to learn within the New York City school system. It discusses this group approach in fostering commitment and achieving success in creating innovative educational facility designs.
Lesson Learned in School Design and Construction.
Rabenaldt, Carl; Velz, Emily
School Planning and Management; v38 n5 , p39-44 ; May 1999
Presents the lessons learned when facility use and abuse and proper planning are not adequately done in the school design and construction process. Eleven steps for building durability into schools to decrease the effects of prolonged use and stretch a school's life expectancy are outlined.
Designs for Middle Schools.
McCarroll, Michael N.; Tercilla, Rene
School Planning and Management; v38 n3 , p24-25,27-29 ; Mar 1999
Examines four different middle school floor plans that support teaming and integrated curriculum. Floor plans include the finger shape, the pinwheel, the science cluster, and a multi-level plan. Examples of each floor plan are provided to illustrate their features and benefits.
Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.
School Planning and Management; v38 n2 , p64,65,68,69 ; Feb 1999
Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design that made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Four challenges are addressed: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure and flexible; and improving lighting in an urban school.
Trends in School Design
Day, William C.
Learning By Design; i8 , p2-4 ; 1999
Examines the changing trends in organization, and school and class size designed to improve student learning and achievement. Additionally discussed are rising trends in public school enrollment rates and the cost of new schools needed to accommodate these numbers.
Creative Problem Solving Strategies for the 21st Century
Design Share; Jan 1999
A conference presentation examines problem-solving strategies, tactics, techniques, and behavior-based environment development when creating twenty-first century schools. It describes the types of environmental considerations that make schools competitive for increasing enrollments, and the importance of the training and practices of the architect and designer in creating breakthrough schools. The presentation also discusses the complex role of the architect in defining how schools might evolve and the problem of having to attract an involuntary audience to want to attend some educational facilities where attendance is not mandatory. Concluding sections provide tips on the problem solving process in facility design, use of the prototypes to aid decision making, and idea generation.
Getting the Architects to Listen
Powers, Mary Caroline
Cleaning Management and Maintenance Online; 1999
Cleaning maintenance managers should get involved in the earliest stages of building design, armed with in-depth knowledge of what it will cost to clean the architect's vision.
Building for Learning: School Facilities and School Reform
SEDLetter [Southwest Educational Development Laboratory News]; v10, n4 ; Sep 1998
This edition of SEDLetter looks at some of the challenges of matching school facilities design, construction, or renovation to the goals and values of people in schools and communities. Constructing Knowledge by Design draws on the expertise of SEDL staff and of two Texas districts to discuss five principles of facilities design in light of principles of good teaching and learning. Financing Alternatives Call for Flexibility, Creativity briefly examines some financing options for districts. Corridors for Change tells how some Texas schools are putting comprehensive school reform models into practice and into their existing facilities. TAPping into Technology" describes SEDL's new program to work with teachers to integrate technology into learning environments that engage students. Resources You Can Use points out some facilities-related resources available on-line and in print.
Constructing Knowledge by Design.
SEDLetter [Southwest Educational Development Laboratory]; v10 n4 , 9p. ; Sep 1998
Despite the financial challenges the need for new schools presents, new school design provides the opportunity to improve the educational environment by using the school building as a tool for positive change. This article distills recent information on facilities design and provides insight on some of the issues impacting facility design.
Four Fantastic Floor Plans for Elementary Schools.
Ranyak, Mark W.; Wickstrom, Douglas M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p20-26 ; Apr 1998
Examines four elementary school floor plans designed for efficient and flexible delivery of educational programs while limiting operational problems. Plans examined are the cluster approach, the corridor approach, the urban block school, and the courtyard/campus concept.
Image and Scale: Child Care Facility Design
Moore, Gary T.
Child Care Information Exchange; n120 , 97-101 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Examines general principles in designing child care centers and preschools: (1) design the site and building so that it has a friendly, child-like, inviting image; and (2) design child development environments to be child scaled, including furnishings, materials, the building, and the site as a whole. Contains criteria and suggestions for achieving each principle.
School Architecture as a Subject of Inquiry
Uline, Cynthia L.
Journal of School Leadership; v7 n2 , p194-209 ; Mar 1997
Proposes the aesthetics of school building design as a valid interest for school leaders and an important research subject. Presents John Dewey's ideas about aesthetics as a philosophical foundation and his active-reflection methods as an implementation strategy. Identifies opportunities for reflective administrative practice contained within school renovation or construction projects. Suggests foci for future research. (35 references).
The Evolving Role of the American Schoolhouse.
Bradley, William S.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n2 , p13-14 ; 1997
Discusses the role that architecture has played in distinguishing, harboring, and facilitating public education in America over the last 200 years. It reveals how population growth, educational policy, and community preferences have caused the one-room schoolhouse to evolve to meet changing needs.
A Different Approach to Design.
Sabo, Sandra, R.
Learning By Design; n5 , p120-21 ; Mar 1996
Describes an approach to new school design that looks at architectural issues from a different angle: channeling a wide range of information into a targeted collection of ideas on which the architect can then base a design. It includes the collection of both factual and emotional components that are brought together into a final design.
Restructuring and the Physical Context: Designing Learning Environments.
Children's Environments; v12 n3 , p10-42 ; Sep 1995
Discusses how the educational restructuring movement of the 1980s and 1990s affected the relation of teachers and learners to the physical context of learning: how people are located, related to each other, move, speak, and use their bodies. The movement from a disciplinary to a meaning-centered pedagogy is described. Successful models of educational reform dispense with the homogeneous space designed for large groups engaged in uniform behavior. Order, once achieved by isolating, silencing, immobilizing, monitoring, and rating individuals, is now sought in sustained relationships and commitment to shared meaningful projects. The new sources of order permit amenities once prohibited: conversation, freedom of movement, comfort of the body, enhancement of relations to family and community, independent activity, responsibility for performance. Includes 33 references. Free registration required.
Future School Facility Design: Clues from Emerging Definitions of Teaching and Learning Plus New Thoughts about Learning Organizations
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n3 ; May-Jun 1994
When looking at future school facility design, the lesson to be learned, according to the author, is that planners "need to pay as much attention to the direction in which the educational organization is evolving, as to the direction in which the instructional pedagogy is evolving." It is just as important to learn what is going on in a school's organizational space as it is to learn what is going on in the teaching space; knowledge of the latter alone is not enough. Planners need an understanding on the instructional side of three basics which he describes: 1. the effective learner; 2. the effective teacher; and 3. the effective organization. He then describes five organizational trends which he believes are impacting learning environments: 1. hierarchical to hetrarachical; 2. linear to mutual causality; 3. mechanical to holographic; 4. assembly to morphogenisis; 5. determinant to indeterminant.
Changing the Architecture of Teachers' Minds.
Nelson, Doreen; Sundt, Jule
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p88-103 ; 1993
Presents a collection of case studies that point toward the vital importance of multi-use architecture in the not-as-yet-realized symbiosis between architects and educators. The article argues that only architects as teachers, and teachers as architects, can begin to educate young minds to hypothesize, envision and invent the future instead of replicate it. It also underlines the fact that the classroom talked about, dreamt of, and designed with students and colleagues does not yet exist. Includes nine references. Free registration required.TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm