CPTED FOR SCHOOLS: CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
Information on the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) as it applies to school facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
CPTED 101: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design - The Fundamentals for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2010)
Discusses the concepts of natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality as a means to improve school security. Each concept is defined and presented along with basic principles of how to achieve it within an uncomplicated framework of design, furnishing, and staffing. Includes five references. 2p.
Security Design for Sustainable Buildings and Campuses.
O'Neil, Dan; Rueda, Roger; Savage, Jenna
(Applied Risk Management, Stoneham, MA , 2009)
Begins by discussing the importance of sustainability, and how security is often mistakenly omitted from green initiatives, followed by a discussion of the importance of making security a high priority in the design process and how costly inadequate security can be for a company. The third section discusses the risk assessment process and the importance of carrying out such an assessment early on in the design process. Subsequent sections discuss the challenges of balancing security and sustainability, and introduce various solutions that can be achieved through new technologies and systems integration, with respect to specific building elements such as outdoor and indoor lighting, HVAC systems, the exterior envelope, and landscaping. The document concludes with a discussion of additional benefits that can be reaped from systems integration, details about how systems integration can be implemented, and how pre- fabrication of security components can generate LEED credits. 31p.
Safe, Healthy and Positive Environmental Design (SHAPED) Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED).
(Linn Benton Lincoln Education Service District, Albany, Or , 2009)
Begins by quoting statistics on violence in schools, and then explains Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, citing its history, basic concepts, and benefits. Typical risks on campuses and adjacent properties are cited, along with suggested solutions for these and specific school spaces. Other concepts discussed natural surveillance, natural access control, territoriality, the challenge of large schools, school safety audits, and school climate. 19 additional resources and 25 references are cited. 21p.
Building in Safety.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , Jan 2008)
Discusses incorporation of safety and security in schools through building design. Major points of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are outlined. 2p.
21st Century Security and CPTED.
(CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL , 2008)
Presents a collection of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) writings by CPTED practitioners. These essays outline contemporary national building security codes, best practices, and standards of care in private and public buildings. The book includes sample security and real-world applications of CPTED theory and practice, examines architectural surety from the perspective of risk analysis and liability, and explores next generation CPTED practices based on emerging security and safety concerns. There is a chapter devoted to CPTED for schools, as well as 400 photos, diagrams, tables, and checklists that accompany the text. 559p.TO ORDER: http://www.crcpress.com/
Ensuring Quality School Facilities and Security Technologies: Effective Strategies for Creating Safer Schools and Communities.
(Hamilton Fish Insitute on School and Community Violence, Washington, DC; Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR , 2008)
Advises educators community members on the relationship between school safety and school facilities. The guide offers a definition and history of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), a series of questions and answers to assist in planning CPTED, an overview of current security technolgy, and a safety audit and security survey that can be used as is or adapted for the location. 22 references are included. 69p.
Understanding Human Behavior Leads to Safer Environments
(Best Practices, American Institute of Architects, Feb 2007)
The National Crime Prevention Institute explores the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment and offers nine environmental design strategies that can potentially deter crime. 2p.
Safe School Facilities Checklist.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
A checklist that combines the nation's best school facility assessment measures into one online source for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds. It includes over 400 measures covering school surroundings, school grounds, buildings and facilities, communications systems, building access control and surveillance, utility systems, mechanical systems, and emergency power. The checklist is updated frequently and may be used for planning and designing new facilities or assessing existing ones.
National Guidelines for Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in New Zealand. Part 1: Seven Qualities of Safer Places.
(New Zealand Ministry of Justice, Nov 2005)
This document introduces seven qualities of safer places, qualities that will improve the urban environment while reducing crime and the fear of crime. It establishes the benefits of CPTED and it suggests possible organizations to involve and their roles, including schools. 44p.
National Guidelines for Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in New Zealand. Part 2: Implementation Guide
(New Zealand Ministry of Justice, Nov 2005)
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design is a crime prevention philosophy based on proper design and effective use of the built environment. This guide describes ways for planners and designers working for local governments to implement CPTED, and looks at CPTED safety audits and site assessments. 52p.
Elements of Campus Security Design Guidelines.
(Aegis Security Design, Louisville, KY , Jul 25, 2005)
Presents a summary of principle security-related issues that should be addressed in a campus design manual. The document details each category of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) that should be covered, including in each category the particular design features that must be considered. A 16-division design directive corresponding to the MasterFormat divisions is also provided. 8p.
Safe Schools Design Guidelines: Recommendations For a Safe and Secure Environment in Florida's Public Schools. CPTED Design Guidelines.
(University of South Florida, for the Florida Department of Education, Tampa, FL, 2005)
Contains CPTED guidelines (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) for Florida. The section on environs includes detailed information on location,edge conditions, and connection with the neighborhood. The section on site design covers landscaping, exterior pedestrian routes, vehicular routes and parking areas, recreational areas, signage and stormwater. Building interior spaces are also addressed. 55 p.
CPTED on College Campuses: Guidelines for Implementation.
(International Foundation for Protection Officers, Naples, FL , May 2004)
Provides a definition of CPTED while discussing territory, surveillance, building forms and design, compatible building placement, fixing broken windows, and CPTED liability. Campus officials strive to maintain a safe and secure campus environment, while at the same time maintaining a pleasant aesthetic look to the campus that so many colleges and universities are known for. Proactive measures are traditionally taken to aid in the prevention of crime. Crime prevention though environmental design, or CPTED, is a viable approach. 8p.
Designing For Homeland Security
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL, 2004)
This paper addresses how to reduce the threats and vulnerabilities in the built environment by changing how to design and use space. Design professionals can use three basic strategies for security design, also known as CPTED. They are natural access control, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. Each of the strategies can be implemented through three methods: mechanical, natural, and organized.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. How Can It Make Your School Safer?
(School Community Policing Partnership, Safe Schools Unit, of the San Diego County Office of Education. , Jan 2003)
Includes the following sections: 1) What is CPTED?; 2) Community Policing; 3) SARA Model; 4) School Safety Plans; 5) Crisis Response; and 6) Resources.
Florida Safe School Design Guidelines.
(Florida Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , 2003)
These guidelines begin with the assumption that proper design and management of the physical environment can help prevent criminal behavior on campuses. The manual considers design and maintenance issues beginning with the largest level of concern, the site, and proceeding toward the most specific, systems and equipment. In between these two, each area of building design and interior spaces is covered. Bullet points summarize the most significant elements and direct the user to the corresponding design principle in the Florida Building Code. Results of surveys, field investigations, and interviews concerning security design and practices, incidence of crimes, and attitudes are included. Recommendations drawn from these results are linked to the guidelines. (Includes 100 references and a listing of 40 organizations for additional resources.) 202p.
Safe Schools Design Guidelines - Preview of CPTED Design Guidelines
(Florida Center for Community Design + Research for the Florida Department of Education. , 2003)
Guidelines illustrate principles and strategies of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). These principles focus on safety and security issues with respect to the prevention of criminal activity on school campuses.
Ensuring Quality School Facilities and Security Technologies.
(Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR. Guide 4 of the series Safe and Secure: Guides to Creating Safer Schools. , Sep 2002)
Helps educators and other members of the community understand the relationship between school safety and school facilities, including technology. The guide covers the following topics: 1) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design; 2) Planning to Address CPTED: Key Questions to Ask; 3) Security Technology: An Overview; and 4) Safety Audits and Security Surveys. 46p.
Designing Safe Schools.
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. , 2002)
Incorporating the principles and practices of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in the design and remodeling of schools can contribute to the safety of the school while reducing the target-hardening and fortressing effects of a bunker mentality. The basic CPTED premise is that through the effective use and design of the built environment, there can be a reduction in the opportunity and fear of crime and a resulting better quality of life. Architectural features, structural enhancements, and spatial definition can deter, detect, and delay potential violent offenders from entering school campuses and buildings. The paper offers details in key areas of safe school design that should include security layering and defensible space planning practices: site design, building design, interior spaces, and systems and equipment. It also contains a list of design and management tips for safer schools. 6p.
Newer Technologies for School Security. ERIC Digest.
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR. , Feb 2001)
This digest describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for specific coding and specific access. Such cards can also be immediately canceled in the event of loss or theft and can be used to control entrances to parking lots and other school property. Another security device, metal detectors, can be helpful in ensuring the safety of a school but should be employed only in those schools where the risk is the highest. These detectors are expensive and require additional employees to operate the equipment. Another option is an alarm system that can be used to detect smoke or fire, intruders, and other threats to safety. Surveillance equipment is another possibility, and it too can vary widely in cost and in sophistication. However, even with digital technology, surveillance remains more useful as a means of reviewing incidents rather than in stopping behavior as it occurs. Before investing in any system, schools should identify the specific problems that need to be solved. 3p.
The Complete School Safety and Security Manual.
(The American Crime Prevention Institute, Goshen, KY , 2001)
This publication is a comprehensive crime prevention manual and resource guide for school administrators and law enforcement officers. Chapter 11 covers the topic of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design and contains a series of lists of recommendations organized by function or space. Additional chapters cover electronic access control systems; electronic security alarm systems; door systems and locking devices; lighting systems; windows and glazing; key control and management; security communications; and the use of closed circuit television. Each of these chapters contains descriptions of the various systems available along with their advantages and disadvantages as they relate to school safety and security. 431p.TO ORDER: American Crime Prevention Institute, 327 Townepark Circle, Louisville, KY 40243; Tel: 502-244-7306, Fax: 502-244-7308
Surrounded by Safety: A Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Handbook for Youth.
Carter, Sherry Plaster
(Youth Crime Watch of America, Miami, FL , 2001)
This handbook introduces students to essential elements of preventing crime at school by making sure the design, use, and upkeep of the facility do not provide opportunities for criminal behavior--crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It discusses how to identify problem areas and the steps to take to make sure these problems are corrected. The handbook provides: (1) instructions for conducting a physical assessment of the school; and (2) guidance for delivering the results to administrators, faculty, and parents. The focus is on commonly used strategies that fall within the realm of student influence. Ideas are given for improvement activities and projects that can be undertaken by students, given the proper authority and guidance. Following an introduction, the handbook's sections discuss CPTED, natural surveillance, access management, territorial reinforcement, physical maintenance, and order maintenance, and discuss resources for proceeding with projects. 39p.Report NO: Y27
Safer Schools through Environmental Design. ERIC Digest.
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , Jan 2001)
Describes key elements of an approach to security called crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Core CPTED elements include: natural surveillance, in which the entire environment can be viewed; natural access control to determine who can and cannot enter a facility; and territoriality, in which an established control is exerted over the environment. A CPTED analysis of a school evaluates crime rates, office-referral data, school cohesiveness and stability, as well as shortcomings in school design. School grounds, parking lots, playgrounds and fields are considered prime areas for practicing CPTED. When considering a CPTED analysis, school officials should look to professionals for an assessment. These assessments include crime mapping; reports from local police and medical centers; surveys of parents, teachers, and students; inspection of the campus and its surroundings, and an analysis of the surrounding neighborhood. 3p.
Designing Schools for Security
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing [C.A.S.H.] 22nd Annual Conference, Sacramento, CA, 2001)
A vital component to a District’s overall security program is the approach to site and building design of the physical environment on school campuses. The physical layout of buildings and the spaces surrounding them are integral to the success or failure of the overall security program. This discusses the basic concepts of CPTED, access control, surveillance, and activity support, and explains how CPTED can be integrated into school planning.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design : Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts. 2nd Edition.
Crowe, Timothy D.
This book discusses modern theory and applications of CPTED including those involving public schools and recreational facilities, among other building types. The book provides a history of crime prevention and examples of modern day uses. The fundamental concept of the book is that physical design, properly applied, can have a positive effect on preventing criminal behavior. 352p
Safe School Design: A Handbook for Educational Leaders Applying the Principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.
Schneider, Tod; Walker,Hill; Sprague, Jeffrey
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , 2000)
This document seeks to synthesize, integrate, and make available to school personnel solid information regarding Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Chapter 1, "The Changed Landscape of School Safety and Security," examines characteristics of safe and unsafe schools, causes of vulnerability, and the role of design and technology in creating safer schools. Chapter 2, "The Relevance of CPTED as a Strategy for Improving Schools," explores the international use of this approach and environmental design issues in recent school tragedies. Chapter 3, "Key CPTED Concepts and Principles," surveys essential program components. Chapter 4, "Site Evaluation: The Foundation for Improving School Safety and Security," is the main part of the book and provides specific recommendations, information, and forms for conducting a CPTED site assessment. Chapter 5, "Case Study Applications of CPTED Principles," reviews successful program applications. Chapter 6, "The Role of Architects in School Design," considers the experience professionals bring to design safety in such areas as codes and designing blueprints. Chapter 7, "Policy Recommendations for School Districts," offers boards and administrators information about CPTED programs for improving school security. 123p.
The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools. A Guide for Schools and Law Enforcement Agencies
Green, Mary W.
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC , Sep 1999)
This guide provides basic guidelines to help schools, in collaboration with law enforcement agencies, analyze their vulnerability to violence, theft, and vandalism, and suggest possible technologies to effectively address these problems. It outlines ways architects can design new schools that incorporate CPTED principles. It describes existing commercially available technologies and urges thoughtful consideration of not only the potential safety benefits that may accrue from their use but also the costs that schools may incur for capital investments, site modifications, additional staffing, training, and equipment maintenance and repair. Topic areas include security concepts and operational issues, video surveillance, weapons detection devices (walk-through and handheld metal detectors and x-ray baggage scanners), entry controls, and duress alarms. Resource information including books, publications, web sites, and conferences conclude the guide. 282p.Report NO: NCJ-1782265
TO ORDER: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 810 Seventh St., N.W., Washington, DC 20531; Tel: 800-851-3420
Designing Against Terror: Site Security Planning and Design Criteria
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. Published in Architectural Graphics Standards: 1999 Revision., 1999)
With the increasing threats to persons and property, from acts of terrorism, workplace violence, and street crime, the first and most important line of defense is securing the site perimeter and the careful placement of the building/s on the given site. This brief includes a statement of the problem; the assessment process; a discussion of security layering; GSA security standards on perimeter and exterior security, entry security, interior security, and security planning; application of security standards; and CPTED.
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: School CPTED Basics.
(Eugene Police Department, Eugene, OR , 1999)
The Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) concept suggests that natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality can be effectively applied to schools and surrounding environments to provide safety for students and teachers. A CPTED principle suggests that a well designed office should serve as the guardian at the gate, with excellent surveillance outside and inside the school, especially up and down hallways, the entry area, parking lots, drop off areas, and playing fields. Progressively stronger levels of security design for the main entry and office areas are diagramed providing benefits and disadvantages of each. 8p.
Safe Schools Facilities Planner. Health and Life Safety, School Climate and Order
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Div. of School Support, Raleigh , Feb 1998)
This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through environmental control in the following areas: access control; surveillance; territoriality; defensible space; target hardening; and program interaction. Guidelines also address issues on school size, schools-within-schools, health and life safety, and school climate and order. (Contains 30 references.) 25p.TO ORDER: Public Schools of North Carolina, Division of School Support, 301 North Wilmington St. Raleigh, NC 27601-2825
Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook .
(National Crime Prevention Council, 1997)
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) involves police officers, residents, local planners, and members of other local agencies in designing a physical environment that reduces the opportunity for crime and makes residents feel safer. This explains the basics of CPTED and then demonstrates how the concept can be applied to specific sites using examples of successful efforts.. Its chapters explore how to engage community organizations, gather needed information, and initiate a discussion of the positive effects of CPTED on a neighborhood's quality of life. The book also provides sample survey forms, planning guidelines, and detailed resource lists of organizations, literature, and CPTED experts. 84p.
Florida Safe School Design Guidelines. [Florida]
Moore, James A.; Powers, Daniel S.
(University of South Florida, Florida Center for Community Design and Research, Tampa, FL , Jul 28, 1993)
This document provides guidelines Florida schools can use in designing schools that enhance school safety and security. It examines the literature available on school safety and security and the principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), and presents a survey of Florida's 67 school districts examining incidences of safety and security problems and steps taken to prevent such incidents. Concluding sections include a set of design guidelines in which CPTED principles are developed specifically for schools, and evaluates Chapter 6A-2 of the state's Uniform Building Code with recommended changes and commentary. Survey data show the CPTED principles do have broad-based application to the design and/or re- design of Florida's schools, but these principles must be carefully assessed, particularly those involving life-safety, educational policy or intent, costs, and overall educational environment. 383p.
References to Journal Articles
School Security Technologies
School Planning and Management; , p86-89 ; Apr 2012
Discusses how to take a sensible, balanced approach to creating a safe learning environment, drawing on behavioral and structural strategies as well as technological ones.
Designing Safe Facilities
District Administration; v47 n9 ; Sep 2011
Presents the observations of Judy Marks, Kenneth Trump, Larry Borland, and Tod Schneider regarding school security, with particular regard to heightened concerns since the 1999 Columbine and 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. The article addresses entry control, video intercoms, smart card access, elimination of dead space, natural surveillance, and cameras. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is frequently cited, as are examples of security enhancements from recently built schools.
Does It Look Safe to You?
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p36,38,40,42 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for higher education campuses. Natural access control, surveillance, fencing, territorial reinforcement, landscaping, and linking CPTED with security and facility management are discussed.
Designing Out Crime in Schools.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p56-58 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Natural access control and surveillance, territorial reinforcement, implementation of CPTED in schools, and linking CPTED and management are discussed.
School Security: Design Strategies for Common Problems.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p26,28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Discusses design strategies for improved school security, with particular attention to remedies for existing buildings. Access control, lighting, electronic and human surveillance, landscaping, and elimination of hiding places are emphasized.
American School and University; v83 n1 , p34-36 ; Sep 2010
Discusses school security planning beyond video surveillance and access control. Security assessment, project planning, design and engineering, and construction administration are detailed as the four significant phases for security enhancement in new construction.
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p40, 41 ; Jul 2010
Discusses perimeter lighting of a building, addressing code requirements, color quality, glare, light trespass and pollution, and energy efficiency.
Designing for Security.
American School and University; v82 n6 , pSS26,SS28,SS29 ; Feb 2010
Discusses crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Creating clear but controllable entrances, interior space and furnishing design, interior and exterior visibility, and active technological surveillance are discussed, as is the importance of main maintaining a welcoming appearance.
Design Considerations Balance Sustainability, Safety Needs.
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p12,13 ; May 2009
Briefly addresses several issues where building security and sustainability meet in the areas of outdoor and indoor lighting, the exterior building envelope, and landscaping.
Design Your Way to a Graffiti-Free Campus.
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p24,26,27 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Provides a variety of campus design options to discourage graffiti. These include more transparent walls, video surveillance, slowing of vehicle traffic, plantings that prevent access to blank walls, graffiti resistant materials and paints, and even sprinkler systems that are motion activated.
Designing Safer Schools: Environmental Design Makes the Grade.
The Construction Specifier; v61 n2 , p77-85 ; Feb 2008
Reviews elements of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools, detailing considerations for site, building, and interior design, as well as security systems and equipment selection
Preventing Crime in Parking Lots and Structures.
College Planning and Management; v11 n1 , p26,27,29 ; Jan 2008
Discusses how to apply principles of natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement, natural access control, and target hardening for new parking facilities. Also included is advice on how to make an existing parking facility safer.
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design.
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p28-30 ; Jan 2008
Discusses the use of S.A.R.A. (scanning, analysis, response, assessment) in solving problems, and continues with a discussion of four principles of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): natural access control, natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement, and maintenance.
Assessing Your Security Needs.
Learning By Design; n16 , p25,26 ; 2007
Advises on analyzing operations, evaluating facilities, staff training, and community outreach in the light of creating safer schools.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pathways to Safety.
American School and University; v78 n11 , p36,39,40 ; Jun 2006
Recommends crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), police presence, surveillance technology, educational programs, and crisis response plans to improve school security.
Designing for Security: Controlling Access with Barriers and Plants.
The Construction Specifier; v59 n4 , p83-92 ; Apr 2006
Examines the use of streetscape elements, barriers, and plantings for building access control. Types of barriers and their relative costs, strengths, weaknesses, and aesthetic properties are covered, as are useful flora along with planting advice.
American School and University; v78 n9 , p41-43 ; Apr 2006
Advocates using an open physical environment to improve security. Three goals of this approach are to control individual and vehicular movement, maximize visual access to unsupervised areas, and increase occupant sense of ownership.
Making Plans for School Designs of the Future.
School Construction News; v9 n2 , p30,31 ; Mar-Apr 2006
Presents an interview with North Carolina's chief of school planning, in which he discusses North Carolina school funding mechanisms and priorities, prototype schools, trends in K-12 school design, and CPTED.
Security: A Blueprint for Reducing Risk.
Buildings; v100 n2 , p34-39 ; Feb 2006
Discusses aspects of physical systems, operations, and education to address when assessing a building security program. Advice on understanding liability, everyday security breaches, security by design (CPTED), and access control is included.
American School and University; v78 n1 , pss52,ss54-ss56 ; Sep 2005
Discusses better school security by design, including lighting, landscaping, building layout, restrooms, metal detectors, cameras, lockers, security rooms, alternative routes, physical barriers, and subtler psychological effects of good and bad design.
Safety by Design
College Planning and Management; v8 n8 , p16-17 ; Aug 2005
This describes the concept of CPTED, its limitations, and how it can be applied to concerns about severe weather and terrorism.
Security Management; Aug 2005
Advocates for leadership from security directors in developing security standards for campus building projects and provides an overview of how the process should work. Whom to involve, what is involved, and the benefits of proper planning are outlined. Brief discussions of CPTED, system integration, liability, standardization of elements, and situational guides are followed by a summary of what a the final security standard should include.
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p20,22,24,26 ; Apr 2005
Recommends creating a "culture of safety" in schools by conducting safety surveys of schools, their grounds, and their neighborhoods, by survey teams consisting of educators from the school assisted by area public safety officials. Interior access must be addressed as vigorously as exterior. Access control must be intgregated at the building phase and guided by properly-credential consultants trained in Crime Prevention though Environmental Design (CPTED). Careful matching of technology to the school and scrupulous vendor scrutiny are also recommended.
Are Our Children Safe at School?
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS12,S-14 ; Nov 2004
Describes the three types of threats to schools: natural disasters, threats from within, and threats from without, along with the use of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) to mitigate these threats.
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design.
Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma
PEB Exchange; v2004/3 n53 , p9,10 ; Oct 2004
Discusses the three overlapping concepts of CPTED: access control, surveillance, and territorial reinforcement
Safety by Design.
American School and University; v77 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2004
Advocates a balanced approached to school security, describing unobtrusive facility design features combined with a social climate that emphasizes trust, conflict resolution, and tolerance.
Providing Safe Schools.
American School and University; v76 n5 , p61-64 ; Jan 2004
Discusses ten means for enhancing campus security: environmental design, smaller schools, control of public use, crisis planning, lighting design, resource officers, access control, video observation, communications, and metal detector installation.
Landscaping for Safety and Security.
College Planning and Management; v6 n12 , p18,20 ; Dec 2003
Advises incorporation of landscaping design for safety within campus master plans. Discusses plantings that preserve sight lines and enhance safety, as well as ways to separate pedestrians and vehicles.
Welcoming and Secure.
American School and University; v76 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2003
Discusses aspects of school building and site design that can reduce vandalism, control access, document activity, and facilitate emergency assistance. These aspects are more critical when there is heavy community use of the building.
Safety and Security by Design.
Carter, Sherry P.
School Planning and Management; v42 n5 , p46-47 ; May 2003
Describes a pilot exercise in teaching middle and high school students how to conduct an assessment of the physical conditions and policies of their schools. Students were taught to use Crime Prevention through Environmental Design principles and to apply them in their own schools.
Designing on the Outside.
Young, Dennis M.
American School and University; v75 n6 , pSS6-SS10 ; Feb 2003
Describes the various influences on security planning for school buildings, including social, economic, building codes, and user perceptions. Site-specific influences include building site, perimeter and setback, vehicular and pedestrian circulation and access, front door, and grade of building related to site.
Proofing Schools Against Vandalism.
Pappalardo, William J.
The School Administrator; v59 n6 , p32 ; Jun 2002
Describes how school-building exteriors and interiors should be designed, built, and renovated to prevent vandalism.TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email: email@example.com
Landscape Solutions to School Problems.
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p18,20,22 ; Apr 2002
Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as practical assets for their neighborhoods.
Eye Can See for Miles and Miles.
School Planning and Management; v41 n2 , p48,50-52 ; Feb 2002
Describes how a New Hampshire school system eliminated internal school vandalism and bomb threats, and reduced the number of false alarms, by using video security software (WebEyeAlert security solution) that is accessible via a variety of methods from remote locations.
Keys to a Safe, Secure School.
American School and University; v74 n5 , p24,26,28 ; Jan 2002
Outlines 10 steps that school administrators can take to make their schools safer and more secure for students and staff. These steps encompass crime prevention through environmental design, crisis planning, entrances, lighting, police presence, prevention programs, rapport with students, smaller schools, technology implementation, and staff training.
Lighting. Deterrent to Crime.
American School and University; v74 n4 , p46-47 ; Dec 2001
Explores security issues that schools should consider before deciding to reduce campus lighting in order to control energy costs. Highlights factors to consider before creating a lighting reduction action plan.
Applying the CPTED Concept: Creative, Cost-Effective Design Elements Make a Safer School.
SHW Concepts; Fall 2001
Presents basic design solutions to help improve school security, focusing on bathrooms, corridors, doors, lockers, and central control rooms.
Planning Safer Schools.
Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p168-70 ; Aug 2001
Shows how an environmental school building design can reduce the threat of crime. Principles proposed by the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design are highlighted and explained.
Fighting Crime by Design.
American School and University; v73 n9 , p46,48,50 ; May 2001
Shows how schools can include features and equipment in their facilities that deter vandalism and unauthorized entry. Pros and cons for lighting vacant campuses after dark are highlighted.
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p48-51 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how schools can reduce the occurances of physical injury, vandalism, and break-ins by properly lighting school areas. Several examples of lighting strategies are highlighted, including determining proper illumination levels for specific areas.
Improve Security and Keep the Bugs Out.
College Planning and Management; v4 n1 , p68,70 ; Jan 2001
Addresses the issue of cost versus durability when choosing security screens for educational facility windows over traditional screens. Security screens and their use in break-in prevention is discussed relative to the Student Right-to-Know and Campus Security Act of 1990, as are screen standards.
Lighting for Safety and Security.
College Planning and Management; v13 n12 , p24-25 ; Dec 2000
Discusses ways to use lighting to provide a safe environment, reduce vandalism, improve visibility, and reduce overall liability for colleges. Guidelines for outdoor, parking, and emergency lighting are discussed.
Maintaining Security in an Insecure World. New Strategies are Emerging to Help Architects Design Without a Bunker Mentality.
Architectural Record; Dec 2000
Discusses security issues of buildings in the public and private sector, including schools, that may be vulnerable to malevolent actions. Describes the fundamentals of a design model known as crime prevention through environmental design. Includes a case study of Chesterton High School in Chesterton, Indiana, a new school incorporating 125 surveillance cameras that is considered state of the art in creating a safe place for learning.
Safety By Design.
Principal Leadership; v1 n1 , p44-47 ; Sep 2000
The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design approach blends effective design with occupants' physical, social, and psychological needs. CPTED principles work via three overlapping strategies: increasing occupants' territorial concern or watchfulness; improving natural surveillance features; and controlling people's access to spaces within a school campus.
Designed for Learning -- And for Safety.
Reid, David L.
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p43-44,46,48 ; Aug 2000
Provides analyses of how school design solutions can have an impact on enhancing student learning and lessening school crime. Design issues cover site planning and building layout considerations and solutions, along with available communications and security technologies.
Bachner, John Philip
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p35-36-38 ; Apr 2000
Examines high-benefit lighting for educational facilities to reduce crime and increase safety. How costs can be affected by different lighting choices is highlighted.
Closed Yet Open.
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v72 n6 , p24,26,28 ; Feb 2000
Examines ways of adequately providing the security of middle schools while creating an environment in which students and staff feel at home. Areas covered include architectural strategies to encourage better communication, controlling vandalism, and preventing unauthorized people from entering the building.
Site Design for Greater Security.
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p30, 32 ; Jul 1999
Describes how to use the school site and landscape plan to create a safer outdoor environment for students. Facility design concepts used by one school district to address its campus security issues are discussed.
Dealing with Trespassers.
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p40-42 ; Nov 1998
Presents expert advice on keeping violations of school trespassing from escalating into worse violations of school safety. It discusses the use of trespass warning statements, identifying areas of danger, and whether police officers in schools are the solution.
Are Video Cameras the Key to School Safety?
The High School Magazine ; v5 n5 , p42-43 ; May-Jun 1998
Describes one high school's use of video cameras as a preventive tool in stemming theft and violent episodes within schools. The top ten design tips for preventing crime on campus are highlighted.
Here's Looking at You, Kid.
College Planning and Management; v1 n1 , p54,56,58-59 ; Jan 1998
The University of Maryland at College Park installed 25 surveillance cameras to combat crime. A minimum of disruption occurred because unused twisted pair wires left in place when the conversion to a fiber optic telephone system was made could be used for the camera installations. The campus is safer, and its budget is intact.
Smile, Vandals--You're on Candid Camera.
School Planning and Management; v36 n12 , p28-29 ; Dec 1997
Describes the Huntsville, Alabama school district's use of surveillance cameras and other high-tech equipment to ward off arson, theft, and vandalism. How these efforts reduced repair and replacement costs and helped the district retain its insurance coverage are discussed.
How To Modify Your Facilities to Minimize Violence and Vandalism
Steward, G. Kent; Knapp, Megan J.
School Business Affairs; v63 n4 , p43-46 ; Apr 1997
Suggests school business officials, particularly those directly responsible for facilities, should know about school security measures such as metal detection devices at entry points, direct classroom telephone access, strategically placed mirrors, corridor video monitors, modified food-service facilities and bathrooms, stair and courtyard security measures, door security systems, and violence-deterrent new building designs. (13 references)
American School and University; v69 n4 , p22,24,26 ; Dec 1996
Describes how electronic alarm systems can enhance school security by offering constant protection. Discusses the two types of electronic security systems available–hardwire and wireless–the best locations to place detectors, strategies in protecting specialized areas, and the importance of keeping accurate records regarding false alarms.
Designing Safer Schools
Crowe, Timothy D.
School Safety; , p9-13 ; Fall 1990
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is being used in schools and communities to improve the management of human space. Outlines CPTED concepts and strategies to implement crime reduction through environmental design of school grounds, parking lots, locker rooms, corridors, restrooms, and classrooms.