COMMUNITY USE OF SCHOOLS
Information on community use of public school facilities during and after school hours, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Promoting Physical Activity through the Shared Use of School and Community Recreational Resources
(Active Living Research , Apr 2012)
Schools are often centrally located within a community and have gymnasiums, playgrounds, sports fields, courts, tracks or other facilities that could provide opportunities for residents to be active if they were available outside of normal school hours. The shared use (or joint use) of existing school and community sport and recreational facilities can be a cost-effective way to promote physical activity among residents of all ages. 9p
Model Joint Use Agreement Resources
(Public Health Law & Policy, 2012)
Provides model joint use agreements that are a formal agreement between two separate government entities–often a school and a city or county–setting forth the terms and conditions for shared use of public property or facilities. Includes the following: Opening Outdoor School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours; Opening Indoor and Outdoor School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours; Opening School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours & Authorizing Third Parties to Operate Programs; and Joint Use of District and City Recreation Facilities.
Creating Quality School-Age Child Care Space.
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation/Community Investment Collaborative for Kids, Sep 2011)
Provides strategies for planning, designing, and equipping after-school physical environments for school-age children from kindergarten through eighth grade. After-school spaces offer an opportunity to create special crossover environments where children can learn in a low-stress setting, explore new interests, and develop meaningful relationships with friends and mentors. Covers the following topics: getting started, adjacencies; accessibility; greening your space; tips for maximizing shared space; entry/gathering area; program activities; indoor and outdoor active play; dramatic play, quiet games, and construction-based play; science; music and arts; academic support; computer/technology spaces; adult spaces; children's bathrooms; storage; maintenance; ambiance and aesthetics; equipment and furnishings; 40p
Financing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success.
Blank, Martin; Jacobson, Reuben; Melaville, Atelia; Pearson, Sarah
(Coalition for Community Schools, Washington, DC , Nov 2010)
Details five findings from a study of community schools. These are: 1) Community schools use the bulk of their resources to directly assist schools in meeting their core instructional mission, while also strengthening the health and well-being of students, families and neighborhoods. 2) Community schools leverage $3 for every dollar invested by school districts. 3) Collaborative leadership structures support finance and other key functions at the school and system level. 4) A mix of public and private sector partners expands financial, as well as technical and political capacity. 5) Full-time site coordination contributes essential site level capacity at minimal cost. 56p.
School Facilities Joint Use Cost Calculator.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC and The University of California, Center for Cities & Schools, Berkeley, Sep 2010)
One obstacle to sharing public school facilities is recovering the cost of joint use. This joint use cost calculator helps school districts determine what to charge users to recover costs for joint use, particularly in situations where the district is unsure know what it costs to own and operate the school buildings. The calculator helps: 1) identify the elements of school district facility related costs, 2)calculate full cost of ownership on a per square foot and per hour basis, 3) determine policy decisions school districts need to make about which users to subsidize, and 4) create fee structure options for various non-school users, based on the real cost of ownership
Partnerships for Joint Use: Expanding the Use of Public School Infrastructure to Benefit Students and Communities.
(University of California, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Sep 2010)
Cites current perspectives and prior research on community use of school facilities, outlines three types of joint use approaches, and categorizes nine types of common community use arrangements found in California schools. These categories include expanded outdoor and indoor recreational spaces, shared library and arts facilities, community services, meetings and events, land development and local revitilization, and tenant type arrangements. Ten findings from the research are detailed, and lists of 6 resources and 43 references are included. 44p.
Opening School Property After Hours. A Primer on Liability.
(Public Health Law & Policy, Aug 2010)
Some school districts are reluctant to open school property to the community after hours, concerned about the legal risks and the costs associated with injury or property damage. This fact sheet explains how state laws, insurance, and joint use agreements can help protect school districts from liability. 3p
Community-Centered Schools Are Critical For Sustainable Neighborhoods? So How Can We Encourage More?
(International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC , Jun 2010)
Advocates for more community schools, examining obstacles to their creation, the importance of proximity between school and neighborhood, recommendations for policy changes that will enable more community schools, particularly where acreage requirements are concerned. Eight references are included. 6p.
Utlization of PS 15.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Apr 13, 2010)
Summarizes an analysis of space utilization of Brooklyn's PS-15 elementary school, a facility that houses a traditional and a charter school, as well as community services. The report reveals that the traditional classrooms are typically undersized and crowded, while the charter school classrooms are somewhat better. The report also addresses space for special education, impending issues for shared spaces (cafeteria, gymn, auditorium), and the inadequacy of the school library. 6p.
Summary of Legal Rules Governing Liability for Recreational Use of School Facilities
(Public Health Law & Policy, Apr 2010)
Focuses on liability for recreational use of school facilities, outlining what general liability standards are applied, as well as any limitations on liability or damages. 8p
(New Schools / Better Neighborhoods / More Livable Communities, Apr 2010)
This monograph serve as a resource for school districts, citizen leaders, community organizations, service providers, and elected officials who share the call for urgent action toward the creative deployment of California's vital human, financial and environmental resources to our inner city and inner suburban schools and neighborhoods. Includes a discussion of collaborative management; systemic economics; integrative policy; nexus planning; engaging the community; moving from sustainability to transformation. 44p.
Fifty-State Scan of Laws Addressing Community Use of Schools
(Public Health Law & Policy, Mar 2010)
State-by-state overview of statutes about whether school property can be used by the community for recreation. Includes special rules regarding liability, fees, insurance, joint use, or applicability to K-12 or universities/colleges.
San Francisco's Public School Facilities as Public Assets: A Shared Understanding and Policy Recommendations for the Community Use of Schools
Vincent, Jeffrey; Filardo, Mary; Klein, Jordan; McKoy Deborah
(Center for Cities and Schools, University of California, Berkeley , Mar 2010)
Presents research findings and policy recommendations from a yearlong investigation to establish a more effective joint use strategy in the San Francisco Unified School District. The report details utilization, management, policy, and budget findings, noting significant deficiencies. Four recommendations to improve the use of San Francisco schools both during school hours and afterwards are offered, and appendices provide scope, vision statements, and lists of participants and identified challenges. 62p.
Joint Use of Public Schools: A Framework for a New Social Contract.
Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeffrey; Allen, Marni; Franklin, Jason
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2010)
Explores joint use as a way to provide services to children and families in convenient locations, improve opportunities for physical activity of youth and adults, leverage capital investments, and reduce the consumption of land. The report attempts to frame the basic challenges and opportunities for joint use to increase the quantity and quality of joint use policy and practice. 17p.
Opening School Grounds to the Community after Hours: A Toolkit for Increasing Physical Activity through Joint Use Agreements.
Ogilvie, Robert; Zimmerman, Jason
(Planning for Healthy Places, a project of Public Health Law & Policy (PHLP), California , 2010)
Shares what has been learned from some successful school/community joint use agreements and offers guidelines and templates for communities seeking to increase their own access to school recreational facilities. Chapter 1 provides a snapshot of how communities throughout California are currently sharing facilities, and highlights the essential components of a joint use agreement. Chapter 2 provides a step-by-step checklist for negotiating and developing a joint use agreement, highlighting important issues to consider at each stage of the process. Chapter 3 presents short profiles illustrating how different communities throughout California have negotiated and implemented four types of joint use. 168p.
A Look at Community Schools.
(Center for American Progress, Washington, DC , Oct 2009)
Provides an overview of community school strategies in the United States and how community schools can decrease poverty's detrimental effect on students. The report highlights the examples where research shows community schools have had the most success by providing access to child care, social services, health care, and extended education. It also reviews England's extended school model and suggest how the United States can expand community schools based on England's experience. 28p.
School Districts: Leases and Agreements.
(California State Legislature, Sacramento , Aug 27, 2009)
This California legislation authorizes a school district to enter into leases and agreements relating to real property and buildings to be used jointly by the district and a local governmental agency. Existing law already authorized a school district to enter into leases and agreements relating to real property and buildings to be used jointly by the district and any private person, firm, or corporation. 8p.
Rasing Graduation and College Going Rates.
(Coalition for Community Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Reviews eight community schools to show their effects on graduation and drop-out rates. Rising graduation and college going rates and a decrease in drop-out rates are found in community schools. The report also finds that community schools strengths lie in their local communities, creating personalized environments, a rigorous curriculum, and sustainable partnerships. 28p.
Partnerships for a Sustainable Future: Schools and Community, The Rosa Parks School. [Video]
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC, Mar 2009)
This video profiles the Rosa Parks School, which opened in 2007 to students in one of the most impoverished areas of Portland, Oregon. Facing a burgeoning population and a tightened budget, Portland Public Schools (PPS) and the Housing Authority of Portland (HAP) joined forces with The Boys & Girls Club of Portland and the City of Portland’s University Park Community Center to create a two-acre educational campus. PPS developed a gold-standard Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified sustainable building. The school is a model for how multiple partners and creative design can result in a sustainable school and a sustainable community.
Arne Duncan on Community Schools.
Presents an interview with U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, promoting the concept of schools as centers of community, with emphasis on keeping school buildings open for extended hours and community service organizations conducting their programs via the school site.
References to Journal Articles
Converting School Playgrounds to Community Parks
Athletic Business; , p63-64 ; Aug 2012
Cities capitalize on existing schoolyards to provide more opportunities for physical activity.
North Charleston School District Creates Its First Shared Campus
School Construction News; Dec 2011
Describes how the Charleston County School District participated in the transformation of an older neighborhood into a successful, sustainable community. CCSD engaged both the community and local government leaders, creating its own school master plan to construct facilities designed to attract young families and foster local neighborhood development. Details the design of the new 330,000-square-foot Center of Arts and Academics, located on a 55-acre abandoned school site in North Charleston, that is now a state-of-the-art arts facility and a community asset.
An Educational Magnet. Public Involvement Creates a Community Gem
Cecil, Daniel and Roy, Anthony
School Planning and Management; , p18-20 ; Oct 2011
The design of a major new school is a rare event in the life of a community. In many places, it is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Describes how the community and educators in Westbrook, Maine took to heart the task of creating a junior high school that would serve as an educational magnet for students and a community/performing arts center for residents for years to come.
Learn from the Past.
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p54 ; Feb 2011
Urges school districts to retain closed school buildings rather than sell them, as many districts have found that when enrollment rebounded, they later needed buildings that they had sold. Ideally, a new school building should be designed to be easily converted to other community uses if it enters a period of underutilization, and ideas for adaptive re-use of existing schools are described.
Making Visionary Design Work at Policy Level and in Practice.
CELE Exchange; n2011/2 ; Jan 2011
Responds to need for school architecture to address both educational and societal use of school facilities.
Community Centers/Joint-Use Facilities and Modular Facilties.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p181-184 ; Nov 2010
Profiles two joint-use facilities and one modular high school honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. The joint-use facilities are the Lunda Center at Wisconsin's Western Technical College and the Centennial Hills Library of the Las Vegas-Clark County Library District. The modular facility is High Tech High School in Chula Vista, California. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.
Rebuilding for the Community in New Orleans.
CELE Exchange; 2010/14 ; Nov 2010
Describes New Orleans' plans for rebuilding its schools. Many of the school sites will become a "nexus" for their neighborhoods, surrounded by retail, social service, health, and cultural facilities. Over 10,000 citizens were involved in the planning.
Liability Risks for After-Hours Use of Public School Property to Reduce Obesity: A 50-State Survey.
Journal of School Health; v80 n10 , p508-513 ; Oct 2010
One way to address childhood obesity is to create outlets for children to engage in physical activity. Schools are well equipped to provide an active environment. However, some school boards and administrators are concerned about liability risks. This study describes the legal rules applicable to potential claims against public schools during recreational use of school grounds and facilities. The study concluded that public schools in most states can be subject to liability in certain cases arising out of recreational use of their facilities. However, schools have important defenses. In combination with empirical research about liability in other contexts, this survey suggests that liability risks are unlikely to justify the denial of recreational access to children who are at risk of obesity. (Authors' abstract)
American School and University; v82 n13 , p14,16-19 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the two main winners in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors competition. The Omaha Public Schools Saddlebrook Joint-Use Library and the New York University Stern School of Business Concourse were chosen for high performance, value, safety and security, innovation, atmosphere, functionality, quality, and contextual relationship. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
Policies to Promote the Community Use of Schools: A Review of State Recreational User Statutes.
Spengler, John; Carroll, Michael; Connaughton, Daniel; Evenson, Kelly
American Journal of Preventive Medicine; v39 n1 , 81-88 ; Jul 2010
Examines the applicability of recreational user statutes to public schools when the use of school facilities for recreational purposes would occur outside of regular school hours. A review of recreational user statutes from all 50 states was conducted in 2007 and 2009. Forty-two states had recreational user statutes that would potentially offer protection from liability for public schools. The study suggests the need for further statutory liability protections for public schools, and immunity provisions that target activities conducive to physical activity, common on school grounds, and popular among community residents. It further suggests that empirical studies be conducted to examine school administrator's perceptions relevant to liability as a potential barrier to opening school sport and recreational facilities to members of the community outside of regular school hours.[author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/S0749-3797(10)00260-6/abstract
Schools as Community Spaces.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p42-47 ; Jun 2010
Discusses the increasing development of schools as centers of community. Configuring spaces to accommodate curricular and non-curricular uses, increased common areas, and multi-media spaces are addressed.
Build a School, Inspire a Community.
Bowen-Eggebraaten, Mary; Hoffman, Paul
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p24-26 ; May 2010
Profiles River Crest Elementary School in Hudson, Wisconsin. This "green" school was built at 29% below the average cost for schools in that region, and has formed partnerships with the YMCA camp across the street. The facility serves as a catalyst for sustainable change and has been an educational tool for ecofriendly behavior in the community.
School and More.
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p34-36,38 ; May 2010
Describes construction of Kahnaware Survival School near Montreal. In addition to its function as a school, the building itself serves as a teaching tool, a community gathering place, and a shelter in case of disaster. Since the building is used primarily during cold-weather months, particular attention is given to efficient HVAC.
School Siting: Contested Visions of the Community School.
Journal of the American Planning Association; v76 n2 , p1-15 ; Apr 2010
Traces the evolution of school siting standards, explains factors currently influencing school facility location decisions, and identifies what local and regional planners could contribute to school siting decisions. The author's research discovered that different groups use very different definitions of community school. Smart growth proponents advocate community schools that are small and intimately linked to neighborhoods, while school facility planners expect community schools to meet the needs of entire localities. She recommends that individual communities consider the tradeoffs associated with different school sizes and make choices that meet local preferences for locations within walking distance of students, potential for sports fields, school design, and connections to neighborhoods. State school construction and siting policies should support flexibility for localities.
Building Blueprints: Joint Use.
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p96,97 ; Apr 2010
Re-defines the concept of joint use of schools beyond traditional "benignly invasive" school facilities that open to the community at discrete hours. Author describes reversible hosting, where school design or adaptation also opens the school into the community, and where school constituences experience the surrounding environment as well.
Creating a Program for Transforming School Facilities to become Centers for their Communities.
Netter Journal; v8 n1-2 , p63-67 ; Spring 2010
Details necessary or otherwise desirable design features for schools that are made available for community use. The recommendations are based on studies of three Tulsa area community schools that were not suitable for community use, as well as suffering from deficiencies in their roles as schools. Community wings were developed for the schools. A prototype floor plan and four references accompany the text.
Learning By Design; n19 , p21,22 ; Spring 2010
Discusses creating high schools on college campuses, addressing the educational advantages of the arrangement and complexities of designing for two clients. Successful examples from California are cited.
Double Duty: Schools as Community Centers.
District Administration; v13 n3 , p16-20 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the evolution toward schools as community centers, detailing federal government encouragement, and several successful examples have united a school with community development endeavors.
Jeremiah E. Burke High School
Architectural Record; v198 n1 , p90-93 ; Jan 2010
Describes an addition to a Boston high school that includes a public library and community center. Project information, plans, and photographs are included.
Community-Based Athletic Facilities.
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p70-73 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the creation of school athletic facilities that can be used by the community. Zoning and placement, programming and scheduling, and operational costs for expanded-use facilities are addressed, as are their advantages to building community support for the school construction.
Shaping up Community Fitness Centers.
College Planning and Management; v13 n1 , p75-77 ; Jan 2010
Discusses opening higher education fitness centers to the public, addressing potential legal problems of selling memberships, design considerations, security, equipment, personnel, and potential conflicts among user groups.
Avoiding Past Mistakes.
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p42 ; Dec 2009
Advises on how to utilize school buildings in an environment of declining enrollment, without repeating the past mistake of abandoning, selling, or converting school property to other uses.
School Construction News; v15 n7 , p14-16 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Profiles this West Sacramento school whose recreation center is the largest joint-use facility in the city, offering extensive amenities and operated by the city.
Do Your Schools Serve Their Communities?
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p58 ; Oct 2009
Advises on the design of community schools, emphasizing co-location of facilities that serve the students, as well as seniors, health and recreation departments, law enforcement, early childhood, and extended education.
Integrated Sustainable Architecture.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p44,45 ; Oct 2009
Outlines four key characteristics of a sustainable school master plan: 1) supporting learning through integration of varying spaces, furnishings, and technologies; 2) putting schools at the centers of communities; 3) creating high-performance facilities; and 4) taking a long-term view.
Community Centers/Joint-Use Facilities.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p80,82,83 ; Aug 2009
Profiles two community center/joint use facilities selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
River City High School: Joint Use Creates Community Ties.
CASH Register; v30 n7 , p12,16 ; Jul 2009
Profiles this West Sacramento school whose recreation center is the largest joint-use facility in the city, offering extensive amenities and operated by the city.
A Team Effort.
School Construction News; v12 n5 , p18 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Reviews recent successes in the construciton of community schools and notes administrative and funding obstacles to a more widespread community schools movement.
Community Schools: Bringing Together Community Partners to Increase Opportunities for Youth.
The Education Innovator; v7 n6 , p1-4 ; Jun 2009
Discusses opportunities for creating community schools, with particular attention to support available at the national association and federal government level. The benefits of community schools are cited, and links to additional resources are provided.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p20,22,24,26 ; Jun 2009
Advocates design of schools to accommodate users of all ages, all day long, through housing community service organizations within the school. Ohio’s Medina High School is described as an example.
Trends in Urban School Design.
Schooldesigner; Apr 2009
Discusses sustainability, finding space, special education needs, and the school as community anchor, all of which figure prominently in the creating of inner-city schools.
Overcoming Challenges to Community-Centered Schools.
Forum Journal; v23 n2 , p12-19 ; Jan 2009
Reviews state- and local-level challenges to creating smaller, community-centered schools and preserving historic neighborhood schools. These historically come from acreage requirements in school facility guidelines that are gradually being abandoned. Nonetheless, the desire to build large, remote schools persists. Deferred maintenance that has led to decrepit inner city schools that are deemed unsalvageable is also blamed. A variety of remedies suggested include relaxing cost percentage rules for renovation versus new construction, joint use of neighborhood facilities, and more accurate feasibility studies for renovation versus new construction.TO ORDER: http://www.preservationbooks.org/Bookstore.asp?category_id=29&Item=1366