COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND SCHOOL FACILITIES
Information on the role public school facilities play in urban and rural economic development and community revitalization, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Promoting Physical Activity through the Shared Use of School and Community Recreational Resources
(Active Living Research , Apr 2012)
Schools are often centrally located within a community and have gymnasiums, playgrounds, sports fields, courts, tracks or other facilities that could provide opportunities for residents to be active if they were available outside of normal school hours. The shared use (or joint use) of existing school and community sport and recreational facilities can be a cost-effective way to promote physical activity among residents of all ages. 9p
Housing Costs, Zoning, and Access to High-Scoring Schools
(Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings, Apr 2012)
Parents hoping to enroll their children in the best public schools have long known that where you live matters and that housing prices can be dictated by the quality of the nearby schools. This study quantifies that price gap, and the differences between the cost of living near a high-scoring public school and a low-performing one are striking.
The study found that housing costs in the nation’s 100 largest metropolitan areas were an average of 2.4 times as high – a difference of $11,000 a year – for homes near schools whose average test scores put them in the top fifth of schools in the area, compared with schools in the bottom fifth.
That means that a family would have to pay more per year to move into a good public school zone than for their children to attend some private schools. Translated into an average home price, the gap works out to an average of $205,000 more for a home near a high-performing school.
The study also found that within metropolitan areas, those with higher levels of economic segregation between neighborhoods and school zones had even wider gaps between average test scores. Of the 10 metro areas with the widest gaps in average test scores, six were in the Northeast, including Hartford, Buffalo and Philadelphia. 31p
You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South.
(Northwestern University Press, 2012)
Tells the story of Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington whose meeting led eventually to the construction of thousands of schools for black children in the segregated South. Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Co., was one of the richest men in America; Washington rose out of slavery to become a civil rights leader. Together they worked with local communities to build schools that often served as civic centers as well as schools. Though most schools closed when segregation ended, there has been interest in recent years in renovating and restoring them.
The Effect of School Construction on Test Scores, School Enrollment, and Home Prices.
Neilson, Christopher and Zimmerman, Seth
(IZA: Institute for the Study of Labor, Nov 2011)
This paper provides new evidence on the effect of school construction projects on home prices, academic achievement, and public school enrollment. Taking advantage of the staggered implementation of a comprehensive school construction project in a poor urban district, the authors find that, by six years after building occupancy, $10,000 of per-student investment in school construction raised reading scores for elementary and middle school students by 0.027 standard deviations. For a student receiving the average treatment intensity this corresponds to a 0.21 standard deviation increase. School construction also raised home prices and public school enrollment in zoned neighborhoods. 47p
Closing Public Schools in Philadelphia: Lessons from Six Urban Districts.
(Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia Research Initiative, Oct 19, 2011)
This report looks at six cities that have engaged in large-scale public school closings in the past decade—Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City, Mo., Milwaukee, Pittsburgh and Washington—to better understand what is in store for Philadelphia. With nearly one-third of its seats sitting empty, 70,000 in all, the School District of Philadelphia plans to close multiple buildings over the next two years. In doing so, Philadelphia will be following in the footsteps of cities throughout the Northeast and Midwest. The factors prompting the closings, in Philadelphia as in the other cities, include a dwindling population of school-age children, mounting budget pressures, deteriorating facilities, poor academic performance, and the growth of charter schools and other alternatives that have lessened the demand for traditional public-school education.
The Effect of the New Haven School Construction Project on Test Scores, Home Prices, and Public School Enrollment. Policy Brief
Neilsen, Christopher; Zimmerman, Seth
(Yale University Department of Economics, Oct 09, 2011)
In 1995, New Haven began the Citywide School Construction Program (SCP), a comprehensive effort to rebuild every public school in the district. By 2010, out of 42 school buildings in the district, 30 had been rebuilt or extensively renovated, with an additional seven schools under construction or under design. With total projected costs of approximately $1.4 billion (in 2005 dollars), the SCP is believed to be the largest per-capita school construction program in the U.S. Of the $1.4 billion in total expenditures, New Haven paid for just over 20 percent, or $300 million; the remaining funds came from State or Federal sources.This document summarizes the results of an independent study of the effects of the New Haven SCP on educational and community outcomes in the city. The method of analysis controls for persistent differences in neighborhoods and for citywide trends. 8p
School Siting Guidelines.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Oct 02, 2011)
Voluntary school siting guidelines can help local school districts and community members evaluate environmental factors to make the best possible school siting decisions. Includes overview, environmental siting criteria considerations, environmental review process, evaluating impacts of nearby sources of air pollution, quick guide for environmnetal issues, and frequent questions.
Growth & Opportunity: Aligning High-Quality Public Education & SustainableCommunities Planning in the Bay Area.
Ariel H. Bierbaum, Jeffrey M. Vincent and Deborah L. McKoy
(Center for Cities & Schools at University of California, Berkeley, Oct 2011)
Identifies tangible policy levers at both the regional and municipal levels that realize the co-benefits of pursuing complete communities and high-quality education in tandem. Looks at the educational impacts of non-school policies, such as housing, transportation, and other regional planning investments; impacts of educational efforts on non-school issues, such as housing choice, sustainable transportation utilization, and community-building opportunities; and how the region’s policy and practice interventions and investments in housing and transportation be made to strategically support improving school quality. 40p
New Schools for Downtown Nashville
(Nashville Civic Design Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Jul 2011)
Advocates for the building of new schools in downtown Nashville, Tennessee for a dramatic positive affect on the growth and new development in the urban core of the city. Details universal reasons to invest in downtown schools as well as the benefits to Nashville. Provides extensive case studies from Memphis and Chattanooga, highlighting lessons learned, as well highlighting projects in San Diego, Chicago, and St. Louis. Outlines specific locations for the new schools, with plans and photographs. 17p
Public Schools: A Toolkit for REALTORS®
(National Association of Realtors, Jun 2011)
Toolkit to help realtors enhance their knowledge and understanding of the public school system so they can become involved in improving their schools and communities. A section on Issues in Public Education includes the following topics: the benefits of green schools; walkability and safe routes to school; school building and siting; teachers living where they work; and how schools are funded. Section two shares examples of realtors and realtor associations around the country that are playing an active role in engaging local students and improving local schools by serving on school boards, volunteering at local schools, donating their time to community-wide efforts to improve schools, and advocating for local school-related initiatives.
Opportunity-Rich Schools and Sustainable Communities: Seven Steps to Align High-Quality Education with Innovations in City and Metropolitan Planning and Development.
McKoy, Deborah; Vincent, Jeffrey; Bierbaum, Ariel
(University of California, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Jun 2011)
Illustrates policies and strategies at all levels of government that are increasingly associating educational outcomes with community planning and housing. The research developed seven steps to link education and planning policy at the local level, drawn from a national scan of model activities, interviews with key experts and agency staff members, and the authors' experience working with local governing bodies. The report identifies practical solutions that encompass assessing the current educational environment, engaging the community, strategic planning and implementation of investment, and institutionalizing successful innovations. 63p.
The Economic Impact of the Virginia Beach City Public School System
(Virginia Beach Public Schools, Jun 2011)
Report divides Virginia Beach's worth into four categories: the spending impact on the regional economy; the economic value of high school and college degrees received; future savings in public costs; and the economic impact on local wealth. The report notes that for the past five fiscal years, the district's operating budget has been around $680 million. Of that, about 85 percent is spent on salaries and benefits, which are then partially recirculated in the region. A certain percentage is spent outside the region, and on other costs such as taxes. For every dollar spent by the school system and retained in the region results in total regional spending of $1.53. For capital spending, the report estimates that every dollar the district spends results in $1.55 in total regional spending. Every $1 million of capital spending, such as for school modernization or construction, is associated with about 13 jobs. 54p
Local Leaders in Sustainability. Special Report from Sundance: A National Action Plan for Greening America’s Schools
Rainwater, Brooks and Hartke, Jason
(The American Institute of Architects, The Redford Center, ICLEI USA - Local Governments for Sustainability, and U.S. Green Building Council , May 2011)
Details what mayors, superintendents, and other local leaders can do to advance the movement for environmentally friendly schools. Its recommendations include becoming involved with the local green-schools movement; raising awareness about the benefits of green buildings by creating a task force or hosting a summit; tracking the energy use of existing schools; passing a green cleaning policy; and advancing green school construction bonds. 46p.
The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.
Cellini, Stephanie; Ferreira, Fernando; Rothstein, Jesse
(The Quarterly Journal of Economics, v125 n1, Feb 2011)
Estimates the value of school facility investments using housing markets: standard models of local public goods imply that school districts should spend up to the point where marginal increases would have zero effect on local housing prices. The research design isolates exogenous variation in investments by comparing school districts where referenda on bond issues targeted to fund capital expenditures passed and failed by narrow margins. Results indicate that California school districts underinvest in school facilities: passing a referendum causes immediate, sizable increases in home prices, implying a willingness to pay on the part of marginal homebuyers of $1.50 or more for each $1 of capital spending. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the impact on test scores appears to explain only a small portion of the total housing price effect. [Ahuthors' abstract] p215-261TO ORDER: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.215?cookieSet=1&journalCode=qjec
(New Schools / Better Neighborhoods / More Livable Communities, Apr 2010)
This monograph serve as a resource for school districts, citizen leaders, community organizations, service providers, and elected officials who share the call for urgent action toward the creative deployment of California's vital human, financial and environmental resources to our inner city and inner suburban schools and neighborhoods. Includes a discussion of collaborative management; systemic economics; integrative policy; nexus planning; engaging the community; moving from sustainability to transformation. 44p.
San Francisco's Public School Facilities as Public Assets: A Shared Understanding and Policy Recommendations for the Community Use of Schools
Vincent, Jeffrey; Filardo, Mary; Klein, Jordan; McKoy Deborah
(Center for Cities and Schools, University of California, Berkeley , Mar 2010)
Presents research findings and policy recommendations from a yearlong investigation to establish a more effective joint use strategy in the San Francisco Unified School District. The report details utilization, management, policy, and budget findings, noting significant deficiencies. Four recommendations to improve the use of San Francisco schools both during school hours and afterwards are offered, and appendices provide scope, vision statements, and lists of participants and identified challenges. 62p.
The Economic Impact of LAUSD Facilities Service Division Bond Programs.
(Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation, Feb 19, 2010)
Los Angeles Unified School District's renovation and modernization program is budgeted for $7.6 billion and includes over 23,000 projects. The new construction program is budgeted for $12 billion and consists of 435 projects, including the construction of 131 new K-12 schools and 64 additions. Together this spending is generating economic activity (measured by business revenues) that will exceed $45 billion in the five-county Southern California region and creating 331,700 jobs with total earnings of over $15 billion over the program period. The projects will generate almost $1.5 billion in state, county, and local tax revenues. 32p.
Mobility, Housing Markets, and Schools: Estimating General Equilibrium Effects Of Interdistrict Choice.
Brunner, Eric; Cho, Sung-Woo, Reback, Randall
(Columbia University, National Center for the Study of Privatization of Education, New York , Jan 2010)
Develops and tests predictions concerning the general equilibrium effects of inter-district choice programs. Changes in school district-level demographics and housing values between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses are examined, in twenty-six states that adopted these choice programs. Consistent with theory, districts with popular nearby, out-of-district schooling options experience relatively large increases in housing values and in the number of households with children. 42p.
The Good, Bad, and Ugly of Campus Expansion: Two Case Studies of Urban University Expansion Initiatives in Boston and New York.
(ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Ann Arbor, MI, 2010)
Through two case studies, this study aims to illuminate the chief impacts of expansion initiatives according to internal and external constituents, as well as to identify salient organizational characteristics which influence perceptions. Findings show that the chief perceived impacts on campuses include the creation of new space, increased safety, as well as the improved physical appearance of campus and neighborhood. While a number of common impacts emerge, a wide degree of variation surfaces between internal and external constituents and case studies, as stakeholders often have competing interests and priorities. Various internal constituents often have divergent perceptions about impacts that frequently conflict with external constituents. Internal constituents believe that the chief neighborhood impact of expansion is gentrification and the displacement of residents and businesses. Meanwhile, though external constituents believe that change in the availability of affordable housing is the single most common impact of expansion, they also widely believe that gentrification is another major impact. Finally, the study reveals that a number of influential organizational characteristics appear to affect perceptions of expansion impacts. They include university practices (such as communication and the use of the eminent domain), campus architecture, university leadership, student behavior, neighborhood demographics, and neighborhood history. 398TO ORDER: http://gradworks.umi.com/34/24/3424971.html
The Mechanics of City-School Initiatives: Transforming Neighborhoods of Distress & Despair into Neighborhoods of Choice & Promise.
McKoy, Deborah; Bierbaum, Arial; Vincent, Jeffrey
(Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley, CA , Nov 2009)
Presents an evidence-based framework for improving the quality of public education and creating more vibrant and healthy neighborhoods through integrated city-public school initiatives. Case studies reveal how to simultaneously leverage innovations in the built environment, educational practice, and collaborative policymaking. These lessons draw on work with six city-school district partnerships in the San Francisco Bay Area. 23p.
A Look at Community Schools.
(Center for American Progress, Washington, DC , Oct 2009)
Provides an overview of community school strategies in the United States and how community schools can decrease poverty's detrimental effect on students. The report highlights the examples where research shows community schools have had the most success by providing access to child care, social services, health care, and extended education. It also reviews England's extended school model and suggest how the United States can expand community schools based on England's experience. 28p.
Smart Growth Schools Report Card.
(Smart Growth Schools , May 19, 2009)
Compiles best practices from the literature pertaining to Smart Growth and K-12 schools, translated into eleven performance-based criteria. The Report Card describes these criteria, then provides four or five options for addressing each of them. The options then correspond to a letter grade that permits a local community to assess its efforts. 24p.
Growing by Degrees: Universities in the Future of Urban Development.
(Royal Institute of British Architects, London , 2009)
Examines the potential and challenges of higher education campus growth and community development. The document discusses how the university and local civic authority can no longer carry on their business with minimal engagement. Both need each other today if either is to succeed. The scenarios explored in this publication are intended as informed provocations to stimulate debate not only within universities and local authorities, but also, particularly, between the two. 50p.
Smart Schools, Smart Growth.
Fuller, Bruce; Vincent, Jeff; Bierbaum, Ariel; Kirschenbaum, Greta; McCoy, Deborah; Rigby, Jessica
(University of California, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Jan 2009)
Examines how California's massive and ongoing investment in school construction could better advance the shared goals of school improvement, sustainable urban growth, and equal opportunity. The brief is organized in five parts: 1) a framework for how smart growth principles could help guide school facilities investments, 2) how the $82 billion in bond revenues are being distributed to California's various regions, 3) how a lack of coordinated planning is placed in sharp relief to where people live to how far they travel to jobs, 4) the benefits of high-quality school facilities that accrue to students and teachers, and 5) state policy makers, local educators, and city planners could exercise influential policy levers more wisely. Four communities that are grappling with these challenges in innovative ways and constructing smart schools that build from smart growth principles are highlighted throughout this report.Explores California's current $82 billion school construction investment as an opportunity to advance educational quality and lift local communities. The report urges incorporation of smart growth principles into school facilities construction, more accountability from the State Allocation Board, and investigation into how facility improvement have improved achievement. 37p.
Stones into Schools: Promoting Peace with Books, not Bombs, in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
(Viking Pres, New York, NY , 2009)
Narrates the story of how the Central Asia Institute (CAI) built schools in northern Afghanistan. The author describes the harsh geography, near-death experiences as they plot a course of school-building through the Badakshan province and Wakhan corridor. Mortenson also shares his friendships with U.S. military personnel and describes the careful line CAI threads between former mujahideen commanders, ex-Taliban and village elders, and the American soldiers stationed in their midst. 443p.TO ORDER: http://us.penguingroup.com/static/pages/publishers/adult/viking.html
References to Journal Articles
Converting School Playgrounds to Community Parks
Athletic Business; , p63-64 ; Aug 2012
Cities capitalize on existing schoolyards to provide more opportunities for physical activity.
Community-Oriented Architecture in Schools: How Extroverted Design Can Impact Learning and Change the World
Arch Daily; Mar 05, 2012
According to this article, the design of a school cannot just incorporate the necessary physical conditions for students; it must be designed with its cultural value to the community in mind, cognizant of the fact that a young mind’s commitment to learning is affected greatly by his/her family, society and culture’s value of education.
Useful, Green, and Community-Minded
College Planning and Management; , p83-85 ; Jan 2012
Miscordia University's, Dallas, PA, creative adaptation of three existing facilities has saved money and resources and contributed to a strong town-gown relationship. Describes renovation of a funeral home to a residence hall for 26 students, and a former car dealership to arts studios.
North Charleston School District Creates Its First Shared Campus
School Construction News; Dec 2011
Describes how the Charleston County School District participated in the transformation of an older neighborhood into a successful, sustainable community. CCSD engaged both the community and local government leaders, creating its own school master plan to construct facilities designed to attract young families and foster local neighborhood development. Details the design of the new 330,000-square-foot Center of Arts and Academics, located on a 55-acre abandoned school site in North Charleston, that is now a state-of-the-art arts facility and a community asset.
Redefining College Towns for the 21st Century
Gann, John L.
University Business; Nov-Dec 2011
Online education’s impact and how college towns can reinvent themselves as places to visit or to live.
Isolating the Effect of School Quality on Property Values
The Connecticut Economy; , 2p ; Fall 2011
Examines the effect of school quality, as measured by Connecticut's 8th grade math scores, on property values. Findings indicate that a one-standard deviation increase in test scores would raise the value of a Connecticut home worth $250,000 by some $16,250.
Poverty and Education.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p6 ; May 2011
Compares achievement levels in high-poverty versus low-poverty schools, proposing that just raising school funding will not address the underlying socio-economic issues that challenge disadvantaged students.
The Value of New: Elementary School Facility Age and Associated Housing Price.
Journal of Housing Research; , p67-86 ; Apr 14, 2011
The purpose of this article is to assess the relationship between elementary school facility age and single-family housing price in the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area. This is a cross-sectional study employing multivariate regression. The model includes facility age as a measure of perceived school quality, along with a series of control variables to assess the relationship between public elementary school facility age and the corresponding housing prices within the associated school attendance zones. This study provides evidence that housing prices are associated with school facility age. The findings show housing prices to be positively correlated with newer and historic school facilities. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://ares.metapress.com/content/xq445wlr4853u007/
Verrier, Robert; Binette, Michael
College Planning and Management; v14 n2 , p42,44-47 ; Feb 2011
Advocates the preservation and adaptive reuse of historic buildings on or near college campuses, citing many examples of successful inclusion of existing historic buildings into a contemporary educational program. Environmental and tax advantages are emphasized, as well as how utilization of historic neighborhood villages helps integrate campuses into their surrounding communities.
Building the Community Nexus.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p35-37 ; 2011
Advocates integration of education and community services by effective siting of the facilities that house them. These community ?nexus? centers should be planned as a whole, include housing, and be walkable. The physical, cultural, social, economic, and educational domains making up the nexus are discussed, and an example of the concept being implemented in New Orleans is included.
School Travel Mode Choice and Characteristics of the Children, School and Neighborhood
Spinney, Jamie; Millward, Hugh
Children, Youth and Environments; v21 n2 , p57-76 ; Winter 2011
The journey between home and school presents one of the most widespread opportunities for children to engage in regular physical activity, yet this opportunity is apparently being squandered. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether travel mode choices for children’s journey between home and school are associated with characteristics of the children, the schools, and the neighborhoods in which the schools are sited. Travel mode choices were collected from children aged 5 to 15 in Halifax, Canada, and joined with information about their schools and their school’s neighborhood. Pearson’s chi-square was used to highlight major differences from expected values and examine the associations with each mode choice (bus, car, or walking). Results suggest that, for the sake of communities and children’s health, the siting of new schools should consider the negative implications of chauffeuring students, and should strive to encourage active forms of transportation. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
Rebuilding for the Community in New Orleans.
CELE Exchange; 2010/14 ; Nov 2010
Describes New Orleans' plans for rebuilding its schools. Many of the school sites will become a "nexus" for their neighborhoods, surrounded by retail, social service, health, and cultural facilities. Over 10,000 citizens were involved in the planning.
A Rising Tide Lifts All Ships.
Wickstrom, Douglas; Monberg, Gregory; Hal, Michael Hall
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p20,22-24 ; Aug 2010
Examines findings that link investment in education and economic development. Four schools built in economically distressed areas are cited for their positive influence on the economic development of their neighborhoods.
University of Waterloo School of Pharmacy.
Canadian Architect; v55 n6 , p18-22 ; Jun 2010
Profiles a new building for the University of Waterloo School of Pharmacy. The facility enhances an abandoned urban sit that once hosted a factory that was the anchor of the local econmony. The exterior includes laminates of a floral motif, and the revitalized block has had a positive impact on the surrounding community.
A Win-Win for Campus and Community.
Eckstut, Stan; Rosenfeld, Fran
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p52-54,56 ; Jun 2010
Dicusses mitigating the disadvantages and enhancing the benefits of being an urban higher education campus. Cooperation between institutions and neighborhoods, creation of green spaces, promoting community development, and access to public transportation are illustrated with examples of New York City's MetroTech Center and Cooper Union, as well as Rutgers University.
The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity.
Cellini, Stephanie; Ferreira, Fernando; Rothstein, Jesse
Quarterly Journal of Economics; v125 n1 , 215-261 ; Feb 2010
Estimates the value of school facility investments using housing markets: standard models of local public goods imply that school districts should spend up to the point where marginal increases would have zero effect on local housing prices. Our research design isolates exogenous variation in investments by comparing school districts where referenda on bond issues targeted to fund capital expenditures passed and failed by narrow margins. The results indicate that California school districts underinvest in school facilities: passing a referendum causes immediate, sizable increases in home prices, implying a willingness to pay on the part of marginal homebuyers of $1.50 or more for each $1 of capital spending. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the impact on test scores appears to explain only a small portion of the total housing price effect.TO ORDER: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.215?cookieSet=1&journalCode=qjec
College Planning and Management; v12 n8 , p28-30 ; Aug 2009
Profiles the relationships of the University of Illinois at Chicago, Johns Hopkins University, and Cornish College of the Arts with their respective urban neighborhoods. In Chicago, an ambitious expansion and neighborhood development program has revitalized a once undesirable neighborhood. After an unsuccessful attempt at revitalizing it's adjacent depressed neighborhood, Johns Hopkins now participates in a multi-agency, public/private partnership to create commercial and biotechnology facilities, new housing, a school and transit stops. Cornish University converted two Seattle hotels into dormitories for its students.
Take a Bow.
Spitzer, Greg; Ogurek, Douglas
American School and University; v81 n13 , p130-132 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the benefits of a school performing arts facility to the curriculum and to the economic vitality of the community. Designing a center around the types of performances anticipated, community use, and aesthetic considerations are addressed.
Creating Global-Ready Places: The Campus-Community Connection.
Chapman, M. Perry
Planning for Higher Education; v37 n2 , p5-15 ; Jul 2009
Describes the historic cosmopolitan connection between cities and universities, discusses the global forces affecting that relationship today, and offers case illustrations of campus-oriented civic relations associated with the Sorbonne, MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of South Carolina.
A University in Detroit Pins New Hopes on Old Buildings.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v55 n36 , pA13,A14 ; May 08, 2009
Profiles urban revitalization underway in the area around Wayne State University. The university is reusing abandoned factories, and many crumbling mansions are being restored by faculty and staff.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p40,42,44,46 ; Apr 2009
Advises on creating vibrant, affordable neighborhoods around higher education campuses to improve security and to enable employees to live close to work. Merging of security features with sustainable building is discussed, as is digital training for security employees.