NCEF Resource List: Condition of Schools in America
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Information on the physical condition of school and university buildings across the country, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

California’s K-12 Educational Infrastructure Investments: Leveraging the State’s Role for Quality School Facilities in Sustainable Communities Adobe PDF
Vincent, Jeffrey M.
(Center for Cities & Schools, University of California, Berkeley, Jul 2012)
Report takes a comprehensive look at the state of K-12 school facilities in California, focusing on state-level policies and funding patterns. The recommendations lay out a detailed framework that re-envisions the state’s role in K-12 infrastructure to appropriately support educational outcomes and contribute to sustainable communities through public infrastructure best practices of sound planning, effective management, adequate and equitable funding, and appropriate oversight. 75p

Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies
National Forum on Education Statistics
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Mar 2012)
This guide provides a framework for collecting, evaluating, and maintaining education facilities data. It is written to help officials design a school facility information system that supports policy and decision making; management and operation; capital budgeting and project management; public participation in school facilities planning; and the integration of facilities data into other education and municipal data sets. Best practices are given for the design, development, implementation, and use of facilities management information systems, along with a list of standard data elements. These elements can be used to develop indicators for measuring and comparing the quality of education facilities; and, in turn, answering policy questions and informing new education policies. The facility data elements presented in this guide are described in greater detail in the NCES Handbooks Online at 80p

2011 Kentucky Facilities Inventory and Classification System Project Report Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Department of Education, Dec 2011)
According to this report, some 500 state schools need moderate to major repairs. And while $3.7 billion is needed to fix them, money is limited. This project was undertaken as mandated by 2010's Senate Bill 132 to assess the physical condition, educational suitability, and technology readiness of the schools relative to Kentucky's regulations and standards. Independent, onsite evaluations were performed in 146 districts for 485 instructional programs housed in 477 school buildings across the state. The schools evaluated had a previous designation as a Category 3 or Category 4 building as of September 2010. The reports show the list of schools with Kentucky School Scores and the individual School Reports with details of the assessment, such as general school information, deficiencies identified, educational suitability and technology readiness criteria evaluated.

Education and the American Jobs Act: Creating Jobs through Investments in Our Nation’s Schools
(Domestic Policy Council, the National Economic Council, the President's Council of Economic Advisors, and the U.S. Department of Education, Dec 2011)
Provides analysis of condition of America’s schools, which have fallen into disrepair, and proposes $25 billion to renovate and modernize more than 35,000 public schools, and $5 billion to update infrastructure at community colleges. Chapters include: school modernization, a national imperative; building the future in our schools; keeping America's educators in the classroom; American Jobs Act education investments, by State. 68p

Facility Needs and Costs in America's Great City Schools. Adobe PDF
Casserly, Michael; Lachlan-Hache, Jonathon; Naik, Manish
(Council of the Great City Schools, Washington, D.C. , Oct 2011)
Results of a survey of the nation's major city public school districts show substantial construction, renovation, modernization, and deferred maintenance needs because of the age and size of their buildings, and shifting populations. Results indicate that responding school districts have $15.3 billion in new construction needs; $46.7 billion in repair, renovation, and modernization needs; and $14.4 billion in deferred maintenance needs. Total facilities needs in these 50 major city public school districts amount to $76.5 billion or approximately $8.9 million per school. Includes a city-by-city chart of facility needs. 20p

PK-12 Public School Facility Infrastructure Fact Sheet. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Feb 2011)
Answers basic school facilities questions such as 1) How much PK-12 infrastructure is there? 2)What condition are our public schools in? 3)What difference does facility condition make? 4)How much does our PK-12 infrastructure cost? 5)Where does funding for PK-12 infrastructure come from? 15 references supporting the information are provided. 2p.

Alabama Department of Education Capital Plan Report.
(Alabama Department of Education, Montgomery, 2011)
Provides a district-by-district summary of school capital improvement plans for Alabama schools. For each project, the type of work to be done (replacement or renovation) is listed, along with a description of the facility, budget, and funding year.

Annual Reports on the Condition of Connecticut's Public School Facilities.
(Connecticut State Department of Education, 2011)
These are the annual reports on the condition of Connecticut's public school facilities since 2001. The data reflects the responses of school district officials to various survey questions. Summary data are discussed in fairly broad categories--education reference groups (ERGs) and school types (elementary, middle, and high). Following a discussion of current construction activity and cost estimates, over 40 data elements gathered for each school are subdivided into the following groups: general building conditions, appearance and upkeep, building service systems, dedicated specialty areas, size and capacity, and local facility planning and maintenance.

Maryland State School Facility Inventory.
(State of Maryland Public School Construction Program and local Boards of Education. , 2011)
Provides a listing of every school facility owned by the local Maryland Board of Education. A user is able to search for facilities by county name or by school name. If a user is unsure of the actual name of a facility, the user can enter the part of the name that he/she is sure of and a listing of all facilities with the partial information will be displayed. The data for a specific facility is divided into six tabs. The tabs are: 1. Site Information, Grade Levels, Adjacent Schools, Square Foot History, Enrollment, and Remarks.

Massachusetts School Building Authority 2010 Needs Survey Report.
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , 2011)
In this survey 84% of schools received top scores for building conditions, and only 23 schools (less than 2%) received the lowest rating for building conditions. 92% of schools have adequate space to support current enrollment and educational programs. 97% of schools received top scores for general learning environment. Between 2000 and 2010, nearly 70 million square feet of school facility space, about 40% of the total square footage in the state, was built new or renovated. Of the 62 schools that received the lowest rating in the 2005 Needs Survey, 9 have received funding from the MSBA, 19 are in the Capital Pipeline and 6 have closed. Of the 278 schools that were given the second poorest rating, 53 received funding from the MSBA and 89 are in the Capital Pipeline. More than one out of every five schools received a Below Average space utilization rating, meaning that the building appears to be significantly larger than its current enrollment or educational program requires. There are more than 150 district-owned school buildings that are not currently used for the education of public school children. More than 80 public schools have closed since the initial 2005 needs survey. Nearly 40 closed due to lack of enrollment, including some schools that were recently built or renovated under the former program. At least seven schools have closed since the end of the 2009-2010 academic year. Nearly 1 million square feet of classroom space is no longer being used for education. The combined costs of building those excess classrooms today would be approximately $275 million. 124p.

Replacement and Repair of Indian Schools.
(Department of Health and Human Services, Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Item 15.062, Washington, DC, 2011)
The objective of this program is to provide safe, functional, code-compliant, economical, and energy-efficient education facilities for American Indian students attending Bureau of Indian Affairs owned or funded primary and secondary schools and/or residing in Bureau owned or funded dormitories. This document includes elegibility requirements, financial and administrative information, contacts, assistance considerations, and post assistance requirements. 5p

IAQ & Student Performance
(, Aug 29, 2010)
Video explains that good physical conditions in schools can reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and improve teacher retention rates. Studies that measure school conditions using an index of several variables consistently show improved scores on standardized tests as school conditions improve. On the other hand, schools with major unmet repair needs and fewer custodial workers per square foot have higher absentee rates and higher dropout rates. IAQ problems can cause increased absences due to respiratory infections, allergic diseases from biological contaminants, or adverse reactions to chemicals used in schools.

Buildings for Academic Excellence: A Vision and Options to Address Deficient School Facilities in Baltimore City. Adobe PDF
Patinella, Frank; Verdery, Bebe
(American Civil Liberties Union of Marylnad Foundation, Baltimore , Jun 2010)
Advocates for improving Baltimore's school facilities, to further promote recent advances in the school system's student achievement. After describing those recent advances, the document continues by describing the current school facilities situation; the negative impact of deficient school facilities; evidence of the positive impact of schools that have been improved; and a discussion of planning; state, local, and federal funding. Case studies of successful schools highlight the report. 44p.

Addressing Inadequate Investment in School Facility Maintenance.
Bello, Mustapha; Loftness, Vivian
(Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh , May 2010)
The total deferred maintenance of schools in the United States was estimated at $254.6 billion in 2008. With over 94,000 public elementary, middle and high schools being attended by more than 50 million students, there is need to implement an effective method for estimating the adequate amount of investment for facility maintenance. Earlier methodologies were evaluated and a new plant value model was developed. The model also introduces a commensurate increase in annual budgets to address maintenance backlog, as well as strategies for setting maintenance priorities. Finally, to effectively maintain building conditions, appropriate custodial and maintenance staffing is analyzed for school facilities. Establishing appropriate annual maintenance budgets for school buildings, including the resources necessary to address accumulated maintenance backlog is critical for upgrading school facilities to adequate conditions for ensuring the health and performance of US teachers and students. 50p.

Colorado Statewide Financial Assistance Priority Assessment FY 2009-2010. Adobe PDF
(Public School Capital Construction Assistance Board. Colorado Department of Education , Mar 2010)
As a result of the Building Excellent Schools Today (BEST) Act, the Public School Capital Construction Assistance Board (CCAB) conducted a Financial Assistance Priority Assessment of public school facilities in Colorado for the period FY2009–2010 to address the considerations set forth in section 22-43.7-107 C.R.S1. The Assessment of approximately 8,419 facilities in 178 School Districts included main buildings, leased buildings, temporary classroom facilities, mini-buildings, school sites, athletic fields, athletic facilities, and other support buildings. Assessment findings are based on the Public School Facility Construction Guidelines as established in 22-43.7-107 C.R.S. that address health and safety issues, education technology requirements, site requirements, energy performance requirements, functionality or suitability issues, capacity requirements, accessibility issues, and historic significance considerations. The Assessment addresses needs for two time periods, the Current Period and the Forecast Period. The Current Period is the present year plus three forward years—in this report 2010–2013. The Forecast Period includes the five years following, 2014–2018. [Authors' abstract] 143p.

2009 Report Card for America's Infrastructure: Schools.
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA , 2010)
School facilities receive a grade of "D" in this latest report card on the state of America's infrastructure. This grade is unchanged from the last (2005) ASCE report card. Spending on the nation's schools grew from $17 billion in 1998 to a peak of $29 billion in 2004. However, by 2007 spending fell to $20.28 billion. No comprehensive, authoritative nationwide data on the condition of America's school buildings has been collected in a decade. Nine solutions to improve school conditions are proposed. Includes 19 references. 4p.

Clark County School District. 1998 Bond Accomplishment. A Report to the Community. Adobe PDF
(Clark County School District, 2010)
Details Nevada's Clark County School District's accomplishment from 1998 through 2010 in completing the construction of 101 new schools, delivering 11 replacement schools not included in the initial program, and completing more than $1.6 billion worth of school improvements. 8p

Kentucky Department of Education 2010 District & Building Assessments.
(Kentucky Department of Education, Frankfort, 2010)
These building assessments explain the relative building conditions for each Kentucky educational facility using the following descriptors: Excellent (new, generally less than 10 years; Better (generally 10-20 years old; Good/Average (20-30 years old); Fair/Poor (30-40 years old, needs renovation); and Poor (older than 40 years old). The accompanying "District Assessment Map" explains the relative district assessment for each district by using the following descriptors: Green-Districts with limited facility needs, Yellow-Districts with moderate facility needs, and Red-Districts with significant facilty needs.

Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Jan 2010)
Reviews the literature on school facilities and academic outcomes, school building systems, and school facility condition and community factors. It includes a bibliography of research since 2002 and discusses the need for future school facility research. 3p.

Realistic Contributions for Improving the Physical School Environment.
Albert, Lauren
(California State University, Chico , 2010)
Identifies improvements to schools' culture, through various projects enhancing the physical aesthetics of the school. The premise of the project is based on findings from a survey, which was directed at the aspects of the schools' physical environment that caused increases in students' learning. This project provides a handbook of realistic resources for improving a school's physical environment. The handbook outlines four project ideas to be completed by the school community for minimal costs. The four project ideas are 1) School Murals, 2) School Garden, 3) Paint with School Colors Benches, Doors, etc., and 4) Plant Trees with Identification Tags. The projects are organized with step-by-step instructions for ease of completion. Additionally, the handbook provides resource ideas for funding. Creating an enriching physical school environment has been shown to improve students' attitudes toward learning, thus positively influencing test scores. This handbook is intended to improve the grounds and facilities of a school with the end result being a more motivated school community. [author's abstract] 144p.

Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of Building Condition on Student Achievement.
Harrison, Elise Kollmann
(Ed.D. Dissertation, The George Washington University., 2010)
The issue of the condition of the schools children attend has been resistant to inclusion in the culture of educational reform. This study was undertaken to probe this resistance by examining the perceptions of a specific population of principals whose evaluation and continuing employment was tied to improving student achievement in their schools, in order to assess the condition of their buildings and their identification of condition with effect on student achievement. [Author's abstract] 211p.

Indian Affairs Funded Schools in Poor Condition As Indicated by Facility Condition Index (FCI). Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, DC , Dec 31, 2009)
Lists 64 Bureau of Indian Affairs that are in poor condition, their facility condition index, and the estimated project cost to bring them to acceptable condition. 2p.

New Orleans Schools Four Years after Katrina: A Lingering Federal Responsibility. Adobe PDF
(Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA , Oct 13, 2009)
Reports that K-12 students in New Orleans have made significant gains in school achievement during recent years, but that this progress is in jeopardy unless the federal government fulfills its "lingering responsibility" to help rebuild the public school infrastructure destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The report also examines New Orleans schools' looming financial problems that stem from existing debt incurred before Hurricane Katrina and from the financial challenges of rebuilding an entire city's devastated schools. In the past year, school officials have embarked on what could become a $2 billion, decades-long drive to rebuild and renovate dozens of campuses throughout the city. Locally, several groups have voiced alarm that the plan could exacerbate inequities in the city if some of the children move into state-of-the-art new buildings in the next five years, while even more remain in dilapidated structures. Includes 45 references. 38p.

School Facilities: Physical Conditions in School Districts Receiving Impact Aid for Students Residing on Indian Lands. Adobe PDF
Ashby, Cornelia M.; Dorn, Terrell G.
(US Government Accountability Office. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate. GAO-10-32 , Oct 2009)
The Department of Education's (Education) Impact Aid Program provides funding to school districts that are adversely impacted by a lack of local revenue because of the presence of federal land, which is exempt from local property taxes. Impact Aid can be used for school expenses, such as facilities and teacher salaries. In response to concern about school facility conditions and concern that these conditions can affect student outcomes, GAO was asked to describe (1) the physical condition of schools in districts receiving Impact Aid because of students residing on Indian lands and (2) what is known about how school facilities affect student outcomes. GAO interviewed federal, state, and local officials; analyzed available independent school facility assessment data for three states; visited eight school districts that receive Impact Aid; and analyzed studies examining the relationship between school facilities and student outcomes. 46p

2009 Annual Report and 2011-2012 Budget Presentation to the Governor and Select Committee on School Facilities.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , Sep 01, 2009)
Reports that Wyoming school facilities meet state adequacy standards and proposes a budget that aims to help raise that standard. Areas not adequately able to be assessed include capacity and maintenance standards, with latter due to a lack of correlation with need. Enrollment and enrollment trends are reported, and a needs index and prioritization of capital projects is included. 211p.

Building Tennessee's Tomorrow: Anticipating the State s Infrastructure Needs July 2007 through June 2012. Adobe PDF
(Tennessee Advisory Commission in Intergovernmental Relations, Nashville , Sep 2009)
Reports that, according to local school officials, 91% of local public schools are now in good or excellent condition. However, they estimate the cost to put the remaining 9% in good or better condition at $1.5 billion, which is a $312 million increase from the cost reported in the previous report by the Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (TACIR). They also report that 96% of all schools have sufficient space to house the teachers and classrooms required by the smaller class-size standards imposed by the Education Improvement Act (EIA) in the fall of 2001. The rest use portable classrooms, non-classroom spaces such as libraries and cafeterias, and classrooms that are empty when other teachers have planning periods. TACIR estimates the cost of the remaining classrooms needed to house these teachers at almost $74 million statewide, which is a $27 million increase from the cost estimate in TACIR's last report. Appendices E and F address school facilities. 31p.

Enrollment, Capacity and Utilization Report, 2008-2009 School Year. Adobe PDF
(New York City Dept. of Education, Sep 2009)
Presents an annual report published by the New York City Department of Education. The report includes the physical capacity of all Department of Education buildings to serve students, compared to the actual enrollment of the building, which together allow for a standard framework with which to assess the utilization of the buildings. The report provides information on buildings operating with insufficient capacity, allowing planning for major capital projects (including new school buildings, school annexes and additions, and other upgrades that expand a buildings capacity); understanding the conditions under which multiple schools share a single building; and making informed decisions about enrollment growth or placement of new schools or programs in under-utilized buildings.

Rural School District Enrollment and Building Capacity: Projections for the Next 10 Years. Adobe PDF
Yan, Wenfan
(Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Sep 2009)
Research was conducted to provide a perspective on the potential building needs of Pennsylvania school districts over the next 10 years. The researcher developed an inventory of school buildings in rural Pennsylvania through a survey of rural school districts, analyzed enrollment trends for rural school districts over the next 10 years, developed a statistical model to examine future building needs, and determined whether school districts will be at risk of under- or over-capacity. The findings provide a complex portrait of Pennsylvania’s current rural school building conditions and projections of building use over the next 10 years. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends the following policy considerations: 1)The Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) and school districts should consider establishing a reporting system to effectively monitor school building conditions; 2) School districts should consider ways to use under-used school buildings and maximize public use of school facilities; and 3) PDE and school districts should consider the changing face of student learning environments to accurately assess building capacity needs. 16p.

Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09 - First Look.
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Jul 2009)
Presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and the territories in the 2008-09 school year. Findings include: About 49 million students attended 98,706 operating public elementary/secondary schools in the 2008-09 school year; that almost 1.4 million students, approximately 3% of public school students, were enrolled in 4,694 charter schools in 2008-09; and that across all active regular public schools with students, the student/teacher ratio in 2008-09 was 15.8. It ranged from 11.0 in Vermont to 27.0 in Utah. 35p.
Report NO: NCES 2010-345

International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES).
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, Paris, France , May 2009)
Provides a guide for those involved in the International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES): national coordinators and research teams, teaching staff, students, school principals, and others. The purpose of this pilot project is to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in educational spaces. The manual describes four research tools: 1) priority-rating exercise for quality performance objectives, 2) educational facility analysis. 3) student and teaching staff questionnaires, and 4) focus groups. For each tool, this manual presents the tool's objectives, research questions, expected response time, step-by-step instructions on how to implement the tool, and presentation of results in the final report. 71p.

Maxed Out: New York City School Overcrowding Crisis.
(Campaign for Fiscal Equality, New York, NY , May 2009)
Examines data from every school in New York City to provide an overview of the most urgently overcrowded schools and school districts, and proposes a policy framework for the Department of Education (DOE) to tackle the crisis. The report found 515 school buildings with a total enrollment of 501,632 students (approximately 48% of the 1,042,078 students enrolled in the city's public schools that year) were either overcrowded or had associated temporary structures during the 2006/07 school year based on the city's own data available in its Enrollment-Capacity-Utilization Report for the same school year. Recommendations for relief of the situation are included and extensive tables illustrate the text. 270p.

The Relationship Between the Condition of School Facilities and Certain Educational Outcomes, Particularly in Rural Public Schools in Texas.
Sheets, Martin Eugene
(Dissertation in Educational Leadership, Texas Tech University, May 2009)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the condition of rural public high school facilities in Texas and student achievement, student attendance, and teacher turnover. The measures for the condition of facilities variables used in this study were obtained from the 2006 Texas Comptroller’s Facility Survey of the 1,037 public school districts in Texas. The participants for this study were the 72 rural public high schools out of the 309 total responses to the survey from all district types. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to examine which selected condition of facilities variables and demographic variables best predicted certain educational outcomes. This study found that the student wealth level contributed most to the variance in student achievement. However, the condition of school facilities has a measurable effect over and above socioeconomic conditions on student achievement and teacher turnover.[Author's abstract] 141p.

Facility Assessment Overview. Adobe PDF
(Howard County Public Schools, Maryland , Apr 2009)
Summarizes the steps taken by an architectural firm to assess the twelve high schools of the Howard County (Maryland) public school system. The assessment was divided into two components: a program assessment to identify how well each building is supporting the delivery of the educational program to the students; and a facilities condition assessment to identify the condition of the physical plant and systems in the buildings and an estimate of the deferred maintenance costs for each building. 4p.

Louisiana Public School Facilities.
(Tulane University, New Orleans, LA , Apr 2009)
Presents statistics on Louisiana school facilities, including expenditures per student and statewide facilities spending that is significantly below the national average, the importance of quality school facilities, and an extremely low percentage of school construction funds being spent on new construction. 4p.

Meeting the State's Future Needs through a Competitive Higher Education Facility and Technology Infrastructure. Adobe PDF
(Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus , Mar 2009)
Focuses on facilities and technology aspects of where Ohio stands in providing higher education services. Five questions form the core of report. These are: 1) Are Ohio's higher education facilities adequate to address the needs of and attract students for the 21st century? 2) What is the condition of facilities, and are adequate investments being made to protect the state's assets and benefit students? 3) Can recent trends in funding higher education capital projects, including institutional debt, continue? 4) Do current rules, regulations and practices inhibit the cost effectiveness of facilities construction? and 5) How is technology being used to serve current and prospective students? The report concludes that Ohio's substantial facility and technological assets must be utilized to a greater extent and in different ways than in the past. Trustee stewardship of facility assets are applauded, but larger investments are needed to address deferred maintenance, technology upgrades, building retrofits, and new facilities needed to accommodate program expansions for science, technology, engineering, math and health professions. State regulations, particularly in construction, can be modified in ways that result in high quality facilities at a lower cost. 32p.

Through Your Lens: Student and Teacher Views of School Facilities Across America.
(Healthy Schools Campaign, Chicago, IL , 2009)
Brings together photographs and stories of students and teachers across America with context from statistics, maps, and background. These illustrate current school conditions, how the system reached this point, and what is possible for all students and teachers. 52p.

Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Class III School District Structures.
Weidner, John
(University of Nebraska, Lincoln , 2009)
Reports on the the educational adequacy of Nebraska's numerous Class III school districts, which offer a wide array of school settings, from urban to extremely rural, and from the third largest school system in Nebraska to a single school district occupying a county in the western sandhills. The answers submitted by the superintendents and building administrators were compared and analyzed against the responses tendered in 1993. Significant differences were found between the opinions of the building administrators who participated in 1993 study and those who participated in the 2009 study. In 1993, 14% of building administrators perceived their facilities as overcrowded. In 2009, approximately 5% shared that perception. In 1993, 46% of building administrators held the perception that their facilities did not accommodate the use of technology. In 2009, 30% of building administrators had the same opinion. In 1993, 32% of the buildings were reported as air conditioned. In 2009, 94% of the buildings were reported as air conditioned. 281p.

Capital Needs Assessment Survey Results. Adobe PDF
(Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield , Dec 2008)
Presents the results of a 2005 capital needs survey of Illinois schools that reveals how much new construction, and repair and renovation are needed, as well as numbers of temporary classrooms in use to ease overcrowding. 4p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings: School Infrastructure Funding Need, A State-by- State Assessment and an Analysis of Recent Court Cases. Adobe PDF
Crampton, Faith; Thompson, David
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2008)
Reports on a study that aimed to estimate the current level of school infrastructure funding need in all 50 states, on a state-by-state basis, to compare these estimates to those of a similar 2001 assessment, and to determine the impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. The report concludes that the total estimated national need is approximately $254.6 billion, representing a 4.3 percent decrease from 2001. Also examined are the nature and impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. Includes major policy recommendations that the federal government assume a strong leadership role and direct funding to states. 82p.

Impact Aid School Districts: Compilation of Pending Projects for School Construction, Modernization, Renovation, Repair, and Energy Improvement. Adobe PDF
(National Association of Federally Impacted Schools, Washington, DC , Nov 2008)
Presents the results of a survey of Impact Aid public school districts to find out about school infrastructure projects that can commence within 30-60 days. Information for each school district was written and directly submitted by the school superintendent or other administration staff. Highlights of the compilation are that the total cost of the school infrastructure projects contained in the compilation is about $630 million. About 68 Impact Aid public school districts across the country submitted entries for the compilation. About 30 of the over 5100 projects involve new construction to alleviate overcrowding and other issues. The rest of the school infrastructure projects deal with modernization, renovation, repair, or energy improvement projects. Related photographs are found at 20p.

Enrollment, Capacity and Utilization Report 2007-2008. Adobe PDF
(New York City Dept. of Education, Fall 2008)
Presents an annual report published by the New York City Department of Education. The report includes the physical capacity of all Department of Education buildings to serve students, compared to the actual enrollment of the building, which together allow for a standard framework with which to assess the utilization of the buildings. The report provides information on buildings operating with insufficient capacity, allowing planning for major capital projects (including new school buildings, school annexes and additions, and other upgrades that expand a buildings capacity); understanding the conditions under which multiple schools share a single building; and making informed decisions about enrollment growth or placement of new schools or programs in under-utilized buildings. 399p

Our Failing Grade on Maintaining School Facilities.
Pollack, Ethan
(Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. , Sep 03, 2008)
School infrastructure spending, after being adjusted for increased construction costs, has decreased dramatically since 2001. While student enrollment has increased 3% since 2001, adjusted spending on school maintenance and construction has dropped by 42%, from $34.9 billion in 2001 to $20.3 billion in 2007. Inadequate facilities can have a negative effect on academic achievement and student health. Includes chart and short analyses. 2p.

Quality Schools, Healthy Neighborhoods, and the Future of DC: Policy Report. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary; Allen, Marni; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping, Garrison, David; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Sep 2008)
Advocates for improved public schools coupled with expanded affordable housing in the District of Columbia. A number of recommendations linking neighborhood and school improvement are proposed to attract and retain families with school-age children. Includes 25 references 52p.

Quality Schools, Healthy Neighborhoods: A Research Policy Report. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary; Allen, Marni; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping, Garrison, David; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Sep 2008)
Provides an overview of neighborhoods and public school in the District of Columbia, including a profile of public school students in the years 2003-2007, examines the supply of District of Columbia public schools in the 2006-07 school year, and examines the demand for public schools across the city and what qualities characterize schools in low and high demand. School building utilization was one feature used to determine demand, and school facility condition is considered in the context of the supply of public schools. 109p.

Public School Facilities and Teacher Job Satisfaction.
Stallings, Dwayne K.
(Dissertation, East Carolina University, Aug 2008)
A growing body of research suggests the physical condition of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology, impact teachers' job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference between teachers who plan to stay in current positions and those who plan to leave in terms of their perceptions of the conditions of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology. The study suggests that work environment and availability of resources do impact the job satisfaction of teachers and may be associated with their decisions to remain in teaching. Although many factors influence teacher job satisfaction and teacher retention, the results of this study confirm that educators and policymakers should address the physical conditions of public school facilities and availability of resources as part of their efforts to improve teacher job satisfaction and increase teacher retention. [Author's abstract] 183p.

K-12 Public Schools Facility Condition Assessment, A/E Project #26-30-03. Adobe PDF
(State of Montana, Dept. of Administration, Architecture and Engineering Division, Helena , Jul 2008)
This survey of Montana's public schools revealed that more than 95 percent of Montana's school facilities are in good or fair condition. The first phase of the survey was completed online by individual school districts. The second phase consisted of site surveys at each school. The study focused on facility condition, educational characteristics of buildings, energy use and technology equipment. The study revealed that there are only 45 school buildings in use built before 1910, and the largest period of school construction growth was from 1950 to 1970. In the past decade, 42 schools or school-related buildings have been built in Montana. The largest structural problem facing schools is that nearly 60 percent of the damages and worn-out facilities come in the form of floors, ceilings, walls, doors and frames. 59p.

Growing Pains: Reforming Department of Education Capital Planning to Keep Pace with New York City's Residential Construction. Adobe PDF
(Office of the New York City Comptroller, NY , May 2008)
Reports how New York City's capital planning process is a reason the New York City public school system is failing to build enough new schools to accommodate children in many neighborhoods experiencing residential construction booms. Shortcomings of the capital planning process are discussed, followed by analyses of neighborhoods where population growth is not matched by increased school capacity. Persistent elementary and middle school overcrowding in some neighborhoods is attributed enrollment projections based only on Community School District (CSD) and not for individual neighborhoods. Recommendations include improvements to the capital planning process for schools and an increase in accountability within that process. 117p.

Good Buildings, Better Schools: An Economic Stimulus Opportunity with Long-term Benefits. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Advocates federal spending to improve the condition of school buildings, noting the respective short- and long-term economic benefits of construction industry promotion and an improved learning environment. The document includes an examination of the size and condition of the U.S. school inventory, a discussion of the importance of school facility quality, details on how capital investment in schools can improve local economies and close achievement gaps between low- and higher-income students. Charts illustrate per student maintenance and operation expenditures, as well as construction spending according to school district levels of free and reduced lunch students. Includes 22 endnotes and references. 9p.

Knocking at the College Door. Adobe PDF
(Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO , Mar 2008)
Updates forecasts of the number of high school graduates for the nation, four geographic regions, and all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Projections for public school graduates cover the period 2005-06 through 2021-22, and actual data are reported for preceding years back to 1991-92. Major findings include: 1) The rapid and sustained expansion in the number of high school graduates that began in the early 1990's will initially continue. 2) This expansion will reach a peak in 2007-08, when total graduates from public and nonpublic schools will exceed 3.34 million. 3) The production of high school graduates will slow moderately between 2008-09 and 2014-15. 4) After 2007-08 overall production of high school graduates will become much more stable for the foreseeable future than it was during the expansion period. 141p.

Pennsylvania Department of Education Report on School Buildings.
(Pennsylvania Dept. of Education, Harrisburg , Mar 2008)
Reports the following information for Pennsylvania school facilities: 1) Among school districts, the largest amount of new construction took place when 483 buildings were constructed in the 1950-59 period, and 402 buildings were constructed in the 1960-69 period. 2) Sixty-three percent or 1,076 buildings have been renovated or had major additions over the last 16 years. 3) 38 percent of their buildings are in excellent condition, 44 percent in good condition,14 percent in fair condition and 3 percent in poor condition. 4) Seventy percent of all school buildings were constructed 36 or more years ago. 5) Only 17 percent of all reported buildings are less than 26 years old. 6) The primary energy source for heating is gas used in 57 percent of school buildings, with oil in 21 percent, a combination of sources in 13 percent, electricity in 6 percent, and coal in 1 percent. 7) 44 percent of buildings have air conditioning in the entire building, 51 percent have limited areas of air conditioning and 5 percent have no air conditioning. 8) 50 percent of school buildings house 500 or fewer pupils, 38 percent house 500 to 999 students, 8 percent housed 1000 to 1499, 3 percent house 1500 to 2999 students and less than 1 percent house 3000 or more students. 13p.

Modern Public School Facilities: Investing in the Future.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , Feb 2008)
Presents the testimony of Kathleen J. Moore, Director of the California Department of Education School Facilities Plannning Division, before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor. The testimony discusses the impact of school facilities on student achievement and teacher retention, California s school facility need, the economic benefits of school construction, and successful federal school facility programs and the need for continued and expanded federal assistance. 12p.

Alaska Department of Education and Early Development Capital Projects Priority Lists.
(Alaska Department of Education and Early Development, Juneau, 2008)
Provides school capital projects priority information for years 2003-2008. Documents online illustrate initial and final project considerations, amounts requested and recommended, and local and state share.

Colorado School Stories Project
(Great Education Colorado, Colorado School Finance Project, and Children’s Voices., 2008)
Project is a coordinated effort to collect stories about the state budget's impact on Colorado's schools from parents, teachers, students, adminstrators and business leaders in the form of video interviews, written narratives, photographs, and online surveys. Photographs on school building conditions can be viewed as a slideshow or album.

Executive Summary for First Priority Projects (51-100 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 51-100 years. According to the assessment, these first priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 47.81 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to priority one schools is approximately $353.73 million. This cost reflects, to a great extent, the aging condition of facilities. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $163.64 million in additional funding needed over the next ten years. The current FCI of 47.81 percent would deteriorate to 69.93 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility system 10p.

Executive Summary for Second Priority Projects (31-50 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 31-50 years. According to the assessment, these second priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 55.53 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to Priority Two school facilities is approximately $1.69 billion. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $497.96 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 55.53 percent would deteriorate to 71.83 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 12p.

Executive Summary for Third Priority Projects (16-30 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 16-30 years. According to the assessment, these third priority Schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 51.74 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to the Priority Three school facilities is approximately $77.33 million. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $34.99 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 51.74 percent would deteriorate to 75.15 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 9p.

Report on Condition of Schools Under Jurisdiction of Defense Education Activity. Adobe PDF
(Department of Defense Education Activity. Report to the Congressional Committees. , 2008)
This report provides a detailed summary of all 199 schools under DoDEA’s jurisdiction. It addresses the concern that the level of investment for the maintenance, repair, and recapitalization of DoDEA school facilities is not adequate to sustain acceptable conditions for the education of the dependents of military personnel. It provides an assessment of existing inventory of buildings; a master plan for repair, upgrade, and construction; and an investment strategy to maintain and modernize the facilities. 726p.

Report on Physical Facilities Including Air Conditioning Feasibility.
(Baltimore County Public Schools, Baltimore, MD , 2008)
Reports on facility condition in Baltimore County Public Schools. The report provides a building inventory that includes number of buildings, square footage, age, work order inventory, and grounds information. Also included are a review of the capital improvement program, feasibility study summaries for school renovation and air conditioning, and abundant before and after photographs. 145p.

Unlevel Playing Fields.
(Washington Lawyer's Committee, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Reports on inadequate athletic programs and facilities in District of Columbia schools. The report shows how the District lags in critical areas, such as funding and facility management; compares the District's investment in its athletic programs with those in the surrounding counties and other peer cities; and looks at the deteriorated state of the athletic facilities at Cardozo High School, which was highlighted in an earlier report by the same organization. Finally, the report closes with a discussion of the need for renewed efforts by city officials, concerned citizens, and business leaders to close the gap between District of Columbia Public School's athletic programming and the opportunities and facilities available elsewhere. 26p.

The Age and Condition of Texas High Schools as Related to Student Academic Achievement.
Blincoe, James Maurice
(Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. , 2008)
This study investigated three research questions: (a) the relationship between the building condition of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS); (b) the relationship between the building age of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by TAKS; and (c) the relationship between building age and condition of public high schools in Texas and graduation rate? This quantitative study utilized an ex post facto methodology to examine the relationship between the high school facilities and standardized test scores. This study sampled high schools whose data were presented in the 2006 Texas Comptrollers report and compared to TAKS data. The instrument utilized was developed and tested by the Texas Comptroller's Office. This study utilized an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a regression model. Statistically significant findings showed a relationship between excellent condition of a school, as compared to schools in lesser condition, and student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts scores. Age of the school also had a significant relationship: Schools over 49 years old had a significant impact on student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts. Similar findings showed a negative correlation between schools over 49 years old and graduation rate. Schools in excellent condition had a positive correlation to student graduation rate. Determining the effect of inadequate high school facilities on student achievement can help inform the education and legislative communities of any correlations between the condition and age of a high school building and the academic achievement of the students in these buildings. Providing school facilities that are safe and provide quality learning conditions are issues that must be addressed in Texas. [Author's abstract] 98p.

Smart Kids, Bad Schools.
Crosby, Brian
(St. Martins Press, New York, NY, 2008)
Decries "prison-like" schools and suggests a complete national overhaul in school design. Among the author's additional 38 ideas to save America are the lengthening the school day and school year. 320

An Assessment of South Carolina Higher Education Facilities Conditions & Measuring Deferred Maintenance. Special Report. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Commission on Higher Education and Budget & Control Board., Oct 2007)
For the current study, institutions evaluated education and general (E&G) buildings on their campuses using an assessment format established in the original deferred maintenance study conducted in 1994. The report just concluded identified current deferred maintenance needs at South Carolina public institutions of approximately $797 million. 6p.

Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. Adobe PDF
Hoffman, Lee
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Jun 2007)
Presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2005-06 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The survey reports the numbers and types of schools, including their status (new, continuing, closed, etc.), and whether it is a charter school, magnet school, or Title I school. The survey also reports the numbers of students and the school's "locale type," that is, whether it is in a city, suburb, town, or rural area. 27p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-354

Colorado's Crumbling Classrooms
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, 2007)
Presents the Donnell-Kay Foundation's assessment of Colorado school conditions, done in the absence of any statewide assessment. The backlog of maintenance, inability of some districts to fund their schools, and lack of state funding are highlighted. Profiles of specific districts' school physical condition, educational suitability, technology readiness, site condition, and capacity are included.

Report on the School Environment: Survey 2007 Results. [United Kingdom]
(Teacher Support Network, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Reports the results of a British survey of teachers regarding their school environment. 530 respondents rated their schools for design, layout, lighting, ventilation, furnishings, flexibility, safety, and physical activity accommodation. 32 percent of the respondents rating their environment as poor, and 87 percent believed that the environment had an influence on pupil behavior. 6p.

Statewide Seismic Needs Assessment: Implementation of Oregon 2005 Senate Bill 2 Relating to Public Safety, Earthquakes, and Seismic Rehabilitation of Public Buildings Report to the Seventy-fourth Oregon Legislative Assembly.
(Oregon Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland , 2007)
Provides an inventory and estimated replacement cost of 3,352 Oregon public buildings, of which public schools represent 97 percent of the total enrollment for the 2005-06 academic year. Excluding hospitals, the estimated replacement value of this building stock totals approximately $11.5 billion, led by the K-12 schools at 85 percent, community colleges 8 percent, fire 5 percent, and police 2 percent. The 274 K-12 school buildings at very high risk for collapse in an earthquake represent portions of 193 schools that contain 14.5 percent of the statewide enrolled student population. The reporting agency recommends that school districts with buildings labeled as having high and very high relative seismic risk of collapse during a seismic event to consider hiring a structural engineering consultant to more thoroughly evaluate the seismic issues with their buildings. 342p.

Public School Principals Report on Their School Facilities: Fall 2005.
Chaney, Bradford; Lewis, Laurie
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington , Jan 2007)
Reports on principals' satisfaction with environmental factors in their schools, and the extent to which they perceive those factors as interfering with the ability of the school to deliver instruction. The report describes the match between the enrollment and the capacity of the school buildings, approaches for coping with overcrowding, the ways in which schools use portable buildings and reasons for using them, and the availability of dedicated rooms or facilities for particular subjects, such as science labs or music rooms, and the extent to which these facilities are perceived to support instruction. More than half of the principals reported that their school had fewer students than the school’s design capacity. The remaining schools included those that had enrollments within 5 percent of their capacity (22 percent) and those that were overenrolled (10 percent were overenrolled by between 6 to 25 percent above their capacity, and 8 percent by more than 25 percent of their design capacity). Those schools that principals described as overcrowded used a variety of approaches to deal with the overcrowding: using portable classrooms (78 percent), converting non-classroom space into classrooms (53 percent), increasing class sizes (44 percent), building new permanent buildings or additions to existing buildings (35 percent), using off-site instructional facilities (5 percent), or other approaches (12 percent). 93p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings. Turning Crumbling Schools Into Environments for Learning. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Describes negative consequences of poor and unhealthy facility conditions, mold, overcrowded classrooms, and noise in schools. Recommendations for federal and state actions to renovate or build new and improved schools using proven, cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions are presented, illustrated with examples from districts around the country. Describes the elements of well-designed, well-built, well-maintained schools. Includes 21 references. 23p.

Current and Future Facilities Needs of Texas Public School Districts.
(Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin , Oct 2006)
Illustrates in text and charts the results of an extensive survey of Texas public school facilities. The survey addressed the following questions: 1) How many and what types of facilities make up Texas school districts? 2) What was the age and date of the last renovation of all school facilities? 3) What are the conditions of all existing school facilities? 4) What are the average age, number of years since last renovation and condition of instructional facilities? 5) How much permanent and portable instructional square footage is available per student and what is the ratio of permanent instructional square footage to portable instructional square footage per pupil? 6) What is the projected cost of current maintenance needs and how long will it be before the buildings will need to be renovated or replaced? 7) Where are the greatest projected needs for new instructional facilities based solely on growth and when will they be needed? 8) When will instructional facilities need to be replaced? 9) How many and what type of permanent instructional facilities are overcrowded or underutilized? 10) What types of energy management activities are districts carrying out? 106p.

Growth and Disparity: A Decade of U.S. Public School Construction. Adobe PDF
Filardeo, Mary; Vincent, Jeffrey; Sung, Ping; Stein, Travis
(Building Education Success Together at the 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Analyzes who has benefitted from $600 billion of United States school construction expenditures from 1995-2004. The report reveals that construction funds have not been equally distributed, with the least affluent school districts making the lowest investment of $4,800 per student, and the most affluent the highest at $9,361 per student. It shows schools with the greatest need, those in high-poverty and minority school districts, have seen the least investment. Money spent on low-income schools was more likely to fund basic repairs such as roofs or asbestos removal, but that spent in affluent districts frequently funded educational enhancements such as labs or performing arts centers. Numerous tables include school construction growth by type of project, by state, enrollment growth, and spending by family income, community household income, and race and ethnicity. Includes 23 references. 41p.

School Conditions Will Continue to Earn Failing Grades.
Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Vieira, Robin K.; Cummings, James B.
(Florida Solar Energy Center; Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, July 24-26, 2006 Orlando, FL. , Jul 2006)
This study addresses indoor air quality and general conditions problems in schools throughout the United States. Tools employed to investigate conditions include a nationwide, web-based survey, characterization of actual operating conditions in schools through field audits and diagnostic tests, and retrofits in problem schools. Survey results found temperature to be by far the greatest comfort complaint in regular classrooms, with indoor air quality (IAQ) and then humidity being the next greatest areas of complaints. Ventilation problems were found at each of eight audited schools. These problems appear to be occurring due to a combination of factors including lack of maintenance, lack of knowledge of the systems and in some cases poor system design. Four small retrofit projects were also completed. The results from this project indicate that without substantial funding for and prioritization of school maintenance, widespread significant school improvements will not be realized. [Authors' abstract] 17p.

Needs Survey Report. [Massachusetts]
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , Apr 2006)
Presents the result of more than eight months of work commissioned by the Massachusetts School Building Authority to gather statewide baseline data about the general conditions of locally-owned public school facilities throughout the Commonwealth. The data collected are a result of the observations of teams of educators and engineers whose task was to utilize a standard survey to ascertain the general condition of each school in the Commonwealth. Data collectors visited every superintendent in every school district to receive an inventory of school committee-controlled school properties and then visited every one of those school facilities to gather these important baseline data. This report details the following findings: 1) The condition of the 1,817 Massachusetts schoolhouses is generally good. 2) Massachusetts has expended a substantial amount on schoolhouse capital facilities over the past 60 years. 3) A school building boom occurred between 2000 and 2005, even though statewide enrollment has been declining. 4) Almost one-half of the current school facility square footage is new or recently renovated. 5) There is very little temporary space in Massachusetts. 6) Massachusetts schools have been built 32% to 39% larger, on average, than the maximum gross square footage space requirements per student in the Department of Education regulations. 7. Beginning in fiscal year 2008, the reformed School Building Grant program should be able to provide sufficient resources to meet statewide school capital facility need as determined by the Board of the Authority. 138p.

North Carolina Public Schools Facility Needs Survey. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, Raleigh , Apr 2006)
Every five years, local North Carolina boards of education are required by G.S. 115C 521(a) to submit their Facility Needs Assessment (long range plans) to the State Board of Education. The results of this survey assess projected facility needs for the next 5-10 years, and is used statewide and locally. Total estimated costs are $9.7 billion. 7p.

Who's Sick at School. Adobe PDF
Graham, Tolle; Zotter, Jean; Camacho, Marlene
(Massachusetts Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health, Boston , Mar 2006)
Reports on evidence linking poor Boston school conditions with high rates of asthma. Using data from school environmental audits collected in 2004 - 2005, the report shows that those students attending the schools ranking worst on three major environmental factors for asthma (mold, pests, and leaks) also have high asthma rates. Eighty-five percent of Boston Public Schools reported leaks or water stains, 36 reported visible mold growth, 63 percent reported overt pest signs, 83 percent reported repairs needed and 61 percent reported improper chemical storage. Over 80 percent reported one or more of these problems. The schools with the highest percentages are often located in the lowest income areas and those with the highest incidences of asthma some double the state average. Though the city has an average 7-12 percent child asthma rate, there are some Boston Public Schools with as high as 27 percent of their students suffering from asthma. 13p.

A Review of School Facilities Programs and Analysis of School Facility Needs.
Johnson, Judith
(Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta , Mar 2006)
Provides descriptive information on each of the four central components of Maine's school facilities program: major capital school construction, school revolving renovation program, leased space program, and facilities maintenance and capital asset management program. Each program description is accompanied by historical data reflecting funding and work priorities. 37p.

Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States 2003-04: Schools and Staffing Survey Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington , 2006)
This compendium of school staffing statistics includes tables detailing how schools organize grades and student groups; percentages of schools using block and year-round scheduling; numbers of custodial maintenance, and security personnel; and percentages of schools with physical space limitations. 213p.
Report NO: NCES 2006-313 rev.

Crisis in the Classroom. Adobe PDF
(Public School Forum of North Carolina, Raleigh , 2006)
Reviews North Carolina's school facility needs for the immediate future, illustrating the reasons behind those needs, such as population increase, class size reduction, and aging facilities. The facility needs are offered as a total, and also broken down according to eight regions within the state. 86p.

Lessons Learned, a National Report. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , Jan 2006)
Reports on the human health, family, and community impacts of school facilities that are poorly designed, constructed, operated, or maintained. The document consists of state-by-state summaries of school building inventories, enrollments, asthma prevalence, and school building condition. 66p.

Connecting Facility Conditions to Learning Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.
Roberts, Lance
(Ameresco, Framingham, MA , 2006)
Reviews the effect of school facility conditions on learning, as reported in over 300 journal articles, papers, and published reports that were collected by other authors. The areas of building quality, maintenance, visual comfort, thermal comfort, acoustics, and indoor air quality are considered. Includes 12 references are included. 8p.

The Williams v. California Settlement: The First Year of Implementation.
(American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California, Los Angeles , Nov 2005)
Reviews how California's Williams Settlement Agreement and its subsequent legislation, together with action from parents and community members, teachers, school administrators, and school officials altered the state's educational landscape during the first year of implementation. The first section provides a general summary of the case and the Settlement Legislation, breaking down the approximately $1 billion in new funds and describing how the new legal standards for instructional materials, school facilities, and teachers apply to all public schools. The facilities section explains how the new "good repair" and "emergency facilities needs" standards were developed through regulations and how the overlapping accountability systems in this area improved school facility conditions around the state. 54p.

An Examination of the Conditions of School Facilities Attended by 10th-Grade Students in 2002.
Planty, Michael; DeVoe, Jill
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Oct 2005)
Presents key findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Facilities Checklist for all public and private schools and students in the 10th grade. The first section presents findings at the school level, including national estimates on the appearance, safety and security, noise levels, and neighborhood conditions for public and private 10th-grade schools in 2002. The second section discusses the number and percentage of 10th-grade students who attend schools with a particular condition, based on structural appearance, safety, and security. Appendices discuss study goals, base year study design, methodology, sampling, weighting, response rates, and standard errors. Also included is an account of the statistical procedures, a glossary and the facilities checklist instrument. 68p.
Report NO: NCES 2006-302

2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure.
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA , Apr 2005)
Schools receive a grade of "D" in this latest report card on the state of the nation's infrastructure. Background on the issue, a statement of current conditions, policy options, ASCE recommendations, and a list of sources is included.

Capital Requirements Survey. [Colorado] Adobe PDF
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , Apr 2005)
Presents the results of a privately-funded survey of the superintendents and facilities managers of 178 Colorado school districts, with about 59% of the states student population represented in the responses. The report details building ages, construction types, occupancy vs. capacity, physical condition, and educational adequacy. Facilities managers reported about $2.1 billion in capital needs, and superintendents reported about $297 needed for deferred maintenance. Based on enrollment in the districts responding, a capital need of about $5.7 billion and deferred maintenance need of $1.3 billion is estimated. 34p.

School Facility Assessments: State of Colorado. Adobe PDF
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , Apr 2005)
Provides the results of facility assessments for three schools in each of seven districts. The assessments considered facility condition, educational suitability, technology readiness, site condition, and capacity. Tables present cumulative score ranges and averages, divided by elementary, middle, and high schools, followed by the actual score sheets for each school. 247p.

Capital Needs Assessment Survey. Adobe PDF
(Illinois State Board of Education and Illinois Capital Development Board, Springfield , Feb 2005)
Summarizes the results of the state's 2004 survey assessing school construction needs through 2006. Districts reported $6.7 billion in capital needs for new schools, additions, and repairs. The data are organized by type of district, location of district, type of school, and type of repair. Information on potential consolidation of districts is also included. 2p.

Colorado's Crumbling Classrooms.
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , Feb 2005)
Provides a summary of information about Colorado's current capital funding needs. 2p.

2005 Building Condition Survey Instrument.
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , 2005)
This is the New York State Education Department's survey form for assessing the type, age, features, and condition of school facilities. 22p.

Annual Report for the Repair and Maintenance of Public School Facilities in the State of Hawaii. Adobe PDF
(Hawaii Dept. of Education, Honolulu , 2005)
Outlines the responsibilities, finances, and plans for the Hawaii Dept. Of Education's school repair and maintenance program. The backlog of deferred maintenance is estimated at $524,502,500. These figures are detailed in numerous charts illustrating amounts per district and amounts per type of repair required. Funding sources are covered, and a forecast is included which anticipates an annual of need of between $100 million to $200 million, describes prioritization of projects, a pending facility assessment program, and special attention to restrooms, roofs, and preventive maintenance. 18p.

Corridor of Shame: The Neglect of South Carolina's Rural Schools.
(Ferillo and Associates, Inc., Columbia, SC , 2005)
Documents decrepit school facility conditions in eight rural South Carolina school districts. The schools profiled date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and reside in districts with diminishing employment and property values, where no funds are available to repair or replace them. The DVD tracks the evidence presented on behalf of these districts in the Abbeville County School District versus The State of South Carolina case, which eventually grew to include 36 districts and to be considered by the state supreme court.

School Modernization and Environmental Health.
(National PTA, 2005)
This statement articulates the position of the National PTA on the subject of school modernization and environmental health. The statement first identifies the overwhelming national need to improve the condition of America's public schools and to construct new buildings to accommodate rising enrollments, then identifies a solution to the problem through a strong and sustained partnership of federal, state, and local entities working together.

Schoolhouse in the Red: An Administrator's Guide to Improving America's School Facilities and Environment.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 2005)
Reviews and compares the condition of school facilities and the costs associated with deteriorating and inadequate buildings to the state of school facilities outlined in the original Schoolhouse in the Red printed in 1992. This new edition also discusses how to get schools ready for children by addressing school facilities and the school environment.

Taking Care of Colorado's Schoolhouses. Adobe PDF
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , 2005)
In Colorado, school buildings have traditionally been considered the responsibility of local districts. Although Colorado ensures that operating revenue for public education is roughly equal for every child in the state, funding for school building construction, maintenance and repair is still based almost exclusively on local district wealth. The result is that, according to one study, 88% of Colorado’s schools are not in good physical condition. According to the Colorado state auditor’s office, Colorado needs $4.7 billion to bring its schools into good condition. This summarizes a project by the Donnell-Kay Foundation to examine the condition and funding of Colorado’s school buildings. 3p.

California's K-12 Public Schools: How Are They Doing? Adobe PDF
Caroll, Stephen; Krop, Cathy; Arkes, Jeremy; Morrison, Peter; Flanagan, Ann
(The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA , 2005)
Documents the decline of California public schools in various areas since the 1970's. There has been substantial progress in meeting the state's facility needs in the last decade, largely due to recent state and local general obligation bonds. However, California still lagged the nation and other large industrial states in this area, with responses to facility needs being concentrated in urban and rural areas serving high minority and low-income populations. Data to document the most recent progress in facilities is not currently available. Includes 157 references. 216p.

Ending School Overcrowding in California: Building Quality Schools for All Children. Adobe PDF
Colmenar, Raymond; Estrada, Francisco; Lo, Theresa; Raya, Richard
(PolicyLink, Oakland,CA , 2005)
Reports that the state currently targets school construction funds for anticipated growth districts, but not to relieve overcrowding. Even though the 2002 Critically Overcrowded Schools (COS) represents progress, the report maintains that districts contending with fiscal and administrative restraints are at a disadvantage in competing for the funds. The report defines the problem of overcrowded schools, explains the funding gap, cites barriers to addressing school overcrowding, and makes recommendations for removing them. 24p.

The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America.
Kozol, Jonathan
(Crown Publishers, New York, NY , 2005)
Reports on the re-segregation of America's educational system, focusing on overcrowded and underfunded urban schools, and the unsatisfactory disciplinary and instructional experiences of the minority children who attend them. Appendices illustrate per-pupil spending in public schools of six metropolitan areas and an extensive bibliography is included. 404p.

A Study of the Relationship Among New School Buildings and Student Academic Performance and School Climate in Mississippi.
Wicks, George Milan
(Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2005)
This was a correlational study, conducted in 10 Mississippi schools, built since 1999. It was designed to add to the limited research related to building conditions, amenities, student grade point averages (GPAs), and school climate. The eight categories surveyed were: respect (how individuals treat each other and their sense of importance), trust (honesty, fairness, and good judgment), high morale (pride of school), opportunity for input (valued voice in school operation), continuous academics and social growth (aggressively seeking and linking new ideas to real life), cohesiveness (school spirit, unity, and respect), school renewal (school's promotion of innovation and creativity), and caring (kindness and concern for the school body). The overall group's mean differences were positive and statistically significant differences occurred among variables of old school buildings, new school buildings, and what should be, in all eight categories assessed by the survey. This study could benefit K-12 schools by helping leaders in education make decisions about building and managing new schools. [Author's abstract] 237p.

Arkansas Statewide Educational Facilities Assessment-2004. Adobe PDF
(Arkansas General Assembly, Task force to Joint Committee on Educational Facilities, Little Rock, AR , Nov 30, 2004)
Summarizes the state's 2004 assessment of its 6,569 permanent school buildings, with tables displaying numbers of school by type, facility conditions, educational suitability, enrollment growth projections, and associated cost summaries. The cost of addressing current needs of all buildings was determined to be $2.9 billion, with a projected cost over five years of $ 4.5 billion. 71p.

The Educational Adequacy of New Jersey Public School Facilities: Results from a Survey of Principals. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(Education Law Center, Trenton, NJ. Funding provided by the Building Education Success Together (BEST) Initiative. , May 10, 2004)
Presents the results of a survey of New Jersey school principals revealing that: 1) One third of principals assigned a grade of C or below to the overall condition of their school and 10 percent assigned grades D or F. 2) 80 percent thought that their schools were educationally adequate overall, but many thought that their school came up short in meeting specific curricula needs such as science, music, and art education. 3) Many principals thought that their schools were inadequate for recruiting and retaining teachers. 4) Many principals viewed their facilities training as inadequate. 5) The principals feel that the school facilities planning and design process excludes important stakeholders. These opinions are held more widely in the poorer school districts. 17p.

Task Force to Study Public School Facilities: Final Report. Adobe PDF
(Maryland Dept. of Legislative Services, Annapolis , Feb 2004)
Presents the results of two years work by this task force to examine the adequacy and equity of Maryland's public school construction program. The Task Force began with a facility assessment of all schools in the state, found deficiencies in every jurisdiction, and concluded that it will cost 3.85 billion dollars to bring all schools up to the minimum standard for educational programming, health, and safety requirements. It recommends that the state establish a School Emergency Repair Fund, with an initial investment of $2 million, to address deficiencies that present an immediate hazard. It also proposes funding levels, formulas, creative financing options, and changes to Maryland's school construction statutes. 58p.

The Effects of School Facility Quality on Teacher Retention in Urban School Districts. Adobe PDF
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; Shang, Yi
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Feb 2004)
The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a great challenge for schools and school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts. Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates why teachers quit and how they might be better induced to stay. The authors build upon this literature by suggesting another important factor: the quality of school facilities. The importance of facility quality is investigated using data from a survey of K-12 teachers in Washington, D.C. The authors find in their sample that facility quality is an important predictor of the decision of teachers to leave their current position. [Author's abstract] 12p.

Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Adequacy. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland, Baltimore , Jan 05, 2004)
Prioritizes the 31 criteria for school facilities established by the Maryland Task Force to Study Public School Facilities based on the links beteween conditions in school buildings and student achievement. The author, drawing on a large quantity of research, recommends addressing first the criteria that relate to student health and safety: 1) potable water, 2) fire safety, 3) adequate lavoratories, 4) security systems, and 5) emergency communications systems. Elements directly linked to student achievement should then be addressed as follows: 1) human comfort, 2) indoor air quality, 3) lighting, 4) acoustical control, 5) secondary science laboratories, and 6) student capacity. The 31 criteria may be found at (Contains 75 references.) 66p.

School Environmental Assessment Report. Adobe PDF
(Boston Public Schools, MA , 2004)
Presents a school-by-school assessment of Boston's public schools, conducted by the Environmental Health Office of the Boston Public Health Commission. For each school, a table is given with data organized as follows: 1) Environmental issues of leaks, mold, pests, clutter, dust, repairs needed, improper chemical storage, 2) Indoor analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dust, VOC's, and temperature, 3) Bathroom inspection for functioning equipment, presence and condition of fixtures, and presence of supplies. 146p.

No Place to Learn: California's School Facility Crisis. Adobe PDF
Billingsley, K. Lloyd
(Pacific Research Institute, San Francisco, CA , Jan 2004)
Describes the state's difficulty building schools, due to bureaucratic delays and regulations that drive up construction costs. A plan for reform is proposed that includes exemptions from the state's Field Act, a single-payer system which provides grants to districts, reduction of Field Act staff and consultants, conversion of administrative facilities to classrooms, elimination of class-size reduction requirements, year-round schooling, no universal preschool, encouragement of developer-built schools, elimination of prevailing-wage laws, encouragement of home schooling, expansion of charter schools, and school choice. 57p.

School Facility Survey. Adobe PDF
(Maryland General Assembly, Annapolis , Nov 06, 2003)
Provides the results of a facility survey of 1342 Maryland schools. Facilities were evaluated against federal, state or local guidelines in 31 areas that covered building condition, environmental quality, size, configuration, accessibility, and support spaces. The criteria against which the schools were evaluted are provided, along with a chart for each school system that shows the percentages of schools not meeting each standard. For ten of the standards, a chart for that standard is provided that illustrates the percentages of failing schools in each school system. 61p.

State Education Department Implementation of the RESCUE Program.
(New York State Office of the State Comptroller, Division of State Services, Albany , Sep 19, 2003)
Examines the New York State Education Department's administration of their RESCUE program, which requires school districts to develop maintenance plans for their school buildings and prepare an annual report card of building conditions. The report finds that many of the districts have not prepared maintenance plans and most have not prepared the required report cards. Another finding was that some districts are inappropriately deferring maintenance so they can claim state capital construction aid to cover their costs. The report recommends changes in reporting within RESCUE and modifications to State Building Aid to encourage compliance and decrease abuse of both programs. 24p.
Report NO: 2002-S-51

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals.
Boren, Susan
(Congressional Research Service , Aug 28, 2003)
Summarizes the federal government's role in direct and indirect financing of school construction and renovation, which continues to be an issue in Congress. Also discussed are recent upward revisions in the federal government's estimates of school construction needs, the general age of schools, enrollment projections, and recent legislative action. 6p.

Leaving Children Behind: The Underfunding of D.C. Public Schools Building Repair and Capital Budget Needs. Adobe PDF
(Parents United for the D.C. Public Schools, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2003)
This report analyzes the current status of the District's efforts to modernize its crumbling school buildings. Five years ago, following an assessment of each of the District's school facilities, the D.C. Public School System faced up to longstanding problems and developed a Facility Master Plan to modernize schools over a 10-15 year period. Now funding cuts threaten to halt this modernization plan. This report urges lawmakers to fund these plans. 28p.

Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance.
Lawrence, Barbara Kent
(Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC. , Jun 2003)
Describes the problem of deferred maintenance for school facilities, especially from the perspective of small rural districts. It examines the extent, causes, and consequences of deferred maintenance as well as recommendations for policy, practice, and funding that can help correct this national problem. 23p.

A Study of the Effect School Facility Conditions Have on Student Achievement.
Lair, Susan
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin , May 2003)
Explores the effect school facilities have on student achievement as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in a high-performing, high-poverty school district in Texas. This study contains a presentation of the information and data findings from the Ysleta Independent School District and its decision in 1994 to include school facilities as a component of its student achievement initiative. The schools were randomly selected and the case study research was conducted using a mixed-method approach. Data provided by the schools' principals on building structure, maintenance, and housekeeping were collected using a questionnaire, and student achievement was measured using the percent of students at each school passing the TARS sub-tests of reading, mathematics, and writing and the percent passing all the TAAS tests from 1994 to 2001. The study resulted in findings that merit attention and support previous research that points to building age, overall building maintenance and cleanliness as elements that help explain student achievement. 220p.
Report NO: 3116105


Special Sector Study: Education--The New Heights of Education Construction.
(McGraw-Hill Construction, Lexington, MA, Apr 2003)
This study analyzes the K-12 and higher education construction markets, which made up 18% of the nonresidential construction market in 2002. Information is organized by school type, state/region, and type of construction (new/remodeling). Contact information for owners, architects, contractors and approximately 6,000 education facility managers is provided. Also provided are historical activity levels and projected growth rates for the respective market sectors. [Price: $8,000]
TO ORDER: McGraw-Hill Construction Dodge, Dodge Analytics, 24 Hartwell Ave., Lexington, MA 02421, 800-591-4462.

Crumbling Schools: Tens of Millions Wasted in Slow, Sloppy Construction, and Miami-Dade Children Are the Losers.
Cenziper, Debbie; Grotto, Jason
(The Miami Herald, FL , Feb 13, 2003)
This series of articles examines the condition of public schools and public school construction in Florida's Miami and Dade Counties. To prepare the series, the Miami Herald studied thousands of pages of construction records, correspondence, school district reports, and accounting statements over 15 years. It analyzed state and national construction costs, school enrollment reports for Florida's 67 school districts, growth rates, and census data. More than 200 people completed interviews, and reporters and photographers made about 25 visits to schools. The Herald obtained school district databases detailing construction costs and schedules, contractor and architect information, contractor defaults, construction charges, and life-safety violations. The construction analysis of new schools, additions, renovations, and repairs was based on over 1,200 projects, totalling $1.6 billion, completed since 1988. The articles include: "Crumbling Schools: Tens of Millions Wasted in Slow, Sloppy Construction, and Miami-Dade Children are the Losers" (Debbie Cenziper and Jason Grotto); "Aging Schools Wait Endlessly for Renovation" (Debbie Cenziper); "Records of Costs, Budgets are Hard to Come By" (Debbie Cenziper and Jason Grotto); and "Stierheim Vows Fundamental Change" (Debbie Cenziper). 12p.

Financing Michigan's Public Schools: Requirements, Issues, and Options. Adobe PDF
(Michigan Dept. of Education, Lansing , 01/08/2003)
Reports on school infrastructure needs in Michigan, discusses financing problems in low-wealth districts, and presents a comparative table of school infrastructure funding programs in all 50 states. 26p.

Coalition for Our Children's Schools. Abbott School Construction Program Report Card.
(Education Law Center, Trenton, NJ , 2003)
In July 2000, the New Jersey State Legislature enacted the Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act, providing $6 billion to rebuild the schools of the Abbott districts, and created a procedure controlled by State government by which the school construction and renovation was to take place. This report card on the Abbott school construction program gives the state a D for its progress to date in implementing the school construction mandate of the court and legislature. 17p.

Saving America's School Infrastructure. Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice.
Crampton, Faith E., Ed.; Thompson, David C., Ed.
(Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT , 2003)
This book addresses funding for school facilities. Contents of section 1, "Overview and Scope of the Problem," are: (1) "Unmet School Infrastructure Funding Need as a Critical Educational Capacity Issue: Setting the Context" (Faith E. Crampton); (2) "Financing School Infrastructure Needs: An Overview across the 50 States" (Catherine C. Sielke); (3) "Canadian Approaches to the Financing of School Infrastructure" (Vivian J. Hajnal); and (4) "Financing Captial Facilities in Higher Education" (Mary McKeown-Moak). Section 2, "Current Challenges to Funding of School Infrastructure," contains the following chapters: (5) "Capital Needs and Spending in Urban Public School Systems: Policies, Problems, and Promises" (James G. Cibulka and Bruce S. Cooper); (6) "Funding School Infrastructure in Rural America" (Jeffrey Maiden); (7) "Infrastructure Funding Considerations and Students with Disabilities" (William T. Hartman); (8) "School Finance Litigation: One Strategy To Address Inequities in School Infrastructure Funding" (David C. Thompson and Faith E. Crampton); (9) "Funding Technology versus Bricks and Mortar: Can We Have It All?" (Faith E. Crampton, Janis M. Hagey, and Kathleen C. Westbrook); and (10) "Should Principals Be Involved in School Renovations?" (Brian O. Brent and Marie Cianca). Part 3, "The Future of School Infrastructure Funding," contains the following chapter: (11) "Striking a Balance in School Infrastructure Funding" (David C. Thompson). 270p.
TO ORDER: Information Age Publishing, 80 Mason St., Greenwich, CT 06830, Tel: 203-661-7602

Facility Condition as an Influence on School Climate: a Study of Two Separate Secondary School Settings.
Kilpatrick, Anita
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , 2003)
Examines school facility condition influences on the perceptions of students, parents, and teachers about the school climate. This study compared the condition of two secondary school settings and the perceptions of school clientele associated with each school. A school climate survey was used to measure the perceptions of clientele at each school setting about the school climate, and the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International (CEFPI) guide for standards asked respondents to assess the condition of the school, whether excellent, satisfactory, borderline, or not adequate. A focus group interview was also conducted to gain further insights into the perceptions of teachers, students, and administrators about the facility condition and the school climate. Data from the interviews indicated safety, space, parking facilities, condition of the building, and maintenance are all factors that influenced the perceptions of the clientele at each school. These findings about the influence of a school facility on school climate highlight the importance of school buildings and physical environments on the perceptions of the school personnel and students. 134p.
Report NO: 3092363


Seismic Safety Inventory of California Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of General Services, Sacramento , Nov 15, 2002)
Reports on an inventory of California's K-12 schools that found 80 percent of California's kindergarten through 12th grade public school buildings meeting expected life safety performance standards, able to protect children from injury during a serious earthquake, and not requiring further seismic evaluation. The inventory also identified 7,537 school buildings, which represent 14 percent of the state's K-12 school building's square footage, that should undergo additional seismic evaluation to determine if they should be retrofitted. Additionally, the inventory identified more than 2,100 school buildings that are expected, but not guaranteed, to achieve life safety performance in future earthquakes. The inventory focused on non-wood frame public schools that were designed and built before July 1, 1978 and met certain criteria, including close proximity to an active earthquake fault. 43p.

Public School Facilities and Teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C.; Building Educational Success Together Initiative. , Nov 2002)
This study was designed to assess the effect of school facilities on teaching. A survey of Chicago and Washington, DC public school teachers was used to: identify what teachers feel supports their ability to teach, assess the adequacy of school conditions and school design as experienced by teachers, examine the distribution of quality school facilities, and identify the impact of facilities on learning outcomes. The study also linked conditions as reported by teachers to student demographics and test scores, official school building assessments, and current research on the effect of K-12 educational facilities on learning. The study concludes that teachers in both Washington, DC and Chicago report many shortcomings in the facilities that are essential to delivering a high-quality education. They further report that much of the infrastructure they work in is inadequate to meet the increasingly strict standards of academic achievement that are now being set by school districts, states, and the federal government. 39p.

School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement.
Earthman, Glen I.
(University of California Los Angeles, Institute for Deomcracy, Education & Access , Oct 2002)
Explains how the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness, particularly where classroom temperature and noise level are concerned. Older buildings typically have more problems in this regard. The report cites a number of studies indicating that students attending schools in good condition outperform students in substandard buildings by several percentage points. School building conditions also influence teacher effectiveness, and school overcrowding makes it harder for students to learn. Analyses show that class size reduction leads to higher student achievement. 18p.

Building Quality Schools: Revisions to the School Construction Formula and Recommendations on Standards. Adobe PDF
(Delaware Dept. of Education, Dover , Sep 2002)
Presents the results of a 2001 review of Delaware's School Construction Formula that details the environment and condition of Delaware schools, and proposes adjustments to space and funding recommendations in the Formula. While the Committee did not recommend the adoption of standard plans, it did recommend that the Delaware Department of Education should develop stock plans for classroom additions and a plan repository at the DOE to guide districts in new construction and renovation. Includes eight references. 39p.

Learning the Hard Way: The Poor Environment of America's Schools.
Wakefield, Julie
(Environmental Health Perpectives , Jun 2002)
This article asserts that a significant number of schoolchildren and teachers in the United States are exposed on an almost daily basis to environmental hazards including volatile organic chemicals, airborne lead and asbestos, and noise pollution while they are at school. Some school hazards are linked to the aging of many of the nation's schools, to the ongoing siting of schools in close proximity to contaminated waste sites, and to the burgeoning population of school-age children that has forced financially constrained school districts to use portable classrooms to increase their classroom space. The article also assert that few federal laws currently protect students from such threats but several states have adopted measures that address these issues. Some federal agencies do, however, have voluntary programs that school administrators can take advantage of to improve the condition of their facilities.

D.C. Public Schools' Modernization Program Faces Major Challenges. Testimony before the Subcommittee on the District of Columbia, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Statement of David E. Cooper, Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Adobe PDF
Cooper, David E.
(United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Apr 25, 2002)
This Congressional testimony focuses on the challenges faced by the District of Columbia in modernizing its public schools. Specifically, it addresses: (1) increases in the cost of modernizing the schools; (2) delays in completing the schools; (3) quality inspection problems; and (4) concerns about managing asbestos hazards. The testimony concludes that although the school system, with the Corps of Engineers' assistance, has accomplished much in the last few years, the modernization program will cost significantly more and take longer to accomplish than originally projected. It asserts that the school system needs to revise its plans to reflect these realities and to fully fund asbestos management activities this year and ensure that sufficient funding is budgeted in future years. 10p.
Report NO: GAO-02-628T

Building Tennessee's Tomorrow: Anticipating the State's Infrastructure Needs, July 2002 through June 2007, Reported Public School Facility Conditions and Needs. Adobe PDF
(Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Nashville , 2002)
Estimates the state's 2002-2007 school infrastructure improvements to cost $3.6 billion and describes increases and decreases in costs from the previous year's report. Charts representing overall and per-pupil costs, as well as general costs, those mandated by state and federal requirements, and technology costs are included. 6p.

Essential Learning Conditions for California Youth: Educational Facilities.
Ortiz, Flora Ida
(University of California, eScholarship Repository , 2002)
Describes how California's educational facilities are inadequate because they are crowded, old, and in need of repair and modernization. Pressures from increased enrollment in the state due to demographic changes and class size reduction, an average age of the state's school buildings of over 25 years, and the high cost of facilities have all contributed to the current inadequacies. However, the State's responses to the many problems with educational facilities have been severely limited by flaws in policies establishing the state's relationships with local districts with regard to funding, inventory, and oversight of educational facilities. The State has failed to establish a system of state financing to ensure that funds are available to and used by districts with schools in the poorest conditions. It has failed to promulgate minimum standards for school facility conditions and maintenance, develop systematic ways of monitoring conditions in schools throughout the state, or maintain effective investigation and correction processes when serious deficiencies are reported. 23p.

School Construction and Building Aid: An On-Again, Off-Again Priority. [New York] Adobe PDF
McCall, H. Carl
(Office of the State Comptroller, Albany, NY , Dec 2001)
This report from the New York State Comptroller's office details problems with the State's approach to school facilities in recent years, describes why serious physical deficiencies remain unaddressed despite greatly increased spending, and makes recommendations for improvement. The report concludes that state policy for school facilities has vacillated in recent years, leaving an area where long-term planning and a consistent approach are most needed without either. Recommendations include: (1) ending annual manipulations to funding; (2) new approaches to creating classroom space, including public-private partnerships, leaseback agreements, and shared-use facilities; and (3) changes to New York City's financing arrangements. 16p.

BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, Sep 2001)
The federal government has direct responsibility for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. This report provides information on student academic performance, teacher staffing, access to educational technology, condition of facilities, and expenditure levels in BIA and DOD schools. In addition to examining low student achievement, this GAO study gives considerable attention to deficiencies in the quality and safety of some BIA school buildings. This report estimates that the backlog of deferred maintenance and repair work on BIA school facilities would cost nearly $1 billion to address. 79p

West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management. Adobe PDF
(Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team, Bakersfield, CA. , Jul 02, 2001)
This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of community support, school safety, facility planning, maintenance and custodial services, facilities financial management, staffing and morale, and leadership. It then provides detailed findings in these areas. Each finding offers the legal standard, sources and documentation, findings, a recommendation and improvement plan, and a rating of standard implementation. 170p.

The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly: An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools' Capital Improvement Plan. Adobe PDF
Ryan, Matt; Schwartz, Chris
(Neighborhood Capital Budget Group, Chicago, IL , Mar 2001)
This report examines the Chicago Public School System's need for capital improvement, and it highlights action plans for the future. The report reveals that many planned school improvements projects are unfunded and that there is about $229 million worth of projects that no longer appear in the city's capital improvements plan. Overcrowding remains a persistent and unresolved problem, and there has been no clear plan for integrating educational technology. The Chicago public school system alone has $2.5 billion in unfunded capital needs for its schools, but funds allotted for statewide capital needs are rapidly disappearing, and federal assistance in local school construction and repair needs is in jeopardy. It is recommended that, to ensure that the Capital Improvement Program is as fair and efficient as possible, the Chicago Public Schools should release the building assessments for each school facility and make public its demographic predictions for enrollment growth. Appendices contain highlights of capital programs in other major midwestern cities and a summary of Chicago's Teachers' Pension Fund Proposal. 49p.

Building Aid Shortchanges the Big Cities: The Distribution of Building Aid to New York State School Districts, 1992-1999. Educational Priorities Panel.
Widerquist, Karl
(Educational Priorities Panel, New York, NY , Feb 2001)
This study assesses the funding efforts of New York State's Building Aid program, and it shows that financial support for school district equipment and capital outlays has been less, over the last seven years, for the state's "big five" school districts than for the average district in New York, and far less than for other districts of similar wealth. Study findings represent the school year periods from 1992-1993 to 1999-2000 and include 658 school districts, including the "big five" comprising Yonkers, New York City, Rochester, Syracuse, and Buffalo. Besides receiving less funding for equipment and capital needs, the study reveals that the "big five" have spent significantly less in these areas than other districts. Ultimately, this lack of funding is considered a significant problem since these districts have 40 percent of the state's student population. (Contains seven figures.) 12p.

School Construction Report. [Vermont] Adobe PDF
Klein, Stephen; Perrault, Mark; Teachout, Sara; Hilgendorf, Catherine; James, Brad; Savage, Stuart
(Report to the Vermont Legislature , Jan 15, 2001)
Discusses the adequacy and availability of state assistance for K-12 school construction in Vermont. Stated concerns include the annual obligation for expenditures exceeds the amount of capital bill funding; current state law reimburses a fixed 30% of allowable costs which is inadequate, and no readily available source of funds for long-term school construction needs. A school construction study discusses financial equity, state funding outlook, statutory priority system, fast growing districts, school facilities conditions, and technical education centers. 42p.

Condition of Public School Facilities. [NCES Fast Facts]
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC, 2001)
Data compiled by the National Center for Education Statistics on overcrowding in schools, age of school buildings, and general conditions of public school facilities. Includes links to tables and figures from NCES studies, and other resources.

Fact Sheet: Schools
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2001)
In the American Society of Civil Engineers 2001 Report Card for America's Infrastructure, the nation's schools received a grade of "D-". Due to either aging or outdated facilities, or severe overcrowding, 75% of the nation's school buildings are inadequate to meet the needs of school children. The average cost of capital investment needed is $3,800 per student, more than half the average cost to educate that student for one year. Since 1998, the total need has increased from $112 billion to $127 billion. 2p.

The Relationship of School Facilities Conditions to Selected Student Academic Outcomes.
Stevenson, Kenneth
(University of South Carolina, College of Education, Dept. of Educational Leadership and Policies, Columbia , 2001)
Reports on research that sought to determine if a relationship exists between school academic outcomes and school facilities characteristics. Data were gathered from a variety of sources including research literature, state data files, principal questionnaires, and focus groups. The major finding showed that students scored better on standardized achievement tests in situations where: 1)The principal gives a better rating to the physical condition and adequacy of his or her school. 2)The school is newer. 3)The school is larger. 4)The student and attendance rate is higher. The socio-economic make up of the student body as measured by the portion of pupils on free or reduced lunch is heavily intertwined with each of these findings. Most principals believe that the condition and adequacy of a school facility has a significant impact on school academic outcomes. They view the relationship as very complex, indicating that facilities affect teacher attitudes, which in turn affect classroom productivity. Among facilities factors adversely affecting the educational process are overcrowding, poor physical condition of the structure, portables, lack of storage, and inadequate laboratory space. 92p.

Still No Room To Learn: Crowded NYC Schools Continue To Jeopardize Smaller Class Size Plans. A Follow-Up Report to No Room To Learn and to the Class Size Summit Working Papers. Adobe PDF
Green, Mark
(Public Advocate for the City of New York , Dec 2000)
This follow-up report revisits the overcrowded classroom issues facing the New York City Public School system after one year's efforts to correct the problem. The study reveals that: (1) 53 percent of all New York City elementary school buildings and annexes are overcrowded and continue to operate at 99 percent or greater capacity; (2) in 10 school districts, 70 percent or more of elementary school buildings are operating at 99 percent or greater capacity; (3) minischools and transportables, both ways to quickly increase capacity, are also overcrowded; and (4) over the last year, New York City collected less than 31 percent of the state's reimbursable school building aid despite enrolling almost 40 percent of the state's students. To end the class-size crunch and improve student performance, the report's author, the public advocate for the City of New York, recommends that a number of specific actions be taken by the board of education, the State, and the City, including lobbying for new federal assistance. 13p.

Growing Pains: The Challenge of Overcrowded Schools Is Here To Stay. A Back to School Special Report on the Baby Boom Echo.
(U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Aug 21, 2000)
According to the fifth special report on the impact of the baby boom echo, the nation's elementary and secondary schools will enroll a record 53 million students in the fall of 2000, continuing a decade-long rise. Over the last ten years, public schools have grown by 6.6 million students, resulting in overcrowded classrooms and strained school facilities. The number is expected to jump to 94 million by the end of the 21st century. 29p.

Condition of America's Public School Facilities: 1999
Lewis, Laurie; Snow, Kyle; Farris, Elizabeth
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C. , Jun 2000)
This report provides national data for 903 U.S. public elementary and secondary schools on the condition of public schools in 1999 and the costs to bring them into good condition. Additionally provided are school plans for repairs, renovations, and replacements; data on the age of public schools; and overcrowding and practices used to address overcrowding. Among the findings are: about a quarter of the schools reported at least one type of onsite building in less than adequate condition; half reported at least one building feature in less than adequate condition; and about 4 out of 10 reported at least one unsatisfactory environmental condition. Data also suggest that the oldest schools are most in need of attention but that many of these schools do not have plans for improvement. About three-quarters of public schools do not have problems with overcrowding, but nearly 10 percent have enrollments that are more than 25 percent greater than the capacity of their permanent buildings. 118p.
Report NO: NCES 2000-032

Modernizing Our Schools: What Will It Cost? Adobe PDF
(National Education Association, Washington, DC , May 2000)
This document presents a 50-state estimate of the need for school modernization in the United States along with recommendations. Key findings show the total funding need for public school modernization is $321.9 billion; and that total funding needed for public modernization varies dramatically across states, ranging from $50.7 billion (New York) to $333 million (Vermont). Recommendations offered for addressing the problem include some states using their current budget surpluses for immediate, productive investments in school modernization; more federal assistance to modernize; adequate funding for teacher education to take full advantage of technology; and state level need assessments and action planning. Appendices provide data tables, a school modernization needs assessment questionnaire, data collection matrixes for school modernization needs assessment, calculation of unmet funding need for education technology, descriptive statistics, and state assessments of school infrastructure and education technology and related materials. (Contains 62 references). 64p.

Designing Smarter Schools. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , Apr 2000)
This videotape highlights the degree of school-building deterioration in America and the problems this causes for teaching and learning. It also describes the Energy Smart School campaign and details the factors needed in building an Energy Smart School. The video suggests that to build schools that last and to recoup some of the building expense, schools should be designed to be more energy efficient. Energy efficient strategies are detailed under the following energy saving categories: building envelope features; renewable energy sources; and indoor air quality. Several schools are highlighted for their energy savings features: a California school successfully addressed its Urban Heat Island problem; an elementary school in New Hampshire improved its poor indoor air quality; a Massachusetts school improved its lighting to not only be cost effective but also better meet students' learning needs. The video also examines how innovative design techniques helped a renovated school become a community center.

Recess Is Over! It's Time To Address Our Overcrowded and Deteriorating Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Priorities Project in Collaboration with National People's Action , Apr 2000)
This provides an in-depth analysis, pictures and personal stories illustrating the problems that deteriorating and overcrowded schools pose for students and teachers on a daily basis. It calls for a stronger federal role in financing our education infrastructure. In addition to this national overview, versions are available for all of the 50 states through the NPP website 20p.

School Facilities. Construction Expenditures Have Grown Significantly in Recent Years Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Mar 2000)
A General Accounting Office report examines how states and local school districts have been dealing with the issues facing their public school facilities: (1) the trends since 1990 in elementary and secondary school construction expenditures and how these expenditures were divided between land, buildings, and equipment; (2) trends since 1990 in the amount of expenditures for elementary and secondary schools construction by type of school and type of construction; and (3) the amounts and mix of state and local funding for elementary and secondary school construction. Data show a 39 percent increase in elementary and secondary school construction annual expenditures. Most of the increase was for new buildings; expenditures for equipment such as heating and air conditioning systems only slightly increased during the 8-year period. It also reveals most of the construction expenditures was for construction of primary schools and high schools, and most of the contract spending for new facilities and additions to existing facilities, with less being spent on renovations. Fifteen states provided little or no funding in 1998-99. Appendices provide the scope and methodology of the research, statistical tables, and comments from the Department of Education. 33p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-00-41

Annual Bond Referenda Survey: 1999. Revised. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey School Boards Association , Feb 23, 2000)
A 1999 annual school construction survey for New Jersey reveals that the state's voters approved 71.3 percent of the school construction elections, more than the previous year s approval rate of 60 percent. Construction costs also influenced regional approval rates which varied from 59.5 percent in the north to 89.3 percent in the south. Despite heavier approval rates, gaining voter approval for major construction was still difficult: while 70 percent of all construction plans were approved, only 56.3 percent called for new school buildings. Nearly one-third of the referenda on the 1999 ballot represented second, third, and fourth attempts at passage, and despite changes to increase the likelihood of passage, nearly 30 percent were still rejected by voters. Lower-cost proposals, usually focusing on repairs and facility upgrading, were approved more readily than proposals calling for additions or new construction. Statistical results from the survey are provided. 28p.

To Build a Better School.
(Little Hoover Commission, Sacramento, CA , Feb 2000)
This report presents findings and recommendations of the Little Hoover Commission regarding California's efforts to provide schools that are economically built, adequate, safe, and well- maintained. Findings and recommendations are presented in the following areas: school facility building and maintenance; leadership needs in managing construction projects; State oversight unification; life cycle investing; needs determination; investment adequacy; and specific findings regarding the Los Angeles Unified School District. 90p.

School Facilities Report: The Results of a Statewide Survey To Determine the Physical Condition and Capacity of Wisconsin's Public Schools
Soldner, Bob
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI , Jan 2000)
Offers survey results corresponding to three basic aspects of Wisconsin public schools: data on the physical structure and mechanical features of the school building, data on school safety issues, and information on the educational appropriateness and suitability of the school buildings. Notes that nearly 27 percent of survey respondents believed their school building to be overcrowded. Appendices provide the school facility survey questionnaire and listings of the 373 school districts and 1589 buildings represented in the survey results. 26p.

The Newark Public Schools Five-Year Facilities Management Plan. Summary Report. Adobe PDF
(The Hillier Group Architects; Newark Public Schools, Newark, NJ , Dec 15, 1999)
This report summarizes the Newark Public Schools Facilities Management Plan that describes the process by which the district assesses projected enrollments and program space needs to support the Core Curriculum Content standards; determines space deficiencies; and analyzes corrective options. The document presents district and plan overviews as well as data collected from the five School Leadership Teams (SLT) that examined school space issues within different geographical regions in the district. Each SLT report includes a summary of existing conditions, physical space analyses and deficiencies, facility operations costs, and deficiency and correction budgets for each school on an item-by-item basis. 190p.

Improving Rural School Facilities for Teaching and Learning. Adobe PDF
Dewees, Sarah
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV , Dec 1999)
This digest examines the problem of upgrading rural school facilities, focusing on specific rural issues, conditions that interfere with teaching and learning, and new funding approaches. Almost half of U.S. public schools are in rural areas and small towns. Close rural school-community relationships may make it easier to make decisions, communicate with the community, and raise funds for facilities improvement. On the other hand, many rural districts have financial disadvantages: low enrollments, which diminish available construction money; lower property values, which lower the potential to borrow money; and high poverty rates. About half of rural and small-town schools report at least one facility problem. In addition to deterioration because of age, many rural schools must cope with new requirements for teaching and learning. These include laboratory classrooms, flexible instruction areas, multimedia centers, adequate space to accommodate parent involvement and an array of social and health services, electrical wiring and conduits for computers and other technology, accommodations for special needs students, and mandated removal of hazardous building materials. Fixing these problems will be costly, and despite increased school construction nationwide, rural districts have not kept up with urban areas. In 1997, Congress authorized Qualified Zone Academy Bonds to make school renovation funding more accessible to poor school districts. (Contains 18 references.) 4p.

Rebuilding Our Schools Brick by Brick. Adobe PDF
Leavy, Jacqueline, et al.
(Neighborhood Capital Budget Group, Chicago, IL , Nov 1999)
Explores efforts made and lessons learned by the Chicago, Illinois, public school system in rebuilding its public schools. Chapter one examines the connection between the quality of school facilities and learning, and how new ideas about school design may improve the quality of education. Chapters two and three examine Chicago's experience in repairing its school buildings and alleviating overcrowding. Chapter four and the conclusion look at the extent of the school building crisis, national enrollment trends, and what state and local governments have been able to do to solve their problems. Chapter four also includes case studies on how some of the nation's fastest-growing school districts are dealing with the need to fix their schools, and the innovative financing options that have been tried around the country. Appendices contain statistics on Chicago's public school system and a bibliography. 137p.

Recommendations for Improving the School Facility Program in Los Angeles Unified School District. Adobe PDF
Little Hoover Commission
(Little Hoover Commission, Sacramento, CA , Nov 1999)
The Hoover Commission presents its findings on the State's school facilities program with a review of the practices of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). This report on the LAUSD reveals children in Los Angeles are currently doomed to overcrowded, uninspired and unhealthy schools because of persistent incompetence by the LAUSD. It then describes these problems in detail addressing enrollment growth, personnel practices, organizational structure, and board competence. Immediate and long-term reforms of the LAUSD are discussed followed by reform recommendations that should be initiated by the Governor and Legislature. Appendices present a list of witnesses before the Little Hoover Commission public hearing. 15p.

Good Enough for Congress? A Pictorial Representation of Why Americans Deserve Better School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(The American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Oct 14, 1999)
This booklet graphically depicts the current condition of public high schools attended by various members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees, including photos, statistics, and facts about each school and other public education facilities in each member's respective state. The number of schools in the state, total enrollment, state funding for public schools for 1993-94, the total state and local district school construction spending for 1995-96, data on current building conditions and projected needs, and the dollar amount of estimated tax credit bond allocations under legislation introduced in the 106th Congress for each state are also provided. 66p.

Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children, New York, NY , Oct 1999)
Survey results are presented from 65 individuals using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. Among the findings are that 40 percent of the respondents reported medical conditions present such as asthma or allergies, and 39 percent reported the school conditions made their health worse. Thirty-five percent of the schools either had fire extinguishers and/or alarms easily accessible in classrooms or had a playground. Thirty-three percent of the schools reported having poor ventilation, 24 percent had inadequate heat, 26 percent had obvious roach or rodent problems, 45 percent did not have clean bathrooms or lacked soap and toilet paper, 37 percent had drinking water that tasted strange, 24 percent indicated unclean cafeterias, 40 percent reported garbage and discarded waste present around the school, and 40 percent were overcrowded. Recommendations include enforcement of existing laws, linking school maintenance funding to environmental health needs of school occupants, and the closing of schools that threaten health. Appendices contain a list of the schools/sites surveyed. 88p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001

Fixing Our Schools from the Bottom Up Adobe PDF
(House of Representatives, Committee of the Budget, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Sep 23, 1999)
This House Budget Committee hearing looks at ways that States, localities, and private citizens are working to fix our schools from the bottom up. Includes Secretary Riley's statement on the administration's school reform agenda, touching on high standards, mastering the basics, reducing class size, improving teacher quality, increasing accountability for student performance; expanding public school choice, "fixing" failing schools, and rejecting vouchers. 94
Report NO: 106-6

Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment 1993 Update [Idaho]. Adobe PDF
(Idaho Department of Education; 3D/International, Inc.; Facility Planners, Co. , Sep 1999)
A comprehensive assessment of school facilities in Idaho was completed in 1993 and included an inventory of school facilities used for instruction purposes, an inventory of technology, an assessment of the physical condition of the schools, and the capacity of permanent school buildings to meet enrollment needs. This report is an update to the 1993 study and addresses health and safety conditions, the status of 71 buildings considered to be in the worst condition, the capacity to meet enrollment, and technology infrastructure. 57p.

No Room To Learn: Crowded NYC Schools Jeopardize Class Size Plans. Adobe PDF
Green, Mark; Doran, Helaine
(Public Advocate for the City of New York , Sep 1999)
This report presents data collected from 43 over-capacity elementary schools in the New York City Public School system. The data gives information about typical class sizes in the early grades and the cost of an initiative to reduce class size. Of the 1,722 classrooms examined, 56 percent are considered to be overcrowded, and 438 of the city's 723 elementary school buildings (61 percent) are operating at or in excess of capacity. Further, the schools possess far too few specialty rooms, including libraries, gymnasiums, staff rooms, and cafeterias. Parent rooms often are missing or inadequate. Students often are crammed into small rooms, and the schools surveyed need 15 percent more classrooms to implement the city's initiative to reduce class size. Recommendations include increasing the use of underutilized middle schools, submitting new school bonds to voters and backing them with voter education campaigns. A third recommendation is to have the board of education consider adjusting its five-year capital plan to take into account the initiative to reduce class size by spending a larger share of the funds on space that is faster and easier to create, such as additions and relocatable classrooms. 35p.

No End In Sight. A Back to School Special Report on the Baby Boom Echo.
(U.S. Department of Education , Aug 19, 1999)
Fourth special report on the impact of the baby boom echo, the 25 percent increase in the nation's birth rate that began in the mid-1970s and reached its peak in 1990 with the birth of 4.1 million children. Coupled with rising immigration and new efforts to expand pre-K programs, this extraordinary jump in the birth rate has led to an unprecedented pressure on the nation's education system. As a result, many of our nation's schools are overcrowded and deteriorating. The sight of portable classrooms filling up school playgrounds is increasingly common. 12p.

Investing in America's Schools.
Clinton, William Jefferson
(Remarks by President Clinton at Amos Hiatt Middle School, Des Moines, Iowa , Jul 16, 1999)
The President of the United States offers his observations on the economic condition of the country and why it is important for the nation to now direct its attention to the condition of its schools and school construction. He argues that the growth of school enrollment in the near future and the need to implement technology in every classroom are important investments that need to be made now in the form of new school construction, the hiring of 100,000 teachers, and the retrofitting of classrooms for technology. 6p.

Chicago Public Schools Five Year Capital Improvement Program Fiscal Years 2000 - 2004
(City of Chicago; Chicago School Reform Board of Trustees; Chicago Public Schools, Jun 1999)
This document outlines the current assessment and needs of the Chicago Public School's district's buildings as well as proposed plans to meet those needs. Includes an executive summary, capital program, funding sources, capital budget, details of elementary and high schools projects, and summaries of new construction, renovations, and educational enhancements.

Impact of Inadequate School Facilities on Student Learning.
(U.S.Department of Education , 1999)
Studies reveal many school systems that are decaying, particularly in urban and high-poverty areas, endanger student health, safety, and learning opportunities. This report discusses facility decay and overcrowded classrooms and their impact on student achievement and teaching. (Contains 20 references.)

Facilities Task Force. [Los Angeles, California] Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, CA , May 1999)
The Los Angeles Public School District is experiencing considerable overcrowding and deterioration of its public schools without adequate funding or planning to build new ones. This document presents the recommendations of a task force that assessed the district's public school crisis in the following areas: school maintenance; new facilities construction; better use of existing facilities; and legislation. Task Force recommendations include speeding up new school construction and conversion of existing commercial structures, aggressively pursuing State financial assistance, renovating existing overcrowded schools to reflect the school-within-a-school concept of design, and establishing a joint development plan to generate the appropriate facilities to meet student needs now and into the future. Specific action plans are listed for each recommendation. 7p.

The Deteriorated State of our Schools. [California]
(Huntington Beach Union High School District, Huntington Beach, CA, 1999)
The Huntington Beach Union High School District operates nine schools with over 14,000 students in grades 9-12. Every one of the high schools is in desperate need of repair. Roofs leak. Foundations are cracked, and buildings are sinking. Antiquated plumbing and electrical systems need repair. Every school in the District is facing critical repair needs that will only get worse if they are neglected. This discusses the problems and how the school district is facing them.

Tennessee Public Infrastructure Needs Inventory Assessment for FY 1998
Green, Harry A.; Norman, John F,.; McClure, C. Bennett, II
(Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Nashville, Jan 1999)
This report represents the first effort by any public or private agency or organization to provide a comprehensive assessment of Tennessee's public infrastructure needs. The report is divided into two sections. The first part contains survey information on general infrastructure needs that was collected from local governments and other entities. The second part examines K-12 education infrastructure needs. All of the states 138 K-12 public school systems were surveyed. Results from the local-government surveys indicate that $13.7 billion is needed for infrastructure projects and improvements. These improvements included transportation projects, capital- improvement plans, mandated requirements, and water and waste- water accounts. The K-12 public education survey uncovered infrastructure needs totaling $2.5 billion. Needed improvements include basic repairs to bring all schools up to at least a "good" condition. (35 appendices provide further information.)
TO ORDER: The Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. Tel:615-741-3012.

How Old Are America's Public Schools? [Issue Brief]
Rowand, Cassandra
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , 1999)
The condition of the nation's schools continues to be a problem because of they are becoming increasingly obsolete and contain environmental hazards. This report provides data on the increase in school construction between 1950 and 1969 (corresponding to the Baby Boom generation); the percent of schools in oldest, moderate, and newest condition; and the condition of the schools by school characteristics as of 1995. Findings show the average public school building age is 42 years, almost half were built between 1950 and 1969; 73 percent have undergone at least one major renovation; and of the schools built in 1985 or later, 59 percent were connected to the Internet in 1995, whereas 42 percent were connected among schools built before 1969 and renovated before 1980 (or never renovated). 2p.
Report NO: NCES-1999-048

Rebuilding the D.C. Schools: Final Report of the D.C. Public Schools External Transition Project.
Council of the Great City Schools
(Council of the Great City Schools, Washington, DC , Dec 1998)
The Superintendent of the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) requested a work-group study to make recommendations for carrying out a transition plan for the first 6 months of the superintendency and then to lay the groundwork for moving forward in long-term planning by prioritizing areas for the second 6-month period. This report summarizes the work of the transition teams and describes what the work groups and Superintendent found when first coming to the DCPS as well as what needs to be done and by whom. It provides an overview of the project, examines the recommendations made and the findings and issues discovered, and assesses the management and operational functions in the following areas: special education; buildings and facilities management; finance and procurement; personnel and human resources; management information services and technology; legal services; and communications. Final sections summarize the school system's goals for the second 6-months of the superintendency and the steps to achieve them, and highlights some of the ways in which the public can assess progress by the DCPS. 72p.

A Back to School Special Report on the Baby Boom Echo. America's Schools are Overcrowded and Wearing Out. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education , Sep 08, 1998)
The children of the baby boom generation, the baby boom echo, are overwhelming the capacity of U.S. schools. This report describes how increased enrollments are affecting schools in Maryland, Georgia, Colorado, Washington State, and California. Each state report draws on specific examples of enrollment growth that were taken from school districts. The report opens with an assessment of California's schools and how that state leads the nation in projected student growth. This discussion is followed by data on Colorado, which is expected to have marked increases in grades 9 to 12. Georgia, which has one of the fastest growing public school populations and which plans to spend about 4 billion dollars on school facilities by the year 2002, is described next. Growth in Maryland is highly suburban in nature and spread among bedroom communities, whereas Washington has dramatic increases throughout the state, setting the pace for school overcrowding in the Pacific Northwest. Numerous tables offer data on birth history and projections, enrollment numbers in schools, percent changes in enrollment throughout the nation, enrollment for grades K-12 in public and private schools, states with the largest increases, enrollment projections, data on high school graduates, the number and age of classroom teachers in public and private schools, and other information. 32p.

BIA School Construction. Hearing Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, 105th Congress, Second Session on The Current Condition of BIA Schools.
(United States Senate, Committee on Indian Affairs, Washington, DC , Jun 10, 1998)
The Committee on Indian Affairs of the United States Senate sought testimony regarding the current condition of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools; reviewed the BIA selection process for building and repairing these schools; and discussed innovative measures for financing BIA schools. Among the information presented is the presence of a tremendous $1.5 billion backlog of needed repairs, renovations, and replacement for all federally owned and operated BIA schools. Half of BIA schools are over 30 years old, and one quarter of the schools are over 50 years old all of which fail to meet current codes and standards. Overall, BIA schools are generally in poorer physical condition than even central city schools, have less technology than the average American school, and have funding that is equally at crisis levels. Numerous statements and attachments illustrating these observations conclude the report. 446p.
Report NO: Senate-Hrg-105-717

Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Hodges, V. Pauline
(Presented at Invitational Conference on Rural School Facilities , May 02, 1998)
This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural districts' economic problems, and the need to upgrade school facilities. It provides a context for improving rural facilities, including discussions on ways to upgrade systems for technology needs, energy efficiency, and handicap accessibility. Additionally, it offers an analysis of schools in the pre-industrial age, prior to World War II, post war, and in the age of technology. The paper presents some of the minimum standards for a quality facility, including space standards, heating/ventilation/air-conditioning requirements, public review, and federal funding. Final comments address how inadequate educational facilities can affect instruction, and the role of the school facility within a rural community. 17p.

Forum on School Construction and Modernization. Adobe PDF
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Apr 08, 1998)
This report discusses the need for school modernization assistance, the impact of inadequate school facilities on student learning, school construction planning to receive construction bond allocations, and examples of ways modernization bonds help schools. It concludes with a summary of the Forum on School Construction and Modernization held on April 8, 1998, in Phoenix, Arizona. Forum participants discuss the following questions: why it is important to build, repair, and modernize schools; and whether there are successful stories where buildings have been remodeled or constructed that are making a difference in the way children learn. 14p.

California's School Facilities Predicament. Adobe PDF
(EdSource, Inc. Palo Alto, CA , Apr 1998)
This report provides an overview of the difficulties that California faces in determining how much money to invest in school facilities. The text describes the dimensions of the school facility crisis as a whole and looks at the ways in which facilities can affect the quality of education and student performance. It also explores the various options open to both the state and local school districts as they address this challenge. It argues that making a realistic projection about the need is a first step toward a solution. After that, school officials, policymakers, and the public must agree on the minimum quality that they believe is acceptable for school buildings and the optimum quality needed for educational improvements. Decision makers are reminded that schools must meet federal mandates for safety and accessibility. Subsequently, some standards for school facilities are presented. Stakeholders also need to determine the appropriate mix of state and local funding, and one suggestion recommends that the state commit more funds to help schools with maintenance costs. Other possible strategies such as state bonds, local taxes, and developer fees are discussed. 18p.
TO ORDER: EdSource, 4151 Middlefield Rd., Suite 100, Palo Alto, CA 94303-4743; Tel: 650-857-9604

Rebuilding America's Schools.
(Organizations Concerned About Rural Education, Washington, DC , Apr 1998)
A videotape examines how two rural communities (Charlotte City, Virginia; E. Yuma County, Colorado) either built additional facilities or better prepared their students with today's necessary job skills by using innovative partnership approaches with local industry and the community. It briefly highlights the appalling physical condition of many of the nation's schools, emphasizing how poor rural communities and small towns have some of the biggest problems in maintaining and/or improving their local school buildings and level of educational quality. It then examines two such school district's responses to these problems, one through a partnership with business, being able to improve the education of its students and prepare them with the job skills needed in today's market; and the other, adopting a community- based solution, found the answer to developing a $3 million recreation and rehabilitation center. Accompanying the videotape is a facilitator's guide for conducting a workshop on ways to gain community/business support in upgrading and replacing their schools on an innovative grass-roots level. 25p.
TO ORDER: Organizations Concerned About Rural Education, 901 Monroe Street, Suite 1507, Arlington, VA 22201; Tel: 703-469-1443

Remarks As Prepared for Delivery By U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC.
Green, Julie
(Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , Feb 05, 1998)
The U.S. Secretary of Education, Richard W. Riley, addressed the American Institute of Architects on the problem of school safety resulting from building age and/or building code violations. The Secretary stated that the problem is a large national embarrassment and reveals the Clinton Administration's response through new construction bonds and tax credits for holders of these bonds. Mr. Riley indicated that the school construction explosion is beginning and that this affords architects and their colleagues an opportunity to create better and more engaging learning environments. Finally, the Secretary stated that the Administration is seeking new ways to engage Americans in the process of school designs that can be vital centers of the community, and challenges architects to build buildings that not only accommodates the schools' functional needs, but can lift children up towards the information age. 5p.

Wyoming Department of Education Statewide School Facilities Assessment
(Wyoming Department of Education, Jan 26, 1998)
In August 1997, the Wyoming Department of Education commissioned an assessment of all buildings owned and operated by school districts throughout the state. The study, in response to Enrolled Act 2 of the 1997 Special Legislative Session, covered 1,221 buildings totaling 22.9 million gross square feet. As a part of the assessment, building condition, educational suitability, and technology readiness were evaluated. The need for additional space to accommodate student enrollment was also calculated. The study findings and recommendations are included.

D.C. Public School 1997 Repair Program and Facilities Master Plan. Hearing before the Subcommittee on the District of Columbia of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 1998)
A Congressional hearing dealt with issues related to the repair program and facilities master plan of the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). The transcribed comments and prepared statements are supplemented by letters, statements, and other documents submitted for the record. 173p.
Report NO: Serial No.105-123

TO ORDER: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402.

A National Bipartisan Survey on School Modernization. Adobe PDF
(Greenberg Quinlan Research and The Tarrance Group, Jan 1998)
The American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association commissioned this bipartisan survey of registered voters on the issue of school modernization (renovating existing schools, building new schools due to enrollment increases, and upgrading all schools for educational technology). Six key findings are described in detail. 7p.

What Has Created California's School Facilities Predicament? Adobe PDF
(EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA , 1998)
The growth in California's student population currently exceeds the peak years of the baby boom generation by more than one million students. This increase, combined with deferred maintenance, has created a strain on the state's educational facilities. An analysis of this predicament is presented in this bulletin. It describes why California needs more school buildings and offers some statistics on the steady increases in enrollment. The state's new initiative to reduce class sizes has also created a demand for more classroom space. Furthermore, the state faces the prospect of investing billions of dollars to repair, maintain, and modernize schools. Many schools, due to age, present special challenges with regard to maintenance, asbestos, and radon. It is argued that educational facilities play an important part in education and that educators must recognize the ways that facilities directly affect student achievement. However, some innovations, such as smaller class size, will mean new school designs. Although reduced class sizes are desirable, they are more expensive and many schools already lack sufficient funds. Some of the actions that Californians can take to improve the present condition of schools are provided. A chart estimates the state's school facility needs for the next 5 years. 4p.

School Facilities. Reported Condition and Costs To Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Washington, DC , Dec 1997)
This report presents information on the funding required to repair Native American educational facilities, the condition the school buildings, adequacy of the school environment for instruction, and the extent to which schools can meet future technology and communication requirements. Compared to schools nationally, it reports that BIA schools are generally in poorer physical condition, often lack key facilities requirements for education reform, have unsatisfactory environmental factors, and are less able to support computer and communications technology. 22p.
Report NO: GAO-HEHS-98-47

School Facilities: Declining Conditions, Declining Opportunities.
(Brown University, Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory, Providence, R.I. , Nov 1997)
Declining physical conditions of school buildings, overcrowding, and lack of electrical systems to support new technology are rampant in schools throughout the United States, particularly in schools that can least afford to correct these problems. This document addresses the question of why school condition needs to be addressed, the major causes of the current condition of America's schools, the role states can play in funding school facilities, and the alternative mechanisms for funding facilities projects. 14p.

The Impact of the Baby Boom Echo on U.S. Public School Enrollments
Bare, John
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC , Oct 1997)
Children of the Baby Boom generation have set off a population explosion in U.S. schools. This dramatic enrollment growth, known as the Baby Boom echo, began in the nation's elementary schools in 1984, and elementary enrollment has increased annually since then. At the secondary level, enrollment increases began in 1991 and are expected to continue through the year 2007. Combined public and private high school enrollment is expected to reach 16.4 million by 2007, a 13 percent increase from 1997, and total enrollment is expected to reach 54.4 million by 2006. While the Baby Boom echo is the primary reason for this increase, other key reasons include: a higher birth rate among Hispanics and other minorities, increases in immigration, especially in point-of-entry cities, more children enrolled in prekindergarten and kindergarten, and a larger share of students remaining in school to get their diplomas. There is a distinct regional pattern to effects of the Baby Boom echo, with increases in western states, and declines in the Northeast and most of the Midwest. Rapid and uneven growth, which places burdens on state and local education agencies, will be characteristic of future enrollment changes. The number of classroom teachers is expected to increase from 3.1 million in fall 1997 to 3.3 million in fall 2007, and expenditures for public elementary and secondary schools are expected to increase 22 percent from 1996-97 to 2006-07. A table lists the 10 public school districts with the largest enrollment increases, and a second table shows enrollment in kindergarten through grade 12 by region and state through 2007. 4p.

School Facilities: A Challenge for New Jersey.
Ponessa, Joan; Nichols, James
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Oct 1997)
Details problems facing New Jersey's school facilities, including overcrowding, lack of information on facility conditions, and old buildings. The New Jersey Department of Education's role in facilities is described, along with a call for more active state involvement in facility planning, specification, and funding. 14p.

Here Come the Teenagers: A Back to School Report on the Baby Boom Echo. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington , Aug 1997)
The increasing number of young people filling U.S. classrooms will be a defining feature of American education for years to come. This report, which includes a message from U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, describes the impact of the rising number of young people and gives special attention to the large number of teenagers who comprise the "baby boom echo." The report makes the following points: (1) there may be no short-term problem of rising enrollment; (2) the majority of young people who make up the baby boom echo will be teenagers; (3) states are meeting the challenge of overcrowded schools with varying success; (4) some research has linked student achievement and behavior to physical building conditions and overcrowding; (5) teacher standards cannot be lowered in times of higher enrollments; (6) a new consensus much be formed to that all citizens see their local schools as "centers of community"; and (7) rising high school enrollments will eventually have a profound impact on higher education. Sidebars highlight the effects of overcrowding in high schools across the nation. 38p.

District of Columbia Goals 2000: Rebuilding Public School Facilities to 21st Century Standards. Interim Report Goals 2000 Panel. Revised May 7, 1997. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC; 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 07, 1997)
The Goals 2000 is a national effort to improve education in American schools so students can compete with other students throughout the world. This report is the District of Columbia's translation of the national initiative reflecting its efforts to improve student education that addresses the Goals 2000 objectives. It incorporates input from the working groups and ideas from the local community and from current research on educational reform and facility design. The report's focus and organization is on the seven goals outlined in DC Goals 2000; the interface between educational programs and school facilities. It discusses each goal and the recommendations pertinent to how facility related standards or improvements can support the reaching of the goal. Goals examined include the following issues: academic standards and career preparation, staff excellence, school governance and decision-making autonomy, school safety, managements and funding mechanisms for public education, school renovation standards, and family and community involvement. 21p.

The State of Washington's School Finance System. Adobe PDF
Plecki, Margaret L.
(Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association , Mar 1997)
The largest share of Washington's operating budget is devoted to K-12 education. This paper portrays critical features of Washington's school finance system. It first examines current and historical sources and levels of K-12 funding. Next, it analyzes school spending and outlines basic principles underlying Washington's system of collecting and distributing school revenue. The paper also examines school-construction funding and the condition of school facilities, and concludes with a look at the fiscal challenges Washington is likely to face in the near future. Challenges include the increasing number of bilingual students, the need for extensive school repair and replacement, increasing fiscal pressures, and an input-driven funding system that is not aligned with a performance-based educational system. (Contains 16 references.) 18p.

Designing School Facilities for Learning. Probe: Developing Education Policy Issues. Adobe PDF
(National Education Knowledge Association, Washington, DC , 1997)
Researchers have discovered that the physical condition of a school can make a difference in student achievement. To further this knowledge, seven articles on school environments, ranging from school repair to strategies for infrastructure funding, are presented. The first article, "The Cruel Conditions of Our Nation's Schools," (Michael R. Williams) describes how deferred maintenance in school buildings has raised school repair costs to $112 billion over the next 3 years. Some of the questions raised are addressed in the second article, "Probe Roundtable", which reports on a discussion of experts on learning and school facilities and focuses on questions that must be answered so as to help policymakers and community leaders manage their schools' facility needs. School design and consensus is covered in the third article, "Design and Consensus," (Julie Miller) and features an example of an innovative planning process. Ways in which architects and educators have translated research on school reform into workable plans for school facilities are discussed in "School Facilities Fit for Reform" (Anne C. Lewis), followed by details on how color, lighting, and other elements can be combined to aid student achievement in "School Sense" (Ullik Rouk). Many communities need infrastructure funding and ways in which to raise funds, without seeking voter-approved bond issues; these strategies are detailed in "The Question That Won't Go Away" (Lynn W. Zempel). The next article, "Managing in the States" (Brian Curry), describes how school are being forced to find creative solutions to the increasing demands being placed on aging schools. The publication concludes with "A Role for the Federal Government in School Infrastructure?" (Neil Strawser) 64p.

School Facilities: Condition, Problems and Solutions. Adobe PDF
McCall, H. Carl
(New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany , 1997)
This report summarizes some of the recent reports on school building needs and describes the initiatives in New York State's budget designed to address them. It also describes the environment in which school building and maintenance decisions are made, with particular attention to factors discouraging or impeding successful strategies for school construction and maintenance. Drawing upon this analysis and the results of audits, the report includes recommendations for improving the system. Some recommendations for meeting the needs in school building and maintenance include better enforcement of existing regular requirements, correcting the problems with aid formulas, reforming the existing annual inspections in school buildings, improved capital planning, mandated relief actions to decrease the cost of school construction and rehabilitation, and better reporting of facility conditions. Detailed tables list the average age of buildings, 1996 to 1997 enrollment, 10-year capital spending, and other information on each school district. 75p.

The State of Municipal Services in the 1990s: Crowding, Building Conditions and Staffing in New York City Public Schools.
Rein, Andrew S.
(Citizens Budget Commission, New York, NY , 1997)
This report assesses how the NY city public schools performed under the combined pressure of scarce fiscal resources and increased enrollment. Performance is evaluated on three vital measures of education quality--facility crowding, building conditions and class sizes. The results indicate that performance in each of these categories was disappointing. Findings show that crowding increased in school buildings, with almost half of the city's 1,006 public school buildings being utilized at or above 100 percent of capacity. Class sizes also increased. The average class sizes in 1990 were 30 for high school, 28 for grades four through nine, and 25 for kindergarten through grade three. By 1996 the size for these classes grew to 32, 26, and 29, respectively. Furthermore, buildings that were already in poor shape deteriorated. Unfortunately, the School Board was only able to allocate 20 percent of the necessary investment to bring the school buildings up to date. Finally, academic achievement among public school students remained poor -- 66 percent of third graders and 71 percent of sixth graders were reading at one full grade level below their expected level. 31p.

Physical Environment and Student Safety in South Georgia Schools. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung; Morgan, P. Lena
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA , Nov 1996)
The preservation of school safety should be a primary commitment of all educators. This paper presents findings of a study that examined school facility safety in 27 Georgia schools. Data were gathered from a survey of 9 elementary, 11 middle, and 7 high schools in south Georgia. The surveys elicited information related to both school-site safety and school-building safety. Respondents assessed the condition of their school buildings with a school-building evaluation instrument. The data show a significant relationship at the .05 level between school safety and school-building age for the middle schools. The relationship between the school-building safety score and school-building age was found to be statistically significant for middle and elementary schools at the .10 level. The general rating for school-facility safety was above average, except in areas such as corridors, parking lots, and playgrounds. Four tables are included. (Contains 8 references.) 12p.

Building Our Future: Making School Facilities Ready for the 21st Century. Report of the NASBE Study Group on School Infrastructure.
(National Association of State Boards of Education, Alexandria, VA , Oct 1996)
This report presents study results on the condition of the nation's school infrastructure and provides recommendations for creating a system of comprehensive strategic planning that will support the creation of high quality learning environments for all children. The report highlights the efforts of a number of schools, districts, states, and private corporations that are creating innovative ways to produce high quality school infrastructure. Chapters examine each of the following recommendations made by the Study Group: (1) planning and implementing building designs that help achieve the district's educational plans; (2) creating mechanisms to help districts provide adequate technology and technological support for students and compel educators and local boards to integrate technology into their educational plan; (3) ensuring that teachers and support staff have access to state-of-the-art professional space, technology, and technical assistance in attaining state and district education goals and implementing reform; and (4) encouraging state policymakers and local districts to work together to create funding mechanisms that ensure all students have access to genuinely good schools. (Contains 31 references.) 28p.
TO ORDER: National Association of State Boards of Education, 277 South Washington Street, Suite 100, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-684-4000

Building Schools for the Next Century: An Affordable Strategy for Repairing and Modernizing New York City's School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Delaney, Richard J.; Brecher, Charles
(Citizens Budget Commission, New York, NY , Jun 1996)
Due to a lack of funding, New York City's public school buildings fall significantly short of providing adequate classroom space and technology support. Some policy changes that could promote more intensive use of school buildings and thus provide a comprehensive and affordable solution to this problem are described. It is suggested that instruction be extended throughout the year so that the extended school hours would allow two shifts of children to be instructed in the same building over the course of a single day without overcrowding the facility or reducing the amount of instruction each child receives. Using each school more intensively also would reduce the number of buildings the school system needs. This would allow the School Board to target its limited resources to create a network of facilities that would support better learning. It is recognized that instituting such changes would place demands on school administrators, families, and social service institutions, but such demands are not insurmountable. 60p.

Quality of Life...Investing in Our Children's Future. The Case for Building and Maintaining Our Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.; American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA. , 1996)
This study examines the problem of deferred maintenance in U.S. public schools, including the repair funding required to comply with federal mandates in the next 3 years; the estimated percentage of schools needing repairs listed by state; and the changes in apportionment of state budgets from 1987 to 1994. Public school maintenance funding trends and options are discussed, including lease financing and privatization. A model for passing a bond issue as illustrated through the Coalition for Adequate School Housing (Sacramento, California) is examined. 19p.

School Facilities: America's Schools Report Differing Conditions. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC , 1996)
A 1995 General Accounting Office (GAO) study found that about one-third of schools nationwide serving 14 million students reported needing extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings. This document presents findings of a GAO followup study that identified the differences in the: (1) condition of schools; (2) amount of funding needed to repair or upgrade facilities; and (3) number of students attending schools in inadequate condition by the following: location (state and region), community type, percentage of minority and poor students, and school level and size. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of about 10,000 public schools in over 5,000 associated school districts. The sample was derived from the Department of Education's 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey and elicited a 78 percent response rate. The bulk of the study was conducted between January 1994 and February 1995, with additional analyses conducted through May 1996. Schools in unsatisfactory condition are concentrated in central cities and serve large populations of poor or minority students. Similarly, virtually all communities, even some of the wealthiest, are grappling with how to address school infrastructure needs while balancing them with other community priorities. 109 p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-96-103

School Facilities: Profiles of School Condition by State. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC , 1996)
Reports on the conditions of America's school facilities, this report organizes state-level information gathered into individual profiles for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report presents new information about the roles that individual states play in support of school facilities. Each profile describes the financial and technical assistance provided by each state as well as the facilities information collected and maintained by that state. Each profile also presents the following state-specific results from the GAO's 1994 survey of school facilities previously not available in a state-by-state format: the condition of school buildings and building features; the adequacy of environmental conditions; the extent to which facilities are meeting the functional requirements of education reform and technology; the reported range of amounts needed to bring schools into good overall condition; and the money needed to address federal mandates for managing and correcting environmental hazards and providing access to programs for the disabled. Data were obtained through two separate collection efforts: a 1994 survey of school-building conditions at approximately 10,000 schools; and telephone interviews conducted in 1995 with state education agency officials. 193p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-96-148

Children in America's Schools with Bill Moyers. [Videotape].
Hayden, Jeffrey
(South Carolina Educational Television Network, Columbia, SC , 1996)
A 2-hour videotape presentation explores the crisis in school building quality in the United States as illustrated by those public schools found in Ohio; the challenges dilapidated school facilities impose on child health, safety, and the physical learning environment; and the difference that money makes in providing high-quality educational facilities. Through comparisons between well-funded and under-funded schools it reveals how funding inequities create severely unequal school facilities and unequal educational opportunities. The viewer guide explains how current school funding methods result in unequal schools; reviews the lessons learned from attempting to pass bond issues for facility improvement and what can be done to find funding that creates equal opportunities for all students; and discusses the limited access to learning opportunities available through technology and what can be done to help students make full use of technology to help them be competitive in a global, technically rich economy. It also explains how Charlotte-Mecklenburg school system used multiple solutions, including community and business collaborations to upgrade its school facilities. Final discussions explore legal remedies for school facility improvement and eight strategies for getting started in developing school funding opportunities.
TO ORDER: South Carolina ETV Network, P.O. Box 11000, Columbia, SC 29211; Tel: 800-553-7752 (Toll Free)

A Foundation To Uphold: A Study of Facilities Conditions at U.S. Colleges and Universities
Kaiser, Harvey H.; Davis, Jerry S.
(Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, 1996)
This report presents the results of a study of the condition of higher education facilities in the United States and offers recommendations to improve the deteriorating state of such facilities. The 1995 survey examined statistical, financial, and operational data gathered through mailed questionnaires returned by 400 institutions. The results indicated that there is an estimated $26 billion in total costs to eliminate accumulated deferred maintenance, of which $5.7 billion are urgent needs. The report concludes that the existing large amount of deferred maintenance represents a threat to the ability of institutions of higher education to fulfill their missions, and that statewide agencies and individual institutions will have to make difficult choices for resource allocation. Three appendixes provide the survey research report, copies of the survey instruments, and a list of survey respondents. 199
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446; Fax: 703-549-2772

A Statewide Study of Student Achievement and Behavior and School Building Condition. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Dallas, TX , Sep 1995)
This paper presents findings of a study that examined the relationship between student achievement/behavior and school-building condition. A survey sent to all high schools in North Dakota elicited a 60 percent response rate. The Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills was used as a measure of student achievement and the numbers of disciplinary incidents as an indicator of student behavior. Findings indicate that a positive relationship existed between student achievement and building condition and between student behavior and school condition. Study results were compared with other studies that used similar methodologies with different populations. 21p.

School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Apr 1995)
Findings of a General Accounting Office study that examined the extent to which America's schools have the physical capacity to support learning into the 21st century. Specifically, it looked at facilities requirements, environmental conditions, educational technologies, and facility infrastructure. Findings indicate that although most schools met many key facilities requirements and environmental conditions for education reform and improvement, most were unprepared in critical areas for the 21st century. Most schools did not fully use modern technology and lacked access to the information superhighway. Forty percent of the schools reported that their facilities could not meet the functional requirements of laboratory science or large-group instruction. Over half reported unsatisfactory flexibility of instructional space necessary to implement many effective teaching strategies. Overall, schools in central cities and schools with minority populations above 50 percent were more likely to fall short of adequate technology elements and have a greater number of unsatisfactory environmental conditions than other schools. 71p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-95-95

School Facilities: Condition of America's Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Washington, DC , 1995)
Presents information on the amount of funding the nation's schools need to improve inadequate educational facilities, and on the overall physical condition and prevalence of schools that need major repairs. The data project that the nation's schools need about $112 billion to repair or upgrade facilities. Of this, $11 billion (10 percent) is needed over the next 3 years to comply with federal mandates that require schools to make all programs accessible to all students and to remove or correct hazardous substances. About one-third of the schools, which were distributed nationwide, reported the need for extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings. Almost 60 percent of the schools reported at leastone major building feature in disrepair, requiring extensive repair or replacement. Most of these schools had multiple problems. 68p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-95-61

Technology: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC. , 1995)
Findings of a national survey of school facilities concerning whether America's schools have appropriate technologies, such as computers, and the facility infrastructure to support these technologies are reported. Ten thousand schools were surveyed, augmented with visits to 10 selected school districts. Remarks address: (1) the need for technology in the nation's schools, and (2) problems schools report having in meeting those needs. It was found that, overall, the nation's schools were not even close to meeting their basic technology needs. Most schools do not fully use modern technology, and not all students have equal access to facilities that can support education into the 21st century, even those attending school in the same district. 26p.
Report NO: GAO/T-HEHS-95-127

Overcrowding in Urban Schools.
Burnett, Gary
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY , 1995)
The New York City Citizens' Commission on Planning for Enrollment Growth submitted a report on overcrowding in New York City schools that may serve as a guide to other cities striving to provide an effective education for ever-increasing numbers of students. Research on the impact of school overcrowding has been inconclusive, but there is some evidence that, especially in schools with a high proportion of students living in poverty, overcrowding can have adverse impacts on learning. It is unquestionable that it has a direct, and often severe, impact on the logistics of the school day. In cases where increases in school enrollment are expected to continue, the only guaranteed long-term means of relieving overcrowding is the expensive and time-consuming process of building new schools or of renovating and adding to existing schools. In cases where increases in enrollment may be temporary or where stop-gap measures are needed while new schools are being built, there are a number of short-term solutions. These strategies, in general, fall into two categories: (1) finding new space, whether through leasing, collaborative arrangements, relocating administrative space, or the district-wide redistribution of space, and (2) using time to use existing space more fully; extended-day and year-round programs are central to this effort. Adequate space for learning must be recognized as a fundamental educational necessity.

Bursting at the Seams: Report of the Citizens' Commission on Planning for Enrollment Growth. [New York City]
Fernandez, Ricardo R.; Timpane, P. Michael
(New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY , 1995)
The independent Citizens' Commission on Planning for Enrollment Growth for New York City has concluded that the school system is experiencing explosive enrollment growth, and that current strategies are incapable of dealing with this growth. Recommendations for coping with this increase include: (1) implementation of a pilot plan to convert schools to a year-round calendar; (2) increasing relative use of leasing, rather than new construction, as a strategy to increase space; (3) expansion of efforts to form collaboratives with higher education and nonprofit organizations; (4) expanding the relocation of administrative offices from school space; (5) rezoning overutilized schools; (6) promoting interdistrict cooperation; (7) establishing magnet and special program schools in underutilized facilities; (8) reforming placement for special education; (9) using connections with the business community to find space; (10) seeking increased federal funding; and (11) establishing a bonding authority dedicated to school space. 75p.

The Condition of Americas Schools. Adobe PDF
Honeyman, David S.; Sayles, Karen
(Florida University, College of Education, Gainesville, FL , 1995)
Several studies have documented the condition of U.S. school facilities from the early 80s to the present. This report provides an overview of these major studies, presenting data that assess school construction over the decades, the levels of deferred maintenance and proportion of local school budgets devoted to maintenance, the condition and adequacy of school facilities, and the average cost of construction and replacement costs of school buildings. Each study indicates that many school buildings are either inadequate to house current student populations, are inadequate for current modes of instruction, or require major repair or renovation. Among the other findings are that the average building was built in 1946 and that deferred maintenance on this average building approached $300,000. It also indicates that nearly 5 million children attend school in substandard buildings and that the funds available for correcting these conditions are often absorbed by non-deferable expenses such as utility bills. (Contains 15 references). 13p.

Designing Places for Learning.
Meek, Anne, Ed.
(Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA; Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1995)
This book presents information about the condition of schools around the United States. It also describes the link between architecture and academic success and offers suggestions for improving the design of existing and future school buildings. Eleven articles look at schools as places of deep meaning and show how that view can alter approaches to the design, construction, and renovation of schools. Following the preface, "The Importance of the School as Place," by Anne Meek, the articles include: (1) "Systemic School Reform: Implications for Architecture" (Edward B. Fiske); (2) "Design Patterns for American Schools: Responding to the Reform Movement" (Gary T. Moore and Jeffery A. Lackney); (3) "Place as a Form of Knowledge" (Steven Bingler); (4) "Using Cultural Information To Create Schools That Work" (Sara Snyder Crumpacker); (5) "Revitalizing an Older School" (Harold L. Hawkins); (6) "Crow Island School: 54 Years Young" (Anne Meek with Steven Landfried); (7) "Planning Your School's Technology Future" (Bob Valiant); (8) "How Schools Are Redesigning Their Space" (Anne Taylor); (9) "Opening Doors for Students with Disabilities: A Photo Essay" (Krista W. Barton with DeeLynn Smith); (10) "Buildings Matter: The Connection between School Building Conditions and Student Achievement in Washington, D.C." (Maureen M. Berner); and (11) "Wasting Our Assets: The Costs of Neglecting the Nation's Education Infrastructure" (Andrew C. Lemer). Each chapter contains references. A list of resources (written and contact organizations) is included. 213p.

Survey of School Facility Expenditures in Virginia. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(Presentation to the American Educational Finance Association Conference , Apr 1994)
To fill in gaps of information regarding the condition of school facilities in America, a survey was conducted for Virginia's schools. The results are reported here. For this study, a survey instrument was developed to obtain data on several phases of school facilities in the Commonwealth. The instrument contained 26 separate items to which local school personnel were asked to respond. Survey items were grouped around three main parts of the study: capital improvement projects, maintenance projects, and inventory systems. The population of the study included all 136 school divisions of the state, with a total of 121 divisions responding. The findings show that a high percentage of systems have an up-to-date capital improvement program in place and that these programs are concurrent with the state mandated, long-range plan approved by the school board. For the year under study, it is estimated that maintenance costs will consume approximately $200 million dollars. This represents only half of the total projected need. If school divisions could bring all buildings up to the standard of the best school, then approximately $1.5 billion would be needed. Inventory monitoring seems important in all districts, with 92 percent of school divisions keeping an up-to-date inventory. Some recommendations are offered. 22p.

Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Structures and Their Funding. Adobe PDF
Pool, Dennis L.
(Paper presented at the Annual Rural and Small School Conference, Manhattan, KS , Oct 1993)
In 1991, Nebraska school superintendents and building administrators were surveyed about the physical condition of school facilities, their adequacy for instruction, and each district's fiscal capacity to maintain and construct school facilities. Responses were analyzed by five categories: class (size) of school district, quartile of valuation per pupil, population change category on the 1990 county census, time period of facility construction, and instructional type of building (grade range). Overall, 40 percent of administrators felt that their facilities impeded desired changes in instructional programming, and 55 percent of buildings were not completely handicapped accessible. However, there were significant differences among districts by size, fiscal capacity, and recent population change. Small school districts reported higher rates of inadequate buildings, low sinking fund rates, little bond debt, and little confidence that bond issues would be successful. K-12 school buildings were reported only in small districts, usually districts experiencing population decline; most buildings were 40-90 years old and contained uncomfortable and obsolete classrooms. The inequity resulting from dependence on property tax for funding of school facilities construction means that poorer districts do not have the potential to construct or upgrade facilities. Statewide recommendations are outlined. 9p.

Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment. [Idaho]
Feb 1993)
Legislation enacted in 1991 called for a comprehensive assessment of Idaho school facilities and established the Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment Committee. This resulting report identifies the nature and extent of Idaho school facility needs. The assessment included an inventory of all school facilities used for instruction; an inventory of technology used by the schools; and an assessment of the physical condition of the schools, including suitability for educational purposes, ability to accommodate new technology, accessibility, and adaptability for alternative and non-traditional uses. In addition, the assessment calculated the capacity of existing permanent school buildings relative to current and projected enrollment using conservative but realistic space use criteria. Cost estimates were prepared covering repair, renovation, and modernization of existing buildings; adaptation of buildings to effectively use new technology; and provision of additional space to appropriately house existing enrollment. Future enrollment in Idaho schools was also forecast to provide an indication of the extent of future facility needs. In accomplishing the assessment, the Committee developed a comprehensive database of information which was provided to the Department of Education for its maintenance and continuing use, along with a computer model to estimate space needs. (Appendices contain assessment-related materials.) 433p.

Deteriorating School Facilities and Student Learning. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Frazier, Linda M.
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,Eugene,OR, 1993)
Many facilities in American public schools are in disrepair, a situation negatively affecting the morale, health, and learning of students and teachers. Limited research shows that children's ability to learn is affected by the school environment.Many schools postpone repairs during tight financial times to pay for academic programs. Some school officials and communities are pursuing innovative, grassroots solutions to maintaining school facilities. Billions of dollars are needed to refurbish schools and construct new facilities, requiring strong federal support.

Canadian Schoolhouse in the Red. The First National Study of School. Facilities. Adobe PDF
Hansen, Shirley J.
(Ontario Association of School Business Officials, Toronto , 1993)
A Canadian national study provides provincial data on the country's publicly funded school facilities including school building age, student achievement and school condition, fiscal condition, maintenance, and energy usage. The study reveals that, despite an aggressive building program in the past two decades, most of the country's school buildings have exceeded their life expectancy, and too often new construction has been done at the expense of needed maintenance. It also shows that one in every six Canadian schools are considered inadequate places for learning. Appendices present research procedures and respondent data, and comparable data regarding U.S. school facilities. 28p.

Pacific Region School Finance and Facilities Study. Adobe PDF
Kawakami, Alice J., Ed.
(Pacific Region Educational Laboratory, Honolulu, HI , 1993)
A study of school financing and facilities was conducted in the ten American-affiliated Pacific entities of the United States: American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Hawaii, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Republic of Palau. School finance data was collected for the 1991 fiscal year, and school facilities data were collected from 1991 through 1992. The study found a wide range in the financing of schools in the region as well as in the availability and condition of school facilities. 60p.

No Room for Johnny: a New Approach to the School Facilities Crisis. Adobe PDF
Shapell, Nathan, et al
(Little Hoover Commission, Sacramento, CA , Jun 30, 1992)
A study was conducted to discover ways to improve California school district facilities improvement processes so that the state can accommodate the increasing numbers of students projected by the year 2000. This report presents findings and recommendations that address the following three primary problem areas the state confronts: funding; process; and policy requirements. The first issue addressed is that California cannot afford to be an endless source for school facilities spending and that its primary interest in school facilities is to ensure equity for students. The second issue is that California is micro-managing school construction projects, thus delaying the completion of and driving up the cost of school facilities. The third issue is that California state policies and requirements are either blocking or not promoting long-range planning and creative asset management practices for school districts. It stresses that each area hampers districts at a time when they need to move quickly and decisively to meet the needs of students. A new funding dynamic is recommended that places California in partnership with districts not able to meet their needs, but still allows them autonomy over their own schools. 138p.

Report of the Governor's Task Force on School Construction. Adobe PDF
(Maryland State Interagency Committee on School Construction, Baltimore,MD, 1992)
In October 1992, Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer established a 21-member task force to conduct an in-depth study and review 8 specific areas of the state's public school construction program. This report summarizes the committee's activities, findings, and recommendations. The first recommendation, to review project requests from the 24 local school systems for the next 5 to 10 years, was based on findings concerning projected enrollment increases, aging and outmoded facilities, and plans for year-round facilities use. 95p.

Schoolhouse in the Red: A Guidebook for Cutting Our Losses. Powerful Recommendations for Improving America's School Facilities.
Hansen, Shirley J.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1992)
Guidelines for improving the quality of school facilities in the United States are presented in this document. Sections discuss each of the following issues and offer recommendations for improvement in the areas of: the learning environment; the age and condition of America's schools; maintenance; indoor air quality; energy efficiency; school finance; and leadership. Twelve tables, a glossary, a list of conference participants, and a school facility evaluation form are included. (10 references) 47p.

Building Conditions, Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in the D.C. Public School System.
Edwards, Maureen M.
(Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC , 1991)
This paper examines the impact of parental involvement on the overall condition of the Washington (District of Columbia) public school buildings, and then looks at the impact of various variables on student achievement. Although a complete set of data on all schools was not obtained, a sampling of 52 schools indicates that the size of a school's Parent Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the condition of the school building. The relation between the PTA budget per pupil and the overall condition of the school building was statistically significant. The condition of the building is related to academic achievement, and improvement in the condition of the building is associated with improvement in achievement scores. The policy implications of these results are discussed. Although actions such as the support of parents' organizations appear to contribute to maintaining the school in good condition, capital outlays to improve the basic condition of the schools may contribute to student achievement. There are six tables presenting study data. Three appendices contain data about the schools, correlation analysis results, and regression results. There is an 96-item list of references. 100p.

Ohio Public Safety Survey, 1990: School Facilities. A Report to the 118th General Assembly.
Ohio Department of Education
(Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus, OH , 1990)
Ohio has published a report summarizing survey data on the condition and needed repairs and funding requirements of its school facilities that would bring them within compliance of state provisions for a minimum level of cleanliness and safety. The report first details the planning and implementation phases of the survey. It then presents an overview of the data that include summaries of building age, square footage, and costs for improvements and types of improvements needed. Next, the condition and repair needs of specific building systems and areas and their repair cost summaries are listed. The concluding section presents a detailed list of total funding needed for additions and rebuilding per area within the state. 51p.

Impact Aid: Most School Construction Requests Are Unfunded and Outdated. Report to Congressional Requesters Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , 1990)
The Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (Public Law 81-815) provides federal funds for constructing and renovating schools in districts that educate "federally connected" children, such as those whose parents live and/or work on military installations and Indian reservations. A study was done to review the program for school districts affected by federal activities. It is recommended that: (1) Congress amend Public Law 81-815 to require that school construction payments to eligible districts be based on average state per pupil construction costs; and (2) that the Secretary of Education require school districts to apply annually for school construction aid to ensure that project requests reflect current data. It is further suggested that Congress might want to consider authorizing the Secretary of Education to distribute appropriations among a greater number of projects. 47p.
Report NO: GAO/HRD-90-90

Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door: An Investigation of the Condition of Public School Buildings
Lewis, Anne
(Education Writers Association, Washington, DC , 1989)
Reports that 25 percent of the nation's school buildings are shoddy and inadequate; another 33 percent are approaching inadequacy due to increasing enrollments; and the remaining 42 percent are in good condition because their communities can afford them. The schoolhouse may be the most seriously threatened strand of America's aging infrastructure because (1) more than 50 percent of schools in use today were built during the 1950s and 1960s, a time of rapid, cheap construction; (2) school districts are again facing enrollment crunches; (3) state aid to local districts is generally inadequate; (4) space for mandated special programs is lacking; (5) funding and training for modern maintenance personnel are inadequate; (6) school planning is not integrated with overall community needs; and (7) erratic data collection and state involvement do not facilitate long-range planning. Chapter 2 details construction deficiencies; growth, maintenance, and safety problems; and the effects of changing educational programs and philosophies. Chapter 3 discusses the school facilities finance crisis, while chapter 4 outlines emerging issues, trends, and questions. 64p.
TO ORDER: Education Writers Association

The Decaying American Campus: A Ticking Time Bomb
Rush, Sean C.; Johnson, Sandra L.
(APPA, Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1989)
This study investigated the capital renewal and deferred maintenance needs of colleges and universities in the United States. An introductory chapter gives an overview of campus change and facilities planning since 1950, including the rapid and extensive growth of college and university facilities and the convergence of various factors that have placed stress on institutional operating budgets. This chapter also outlines the methodology of the study survey of almost 700 diverse institutions. The second chapter summarizes findings concerning facility conditions: Since 1950 college and university facility space has more than quintupled, and institutions would have to invest about $300 billion today to construct the same space; current capital renewal and replacement needs are estimated at $60 billion, with priority repairs and renovations requiring about $20.5 billion; in 1988 colleges and universities deferred four dollars of maintenance for every dollar spent, with classroom, laboratory, and library space cited most frequently as priorities; most institutions rely primarily on tax-exempt bonds and state funding to finance capital needs. The third chapter draws conclusions and implications, and the fourth presents profiles of needs, plans, and funding by institution type. Chapter 5 contains technical notes. A list of suggested readings is offered in chapter 6. A glossary of terms is included in chapter 7. (Contains 100 references.) 219p.
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446; Fax: 703-549-2772

Repairing and Renovating Aging School Facilities. ERIC Digest Series Number EA28. Adobe PDF
Klauke, Amy
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , 1988)
Several aspects of the school facilities issue are covered in question-and-answer format; (1) What is the current status of aging school buildings? (2) What are the financial implications of restoring school facilities? (3) What role should states play? (4) What methods are school districts using to improve the solution? (5) What is a capital improvement plan? and (6) What are some elements to consider when repairing or renovating school facilities? 4p.

[Kansas] State Involvement in Capital Outlay Financing: Policy Implications for the Future Adobe PDF
Thompson, David C.;
This monograph addresses the issues surrounding financing school buildings. Kansas finances school buildings from the property tax base of the school district in which the building is located. Research in Kansas indicates that inequities in facilities will widen among its 304 school districts, 80 percent of which are rural. The monograph evaluates the legal potential for state responsibility to aid facilities in Kansas and provides recommendations for state involvement. It describes court litigation involving the issue of facilities funding. If research shows a relationship between facility adequacy and instructional outcomes, then courts will likely follow with mandates that the states bring their school buildings into compliance with predetermined minimum standards for describing adequacy for instructional facilities. 56p.

A Technical Report on the Condition of School Buildings in Rural and Small School Districts. Adobe PDF
Honeyman, David S
(Kansas State University, Center for Extended Services, Manhattan, KS , 1987)
This study was undertaken to assess the condition of school facilities in rural and small school districts in the 50 states and analyze the mechanisms used by rural and small school districts to finance capital outlay. The study is part of an ongoing effort to address concerns specific to rural and small schools in the United States. The focus of the study is on the condition of school buildings in rural and small school districts in the United States. The sample used was drawn from districts with student enrollments of less than 800 and existing outside of standard metropolitan statistical areas. Usable responses were received from 263 districts from 37 states. Information is categorized into individual building data and descriptive and financial data from each responding district. In addition to general descriptive data, there is information specific to the methods used by each district in support of capital outlay. Data include district enrollment, expenditures for outlay and maintenance, sources for generating capital outlay, age of buildings, use and accessibility of buildings, safety of buildings, and replacement costs of buildings. The report is presented in two sections. The first section details the mean, standard deviation and range of the values reported for each variable by all respondents to the survey. It also offers the same values for each variable grouped according to the geographic region in which the school district is located. The second section analyzes each variable independently. Quartiles, histograms, boxplots, normal probability plots, and frequency counts are given. There is no attempt to recommend changes for rectifying the situation. 121p.

The Texas School Facilities Study: 1986-1996.
Lutz, Frank W.
(East Texas State Univ., Center for Policy Studies and Research in Elementary and Secondary Education, Commerce, TX , 1987)
A number of new legislative mandates placed on Texas public schools has had the effect of requiring extensive school facility construction and alterations. The Interim Committee, established by the Texas Senate, enlisted the services of the Center for Policy Studies and Research in Elementary and Secondary Education at East Texas State University to conduct a statewide school facilities study. Two instruments, the Central Office Questionnaire (COQ) and the School Campus Inventory (SCI), were developed to measure the quality and educational effectiveness of school facilities in the state. Data were collected from 574 (54 percent) of the independent school districts and 1,438 (25 percent) of the school campuses, as well as 112 site surveys, and 270 Southern Association of Schools and Colleges Self Surveys. The school districts are divided into seven major categories by size and six geographic regions. The body of the report describes: (1) the method used to determine construction cost for the state; (2) enrollment projections; (3) H.B. 246 and H.B. 72 needs; (4) physical condition of present buildings; and (5) educational adequacy of present buildings. All of these need categories are projected for 1996, the cost for each need is projected, and this cost is discussed in "ability to pay" terms. The concluding section covers the design and method of study, including the instrumentation, data collection, and analysis procedures.

The Maintenance Gap: Deferred Repair and Renovation in the Nation's Elementary and Secondary Schools. A Joint Report Adobe PDF
(Council of the Great City Schools, American Association of School Administrators, National School Boards Administration , 1983)
Data from 100 school systems in 34 states show that public schools are in a state of critical disrepair. The physical deterioration of the schools is the result of a variety of factors--including the rapid increase in energy prices, state tax and expenditure limitation measures, and health and safety requirements--that have reduced spending for maintenance and capital improvements. Participating districts identified 14 major areas in need of immediate repair. The most serious and frequently mentioned (71 percent) involved roof repair and replacement, followed by heating, ventilating, and air conditioning repairs and replacement (27 percent), and interior remodeling and modernization (23 percent). One of the most costly repairs, cited by 19 percent of the responding school districts, concerned boiler repair and replacement. Other important problems involved meeting requirements for the handicapped, new fire and safety codes, and asbestos removal. 80p.

References to Journal Articles

School Construction Progress
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; May 2012
The U.S. economy hasn’t bounced back, but many schools and universities have managed to pursue major construction programs. Describes building progress in Clark County, Nevada; Katy, Texas; San Francisco; Fairfax County, Virginia; Gwinnett County, Georgia; and Texas State University in San Marcos.

17th Annual School Construction Report: It's Still Billions of Dollars Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; Feb 2012
Reports that school construction completed in 2011 was $12.2 billion, continuing a downward trend since 2009. $6.9 billion was spent on new schools, while $2.6 billion went to additions and $2.6 billion went to retrofit and modernize existing structures. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2011 data and projected 2012 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, amenities that are being included in today's schools, regional breakouts, and trends in costs since 1995.

School Bathrooms: Would You Go There?
Dave Schechter
CNN Newsroom; Oct 03, 2011
Describes the condition of bathrooms in America's schools today. An estimated one-third of more than 900,000 public school bathrooms in this country are dirty, unhealthy or unsafe.

Educational Adequacy Assessments and Standards.
Revis, Ahavah
School Construction News; v17 n5 , p11,12 ; Jul-Aug 2011
Describes challenges of declining enrollment in public schools on the maintenance and upkeep of unused and underused facilities.

Construction Trends.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n9 , p16-18,20,22.23 ; May 2011
Discusses a slight overall decline in student enrollment beginning in the 2007, even while some regions still experience growth. Districts with funding available are focusing on maintenance and renovation projects, since new classrooms are not needed. In some cases, instructional space was recently constructed that is already not needed.

16th Annual School Construction Report: School Construction Spending Shifts Gears. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , pCR1-CR16 ; Feb 2011
Reports that school construction completed in 2010 was just over $14.5 billion, representing a 12 percent decline over 2009. $8.7 billion was spent on new schools, while $3 billion went to additions and $2.8 billion went to retrofit and modernize existing structures. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2010 data and projected 2011 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, amenities that are being included in today's schools, regional breakouts, and trends in costs since 1995.

The 2011 College Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v14 n2 , pCR1-CR8 ; Feb 2011
Reports that higher education construction completed in 2010 totaled $11 billion, representing an increase from 2009. New construction accounted for $7.91 billion, while expansion and renovation accounted for $3.14 billion. Tables illustrate historical data for 1995-2009, breakouts of data for 12 geographical regions, projected 2011 completions and starts, expenditures by building type, where renovation dollars are being spent, and square foot costs

Public School Desegregation and Education Facilities.
Hunter, Richard
School Business Affairs; v77 n2 , p24-26 ; Feb 2011
Reviews 1968-1995 school desegregation court cases that have impacted school facilities, noting how the perceived impact of school facility condition on education has carried weight in the courts. 12 references are included.

Exploring Learning Spaces and Places: The Photo Interview. Adobe PDF
Uline, Cynthia; Wolsey, Thomas
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p24-27 ; 2011
Presents photographs and comments on spaces offered by students in schools deemed both excellent and inadequate facilities. Desirable features and undesirable features in schools slated for renovation are documented.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v83 n4 , p24-27 ; Dec 2010
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, shrinkage, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, charter schools numbers and attendance, salaries, "greening" efforts, costs, enrollment breakdown by race and nationality, etc.

State of Our Schools: Falling Down. Adobe PDF
Dennis, Alicia; Westfall, Sandra
People Magazine; , p60-65 ; Oct 25, 2010
Descriptions of the decrepit, dirty, dangerous, overcrowded condition of several schools across the country, with photographs. Includes facts and statistics.

Needs Indexing, Then Benchmarking, Now What? Adobe PDF
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v26 n5 , p47,48 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Explains how the facilities condition index (FCI) is implemented in assessing facilities, supporting master planning, and long-term capital budgeting.

The AS&U 100
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n1 , p16-18,20 ; Sep 2010
Presents 2008-2009 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1988 are included. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

15th Annual School Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , pCR1-CR16 ; Feb 2010
Reports that school construction completed in 2009 was just over $16 billion, representing a 16 percent decline over 2009. $11.9 billion was spent on new schools, while $2.1 billion went to expansion and renovation of existing schools. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2009 data and projected 2010 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, amenities that are being included in today s schools, regional breakouts, and trends in costs since 1995.

Ups and Downs.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p6 ; Feb 2010
Reflects on the 16 percent decline in school construction from 2008 to 2009.

Relationship Between School Facility Conditions and the Delivery of Instruction: Evidence From a National Survey of School Principals.
Duyar, Ibrahim
Journal of Facilities Management; v8 n1 , 8-25 ; 2010
Investigates the effects of school facility conditions on the delivery of instruction from the perspective of school principals in the USA. The paper empirically investigated whether the quality of ten facility conditions affects the delivery of instruction after controlling three school and three student characteristics that also may affect the delivery of instruction. The conceptual framework of this paper envisions the physical capital, along with the human and social capitals, as one of the three main core elements for effective teaching and learning. The findings of the study indicated that six of the ten facility conditions are statiscally and positively associated with the delivery of instruction. These six facility conditions significantly predicted the delivery of instruction after controlling other extraneous or plausible variables.

Outlook 2010.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n5 , p12-20,22 ; Jan 2010
Predicts 2010 conditions for schools, addressing budget cuts, class size, stimulus funds, consolidation, enrollment, technology, energy, community colleges, construction, security, sustainability, and maintenance.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v82 n4 , p24-27 ; Dec 2009
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, shrinkage, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, charter schools numbers and attendance, salaries, "greening" efforts, costs, enrollment breakdown by race and nationality, etc.

Making the Case for Facility Modernization, Renovation, and Repairs.
Kwok, Michael
School Business Affairs; v75 n11 , p29,30 ; Dec 2009
Advises on maintaining a master plan for school facilities, accurate assessments of their condition, cost estimates for addressing deficiencies, and how to avoid the "build-neglect-build" cycle the often overwhelms school districts.

The AS&U 100
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n1 , p14-16,18-20 ; Sep 2009
Presents 2007-2008 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1987 are included. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

Test Case.
Rydeen, James
American School and University; v81 n13 , p146,147 ; Aug 2009
Cites research indicating a correlation between school facility quality and student test scores. New and modernized facilities improve test scores, student and teacher attitude, teacher retention, and community engagement.

35th Annual Official Education Construction Report.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v81 n10 , p20,22-27 ; May 2009
Presents findings from an annual report on education construction, showing that the total amount of education construction put in place in 2008 was $43.3 billion, up from $32.9 billion in 2007. New construction spending by K-12 institutions grew 18 percent and addition/modernization spending jumped 46 percent. Higher education institutions spent $17.8 billion on construction in 2008, up from $12.7 billion in 2007. Numerous tables and charts illustrate historical, current, and future construction spending by building type, institution type, and region.

2009 Annual College Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v12 n2 , pCR1-CR8 ; Feb 2009
Reports that higher education construction completed in 2008 totaled $13.3 billion, representing a decline from 2007. New construction accounted for $9.35 billion, while expansion and renovation accounted for $3.95 billion. Tables illustrate historical data for 1995-2008, breakouts of data for 12 geographical regions, projected 2009 completions and starts, expenditures by building type, where renovation dollars are being spent, and square foot costs.

2009 School Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , pCR1-CR16 ; Feb 2009
Reports that school construction completed in 2008 was just over $19.5 billion. Almost $13 billion was spent on new schools, while $6.5 billion went to expansion and renovation of existing schools. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2008 data and projected 2009 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, amenities that are being included in today s schools, regional breakouts, and trends in costs since 1995.

The Public School Infrastructure Problem: Deteriorating Buildings and Deferred Maintenance.
Hunter, Richard
School Business Affairs; v75 n2 , p10,12-14 ; Feb 2009
Reviews reports from the late 1990's that estimated the billions needed to repair America's schools and to relieve overcrowding. The prevalence of decrepit schools in urban areas is cited. Case studies from Richmond, Virginia, and Kansas City, Missouri illustrate contrasting situations where one system in good condition took steps to maintain that position, while another in poor condition took steps under court order to improve its facilities. Includes ten references.

Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions.
Earthman, Glen; Lemasters, Linda
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p323-335 ; 2009
Investigates the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they were willing to leave the teaching profession. Eleven high schools in which the principals state the buildings are in unsatisfactory condition are identified and matched with 11 schools assessed as being in satisfactory condition. The differences between the responses of teachers in satisfactory buildings were significantly different than those of teachers in unsatisfactory buildings. The findings indicate that the physical environment influences attitudes of teachers, which in turn affects their productivity. Such effects could cause morale problems in the teaching staff.
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A Wish List for the New Administration.
Edelstein, Fritz; Robertson, Sue; Bode, Art; Schoff, Larry; Dorn, Michael; Musso, John
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p20-24 ; Jan 2009
Six school facilities experts reflect on possibilites for school facilities improvement from the Obama administration, and on the proposed federal stimulus package. Anticipated improvements include funding for school construction, early childhood education, and technology. Hopes that the funding will be spent on modernization of existing schools, not just repair or new construction are expressed, as is the desire that the funds not be accompanied by excessive restrictions, that energy saving be stressed, that proven school safety programs be promoted, and that the impact of the current global economic crisis be considered.

Homeschooling and Safety.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p11 ; Jan 2009
Reflects on the rise in homeschooling, and suggests that poor school facilities and concerns about safety at school might be two of the reasons.

Measuring School Facility Conditions: An Illustration of the Importance of Purpose.
Roberts, Lance
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p368-380 ; 2009
Argues that taking the educational purposes of schools into account is central to understanding the place and importance of facilities to learning outcomes. The paper begins by observing that the research literature connecting facility conditions to student outcomes is mixed. A closer examination of this literature suggests that when school facilities are measured from an engineering perspective, little connection to learning outcomes is evident. By contrast, when school facilities are rated in terms of educational functions, a connection to learning outcomes is apparent. Using the schools in a Canadian division, the condition of school facilities was measured in two ways, including both conventional, engineering tools and a survey capturing principals assessments. School facility ratings using these alternate measurement methods were correlated with schools' quality of teaching and learning environments (QTLE). Two central findings emerge. First, engineering assessments of facilities are unrelated to the QTLE in schools. Second, educators' assessments of school facilities are systematically related to the QTLE in schools.
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The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v81 n4 , p12,14-17 ; Dec 2008
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, shrinkage, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, charter schools numbers and attendance, salaries, etc.

Fix of Flatten? (Will Renovations Work for Your School Buildings?)
Willson, Adele
American School Board Journal; v195 n10 , p24,25 ; Oct 2008
Advises on how to determine if a school is worth renovating, or should be replaced. Evaluation if the building's physical condition, historical significance, a conversion planning process, scheduling, and design of a renovation is illustrated with an example from Aurora, Colorado.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

School Building Condition, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in New York City Public Schools: A Mediation Model.
Durán-Narucki, Valkiria
Journal of Environmental Psychology ; v28 n3 , p278-286 ; Sep 2008
Examines the role of school attendance as a mediator in the relationship between facilities in disrepair and student grades in city and state tests. Data on building condition and results from English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics (Math) standardized tests were analyzed using a sample of 95 elementary schools in New York City. Variables relevant to academic achievement such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, teacher quality, and school size were used as covariates. In run-down school facilities students attended less days on average and therefore had lower grades in ELA and Math standardized tests. Attendance was found to be a full mediator for grades in ELA and a partial mediator for grades in Math. This study provides empirical evidence of the effects of building quality on academic outcomes and considers the social justice issues related to this phenomenon. [Author's abstract]

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v81 n1 , p16-18,20,22,24,25 ; Sep 2008
Presents 2006-2007 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, number of schools, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1987 are included. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

The Importance of Place: Facility Conditions and Learning Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Roberts, Lance; Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey
Education Canada; v48 n3 , p48-51 ; Jul 2008
Examines the problem of assessing the effect of school facility condition on student achievement in Canada. While insufficient Canadian research exists to make a correlation, results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) research indicates that student achievement is lower in schools where the principals report substandard facility conditions.

As Campuses Crumble, Budgets are Crunched.
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n37 , pA1,A12-A14 ; May 23, 2008
Discusses the deferred maintenance crisis facing many higher education institutions. Maintenance of existing structures is frequently slighted in the interest of building new and more glamorous facilities. Examples of maintenance backlogs at various institutions are described, as is the facilities condition index that is used to calculate deferred maintenance.

34th Annual Construction Report.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v80 n9 , p27,28,32,34,36,38,40 ; May 2008
Presents findings from an annual report on education construction, showing that the total amount of education construction put in place in 2007 was $32.9 billion, down from $36.6 billion in 2006. While K-12 construction declined from $25.3 to $20.3 billion, higher education construction rose from $11.3 billion to $12.7 billion. Numerous tables and charts illustrate historical, current, and future construction spending by building type, institution type, and region.

Moving In, Moving Out. (How Can Schools Cope with Base Re-Alignments?)
Stover, Del
American School Board Journal; v195 n5 , p18-23 ; May 2008
Discusses school construction campaigns in several school districts anticipating rapid enrollment increases due to expansion of nearby military bases. Problems with the federal impact aid system that funds them are discussed, as are reverse situations where school systems are shrinking due to closure of nearby bases.

Districts Buying Power: Spending on Construction and Renovation.
Dyrli, Odvard
District Administration; v44 n4 , p52-54,56,58 ; Mar 2008
Presents the results of a survey of school district spending on construction and renovation, indicating that U.S. school districts spent $23.77 billion in 2006-2007, representing expenditures by 86% of school districts. The average school district spent $3 million. Charts detail the types of expenditures, construction completed and underway, numbers and types of survey respondents, factors driving construction, and district use of design and construction services.

2008 Annual College Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v11 n2 , pC1-C8 ; Feb 2008
Reports that higher education construction completed in 2007 totaled $14.5 billion, representing a slight decline from 2006. New construction accounted for $10.2 billion, while expansion and renovation accounted for $4.3 billion. Tables illustrate historical data for 1995-2007, breakouts of data for 12 geographical regions, projected 2008 completions and starts, expenditures by building type, where renovation dollars are being spent, and square foot costs.

2008 Annual School Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , pC1-C16 ; Feb 2008
Reports that school construction completed in 2007 was just over $20 billion. $13.1 billion was spent on new schools, while $7.6 billion went to expansion and renovation of existing schools. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2007 data and projected 2008 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, amenities that are being included in today s schools, regional breakouts, and trends in costs since 1995.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v80 n4 , p10.12-14 ; Dec 2007
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, shrinkage, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, charter schools numbers and attendance, etc.

Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n2 , p18-20,22-24 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the recovery of New Orleans schools after Hurricane Katrina, highlighting a district whose facilities were inadequate before the storm, and converted to a "Recovery District" that is plagued by many of the same problems.

The AS&U 100.
American School and University; v80 n1 , p20-24,26,28 ; Sep 2007
Presents 2005-2006 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, number of schools, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1986 are included. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

A Report from the Facilities Core Data Survey.
Long, Laura
Facilities Manager; v23 n4 , p28-21,33,34 ; Jul-Aug 2007
Presents data for U.S. higher education facilities including density of campus buildout, square footage of buildings and grounds maintained, number of students per acre, and condition of buildings and grounds.

33rd Annual Official Education Construction Report. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v79 n10 , p26,27,30,32,34,36,38 ; May 2007
Presents findings from an annual report on education construction, showing that the total amount of education construction put in place in 2006 was $36.6 billion, down slightly from $37.5 billion in 2005. While K-12 construction rose from $23 to $25.3 billion, higher education construction from $14.6 billion to 11.3 billion. Numerous tables and charts illustrate historical, current, and future construction spending by building type, institution type, and region

The Facilities Gap. Cameras in Hand, Students Capture Photos of Schoolhouse Decay. Adobe PDF
American Federation of Teachers
American Educator; , 6p. ; Spring 2007
Discusses the problem of inadequate, unhealthy, and unsafe public school building conditions, and the consequences of poor conditions on learning, health, and staff retention. Illustrated with photos taken by middle- and high-school students in Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Md.

Q & A: State of the Market. DLR, Heery Architects Say the School Construction Market Will Continue to be Strong.
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; Mar-Apr 2007
There is still a strong need for school construction in the United States due to a number of factors. The topic is at the forefront of political agendas nationally and locally, along with sustainable design, and supply-and-demand issues in the construction market. Tom Penney, a project leader at DLR Group, and Ralph Rohwer, Heery’s international program director, both say the school planning and construction market will continue to be strong for at least the near future.

School Planning and Management Construction Report 2007. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n2 , pC1-C16 ; Feb 2007
Reports that school construction completed in 2006 was just over $20 billion. $12.3 billion was spent on new schools, while $7.78 billion went to expansion and renovation of existing schools. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2006 data and projected 2007 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, and amenities that are being included in today s schools

College Planning and Management Construction Report 2007. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul.
College Planning and Management; v10 n2 , pC1-C8 ; Feb 2007
Reports that higher education construction completed in 2006 totaled over $15 billion, representing a new one-year record. New construction accounted for $9.8 billion, while expansion and renovation accounted for $4.7 billion. While only 1/3 of all the nation s colleges report that they are currently in "construction mode," many of those not currently building are involved in capital campaigns for future projects. Tables illustrate historical data for 1995-2006, breakouts of data for 12 geographical regions, projected 200y completions and starts, and expenditures by building type.

"A" Is for Architecture.
Linn, Charles; Gonchar, Joann
Architectural Record; Supplement , p12-14,16 ; Jan 2007
Reviews current opportunities for excellent school design, due to overcrowding at significant numbers of American schools, evolution in instructional delivery and technology, and interest in sustainable design and healthy school environments. Benefits of high performance schools and historical missteps in school design are also discussed.

Raw Sewage, Mold, and Mice Droppings.
Daily KOS; Dec 04, 2006
This blog entry discusses the report on the health of America's school buildings, Building Minds, Minding Buildings, published by the American Federation of Teachers in December, 2006. Several hundred comments are posted in response.

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n1 , p20-22,24,26,29,30 ; Sep 2006
Presents 2004-2005 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, number of schools, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1989 are included in the chart. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

Stalled Momentum: American School and University 32nd Annual Official Education Construction Report 2006.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v78 n10 , p24,26,29,30,32-34,36 ; May 2006
Presents findings from an annual report on education construction, showing that the total amount of education construction put in place in 2005 was $37.5 billion, down from $41.3 billion in 2004. While K-12 construction fell from $29.1 to $23 billion, higher education construction rose from $12.2 to $14.6 billion. Numerous tables and charts illustrate historical, current, and future construction spending by building type, institution type, and region.

College Planning and Management Construction Report 2006. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v9 n2 , pC1-C8 ; Feb 2006
Reports that higher education construction completed in 2005 totaled over $14.5 billion, representing a new one-year record. New construction accounted for $9.8 billion, while expansion and renovation accounted for $4.7 billion. Two out of three colleges reported on construction activity, meaning that this figure represents activity at only 1/3 of reporting institutions. Tables illustrate historical data for 1995-2004, and breakouts of data for 12 geographical regions, projected 2006 completions and starts, and expenditures by building type.

School Planning and Management Construction Report 2006. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , pC1-C16 ; Feb 2006
Reports that school construction completed in 2005 was over $21.6 billion, which is a single-year record. $12.8 billion was spent on new schools, while $8.8 went to expansion and renovation of existing schools. Accompanying information for 12 geographic regions include 2005 data and projected 2006 school completions. Additional tables present data on spending according to grade level, building type, school size, and amenities that are being included in today's schools.

State of the States.
McCabe, Melissa
Education Week; v25 n17 , 72-98 passim ; Jan 05, 2006
This tenth of edition of an annual report uses more than 100 indicators to track education information and grade the states on their policy efforts. Tables under "School Climate" report on school size, class size, facility condition, and facility funding.

Inspecting for Quality.
Jacobson, Linda
Education Week; v25 n16 , p22-25 ; Jan 04, 2006
Discusses California school site inspections compelled by recent legislation that was a result of lawsuits in response to poor facility conditions and lack of textbooks in schools. The facility inspections are typically thorough, including over 50 items that cover building systems, fire safety, pest infestation, windows and doors, structural conditions, interior surface conditions, restrooms, drinking fountains, and food service areas. Funding to help districts comply with the legislation has been made available and a general improvement in school facility conditions statewide is reported.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v78 n5 , p10-13 ; Jan 2006
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, shrinkage, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, charter schools numbers and attendance, etc.

Taj Mahals or Decaying Shacks: Patterns in Local School Capital Stock and Unmet Capital Need
Arsen, David; Davis, Thomas
Peabody Journal of Education; v81 n4 , p1-22 ; 2006
Despite growing interest in the condition of school facilities as a dimension of school finance adequacy, reliable measures of capital stock for large samples of schools are hard to come by. In this article, we offer new methods for (a) measuring the existing capital stock of public schools, (b) defining adequacy in school facilities, and (c) measuring the cost of bringing existing school facilities up to an adequate standard. We apply our procedures to all school districts in Michigan, one of the few states that offers no state aid to local districts for the construction of capital facilities. Our estimates indicate large variations in school buildings and facilities across local communities that are highly correlated with local property wealth. Because we use publicly available data that are recently available for school districts nationwide, these methods can be readily replicated for other states. [Authors' abstract]

An Upturn in Nonresidential Construction in 2006 Is the Consensus.
Baker, Kermit
AIArchitect; Jan 2006
Presents construction forecasts from five sources that, when combined, predict a growth of 6% in education construction in 2006.

Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001
Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao
Journal of School Health; v76 n8 , p408-413 ; Jan 2006
School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma hospitalizations, including sociodemographics and school environmental factors, among school-age children (5-18 years) in New York State (NYS) over an 11-year period (1991-2001). Calculation of time trends revealed overall declines in asthma rates among school-age children for NYS from 1991 to 2001. [Authors' abstract]

Design for Changing Educational Needs.
De Pata, Joe
School Construction News; v9 n1 , p23,24 ; Jan-Feb 2006
Presents an interview with current CEFPI president Hugh Skinner, in which he assesses funding and deferred maintenance issues, trends in school design and curriculum delivery, and demographic assessment in urban and rural districts.

Resources for Maintaining Schools.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p7 ; Jan 2006
Reviews major reports quantifying an increasing amount of deferred maintenance in schools, and highlights recent publications that can help, as well as the ongoing efforts of the Association of School Business Officials.

"Little Red School House, What Now?" Two Centuries of American Public School Architecture.
Weisser, Amy S.
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 , p196-217 ; 2006
This article examines two centuries of public school architecture in the United States with attention to the relationship between architectural form and reformist educational philosophy. Building types reviewed include the one-room schoolhouse, the metropolitan school at 1900, the early twentieth-century suburban school, and the late twentieth-century urban school. The siting, building plan, and exterior articulation of both ideal plans and built structures are reviewed as evidence of the expectation and realities of the public school as a democratic institution.

The Priorities and Challenges for K-12 Facilities.
Dessoff, Alan
Facilities Manager; v21 n6 , p22-25 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Reviews, in the context of the K-12 environment, the diversion of funds from facilities maintenance to educational programs, the impact of rising fuel costs, technology investment, and consolidation of schools to save money.

Impressions Count.
Koenigsknecht, Scott
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p28,30,31 ; Nov 2005
Describes results from a survey of newly-hired teachers revealing the role of facilities condition in their job decisions. Facility newness, smallness, and cleanliness were positive influences that were shown to affect a teacher's decision to accept employment at a school.

The New, the Newly Reborn and the Growing
Reese, Susan
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers; v80 n7 , p12-15 ; Oct 2005
A growing school population and deteriorating facilities are among the problems faced by the nation's educational system. Finding solutions to both the overcrowding and the crumbling condition of this nation's schools has fueled a bit of a construction boom, first among colleges and now in the nation's school districts. Within different states and different school districts, there are a variety of solutions that have been implemented or considered in response to the rising enrollments--from new construction to additions to renovating existing buildings. The author proposes that additional career and technical education facilities could help alleviate overcrowding and could boost the economy of an area by ensuring a better prepared workforce.

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n1 , p16-18,20,22,24,26 ; Sep 2005
Presents 2003-2004 data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment, number of schools, and per-pupil expenditures. Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1989 and 1993 are included in the chart. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

Building Better Schools.
Madsen, Jana
Buildings; v99 n7 , p60-63 ; Jul 2005
Cites statistics on the condition of America's schools and the benefits of high-performance schools to students, teachers, the environment, the school owner, and the community. The top design considerations of indoor air quality, thermal comfort, lighting, daylighting, and acoustics are discussed and eight online resources are provided.

Schooling's Crumbling Infrastructure: Addressing a Serious and Underappreciated Problem.
Mead, Sara
Education Week; v24 n40 , p30,31 ; Jun 15, 2005
Reviews the poor condition of America's schools, how the situation has not improved since significant coverage of the situation in the late 1990's, and how the condition of school facilities has fallen off the agenda in Washington, to the point that in some cases mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act cannot be accommodated due to dilapidated facilities. Opportunities for federal and nonprofit investment are described, and nontraditional and flexible approaches to school housing are urged.

There Is Still a Lot to Do.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p10 ; Jun 2005
Reviews the continuing need for school construction, summarizing reports and statistics on growing enrollment, age and obsolescence of existing schools, deferred maintenance, and educational adequacy.

Are Your Old Buildings Dangerous?
Hoye, William
Chronicle of Higher Education; v51 n38 ; May 27, 2005
Reviews a case where the state of Montana was held liable for a child's fall at the state university, even though the balustrade through which he fell was in compliance with a building code that had been grandfathered in. Advice follows on extra vigilance with an eye toward places where children might be present and quick attention to areas of potential or actual trouble.

Mixed Results: American School and University 31st Annual Official Education Construction Report 2005.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v77 n10 , p29-32,34,36,45,46 ; May 2005
Presents findings from an annual report on education construction, showing that the total amount of education construction put in place in 2004 was down to $41.3 billion, after an all-time high of $48.1 billion in 2003. K-12 construction, however, posted a record total at $29.1 billion. Numerous tables and charts illustrate historical, current, and future construction spending by building type, institution type, and region.

Maintaining Our Schools.
Gould, Deidre
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p38,40-43 ; Apr 2005
Reviews the backlog of deferred maintenance in America's schools, describes typical damage and energy loss in a school with a deteriorating building envelope, and suggests elements of a school maintenance plan.

Importance of Maintaining Schools.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p10 ; Apr 2005
Discusses the American Society of Civil Engineers' 2005 findings on the poor condition of America's Schools and its recommendations for fixing them. The average grade given to school facilities was D, and recommendations include increased federal involvement, creative financing by school districts, increased research and development in school design, life cycle cost analysis, and regular school maintenance programs.

College Planning and Management Construction Report 2005.
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v8 n2 , pC1-C8 ; Feb 2005
Provides data on 2004 higher education construction, with college construction reaching a record $13.7 billion of construction put in place. These figures represent the activity of only 43% of the nation's colleges, so it is assumed that the numbers will remain high as the other 67% address their building needs. Details for twelve regional areas in the U.S. are provided.

School Planning and Management Construction Report 2005.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , pC1-C16 ; Feb 2005
Presents detailed data on U.S. school construction for 2004. Total construction was $20.2 billion. 60.5% of that amount was for new construction, the highest figure in over 20 years. Individual tables illustrate annual figures for 2004, projected 2005 completions, projected 2005 starts, profiles of news schools under construction, school sizes, types of amenities and additions, and regional analysis for twelve portions of the U.S.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v77 n5 , p11-15 ; Jan 2005
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists, ranking state and local school systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, etc.

Civics Lessons: The Color and Class of Betrayal
Fine, Michelle; Burns, April; Payne, Yasser A. Payne; Torre, Maria E.
Teachers College Record; v106 n11 , p2193-2223 ; Nov 2004
This article draws from research conducted with poor and working-class youth in California attending schools that suffer from structural disrepair, high rates of unqualified teachers, high teacher turnover rates, and inadequate books and instructional materials. Arguing that such schools accomplish more than simple reproduction of class and race-ethnic inequities, the authors detail the penetrating psychological, social, and academic impact of such conditions on youth and educators, accelerating schooling for alienation. The evidence suggests that these schools not only systematically undereducate poor and working-class youth, and youth of color, but they taint pride with shame, convert a yearning for quality education into anger at its denial, and they channel active civic engagement into social cynicism and alienation. The consequences for schools, communities, and the democratic fabric of the nation are considered

A Community Pitches In to Repair its Schools
Delisio, Ellen
Education World; Oct 05, 2004
A lack of maintenance and funding had taken a toll on Baltimore's schools. A call to the community for help yielded donations and thousands of volunteers who completed hundreds of thousands of dollars of work. This describes a citywide volunteer effort.

Full House: As Las Vegas Grows, So Does the Need to Accommodate Its Students
Furger, Roberta
Edutopia; v1 n1 , p30-35 ; Sep-Oct 2004
Describes the Clark County (Nevada) School District's explosive growth, due to the rapid growth of Las Vegas, making it the sixth-largest in the U.S. The district has funded a $3.5 billion, ten-year plan to build 88 new schools, maintains a 300-person facilities department, and deals with extreme transience of their student population.

Grappling with Growth.
Hardy, Lawrence
American School Board Journal; v191 n9 , p16-21 ; Sep 2004
Describes explosive student population growth in several rapidly-expanding communities, and how they are dealing with the influx of students that their school systems or tax bases are not prepared for. Rapidly growing enrollment presents school districts with a number of challenges: planning for and financing construction, finding qualified teachers and other staff, educating the public and elected officials about the pressures of growth, and dealing with the trade-offs districts face when confronted with the need to constantly expand. This kind of growth isn't easy for any district, but it's particularly hard for low-wealth school systems that are struggling to maintain essential services.

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n1 , p20-22,24,26,29,30 ; Sep 2004
Presents data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment (2002-03), number of schools (2002-03), and per-pupil expenditures (2002-03). Historical enrollment figures and ranks, along with percent change since 1986 are included in the chart. The data are illuminated with textual highlights and descriptions of example schools. Also included is a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

College Boomlet II.
Wright, Jane Cady
Architecture; v93 n9 , p37,38,40 ; Sep 2004
Describes capital improvements being made by several higher education institutions to accommmodate the high school class of 2009, which is the biggest in U.S. history. The impact is felt most significantly in student housing, where inadequate and obsolete inventory are met by increasing demands for livability and interconnectedness with the academic program.

Spotlight: The Education-Facilities Link
Maintenance Solutions; Aug 2004
Three recent reports focus on what tough economic times have done to the nation’s K-12 public schools, and,just as importantly, how the resulting condition of school buildings affect education.

N.J. Principals Cite Unmet Facility Needs.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n37 , p24 ; May 19, 2004
This article discusses a survey of more than 400 New Jersey principals on the condition of their schools. While most principals give decent grades to the conditions of their facilities, the lowest marks are most likely to come from principals in high-poverty districts. A report on the survey urges the state to take another look at the facility needs of its most impoverished districts. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

No Buildings Left Behind.
Kennedy, Mike; Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n7 , p20-25,29,30 ; Mar 2004
Narrates the recent history of school facilities issues, summarizing important research publications of the 1980's to the present. The rising and declining involvement of the federal government is described, along with the summaries of the 2004 presidential candidates' education positions.

Demographics Drive Market. Kids Keep School Work Going Strong.
Grogan, Tim
ENR: Engineering News-Record; Feb 02, 2004
School construction, spurred on by a surge in student enrollments, has been one of the industry’s strongest markets over the last decade. While state fiscal problems are expected to slow the double-digit growth of recent years, the underlaying demographics will keep the school building market going strong for years to come. Through the first 11 months of last year, total school construction put-in-place reached $66.2 billion, according to the U.S. Dept. of Commerce. McGraw-Hill Construction estimates that the total school market slipped 5% in 2003 to 239 million square feet and it predicts that the school market’s size will shrink another 12 million square feet in 2004.

Public School Facilities: Providing Environments that Sustain Learning. Adobe PDF
(Campaign for Fiscal Equity, New York, NY, Winter 2004)
ACCESS: The Quarterly Journal of the Advocacy Center for Children's Educational Success with Standards; v4 n1 , 4p. ; Winter 2004
Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of quality facilities, a number of obstacles impair efforts to build and maintain schools that are conducive to learning, including: state funding systems that limit financial support and provide incentives to build schools cheaply and defer maintenance; a growing number of facilities requirements; and significant enrollment growth. Urban and rural districts face additional challenges due to dense and sparse populations, respectively, and state policies that limit funding specifically for their school facilities. As a result of these barriers, countless students across the country, and particularly those in urban and rural areas, attend school in substandard facilities that negatively affect their education.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v76 n5 , p10-12,14 ; Jan 2004
Presents several K-12 and higher education "top 10" lists that rank states and systems by enrollment, expenditures, growth, numbers of graduates, numbers of teachers, etc.

Urban Myths.
School Construction News; v6 n7 , p20-22 ; Oct 2003
Presents an interview with Raymond Bordwell that discusses the condition of urban school buildings, the particular make-up of thier student body, and the socio-economic issues that affect school design in urban settings.

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n1 , p18-20,22,24,26,27 ; Sep 2003
Presents data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment (2001-02), population (2000), number of schools (2001-02), and per-pupil expenditures (2000-01). Offers data highlights and descriptions of example schools. Also includes a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments.

Building Boom.
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v190 n6 , p26-29 ; Jun 2003
Describes how various states and school districts are coping with the need to repair, renovate, or replace schools built during the 1950s and 1960s. Discusses New Jersey's Abbott districts, Ohio, North Carolina's Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district, and the Albany, New York school district.

Money Talks, Schools Listen: Investing in Education.
Suttell, Robin
Buildings; v97 n2 , p32-34 ; Feb 2003
Describes how the push for modernization of the United States many aging schools, colleges, and universities has strongly impacted the educational facilities segment, with changes in technology, amenities, and comfort.

The Top Ten Lists.
American School and University; v75 n5 , p15-19 ; Jan 2003
Presents several tables of "top ten" data related to educational facilities, including districts with the largest enrollments, states with the most teachers, number of school buildings in large cities, expenditures for public K-12 schools, states with the highest and lowest per-pupil expenditures, and states with the highest average teacher salaries.

Modern Schools in the 21st Century. Local, State, and Federal Responsibility.
Canavan, Robert
The State Education Standard; v4 n1 , p24-28 ; Winter 2003
Cites the daunting need for school construction and repair funds. Explains how the federal Qualified Zone Academy Bonds and the America’s Better Classrooms Act allow certain schools to finance the renovating and/or equipping of school facilities on an interest-free basis through the allocation of federal tax credits. Tables list the state allocations for each award.
TO ORDER: NASBE, 2121 Crystal Drive Suite #350, Arlington, VA 22202; Tel: 703-684-4000; Email: publications@nasbe.

The Condition of America's Schools: A National Disgrace.
Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p15-19 ; Dec 2002
Investigates state unmet funding needs for school infrastructure. Finds an estimated total of 6.1 billion in unmet funding needs. Provides state-by-state estimates of unmet funding that range from 0.1 million in Vermont to .6 billion in New York. Compares urban and rural infrastructure needs. Includes recommendations for school business administrator action. (17 references)

The AS&U 100.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n1 , p14-24 ; Sep 2002
Presents data on the 100 largest U.S. school districts, including rank, name, enrollment (2000-2001), population (2000), number of schools, total outstanding debt (2000), mean school enrollment, largest school population, mean pupil-teacher ratio, and per-pupil expenditure (1999- 2000). Offers data highlights and descriptions of example schools. Also includes a list of college campuses with the 20 largest enrollments (1999-2000).

Facility Planning for Educational Change: The Perfect Storm.
Brady, Thomas
Facilities Manager; v18 n3 , p33-35 ; May-Jun 2002
Delineates the enrollment, program, and funding factors that contributed to a facilities crisis in the Fairfax County Public Schools, explains the planning process implemented to address them, and offers suggestions for adaptation by other institutions of learning. The focus is on the need to be proactive, to scan the environment for change, and to incorporate collective wisdom in decisions.

Deferred School Maintenance Creates National Crisis.
Geiger, Philip E.
School Business Affairs; v68 n1 , p43 ; Jan 2002
This article reports that at least 30% of the country's schools require extensive repairs and another 40% need replacement of at least major components. Adequate maintenance programs could have avoided the estimated expenditure of nearly $2 million per school that will be needed to bring these schools up to good condition. Elements of a school district's quality maintenance program are listed.

Creative Growth.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n4 , p21-27 ; Dec 2001
Reveals how some schools are meeting the challenge of building new spaces to stimulate and inspire students during periods of climbing enrollment. The extent and character of the enrollment boom and its impact on public schools and universities are highlighted.

Creating and Sustaining School Capacity in the Twenty-First Century: Funding a Physical Environment Conducive to Student Learning.
Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.; Hagey, Janis M.
Journal of Education Finance; v27 n2 , p633-52 ; Fall 2001
Results of state-by-state study of unmet school infrastructure needs using multiple data sources. Found that aggregate unmet infrastructure needs of $266.1 billion were significantly larger than found in earlier studies and varied substantially among states. Suggests different short- and long-term funding strategies to address problem. Includes five appendices.

A Fifty State Assessment of Capital Needs for Public Higher Education: Policy Objectives.
Manns, Derrick; Opp, Ron
Facilities Manager; v17 n4 , p39,42-44,46-49 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Assesses and compares states and their efforts to fund public higher education capital needs, ranking them by operating appropriations per student and capital appropriations per student. Data shows that states use varied assessment and appropriations methods, that states are challenged by deferred maintenance, and that they often lack long-range facilities master plans and do not conduct regular facility audits.

Quick, Build Us a School.
McKee, Bradford
Architecture; v90 n6 , p49-52,112 ; Jun 2001
Compares how Los Angeles Unified School District (California) and Las Vegas (Nevada) are meeting the increasing demand for highly functional school facilities in an era of growing student populations, limited funding, and tight schedules.

Building a New Role: States and School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Sandham, Jessica L.; Alan, Richard; Johnston, Robert C.
Education Week ; , 41p. ; Jun 2001
This report presents articles that explore the changing role of the states in addressing the nation's need to build and modernize its public schools. The article, "Doling Out Facilities Aid Proves Tricky," explains how some states have learned that securing funds is only one part of helping districts pay for construction. "Some States Help Charter Schools Put a Roof Overhead" discusses charter school facility funding. "Town and Country" explores why urban and rural communities are going to court in search of more help from their states in constructing and upgrading schools. "Out in the Cold" discusses how Alaskan state leaders have been court ordered to improve the condition of schools in the state's far-flung rural villages. "Urban Renewal" examines how, after a lengthy court battle, New Jersey's cities are on the brink of receiving a multibillion-dollar infusion of state aid to improve their school buildings. "Capitol Expenditures" shows how more states are abandoning their traditionally hands-off approach to helping districts build and upgrade schools because of litigation over inequities, increasing enrollments, and evolving educational demands. Finally, "Side-by-Side States are Far Apart in Funding for Facilities" discusses Washington state's leading role in helping fund school construction and renovation while Idaho leaves these issues for the school districts to handle.

Aging Gracefully.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n9 , p20-22,24,26 ; May 2000
Addresses the national problem of deferred maintenance of educational facilities and illustrates one private school's (Chicago's St. Ignatius) fall into disrepair and successful restoration and expansion. Data are presented on the percentage of aging schools in American from pre-1950 to post 1985.

Demographic Certainties, Social Realities' Shape Secondary Schools.
Holmes, Natalie Carter
AASA Leadership News; Apr 12, 2000
School districts that rush to build facilities to accommodate the "baby boom echo" referred to in U.S. Department of Education enrollment predictions in recent years risk having those schools empty out within a decade, according to a new report from the National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Ashes to Ashes: New York City Schools Are Doing Away with an Industrial Age Relic--the Coal-Fired Boiler
Drummond, Steve
Teacher Magazine; Special Edition , p14-15 ; Apr 2000
The New York City School Construction Authority is on a mission to replace all coal-fired boilers in schools with gas-and-oil-fired heating systems over the next four years. The coal boilers are costly, a source of pollution, and can produce fumes that are dangerous to students.

Fire Down Below.
Drummond, Steven
Education Week; v19 n22 , p32-37 ; Feb 09, 2000
Explores some of the problems associated with coal burning boilers in educational facilities and the extent of their use in the New York City public school system. Also highlighted are some of the changes and issues schools encounter when they convert from coal to oil or gas. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Urban Schools: Forced to Fail
Crosby, Emeral A.
Phi Delta Kappan; v81 n4 , p298-303 ; Dec 1999
Identifies factors contributing to urban schools' failure, including bureaucratic decision-making processes; outmoded, poorly maintained, and improperly designed facilities; responsibility overload; a new student population comprised of immigrants, African-Americans, and the poor; rising security costs; inadequate staffing; and lack of political courage. Poor kids need political representation.

What a Mess! Too Many of Our Schools are Falling Apart or Overcrowded--So When is Congress Going to do Something About It?
Jehlen, Alain
American Teacher; Oct 1999
A call to action by the American Federation of Teachers to support the modernization or replacement of buildings that can no longer meet the educational needs of children.

Summer Brings Building Boom In City Schools.
White, Kerry A.
Education Week; Jul 14, 1999
In many big urban districts over the past few years--with the economy soaring, the school-age population growing, and popular support for upgrading schools rising--a backlog of construction needs is finally being addressed. Discusses projects in Detroit, New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Keeping Up With What You Have
Krysiak, Barbara H.
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p49-53 ; Jul 1999
Numerous studies have reported the deteriorating conditions in school buildings. One of the primary causes of this national problem is lack of proper maintenance of school facilities. Outlines a comprehensive assessment and planning process to provide a district with a road map for making decisions about facility improvement.

In School Construction, A Tale of Two Cities.
Siegal, Ann Cameron
AASA Online; Jun 23, 1999
Contrasts the brand new building for East High School in Erie, Pa and the 1921 Roosevelt High School facility in Decatur, IL where a bond failed to pass.

Step By Step.
Cox, Susan M.
American School and University; v71 n10 , p.56-57 ; Jun 1999
Explains how, despite limited funds, one urban California school district is working to modernize its schools while facing the challenges of displacing students into portable buildings, opening three middle schools, organizing a complete district-wide grade reconfiguration, and maintaining day-to-day school operations. Descriptions of the school district and specific school challenges faced are highlighted.

Pass or Fail: Schools are Experiencing Mixed Results in Their Attempts to Fund Facilities Repair and Construction.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v71 n10 , p20-24,26 ; Jun 1999
Examines the mixed results from several school districts that attempted to fund their school repair and construction projects. Enrollment, building deterioration, and school construction needs and costs are discussed, as are difficulties convincing the community to support capital improvement costs and/or just letting go of the emotional attachment that some communities have for particular schools.

School Construction in the United States. Adobe PDF
Lyons, John B.
PEB Exchange; n37 , p9-10 ; Jun 1999
Summarizes selected data on capital outlay estimates for future public school construction in the United States, revealing a 12.7 percent increase in capital outlays for public schools over 1997-98. A brief overview of regional construction for 1997 and comments on school funding are also presented.

A Study of Disparities among School Facilities in North Carolina: Effects of Race and Economic Status.
Burton, Ramona L.
Educational Policy; v13 n2 , p280-295 ; May 1999
This study examines the relationship between the physical state of elementary school facilities and the proportion of low-income and African American children attending schools. It is hypothesized that as the proportion of low-income or Black children attending schools increases, the quality of school buildings decreases. Using data from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, this hypothesis is tested by means of a regression model on three levels: statewide, intradistrict, and interdistrict. Findings suggest that as the proportion of low-income students increases (other things being equal) the condition of facilities worsens. This is the case for all three types of analysis. However, as the proportion of Black students increases, the condition of facilities appears to improve modestly.

Bursting Through: How Schools are Meeting the Enrollment Explosion.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v71 n9 , p18-20,22,24,26 ; May 1999
Examines the problem of school overcrowding, the political resolve to help school districts cope with rising enrollment, and examples of how some districts are taking the initiative to meet their rising enrollment challenges. Included are examples of school districts use of portable buildings; the expansion, renovation, and reclamation of old schools; and new school construction.

Tattered Promise.
Schnaiberg, Lynn
Education Week; v18 n25 , p40-47 ; Mar 1999
Examines why tribal leaders are saying that deteriorating Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools are a symbol of the Federal government's unfulfilled pledge to the education of Native American children. The Santa Fe Indian School is discussed to illustrate the numerous safety and deterioration concerns faced by the BIA and the BIA's difficulties in fulfilling Native American educational needs.

New Jersey's Schools on the Mend.
Bohi, Barbara J.
School Leader (New Jersey School Boards Ass'n.); Jan-Feb 1999
Analysis of the need for, and initiatives to finance facility improvements in New Jersey's public schools.

Structurally Sound?
Moulton Jr., James C; Curcio, Joan L.; Fortune, Jim C.
American School Board Journal; v186 n1 , p.38-40 ; Jan 1999
Four years ago the General Accounting Office told Congress that public school buildings were in bad shape. However, school board members who responded to a survey (294 completed surveys, a 50.8 percent response rate), while acknowledging some unsatisfactory conditions, a majority (78 percent) say their school buildings are either better than adequate or adequate. Demographics provide some clues for the difference.

Capital Improvements.
Catalyst: Voices of Chicago School Reform; v10 n3 ; Nov 1998
A series of articles discuss funded projects in the Chicago area. The School Reform Board is spending the bulk of its $2 billion in capital improvement dollars on the most basic, urgent projects, an analysis shows. In general, the projects are spread citywide without regard to race, class or political clout.

The Urban Challenge.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p18-20,24,26 ; Jul 1998
Discusses the myriad of challenges facing urban schools and the problems their districts must struggle through in finding solutions. The severity of these problems, such as additional facility demand, school deterioration, increasing rates of school takeovers, and tight budgets are described.

The Inner Struggle.
Cox, Susan M.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p60-61 ; Jul 1998
Describes one inner-city school district's struggles with old buildings and community apathy that has caused no school funding issues to be passed in 2 decades. Showing the school district's ability to give value back to the neighborhood is considered an important element in changing public opinion.

Court Rules.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p20-25 ; Jun 1998
Discusses how a recent New York State Supreme Court decision ordering the repair of all facilities within the New York City School system could have far-reaching implications for other districts. The school system's history of school building neglect that prompted the Court's decision and the decision's affect are examined as are similar litigation problems in other states.

Chicago Hope: Rebuilding A School System
Brown, Dan
Facilities Design & Management; , p46-49 ; Mar 1998
A new management team is rapidly upgrading a deteriorated metropolitan school system through a program that could serve as a national prototype.

The Condition of America's Schools
Honeyman, David S., Jr.
School Business Affairs; v64 n1 , p8-16 ; Jan 1998
Four studies indicate that many school buildings are either inadequate to house current student populations and instructional modes or require major repair or renovation. The studies document old facilities and billions of dollars of necessary repairs that have not been made due to deferred maintenance, insufficient capital improvement funding, and lack of compliance with federal and state special needs, health, and safety requirements.

Rundown Schools: Whose Responsibility?
Dahlkemper, Lesley
State Legislatures; v23 n8 , p15-19 ; 1997
Discusses the problem of school deterioration and why it happened, the costs for repair, and the lack of federal relief in correcting it. Arizona's state funding effort for school maintenance and repair and the legal hurdles faced in developing plans for that purpose are examined.

Public Schools Not Making the Grade.
Stoddard, Brooke C.
The Construction Specifier; v50 n9 , p28-29,34,38 ; Sep 1997
Discusses a 1995 General Accounting Office report showing the United States will have to spend approximately $112 billion to repair or upgrade its public schools to "good" condition. Discussed are areas seen as problems with the condition of U.S. schools and what is needed to improve them. The costs of maintenance deferment in colleges and universities are highlighted.

The Kids Are Coming.
Jones, Rebecca
American School Board Journal; v184 n4 , p.20-24 ; Apr 1997
The 51.7 million students enrolled in public and private schools this year outstrip the 51.3 million mark set in 1971. Today's taxpayers are reluctant to pay for new schools; therefore, school leaders need to be creative in handling the enrollment crunch. Experts in fast-growing districts offer tips.

Educational Reform in the Sunshine State: High Need, Low Funding, and a Disaffected Electorate.
Herrington, Carolyn D.; Trimble, Susan
Educational Considerations; v25 n1 , p17-20 ; 1997
Claims that voters and elected officials allow only short-term solutions to financial problems and that Florida fails to address need or adequacy. Efforts to find other funding sources, equity, and capital construction are prominent issues. Explains the sources of some problems by describing the state funding formula and discussing the structurally inadequate tax base, the new political and constitutional barriers to tax expansion, and sectoral rivalry for state revenues. Discusses new trends toward educational efficiency and reform. (Contains seven references.)

Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.
Moseley-Braun, Carol
School Planning and Management; v36 n1 , p.10-11 ; Jan 1997
Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect learning.

Is There a New School in Your Future?
Smith, Pat
Illinois School Board Journal; v64 n5 , p12-16 ; Nov-Dec 1996
Aging buildings and increasing enrollments are putting school construction back on school boards' agendas. Planners can expect sticker shock, due to rising construction costs, and wiring, lighting, and other accommodations for technology. They must also rethink designs for libraries, traffic control, parking, and security, and consider multiple-purpose facilities for community recreational usage. Renovation, planning, and problem-solving strategies are provided.

Rebuilding Our Crumbling Schools.
Agron, Joe
American School & University; v69 n2 , p18-21 ; Oct 1996
Discusses proposed legislation designed to improve the United States' education infrastructure. Outlines President Clinton's $5 billion school-construction initiative and describes areas in which the money can be used. Features interviews with Education Secretary, Richard Riley, and Senator Carol Moseley-Braun (D-Ill.), in which they discuss the details of the President's initiative.

States Do Not Spend Enough to Fix, Build Schools Report Says.
Lindsay, Drew
Education Week; Jan 10, 1996
States are doing little to build schools and repair the nation's education infrastructure, a federal report says. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

School Finance and the Conditions of Schools
Ornstein, Allan C.
Theory into Practice; v33 n2 , p.118-25 ; Spring 1994
Problems relating to school environment and building concerns eat up school budgets and negatively influence the overall fiscal condition of school districts. The article examines three issues impacting on school finance for the 1990s: environmental hazards (asbestos, radon, lead, electromagnetic fields, and air quality), school infrastructure deterioration, and school construction.

Building Conditions, Parental Involvement, and Student Achievement in the District of Columbia Public School System.
Berner, Maureen M.
Urban Education; v28 n1 , p6-29 ; Apr 1993
Little research has been done on the need to repair and refurbish school buildings because of the impact that the condition of buildings has on the students, rather than just the need to maintain local government's capital investment. This study uses Washington, DC, as a case study showing that the size of a public school's Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the school building 's condition. The condition is, in turn, shown to be statistically related to the student's academic achievement. An improvement in the school's condition by one category, say from poor to fair. is associated with a 5.5 point improvement in average academic achievement scores. [Author's abstract]

Capital Preservation of School Buildings: Recommendations from a State in Disrepair
Westbrook, Kathleen C.
Planning and Changing; v23 n1 , p.54-60 ; Spring 1992
Illinois currently permits districts to finance repairs and construction related to children's health, life, or safety through a modest "backdoor" referendum rate tied to property values. These repairs are ameliorative but not preventative.This article recommends a strategic capital preservation plan that sets aside funds for use in rehabilitating, modernizing, and preserving existing structures and determining future needs.

America s Deteriorating School Infrastructure: The Most Expensive Reform Problem.
Glass, Thomas E.
Record in Educational Administration and Supervision; v12 n1 , p.94-98 ; Fall-Winter 1991
Claims that in school reform debates, the condition of facilities that will house the restructured schools is rarely discussed. Focuses on the school facility crisis, ways in which inadequate buildings affect schooling, planning strategies, the consequences of the facility/infrastructure crisis, and the cost of saving America's schools.

Savage Inequalities.
Kozol, Jonathan
(Crown Publishers, New York, 1991)
Documents the segregated and unequal public education of children from poor families in the inner cities and less affluent suburbs, and describes how children of poor families get less real education, less hope, and less concern than children from rich families. Deplorable facility conditions in many of the nation's urban schools are described, with examples from East St. Louis, New York, San Antonio, Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Camden. 262p.

Public School Infrastructure in Maryland: Looking Back and the View Ahead
Stenzler, Yale
Educational Facility Planner; v25 n5 , p.12-14 ; 1991
Maryland provides funds for systemic renovation projects that are infrastructure improvements in public schools. State funds are provided on a sliding scale based on the age of the system being replaced and the wealth of the school district.

Deteriorating School Buildings: And the Walls Come A-Tumblin'Down
Glass, Thomas E.
Illinois Issues; v16 n11 , p21-24 ; Nov 1990
Describes the challenge that Illinois faces in trying to bring its older schools up to date. Discusses the debate over replacement versus renovation, enrollment and projected rises in this rate, the need to accommodate advanced technology programs, and the billions of dollars it will take to render these structures suitable for instruction.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).