DAYLIGHTING SCHOOL FACILITIES
Information on the use of natural light to illuminate the interior of school and university buildings, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
The Economics of Biophilia: Why Designing with Nature in Mind Makes Financial Sense
(Terrapin Bright Green, May 2012)
Recent research in neuroscience and endocrinology clearly demonstrates that experiencing nature has significant benefits, both psychological and physiological. Bringing nature and references to nature into the built environment is the purpose of biophilic design. This white paper compiles an economic argument for biophilic design in the built environment. Includes a chapter on school environments, discussing daylighting and outdoor learning opportunities as a means to improve test scores and positively impact the stress levels of society’s youngest members. 39p
Investigating the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students in Reference to Factors Associated with Daylight.
Majid, Seied et al
(Asian Social Science, Mar 2011)
There is no simple guide to human behavior which architects can use but recommendations rather an understanding of the principles of behavior and of man's interactions with buildings. To investigate the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students, the attitudes and behaviors towards the visual environment of three hundred and fifty primary school students were studied in eleven schools of varying design, with particular reference to factors associated with daylight and fenestration. The survey included social issues, personality characteristics of the primary school students and the varying visual characteristics of the buildings including photometric studies. Considerable proportions of students choose to work or sit near windows, the chief factor being the amount of daylight. View content, view out and nature are important. The most popular children occupy favored window places. Space and comfort both thermal and visual are important. Gender separation is natural. [Authors' abstract] 12p.
Advanced Lighting Guidelines
(New Buildings Institute, 2011)
Authoritative all-in-one information resource covering energy-efficient lighting design, technologies, and applications for lighting designers, engineers, federal energy managers, contractors and other lighting professionals. Includes authoritative data on energy-efficient lighting practices and integration with daylighting and other green building strategies. The online edition of Advanced Lighting Guidelines is regularly updated by editors and contributors, and enhanced by commentary from visitors.
Low - Energy School Design for Sustainability
(Douglas County School District, Colorado, Jul 29, 2010)
This video, produced by Douglas County School District along with top Colorado architecture firms that specialize in designs specific to Daylight and Learning, shows a unique prototype of school design that saves energy as well as provides an optimal learning environment for students.
By the Light of Day.
(Douglas County Government, Castle Rock, CO, 2010)
Profiles the successful daylighting of this Colorado school, creating an atmosphere that encourages learning and saves energy.
Patterns to Daylight Schools for People and Sustainability.
Leslie, Russel; Smith, Aaron; Radetsky, Leora; Figuiero, Mariana; Yue, Lisa
(Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y. , 2010)
Daylighting design guide that balances the photobiological benefits of daylighting with well-known daylight design techniques that can be applied in schools. The book is the culmination of a research project that began in 2008, sponsored by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) to scientifically quantify the impact of daylight design on students’ well-being and performance in K-12 schools and investigate the underlying biological mechanisms associated with this possible link. Gives model designs that can be adapted to a particular school project. The book includes a “daylighting dashboard” to quickly compare the patterns graphically with indicators of cost, comfort, the visual environment, and energy use. The publication offers conceptual daylight approaches for the three most common spaces in schools: classrooms, corridors, and gymnasiums. 74p.
Awareness of Daylighting on Student Learning in an Educational Facility.
(University of Nebraska, Lincoln , 2010)
Examines how awareness of the interior architecture of a building, specifically daylighting, affects students academic performance. Extensive research has proven that the use of daylighting in a classroom can significantly enhance students?academic success. The problem statement and purpose of this study is to determine if student awareness of daylighting in their learning environment affects academic performance compared to students with no knowledge of daylighting. Research and surveys in existing and newly constructed high schools were conducted to verify the results of this study. These design ideas and concepts could influence the architecture and design industry to advocate construction and building requirements that incorporate more sustainable design teaching techniques. 60p.
By The Light of Day - New School Design.
(Douglas County Television, Castle Rock, CO, Jul 2009)
Shows involvement at both local and state level in green, energy-saving school design, resulting in significant cost-savings for Douglas County School District, Colorado. Complementing the use of natural sunlight are automatic on/off light controls to ensure adequate lighting in every part of a classroom. Windows are also equipped with exterior translucent sunshades that admit light but block the direct effects of the sun.
Energy Guidelines For K-12 Public Schools.
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Mar 2009)
Advises on a variety of building features that impact energy consumption. The publication opens with a discussion of life cycle costing, building modeling, and performance verification. Subsequent sections cover building orientation, architectural design, building materials, plumbing, HVAC systems, building controls, and lighting and power systems.. The publication describes varieties of systems available under each category, advises on their costs, and illustrates the energy impact of each. 27p.
Daylight, View, and School and Office Work Performance.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Summarizes results of studies revealing that students in daylit classrooms had statistically significant improvement in math and reading performance. 1p.
BIM and Sustainable Design: Understanding your Design Decisions. A Case Study of American Canyon High School.
(Quattrocchi Kwok Architects, Santa Rosa, CA , 2009)
Discusses how the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) helped the design firm achieve sustainable features such as placement and daylighting when creating this school. 5p.
A Case Study of Daylighting: How Four Different Strategies Were Evaluated at Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School.
Koh, Bae-Won; Athalye, Rahul
(American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO , 2009)
Illustrates how four different daylighting strategies were evaluated and implemented in the restoration of Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School, which was significantly damaged in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina. The original school building was built in 1909. Due to the existing building's historic nature, constraint from the urban setting and limited size of the site,a 3-story-addition classroom wing and a 2-story-addition cafeteria and gymnasium were designed with three different daylighting strategies. In addition, a major portion of the existing building faces east and west which drove another unique daylighting strategy. 6p.
Daylighting Analysis of A Classroom Space Using BIM Geometry And Next Generation Metrics.
Koti, Ramana; Munshi, Madhav
(American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO , 2009)
Documents and outlines a part of the process used in the daylighting performance analysis of a typical classroom design for a proposed K-12 school in Greensburg, KS. A computer simulation program was used for the optimization process because of its ability to compute climate based annual daylight availability and report the results in the form of dynamic daylight metrics such as Daylight Autonomy (DA%), Useful Daylight Illuminances (UDI) and Daylight Saturation Percentage (DSP%). Since there was no established process for utilizing building information modeling geometry with the program, some experimentation was involved. But the overall efficiency and accuracy of the modeling process was greatly improved, compared to recreating 3D geometry from scratch. The focus was on achieving a good glare-free daylighting design and also meeting the LEED rating system's EQ credit 8.1 for daylighting. 7p.
Daylighting. [Whole Building Design Guide]
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Nov 2008)
This section from the Whole Building Design Guide discusses daylighting, including a description, design recommendations, materials and methods of construction, analysis and design tools, application, relevant codes and standards, and additional resources.
The Efficient Windows Collaborative Tools for Schools.
(Efficient Windows Collaborative, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Advises schools on window design parameters, performance factors, and efficient window options. Daylighting, shading, insulation value, air leakage, coatings, framing, skylights, and natural ventilation are addressed. 17p.
Healthy High Performance Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Council of Educational Facility Planners International; Scottsdale, AZ, Jul 2008)
Examines the success of EPA’s Healthy High Performance Schools standards and guidelines at Westwood Elementary School, Elk River (Minnesota) School District. This LEED-certified school’s classrooms offer 95% line-of-sight to the outdoors, and light sensors to turn overhead lighting on and off contribute to the green environment with cost-savings. School officials recommends use of EPA’s “Tools for Schools” program.
Daylight Harvesting Made Simple.
(E-Source, Boulder, CO , Jan 2008)
Explains how researchers at the California Lighting Technology Center at the University of California at Davis developed a new approach called the Simplified Daylight Harvesting system that is easy to install and provides automatic and continuous calibration. The system uses photosensor readings to set lights to on, off, or intermediate levels and gives users the ability to adjust settings. The fixtures can be cost-effectively used in daylit spaces in schools to produce energy-cost savings and reductions in peak demand charges. 2p.
Sensor Placement and Optimization Tool (SPOT)
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO, 2008)
This free, downloadable software assist designers in quantifying the existing or intended electric lighting and annual daylighting characteristics of a given space and to help establish the optimal photosensor placement for the space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. SPOT was developed with classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used for all types of spaces. SPOT handles top and side daylight sources and can model any electric lighting source. A technical brief on the program is also available at this website.
A New Daylighting Strategy for a Middle School in North Carolina.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2007)
Investigates the findings of daylighting studies being conducted at the Northern Guilford Middle School in Greensboro, North Carolina. This daylighting design at this school utilizes a unique curved, translucent interior light shelf, working in combination with a highly reflective ceiling in the classroom spaces. While preventing glare, this strategy diffuses daylight in a very uniform manner and assists in reflecting daylight deeper into the classroom spaces. The daylighting glazing area is reduced by 40% compared to that used in past daylighting applications. Whole building energy analysis results indicate a 50% lighting energy reduction, a 10% cooling energy reduction, and a 11% total building energy reduction through daylighting, as compared to a code compliant base case without daylighting. 8p.
Comparison of Daylighting Strategies for Schools.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2007)
Describes the overall process and key factors considered by the author's firm during a recent whole-building analytical process to develop a new, more cost-effective daylighting strategy for classroom daylighting. The analysis evaluated the cost and efficiency impacts of key factors that impact good daylighting design for K-12 school design. Our firm has previously designed, implemented and later analyzed many classroom daylighting strategies that have employed south- and north-facing room monitor and lightshelf strategies on similar K-12 classrooms. The goal of this effort was to develop a strategy that would improve energy efficiency and reduce initial construction cost while still maintaining a high quality daylighting solution that would minimize glare and maintain reasonable light level uniformity within the classroom. 4p.
Designing Quality Learning Spaces: Lighting.
(New Zealand Ministry of Education, Wellington , 2007)
Advises on school lighting, addressing the connection between lighting and learning, natural and artificial classroom lighting, specialized teaching spaces, and extra considerations for special needs students. A flow diagram for lighting assessment, lighting survey, and 6 references are included. 52p.
Green Classroom: Daylighting-conscious Design for Kuwait Autism Center.
Al-Mohaisen, Abdullah; Khattab, Omar
(Global Built Environment Review, 2007)
Consideration to the natural elements, such as daylighting, at the earliest in the architectural design process is suggested by many as necessary for sustainable buildings. The implementation of a successful daylighting strategy in the design of buildings improves spatial quality and saves energy required, otherwise, for artificial lighting. Daylighting becomes a design mandate in the case of certain spaces; e.g. classrooms in educational buildings. Many researchers have indicated a correlation between the way classrooms are designed and students' performance. This paper discusses a case study of the environmental design of Kuwait Autism Centre that adopted the provision of adequate daylighting in educational spaces as a major design focus. An extensive daylighting evaluation was conducted on all educational facilities of the proposed conceptual design of the centre. The recommendations from the evaluation were implemented in the design development stages. Earlier conceptual design drawings as well as the final designs are described. The paper summarises the daylighting design recommendations and explains the daylighting simulation process and analysis for decision making in design. Additionally it shows the annual energy savings as a result of the daylighting-conscious design of the classrooms. [Authors' abstract] 9p.
Daylighting Performance and Design.
(National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, Washington, DC, 2006)
Explores the challenge of balancing the human preference for natural light with energy-efficient and sustainable design. The book includes case studies that illustrate the various benefits of daylight in commercial, industrial, educational, and institutional settings. Daylighting examines five design fundamentals of daylighting: issues, variables, strategies, elements, and options. Subsequent chapters discuss occupant productivity and performance, glazing properties, and integration with electric lighting, and a section on design tools offers an introduction to related computer programs and worksheets that can be applied to different design scenarios. 315TO ORDER: NCARB, 1801 K St., Suite 1100K, Washington, DC, 20006; Tel: 202-783-6500, Fax: 202-783-0290
Learning, Lighting, and Color.
(DesignShare.com , 2006)
Reviews learning patterns and its connection to visual stimuli. Proper lighting for school entryways and science laboratories is covered, and seven myths about lighting and color in educational architecture are challenged. 7p.
(Healhty Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2005)
Reviews the benefits of daylighting in classrooms and cites studies indicating improved attendance and academic performance in daylit classrooms. Includes 11 references. [Free registration is required to download publication.] 4p.TO ORDER: http://www.healthyschools.org/clearinghouse.html
Design Guidelines: Skylighting Guidelines.
(Energy Design Resources, 2005)
Collection of documents intended to help architects and engineers use skylights to maximum advantage in commercial and industrial buildings. Includes an introduction to skylighting; how skylights save energy; skylighting design issues; and eight documents in pdf format.
Openluchtscholen in Nederland: Architectuur, Onderwijs en Gezondheidszorg 1905- 2005. (Open-Air Schools in the Netherlands: Architecture, Education, and Healthcare 1905- 2005)
(Uitgeverij 010, Rotterdam , 2005)
Profiles 100 years of outdoor, open-air, and abundantly daylit Dutch schools. Principles of the necessity of fresh air to health and sanitation are discussed, accompanied by a chronologically arranged selection of supporting school projects. 239p.
Daylighting Design in Libraries.
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
The use of natural light in libraries, or daylighting, has traditionally been a desirable building feature and a hallmark of good library design. This discusses daylight basics, as well as general principles of daylighting design in libraries, such as recommended light levels, light distribution, and daylight apertures on roofs and walls. Includes a glossary of daylighting terminology, and further sources of information.
Green Schools "Create" Learning Tools.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , 2005)
Illustrates design for passive seasonal heating, cooling, and daylighting that students can monitor as part of the learning program. 3p.
Effect of Indoor Environmental Quality on Occupant's Perception of Performance: a Comparative Study.
(University of Florida, Gainesville , Jan 2005)
Reports on a study to documents the difference between the occupant's perception of performance in a LEED-certified higher education building with a higher education building that is not LEED certified. The details of the physical conditions were obtained by measuring the noise levels, lighting levels, and thermal comfort conditions at the two buildings over a period of two days in addition to contextual information on the two buildings. Occupants' perceptions were documented through web-based surveys. It was found that LEED certification did not influence the perception of the occupants. Furthermore, it was found that even though the buildings meet the recommended standards, occupants often complained about various parameters. Daylighting and thermal comfort contributed to better IEQ, and had a positive affect occupant' perception of productivity and performance. Includes 38 references. 68p.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY , 2004)
Presents a case study of the new R.D. & Euzell P. Smith Middle School in Chapel Hill, North, where daylighting has reduced lighting energy use by 64%, added to the comfort of the occupants, and will return its investment in 4.2 years. The building design, lighting systems, maintenance, cost data, and lessons learned are detailed. 12p.
Guide for Daylighting Schools.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2004)
Drawing upon practical experiences in designing and constructing over 40 daylit schools throughout the country, this guide addresses the key design considerations typically confronted when designing K-12 across the United States. The document examines necessary factors designers must consider to achieve a successful daylighting strategy: human factors, the energy ramifications, site constraints and benefits, well-integrated daylighting strategies, most appropriate daylighting strategies, accurate simulation, and the modification of the design process. 28p.
Impact of Sustainable Buildings on Educational Achievements in K-12 Schools.
Olson, Stephen; Kellum, Shana
(Leonardo Academy, Inc., Cleaner and Greener Program, Madison, WI , Nov 25, 2003)
Defines sustainable schools and its accompanying qualities of good site planning, lighting, indoor air quality, healthy building materials, acoustics, and use of renewable energy. Benefits to student achievement through daylighting and indoor air quality are detailed, and 34 references are included. 14p.
Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Appendix.
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Progam, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
These appendices contain the technical supporting analysis for the conclusions in the report Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Includes technical definitions, onsite data collection forms, model descrptions and results, the mean temperature radiant analysis, and classroom acoustic analysis. 69p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-8
Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment.
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
This study investigates whether daylight and other aspects of the indoor environment in elementary school student classrooms have an effect on student learning, as measured by their improvement on standardized math and reading tests over an academic year. The study uses regression analysis to compare the performance of over 8000 3rd through 6th grade students in 450 classrooms in the Fresno Unified School District, located in California's Central Valley. Statistical models were used to examine the relationship between elementary students' test improvement and the presence of daylight in their classrooms, while controlling for traditional education explanatory variables, such as student and teacher demographic characteristics. Numerous other physical attributes of the classroom were also investigated as potential influences, including ventilation, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, acoustics, electric lighting, quality of view out of windows, and the type of classroom, such as open or traditional plan, or portable classroom. The study also utilized on-site observations of classrooms and surveys of teachers to provide additional insight into comfort conditions. This study found that various window characteristics of classrooms had as much explanatory power in explaining variation in student performance as more traditional educational metrics such as teacher characteristics, number of computers, or attendance rates. The study provides a range of likely effect sizes for environmental variables that other researchers can use to refine the needs of future studies. [Authors' abstract] 131p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-7
Modular Skylight Wells: Design Guidelines for Skylights With Suspended Ceilings.
McHugh, John; Manglani, Rodelyn; Heschong, Lisa
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
These guidelines provide a step-by-step process for designing modular skylight wells, along with a glossary of technical terms and list of acronyms. This design assistance can serve as an essential design tool for architects, engineers and other designers, and provide valuable information to manufacturers in the skylight and suspended ceiling industries. The guidelines adddress the main building types that are likely to benefit from skylight wells in either new or retrofit construction, such as schools. 128p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-13
The Benefits of Daylight Through Windows
Boyce, Peter; Hunter, Claudia; Howlett, Owen
(Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, Sep 12, 2003)
This extensive literature review considers the impact of daylight on human performance and workplace productivity; human health; and financial return on investment. These impacts of daylight are reviewed for buildings that are used for work and for which daylighting has been extensively studied, namely offices, schools, hospitals, and retail stores. The conclusions drawn from the literature review are summarized in an Executive Summary. Recommendations for further research are included. 88p.
Commissioning Lighting Control Systems for Daylighting Applications.
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Discusses commissioning activities during design, construction, and acceptance phases for daylighting that help ensure that the lighting control systems perform optimally. While the commissioning process for lighting controls is not fundamentally different than that for any other type of system, this paper highlights the unique aspects lighting control commissioning for daylighting design applications, particularly in regards to occupant training. 11p.
Beyond the Bulb: A Case Study in School Daylighting.
(Solatube International, Inc , 2003)
Advocates daylighting as a means to boost student performance while lowering energy costs. Also cited are statistics on energy consumed by electrical lighting and government programs that promote daylighting. 4p.
Daylighting in Schools Reduces Costs, Improves Student Performance.
(U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Technology Access, 2003)
Case study of three recently constructed schools in North Carolina that take advantage of daylighting's ability to provide high quality light and reduce operating costs. One elementary school and two middle schools were designed with daylighting in mind. South-facing glazing, vertical roof monitors, overhangs, and interior baffles maximize and control the light that enters the buildings. Interior colors are light for good reflectance, and full-spectrum electric lighting eases the transitions between natural and artificial light. Includes technical, performance, economic and environmental data. 3p.
An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Daylighting Quality and Quantity for School Buildings in Hong Kong (China)
(Dissertation, Chinese University of Hong Kong (People's Republic of China), 2003)
The objective of this thesis is to understand some of the relationships between quantity and quality of daylighting, and to develop a research protocol to evaluate daylighting quality in Hong Kong schools. The hypothesis of the research is that interrelationships exist between qualitative measures related to student satisfaction and selected quantitative measures of daylighting in occupied environments. This study reveals that there is sufficient daylighting in most existing classrooms of HK. However, daylighting uniformity and appearance within a classroom are identifiable problems, especially in the classrooms with one-sided daylighting. Direct sunlight penetration and reflected glare from the blackboard are the major sources of complaints from the students. The thesis suggests that interior daylighting quantity and quality is a function not only of room design, reflecting properties of the interior surfaces, and window size and placing, but also of orientations, site conditions, and even the occupants' attitudes. These factors all make significant contributions to the total lighting in the classroom in various degrees. The study contains concise information to guide designers on the important factors when designing school. [Author's abstract]Report NO: UMI:AA13077700
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National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , 2002)
This guide was developed specifically for architects and engineers who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, and for the project managers who work with the design teams. The design strategies presented here are organized into 10 chapters covering important design disciplines and goals: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource-efficient building products. An additional chapter addresses commissioning and maintenance practices. Each chapter contains a list of related resources. 457p.Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1610
Daylighting in Schools: Reanalysis Report.
Heschong, Lisa; Elzeyadi, Ihab; Knecht, Carey
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER), Sacramento, CA. New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA. , Feb 14, 2002)
This study expands and validates previous research that found a statistical correlation between the amount of daylight in elementary school classrooms and the performance of students on standardized math and reading tests. The researchers reanalyzed the 1997–1998 school year student performance data from the Capistrano Unified School District (California) and the Seattle Public School District (Washington) to answer questions from the peer review panel. The reanalysis findings are as follows: (1) overall, elementary school students in classrooms with the most daylight showed a 21 percent improvement in learning rates compared to students in classrooms with the least daylight; (2) a teacher survey and teacher bias analysis found no assignment bias that might have skewed the original results; more experienced or more educated teachers ("better" teachers) were not significantly more likely to be assigned to classrooms with more daylighting; (3) a grade level analysis found that the daylighting effect does not vary by grade; (4) an absenteeism analysis found that physical classroom characteristics (daylighting, operable windows, air conditioning, portable classrooms) are not associated with variations in student absenteeism. This seems to contradict claims that have been made about the health effects of daylight or other environmental conditions, as reflected in absenteeism rates of building occupants. These results, which are consistent with the original findings, affirm that daylight has a positive and highly significant association with improved student performance. These findings may have important implications for the design of schools and other buildings. (Appendices contain the survey and data tables.) 105p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-3
Classroom Lighting Knowhow.
(Northern Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Inc.; Design Lights Consortium , 2002)
This guide provides some advice on how to use photocell dimming in schools to save lighting energy without creating distraction to students. It also provides guidance on what types of luminaries to use, and how best to orient and group them in order to maximize energy savings. Estimated energy savings are given for a variety of luminaire and control options. Includes general classroom layouts, computer classroom layouts, corridor layouts, and lighting fixture specifications. 8p.
Integrating Daylighting and Electrical Lighting for Premium Efficiency and Performance.
Epstein, Gary; McGowan, Brian; Birleanu, Daniel
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2002)
Presents an approach to lighting design that integrates daylighting and artificial lighting, thereby facilitating efficiency and performance. Properly designed systems allow high performance electrical lighting and daylighting to work together to provide optimal lighting performance. Glare, uniformity, wall illumination, levels, color rendering, temperature, power density, automatic controls, lamp selection, and building design are all discussed in the context of natural and artificial light. Two case studies and five references are included. 15p.
Advancing the Art & Science of Daylighting Design.
Lau, Andrew; Mistrick, Richard
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2002)
Provides daylighting analysis advice using a combination of software programs that predict natural illumination and annual energy usage. The analysis was used in the design of Clearview Elementary School in Hanover, Pennsylvania. Includes four references. 10p.
Lighting for Schools.
Benya, James R.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Dec 2001)
This publication highlights some of the benefits of proper daylighting design in educational facilities, discusses energy efficient electric lighting choices schools can make that are long lasting and require little maintenance, and offers six steps for designing lighting systems that use half the energy of earlier conventional designs. Several light sources and systems are listed along with their mean lumens per watt, luminary usage, and types of school spaces where they would be used.(Contains three references). 6p.
Better Lighting for Healthier Students.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY., Sep 2001)
This brief highlights the problem that poor or inappropriate lighting in schools can adversely affect children's health and their ability to learn. It discusses the benefits of using daylight or full-spectrum lighting for healthier students, citing studies that reported that students had fewer cavities, gained weight and grew in height more than students in non-daylit classrooms, and demonstrated better work habits and improved academic performance. 4pTO ORDER: http://www.healthyschools.org
Daylighting in Cambridge Libraries: Shifting Focus over Time.
(Society of Building Science Educators, www.sbse.org , 2001)
Explores the various transformations of Cambridge libraries over the ages focusing mainly on the changing role of daylighting in library design. The libraries have been categorized chronologically into four different groups: Medieval libraries, libraries between 16th century and Reformation, libraries between Reformation and 19th century, and modern libraries. The study shows that with the shift toward individual styles in modern libraries, the architect has opened up enormous possibilities for design innovations in daylighting. The particular challenge of modern library design is to manipulate natural light for reading and book storage while avoiding reflections on the VDU. Includes 16 references. 7p.
Daylight in Buildings: A Source Book on Daylighting Systems and Components.
(This report was prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy., Jul 2000)
This source book gives a comprehensive overview of innovative daylighting systems, the performance parameters by which they are judged, and an evaluation of their energy savings potential and user acceptance. The information presented here is intended to be used in the earliest stages of the building design process. This book describes in detail the wide range of innovative daylighting systems available worldwide today, including information on their components, principles on which they are based, applications for which they are appropriate, production, control, costs and energy savings, maintenance, examples of use, and performance assessments. [author's abstract]
Daylighting in Schools: Improving Student Performance and Health at a Price Schools Can Afford.
Plympton, Patricia; Conway, Susan; Epstein, Kyra
(Presented at the American Solar Energy Society Conference, Madison, Wisconsin , Jun 16, 2000)
Discusses evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have implemented daylighting into their buildings in a cost-effective manner. Case studies reveal that design strategies and construction costs associated with designs that provide daylighting do not significantly increase over conventionally designed schools, and that students do benefit in terms of increased performance and better general health when school designs incorporate daylighting techniqes. Includes design tips and provides resources for obtaining further information on daylighting and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for schools. (Contains 25 references). 6p.
Daylight Makes a Difference: Daylight in the Classroom Can Boost Standardized Test Scores and Learning. [Audiotape].
Kosik, Kenneth S.; Heschong, Lisa
(Presentation at the Learning and the Brain Conference, Washington, D.C. , May 03, 2000)
An audiotape presents study analysis of the effect of daylighting on student performance. Results from test scores of more than 21,000 student records along with other data sets from three school districts reveal that students with the most daylighting had from 7 percent to 18 percent higher scores than those with the least amount of daylighting. Despite differences in teaching styles, school building design, and very different climates, the three districts show daylighting to have consistently positive and highly significant effects.TO ORDER: http://www.fltwood.com
Skylighting Guidelines. Northwest Region.
(Heschong Mahone Group; Betterbricks, Seattle, WA, Oct 20, 1999)
Addresses daylighting issues that concern designers and building owners in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Reviews the climate of the region, state energy code requirements, and common building practices that affect the specification of skylights for buildings. Summarizes the findings of multiple parametric runs of SkyCalc for climates in three representative Northwest cities and discusses what general lessons can be derived from this analysis. 33p.
Daylighting in Schools. An Investigation into the Relationship between Daylighting and Human Performance.
(Submitted by the Heschong Mahone Group to Pacific Gas and Electric, on behalf of the California Board for Energy Efficiency Third Party Program , 1999)
This study examines the effects of daylighting on human performance, focusing on skylighting as a way to isolate daylight as an illumination source and to separate illumination effects from other qualities associated with daylighting from windows. The study establishes a statistical connection between daylighting and student performance and between skylighting and retail sales. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, the study examined 21,000 school records from three school districts in three states and daylighting conditions in more than 2,000 classrooms. Data indicate students with the most classroom daylighting progressed 20 percent faster on math tests and 26 percent faster on reading tests in one year than those with the least amount of daylight. Similarly, students with the largest windows progressed 15 percent faster in math and 23 percent faster in reading than those with the least largest windows. In classrooms where windows could be opened, there was a 7 to 18 percent faster educational progress than those with fixed windows, regardless of air conditioning. These findings are reported to be consistent regardless of curricula or teaching styles. 140p.Report NO: HMG-R-9803
Getting Brighter At Dena Boer Elemertary School: Daylighting an Entire School Within a Standard Construction Budget
(Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Daylighting Initiative, San Francisco, CA, 1999)
Features a Salida, California, school built in 1997, operating on a year-round schedule that uses daylighting throughout the entire school. Shows how the design is often capable of providing 100 percent of lighting needs through daylighting alone. Article includes photographs and diagrams. 3p.
See It, Believe It, Build It--With Confidence. Modeling Assures Better Daylighting Results.
(Pacific Gas and Electric Company Daylighting Initiative, 1999)
When architects were asked to design a new multipurpose building at Marin Country Day School in Corte Madera, California, they evaluated possible design options by building a daylighting model. Modeling helped decide the scheme that clearly provided the best quality of light in the new 4,500 sq.ft. building. Their final selection included large vertical windows and a roof clerestory for even light distribution. Site orientation and ceiling color contributed to the effectiveness of the roof design, overcoming glare and heat gain problems. 4p.
Daylighting for Sustainable Design.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1999)
Offers practical design strategies that create a brighter, greener architecture by weaving together environmental, architectonic, and humanistic factors. Sensitive land-use, energy conservation, the use of healthy materials, waste-reduction, design, technological and mechanical factors, aesthetics and quality of life issues are also addressed. Also included are color illustrations, case studies that illustrate how each principle can be implemented, checklist and design approach summaries, and guides to daylighting resources, manufacturers, and specialist firms. 448p.
Daylighting in Schools for the Future.
(TAA Group Architecture, Rockwall, TX , 1998)
Discusses daylinghting in schools, including a brief history of daylight in schools, explaining its political/critical strategies and the natural tendency for people to turn towards the source of light, or as it is called "phototropism" and its importance in the design of lighting in schools. Case studies of British schools from recent decades that address daylighting with varying degrees of success are included. 26p.
Tips for Daylighting with Windows: An Integrated Approach
O'Connor, Jennifer and others
(University of California, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 1997)
Provides guidelines intended to serve as an integrated approach to developing cost-effective designs for daylighting perimeter zones in new commercial buildings. The guidelines function as a reference for designers; they emphasize practical details. Included is information on daylight feasibility, envelope and room decisions, glazing selection, shading strategy, mechanical coordination, lighting coordination, sensors and controls, calibration and commissioning, maintenance, cost benefit analysis, and references. 107p.Report NO: LBNL-39945
Student Performance in Daylit Schools.
Nicklas, Michael H.; Bailey, Gary B.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, North Carolina , 1996)
This study investigates the relationships between elementary and middle school student performance and natural daylighting. The performance of students attending three daylit schools designed by Innovative Design for Johnston County Schools in North Carolina was analyzed and compared to the County school system as a whole and other new schools within Johnston County. The daylit schools in the study indicated energy cost reductions of between 22 percent to 64 percent over typical schools. 5p.
Energy Performance of Daylit Schools in North Carolina.
Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary
(North Carolina Solar Center, Raleigh, NC , 1996)
This study analyzes the energy performance and cost of daylit schools designed by Innovative Design in Johnston County, North Carolina. The analysis compares the first-year energy performances of the Clayton and Selma middle schools and the K-5 Four Oaks school with similar but non-daylit schools in the county. The two daylit middle schools were completed in the spring of 1993 and the comparison year was July of 1993 through June of 1994. The Four Oaks School was completed in August of 1990 and the first year of collected data was 1991-92.
Electric Lighting and Daylighting in Schools.
Grocoff, Paul N.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Dec 1995)
This report examines both electric lighting and daylighting, listing criteria to determine the correct equipment for a school renovation or building project. The report examines the use of prismatic lenses; parabolic louvers; and indirect lighting, including the cost savings of using indirect lighting. The report indicates that there is no clear answer about which lighting system to select; it includes a table of pros and cons of each system to aid in decision making. (Contains 2 references).
Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Jun 19, 1995)
A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due to dimming. Lower than expected dimming system performance was observed prior to effective commissioning. Difficulties encountered are discussed, as are recommendations for performance improvements. 9p.Report NO: FSEC-PF-283-95
Daylighting Performance and Design
Ander, Gregg D.
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1995)
This book features daylighting strategies, materials, and methods of construction. It covers significant advances in lighting and daylighting technology and includes examples, case studies, theory, and calculations. 256p.
Daylight Resource Data for Illuminating Building Interiors in North Carolina.
Place, Wayne; Howard, Shannon; Howard, T.C.
(North Carolina Alternative Energy Corporation, Raleigh , 1992)
Examines a year's worth of solar data collected in North Carolina, with an intent of helping to select a basic daylighting strategy and system, as well as to determine the proper orientation, tilt, and area of glazing. 131p.
Daylighting Classroom Buildings.
Place, Wayne; Howard, T.C.; Howard, S.
(Alternative Energy Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC , 1991)
Addresses the benefits of daylit schools; spaces considered in the classroom building; and daylighting materials, units, measures, and strategy. The guidelines cover building massing and orientation, windows, roof and wall apertures, interior surfaces, and electric lighting. 185p.
Daylighting Update. A Brief Guide to the Process of Designing Energy Conserving Schools through the Use of Daylighting.
Hill, Alva L.; Lawrence, Jerry
(The American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 1990)
This guide explores the dilemma of lighting standards in schools; natural lighting and energy consumption, the inclusion of daylighting in the design process, and the tools needed in the pre-design and design phases. Also discussed are various daylighting techniques and strategies and the design principles that have evolved based on the lessons learned from recent studies. Final comments explore the opportunities for upgrading an existing school's ability to conserve energy beyond designing for daylight entry. 15p.
The Effects of Windowless Classrooms on the Cognitive and Affective Behavior of Elementary School Students.
Romney, Bryan Miles
Windowless school buildings are currently being proposed as a design solution to the problems of vandalism, energy conservation, and building costs. However, little consideration is being given to the effects of windowless classrooms on the students and teachers inside. This thesis describes the effect of windowless classrooms on three specific areas of cognitive behavior: rote learning, concept formation, and perceptual ability. In addition, a description of student and teacher affective behavior, based on formal observations, is included. Two identical sixth-grade classes were selected for the study. The experimental period was divided into two three-week phases. Each classroom had all existing windows covered during one phase. Students were randomly divided into three test groups for the testing phases of the study. No consistent trends emerged to allow definitive judgment that windowless classrooms are detrimental to student cognition and learning. The only definitive trend is in the realm of affective behavior, indicating that student aggression increases in windowless environment.
References to Journal Articles
Acoustics and Daylighting
School Planning and Management; , p50-53 ; May 2012
Clean, quiet, safe, comfortable and healthy environments are an important component of successful teaching and learning.
Buildings; , p26-30 ; Feb 2012
Discusses school lighting strategies that can cut energy use and save money, including daylighting, weighing your options, prioritizing efficiency, comparing modern lighting calculations, going by the book, and modernizing controls
No Blinding Light
Martin, David H.
School Planning and Management; , p37 ; Dec 2011
Integrated internal blinds help control classroom daylighting while reducing maintenance.
High-Performance Glass for High-Performance Schools.
Design Cost Data; , p11,50 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Through energy modeling, shows that daylighting strategies can have a significant impact on energy consumption in educational facilities, particularly those that incorporate advanced solar control, low-e glasses such as double-silver-coated Solarban 60 glass and triple-silver-coated Solarban 70XL glass by PPG.
Enhancing Light Quality, Reducing Energy Costs.
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p60-62 ; Jun 2011
Discusses integration of direct, indirect, and natural lighting that emphasizes cost savings with use of natural light.
Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie
American School and University; v83 n9 , p36,38,39 ; May 2011
Notes the increased environmental awareness of current students, and advises on sustainable lighting systems to accommodate their awareness. Daylighting, solar power, and energy-efficient bulbs are discussed, as are the aesthetic and psychological benefits of thoughtful lighting schemes.
Totally Tubular Lighting.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p17,18 ; Jan 2011
Reviews tubular daylighting devices that can bring daylight deep into schools, even into rooms with no windows. Examples of installations, energy saving opportunities, and retrofitting strategies are addressed.
College Planning and Management; v14 n1 , p21-23 ; Jan 2011
Advises on the benefits of daylighting classrooms, strategies to avoid daylighting glare, and how to integrate it with artificial lighting.
Thirteen Daylighting Guidelines.
Building Design and Construction; v52 n1 , p36-39 ; Jan 2011
Briefly reviews 13 points for designing daylighting, covering widows, artificial lighting, floor plans, calculating daylight penetration, light shelves, climate, geography, and interior finishes.
Let the Sun Shine in: New Thinking about the Oldest Lighting Strategy.
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p10,12,13 ; Dec 2010
Promotes the use of controlled daylighting, cautioning against direct sunlight, which produces glare. Basic concepts for bringing daylight into the center of a building are presented, and the superiority of skylights to windows for daylighting is discussed. Advice on assembling an essential team for daylighting design, tuning and maintaining a daylighting system, and treating windows is included.
Considerations When Upgrading Renovating Window Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on window selection for campus buildings, emphasizing energy efficiency, building orientation, appropriate window style, and glass selection. Acoustics, daylighting, thermal comfort, and aesthetics are also addressed.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p29,31-33 ; Nov 2010
Profiles the unique lighting of the University of California San Diego Sustainable Research Center. Photovoltaic panels on the roof supply the DC-DC lighting system, augmented by daylight and electricity from the campus grid after dark. Photoluminescent exit signs use no electricity at all.
Core Strength: At a New Stanford Building, Atria Double-Major in Sustainability and Community.
Green Source; Aug 2010
Profiles the atria in Stanford University?s Y2E2 building, which allow daylight to reach all the way to the basement.
Light and Cool.
American School and University; v82 n11 , p32-64 ; Jun 2010
Advises on window selection and placement to keep classrooms properly illuminated without unnecessary heat gain. Design of roof monitors and light shelves are highlighted.
School Construction News; v16 n2 , p18,19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses maximizing daylighting and artificial lighting strategies for schools, addressing floor plans, glare, skylights, fenestration, and glass selection.
Brossy de Dios, Eric; Rogic, Tinka; Vaughn, Wendell
American School and University; v82 n6 , p23,24 ; Feb 2010
Advises on how to use building orientation, materials, and design to appropriately daylight schools.
Lighting Retrofits: Putting Technology to Work.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p11,12 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the use of photosensors to control artificial lighting in daylit rooms. Light-level response, signal types, photopic correction, and application trends are addressed.
Acoustics, Daylighting and IAQ.
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p20,22,24-26 ; Feb 2010
Advises on insulating school buildings against intrusive external and internal noise, daylighting, and HVAC system selection for maximum indoor air quality. A new Teaneck, New Jersey, school is offered as an example.
Daylighting and Visual Performance: Evaluation of Classroom Design Issues in the UAE.
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies; 2010
Focuses on analysis of visual performance and quality issues in classrooms located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The methodology depended on data collection and analysis of design information obtained from architectural drawings of standard schools, design compliance documents set by the relevant governmental bodies, and site visits and photography. It analyzed several important design issues that have significant impact on visual quality, including space size and depth to height ratio, windows orientation, lighting direction and desk position. Several problems concerning contrasting luminance levels in the field of view were identified and described. Mitigation of the problems using recommended daylighting systems was discussed based on the UAE climate. [author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://ijlct.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/08/02/ijlct.ctq025.abstract
Lack of Short-Wavelength Light During the School Day Delays Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) in Middle School Students.
Figueiro, Mariana; Rea, Mark
Neuroendocrinology Letters; v31 n1 , p92-96 ; 2010
Reports the results of a study investigating whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. The results show that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools.TO ORDER: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150866
Daylighting Strategies Promote Healthy High Performance Buildings.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p26-29 ; 2010
Makes the case that daylighting benefits include increased productivity for students and staff, improved health, a better connection to the outdoors, energy savings, and better quality of light. The article further describes daylighting contribution to LEED certification, the role of windows, methods for maintenance and repair, and cost.
Natural Light, Energy Efficiency.
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p23-25 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the balancing of daylighting and building exterior performance. Siting of the building, quality of windows and doors, and maintenance are emphasized.
Teaching Green: Two Texas Projects Shape Future of Sustainable School Building.
Texas Construction; Nov 2009
Discusses the advantages of daylighting to student achievement and lower energy costs, citing two "green" Texas schools that cost no more to build but are benefitting from reduced energy consumption.
The Science of Light.
American School and University; v82 n2 , p32-34 ; Oct 2009
Discusses proper planning and modeling of daylighting. This is done in the design phase and can be difficult or impossible to remedy if done too late. Conditions that the daylighting model will consider include building orientation, climate, seasonality of the sun's path, topography, nearby trees or mountains, surrounding buildings, and reflections from outside the building.
Jones, Colin; McMicheal, Mark; Riedel, Philip
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p36,38,40,42 ; Oct 2009
Discusses strategies for achieving balanced and effective daylighting in schools. Computerized modeling, neighboring structures, the ability of occupants to control lighting, and reflectivity of surfaces are addressed.
Principles and Impacts of Daylighting.
Buildings; v103 n9 , p58-61 ; Sep 2009
Outlines the duties of the team members who create a building's daylighting plan, the core principles to be achieved, linkage of daylighting to other sustainable strategies, and concepts for daylighting existing spaces.
BIM School, Green School.
Building Design and Construction; v50 n6 , p40-44,46,48,50,51 ; Jun 2009
Profiles the design and construction of California's American Canyon High School. The 260,000 square foot campus houses four smaller learning communities of 500-550 students, is CHPS verified, and includes sophisticated photovoltaic and geothermal systems. Building information modeling (BIM) impacted the design in a variety of ways, especially in enabling near 100% daylighting of classrooms.
Transparency Builds community.
Learning By Design; n18 , p168 ; 2009
Explores the advantages of transparency in educational facilities. Admitting daylight, supervision, and visual communication between groups is discussed.
Lighten the Load.
American School and University; v81 n2 , p29-31 ; Oct 2008
Reviews the increasing desirability for daylighting of classrooms. Old notions that windows contributed to HVAC load, lower security, and distraction of students have been replaced with those of daylighting being desirable due to the reduction of lighting costs, improvement of academic performance, and better attendance. Advice on reducing glare and six principles of good daylighting are included.
Daylighting and LEED for Schools.
School Construction News; v11 n6 , p18-22 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Reviews opportunities for LEED certification for schools, with particular attention to points that can be earned through thoughtful window selection. These come in the LEED categories of Energy and Atmosphere, Indoor Environmental Quality and emphasize operable windows and daylighting. A brief discussion of tips for daylighting schools is included.
Daylighting Goes Tubular.
DeBellis, Kate; Digert, Neall
The Construction Specifier; v61 n4 , p24-26,28,30-32 ; Apr 2008
Discusses the design and function of tubular daylighting devices, detailing their design and specification; how they capture, transfer, modulate, and distribute sunlight; and the benefit the offer to LEED certification.
The Right Light.
American School and University; v80 n8 , p39,40,42 ; Apr 2008
Discusses daylighting for schools, including building orientation, window placement, clerestories, roof monitors, light shelves, and accompanying artificial lighting controls.
Daylighting: Stategies that Maximize Benefits.
High Performing Buildings; , p30-32,34,36-38,40,41 ; Spring 2008
Discusses daylighting strategies of site maximization, integrated design, roof monitors, light shelves, glazing, and north- and south-facing considerations.
Letting the Sun Shine In.
Architectural Record; , p86,87 ; Jan 2008
Profiles Iowa City's North Central Junior High School, whose extensive daylighting permitted a reduction in mechanical systems and considerable savings in square foot construction costs. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.
American School and University; v80 n1 , p40,42,43 ; Sep 2007
Briefly reviews energy saving and generating strategies,including daylighting, water conservation and recycling strategies, geothermal HVAC sytesm, and wind and solar energy.
Let the Sun Shine In.
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p70,72-75 ; Jun 2007
Discusses two window coverings that admit daylight, but not glare and heat. These are mesh fabric shades and smart glass that changes tinting or opacity via electronic control.
Athletic Business; v31 n3 , p46-48,50,52,54 ; Apr 2007
Discusses state-of-the-art glass applications for athletic facilities. Transparency of the building exterior and interior, shatter resistance, safety, CPTED, and costs are covered.
Lighting the Way.
American School and University; v79 n7 , p32,34-37 ; Mar 2007
Reviews the return of daylighting to schools, as well as recent advances in precision daylighting that avoids glare and has automated supplementation for overcast conditions.
Day In, Day Out.
American School and University; v79 n4 , p31-33 ; Dec 2006
Reviews architectural techniques and classroom organization that properly utilize daylight without glare, as well as complementary automated lighting controls that balance the available daylight and save energy.
Rooms with a View.
Hourihan, Peter; Berry, Millard
American School and University; v79 n3 , p316,317 ; Nov 2006
Discusses the virtues of atriums for daylighting and energy savings, with advice on how to model energy consumption scenarios for atrium-equipped buildings.
The Grass is Greener on This Side.
District Administration; v42 n8 , p42-44,46,48,50 ; Aug 2006
Highlights practices within the five most popular ways to create a "green" school: lighting, indoor air quality, minimizing waste, HVAC systems, and water conservation.
Bring It In.
American School and University; v78 n9 , p47-49 ; Apr 2006
Identifies six principles to follow when developing a school daylighting design. These principles involve building orientation, windows, assessment of tasks to be performed in particular areas, and integration of daylighting with building architecture and systems. Differing requirements for sidelighting and toplighting are covered as well.
Harnessing Daylight for Energy Savings.
Building Operating Management; v53 n4 ; Apr 2006
Explains how badly designed daylighting can actually raise energy costs and offers extensive advice on proper daylighting, including building orientation, window design, light and heat transmittance, ceiling height and reflectivity, clerestories, interior and exterior light shelves, and coordination of the system with artificial lighting.
Daylighting Gymnasiums. Sky's the Limit.
Loveland, Joel; Meek, Christopher
Athletic Business; v29 n12 , p126-130,132,133 ; Dec 2005
Discusses daylighting of gymnasiums, including the placement, number, and design of clerestories and windows, glare reduction, types of glazing, and accompanying automated lighting sytems.
Daylighting in Schools, Grades K-12.
Architectural Record; v192 n12 , p247-251 ; Dec 2005
Discusses benefits of daylighting in K-12 schools, describes architectural features used to help daylight interior spaces, and advises on appropriate lighting controls for different types of school spaces.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v8 n2 , p30,32 ; Feb 2005
Reviews daylighting research and a dormitory renovation that converted 150 rooms into daylit common areas by removing walls and adding expansive window treatments.
Illuminating the Classroom Environment.
McCree, John; Hill, Timothy
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p34-36,38,39 ; Feb 2005
Discusses proper classroom illumination by direct and indirect natural, artificial, and reflected light. Suggestions for daylighting, glare reduction, flexibility, attractive installation, maintenance, and automatic controls are offered.
Evidence-Based Design: Natural Light, Student Performance and Health.
School Construction News; v7 n6 , p13-15 ; Sep 2004
Presents an interview with Lisa Heschong in which she discusses her research on the impact of daylighting on student performance along with other aspects of windows and ventilation in schools.
Light and Color Goes to School.
College Planning and Management; v7 n6 , p34,36,38,40 ; Jun 2004
Discusses the results of recent research indicating that natural light and views through windows have a positive effect on learning and describing the manner in which glare and direct sunlight should be controlled. Also discussed is the appropriate and balanced use of color in the classroom to enhance learning.
Pearson, Clifford A.
Architectural Record; v192 n6 , p228-233 ; Jun 2004
Describes this largely daylit Connecticut upper school addition to a private girls' school that utilizes its steeply sloped site by positioning the main entrance on top of its green roof.
The Deliberation on Daylighting.
Garris, Leah B.
Buildings; v98 n4 , p38-41 ; Apr 2004
Presents a question and answer discussion that discusses daylighting, its benefits, and how to implement it.
Soleau, David S.; Ross, Alan S.
American School and University; v76 n9 , hp11-hp14 ; Apr 2004
Discusses energy recovery and savings techniques involving lighting, HVAC, and site planning.
A Different View.
Chambers, Jeffrey D.
American School and University; v76 n6 , p29,30,32,34,36 ; Feb 2004
Lists the benefits of daylighting schools, considerations for where and how to do it, and ways to control glare.
Daylight Dividends Case Study: Smith Middle School, Chapel Hill, N.C.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 2004)
Reports on the design and electric lighting strategies implemented at this school, as well as the positive response of students and faculty to the daylit school, maintenance issues, data logging and energy simulation procedures, and costs. A summary of lessons learned concludes the document. 12p.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p318-20 ; Nov 2003
Describes the benefits of energy savings and improved student performance when schools are daylit. Decreased student absenteeism also results from increased school aid if that aid is linked to attendance. Sources of financial assistance for daylighting efforts are outlined.
Placing Students First: Promoting Innovation in Sustainable Design.
School Construction News; v6 n6 , p25-27 ; Sep 2003
Describes the innovative features of the Truckee Middle School in Truckee, California. The school utilizes daylighting, environmentally sensitive building materials, water management and geothermal energy to create a high performance learning environment.
Daylighting in Classrooms.
Willi, John G.
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , p30-31 ; Jul 2003
Describes how one elementary school was designed to be a flexible, innovative campus that connects learning and the learning environment. The celebration of nature is carried out in many ways within the building. Students are exposed to great vistas from every interior location. Daylighting is infused throughout the school to reinforce the desire for a warm, caring, and cheerful learning environment.
A Review of the Development of Daylighting in Schools
Wu, W.; Ng, E.
Lighting Research and Technology; v35 n2 , p111-125 ; Jun 2003
This paper reviews the progress of daylighting in school buildings. It examines the publications that discuss daylighting design for school buildings in early 1874. It also traces the developments of the open-air school movement from 1900 up to the 1930s and describes research at the present day in the context of an emphasis on environmental factors defining healthy and comfortable buildings for education. The regulations and standards of lighting in schools in the different periods in Britain are summarized. The review reveals that there is a need to examine the relationships between the responses of school occupants and the quantity of daylighting. The conclusion of the paper gives an overall summary of daylighting in schools and identifies gaps in current knowledge. In addition, it provides the authors' opinions for future lighting research in schools. [Authors' abstract]
P.S. 69, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Architectural Record; v191 n3 ; Mar 2003
Describes the title school building by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, manufacturers/suppliers, and construction team; a general building description; and a commentary on the design. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. It is the first New York City public school built with a wireless computer network. A translucent canopy, cantilevered from the curved façade, guides children through the entrance and into the atrium’s open, light-filled space. Upper-level glass-block floors allow natural light to reach the spaces below. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Soaking up the Sun.
Rush, Richard D.
American School and University; v75 n6 , p36-40 ; Feb 2003
Discusses the use of daylight to improve the interiors of educational facilities, offering an overview on the properties of natural light and ways and benefits of ensuring its presence indoors.
The Educational Advantages of Green: Saving, Teaching, Learning.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p35-36 ; 2003
Advocates sustainable design and LEED certification for school renovations. (Includes four references.)
American School and University; v75 n2 , p32-35 ; Oct 2002
Describes how using skylights and other daylighting methods can improve the efficiency of a school facility, enhancing the learning environment and simplifying maintenance.
Daylighting Impacts on Human Performance in School.
Heschong, Lisa; Wright, Roger; Okura, Stacia
Journal of the Illumniating Engineering Society; v31 n2 , p101-114 ; Summer 2002
Presents the findings of a study conducted at three elementary schools in California, Washington, and Colorado, indicating that daylighting improved student performance. The study used standardized test scores to evaluate students, and included controls for factors such as teacher experience and student demographics. No explanation of why such an effect would occur is offered, but improved visibility, enhanced mood, and better student health are suggested as the outcomes of increased daylighting which improve learning.
Daylighting: Many Designers are Still in the Dark.
Architectural Record; , p161-164 ; Jun 2002
This article discusses effective daylighting design concepts. It refers to ongoing research on daylighting and productivity issues. A daylighting design strategy is explained. The cost effectiveness of daylighting is also highlighted.
Designed To Maximize Learning and Minimize Costs.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v41 n1 , p27-29 ; Jan 2002
Describes how the Durant Road Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina sets a new standard in environmental school design. "Daylighting," bringing daylight into the building for psychological, health, and energy-saving benefits, plays a central role in the design.
Productivity and Satisfaction: Daylight Makes the Difference.
Betterbricks [Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance]; , 2p. ; 2002
A building full of daylight is a natural element that can result in an amazing transformation—a more beautiful building, a more energy-efficient building, and a building that provides occupants with better visual quality and mental stimulation, higher workplace satisfaction and even higher productivity.
Daylighting Makes a Difference.
Heschong, Lisa; Knecht, Carey
Educational Facility Planner; v37 n2 , p5-14 ; 2002
Examined the role of daylight in student achievement in three schools and found a uniformly positive and statistically significant correlation between the presence of more daylight and better student test scores. Offers guidelines on designing daylit classrooms.
Betterbricks [Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance] ; , 5p. ; 2002
This presents an overview of the basics of daylighting design. The following issues are discussed: 1)diffuse daylight; 2) building shape and orientation; 3) windows and skylights; 4) daylighting design process; 5) testing the performance of the design; and 6) getting help.
Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Design Cost Data; v45 n1 , p37-39 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Presents design features of the Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School (North Carolina) that incorporates daylighting in the majority of the classrooms, the gymnasium, dining room, and media center. The design also uses advanced lighting controls, fiber optic networking, automatic environmental controls, and an energy management system that interfaces with the school's central management system. Photos are included.
Lighting the Learning Environment.
School Construction News; v3 n4 , p20-21 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Explores the benefits and pitfalls of daylighting, indirect light, and full-spectrum lamps for general illumination and accent lighting in classrooms. Discussions include lighting considerations in areas where computers are used and fixture cost factors versus efficiency.
Lighting the School of the Future.
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1999
Discusses the Austin Independent School District's (Texas) school redesign efforts to allow more daylight in its schools, increase the students' comfort and productivity, and lower utility costs. Return on investment potential from savings in maintenance, replacement, and productivity of the school are highlighted.
Montessori Island School [Tavernier, Florida]
Architectural Record; v 185 n10 , p118-121 ; Oct 1997
Examines a Florida Montessori school design that does not use air conditioning and is naturally lighted. Discusses design considerations that took advantage of natural surroundings, the architectural approach that helped bring the outdoors closer to the classroom, and the environmental pay-off.
Texas Architect; v47 n1 , p76-77 ; Jan 1997
Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and natural lighting, including a rectangular courtyard in the academic wing that can serve as an outdoor classroom.
Schools Use Daylighting to Improve Visual Environment, Save Electricity
Gordon, Jennifer A.
Energy User News; v20 n4 , p19 ; Apr 1995
Four schools in the Kyrene School District are expected to reduce the district's annual electric consumption by 440,000 kilowatt-hours through a recently completed lighting retrofit program.
Health and Behavior of Children in Classrooms With and Without Windows
Küller, Rikard; Lindsten, Carin
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v12 n4 ; Dec 1992
The aims of the study were to assess the effects of light on the production of stress hormones, classroom performance, body growth, and sick leave, of school children. About 90 children were investigated in their school environment for a duration of one school year. The children were situated in four classrooms differing in respect to the access to natural daylight and artificial fluorescent light. The results indicated the existence of a systematic seasonal variation with more stress hormones in summer than in winter. The children situated in the one classroom lacking both natural daylight and fluorescent daylight tubes demonstrated a marked deviation from this pattern. High levels of morning cortisol were associated with sociability, while moderate or low levels seemed to promote individual concentration. Annual body growth was smallest for the children with the highest levels of morning cortisol. Possibly, the production of cortisol had some influence on sick leave. It may be concluded, that windowless classrooms should be avoided for permanent use. [Authors' abstract]