NCEF Resource List: School Building Commissioning
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Information on certifying that a new school building meets required specifications, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Building Commissioning [Whole Building Design Guide]
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, DC, Jun 2010)
Building Commissioning is a quality-oriented process for achieving, verifying, and documenting that the performance of facilities, systems, and assemblies meets defined objectives and criteria. This section from the Whole Building Design Guide includes a definition, a list of benefits, commissioning goals and principles, application, relevant codes and standards, and a list of additional resources.

NEBB Procedural Standards for Retro-Commissioning of Existing Buildings.
(National Environmental Balancing Bureau, Gaithersburg, MD , 2009)
Provides a uniform and systematic set of criteria for the performance of the Retro- Commissioning (RCX-EB) process when applied to existing building systems such as a building’s mechanical, electrical, and building envelope systems. The procedural standards have been divided into three parts. The Standards cover definitions, requirements for quality control, quality compliance, instrumentation requirements, and report requirements. The Process section is devoted to providing an explanation of the retro-commissioning process. The Procedures section covers the technical procedures for retro-commissioning of existing buildings.
TO ORDER: National Environmental Balancing Bureau,8575 Grovemont Circle,Gaithersburg, MD 20877; Tel: 301-977-3698

Procedural Standards for Whole Building Systems Commissioning of New Construction.
(National Environmental Balancing Bureau, Gaithersburg, MD, 2009)
Provides guidance for systematic development and implementation of a plan for commissioning building HVAC and Plumbing systems. The book is divided into three distinct parts: standards, process, and procedures. This third edition details the requirements for Whole Building Systems Commissioning and includes HVAC Systems, Building Envelope, Electrical Systems, Special Electrical Systems, Plumbing Systems, and Fire Protection Systems. 100p.
TO ORDER: National Environmental Balancing Bureau, 8575 Grovemont Circle, Gaithersburg, MD 20877; 301-977-3698

Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
Earthman, Glen
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.

Savings Persist with Monitoring-Based Commissioning. Adobe PDF
(E-Source, Boulder, CO , Sep 2008)
Describes how Monitoring-Based Commissioning, a program approach that combines permanent building energy system monitoring with standard retrocommissioning practices, can provide substantial, persistent energy savings. Permanent monitoring systems can identify previously unrecognizable and unquantifiable savings opportunities, such as equipment cycling, excessive simultaneous heating and cooling, or the unintended nighttime operation of HVAC and lighting equipment that would not be apparent from monthly utility readings. A pilot program conducted at 25 California university campuses demonstrated that MBCx has the ability to reduce peak-period and total annual electricity use, trend and benchmark building-performance data continuously, catch problems with control systems that are normally hard to detect, andi dentify cost-effective retrofit opportunities. 2p.
Report NO: CEC-TB-39

Best Practices Manual Volume V: Commissioning.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA , 2006)
Provides information on commissioning high performance schools, a critical step in ensuring that the technologies and high performance elements are actually built and tested to meet specifications. The process, significance, and costs of building commissioning are detailed, as are the savings that can result from the process. Advice on selecting a commissioning provider and compiling a commissioning team are accompanied by case studies and sample RFP's for commissioning services. 70p.

Stewardship and Accountability in Campus Planning, Design and Construction
Guckert, Donald, ed.
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , 2006)
Offers advice from twelve facilities experts to help enhance stewardship of campus facilities design and construction. Topics covered include the high cost of building a better university, design decisions and the campus image, facilities master plans, building codes, making a business case for sustainability, paying for the architect's mistakes, green building design, and design decision- making for total cost of ownership. 105p.
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446

Case Study: Commissioning--Commissioning Skeptic Now Believes. Adobe PDF
(Oregon Dept. of Energy, Salem , Nov 2005)
Relates a situation where the Hillsboro School District (Oregon) spent considerable effort to rectify problems with uncommissioned school buildings. Then, when later using renovation grant money that compelled commissioning, the District had a different and positive experience with their buildings. 4p.

Design Guidelines: Commissioning Guidelines
(Energy Design Resources, 2005)
Building commissioning can ensure that a new building begins its life cycle at optimal productivity, and improves the likelihood that the building will maintain this level of performance. This online publication is divided into two sections: Introduction to Commissioning and Commissioning Guide for Design Professionals. The guidelines include 8 documents: Introduction to Commissioning; Commissioning Design for Design Professionals; Sample Request for Proposal; Sample Verification Checklist; Sample Functional Test Plan; How to Develop a Commissioning Plan; Design Documentation Necessary for Commissioning; and Specification Language for "Commissioning-Friendly" Features.

FMI K-12 Public School Construction Management.
(FMI, Raleigh, NC , 2005)
Presents the results of a survey of the largest 500 school systems in the U.S. that discusses top issues in construction management, trends in school construction, master planning practices, funding, project management practices, commissioning, prototype schools, and sustainability. 26p.
TO ORDER: Contact Phil Warner at, Tel: 919-785-9357

Commissioning School Construction Projects. Adobe PDF
Keithly, Peter
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jan 2005)
Explains school building commissioning at each of five phases: pre-design, design, construction, post-construction, and warranty. Typical issues, solutions, and suggestions for improvement for each phase are detailed. 4p.

Building Commissioning: An Overview. Adobe PDF
(Washington State Dept. of General Administration, Olympia , 2004)
Describes the process, costs, and provider qualifications for building commissioning in new and existing buildings. 2p.

Case Study: Retro-Commissioning--Silver Falls School District Gets What It Paid for.
(Oregon Dept. of Energy, Salem , Jan 2004)
Describes a commissioning project for an underperforming new HVAC system. The process identified 72 discrepancies in the installation and operation of the system, made necessary repairs and replacements, and trained staff on the new system. 5p.

Success Stories.
(Washington State Dept. of General Administration, Olympia , 2004)
Presents ten case studies of successful building commissioning projects in schools, conducted under the Washington State Dept. of General Administration Building Commissioning Program (BCX). Each case study presents a physical description of the project, a summary of the project size and costs, benefits of the project, and contact information. 35p.

The Building Commissioning Handbook. 2nd Edition.
Heinz, John A.; Casault, Richard B.
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 2004)
This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. One-half of the guide details the roles of the consultant, contractor, test engineer, commissioning agent, and owner. It describes the process, the needed equipment testing, systems functional performance testing, scheduling, documentation, training, costs, and the process of hiring a commissioning agent. Chapters include an overview of commissioning and discussions of: approaches to commissioning, design requirements, contract documents requirements, the steps of the commissioning process, selecting the commissioning agent, and the costs of commissioning. A case study of commissioning a science building is provided. The other half of the guide consists of a description of terms and 15 different guide specifications in the form of detailed documentation and testing checklists, divided to indicate specific tasks and tests (e.g., general, mechanical, electrical facility startup/commissioning; commissioning--general requirements; HVAC systems, supply air systems, exhaust air systems, environmental control systems, etc.) 388p.
TO ORDER: APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers

Building & Renovating Schools: Design, Construction Management, Cost Control.
Macaluso, Joseph; Lewek, David; Murphy, Brian
(R.S. Means, Kingston, MA , 2004)
Covers the building and renovating process from initial planning, needs assessment and design through move-in. The “Planning and Design” section features guidelines for developing planning documents and selection of the design team, green design standards and technologies, integrating computer and building automation technology, security equipment and design approaches and cost issues, and the special design considerations of specialty spaces. “The Construction Process” section covers estimating and monitoring project costs, the role of a project manager and project team, and construction contracts and schedules. Also included are case studies of recently completed school projects, square foot cost models for elementary, middle, and high school facilities with costs for individual building components such as classrooms, auditoriums, labs, administration areas, gyms, libraries, and swimming pools. 412p.
TO ORDER: Reed Construction Data, 63 Smiths Lane, Kingston, MA 02364-0800, Tel: 781-422-5000

Case Study: Commissioning of a New 450,000 sf Biomedical Laboratory Research Building at Yale School of Medicine.
Bjorklund, Abbe; Rounrier, Daryl; Collins, David; Larimer, Reyhan
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Reviews the benefits of, and lessons learned from, the commissioning process for Yale University's Congress Avenue Building. Topics addressed include: testing and verification techniques for complex laboratory systems, bridging the gap between design and functionality, avoided failures of critical systems; energy savings from commissioning, operations and maintenance savings from commissioning, training building users and operators as part of commissioning process, lessons learned, and commissioning documentation 14p.

A 2-Party Commissioning Approach for the University of California, Merced.
Daly, Allan
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Describes a cost-saving "2-party approach" employed to commission buildings at the University of California, Merced, where the budget did not support third-party commissioning.. This approach used the design team and contractor. The paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this approach versus more traditional third-party approaches. The parties feel that the low cost and high-value of this approach make the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, though the primary disadvantage of potential conflict-of-interest is a strong one. Success stories from projects employing similar commissioning approaches suggest that the process can work and can even slowly transform the industry, perhaps addressing a barrier to realizing the benefits of commissioning in all new buildings. 11p.

Lessons Learned from Commissioning 15 Schools.
Erik A. Jeannette, PE; John C. Wood, PE; Michael J. Holtz, AIA
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Considers issues in commissioning school facilities, and presents a guideline for school-related commissioning services, including new construction, renovation and retrofit, retro-commissioning, and LEED TM -related commissioning. General concepts are illustrated by specific project experiences. 11p.

Financing Retro-Commissioning Services Utilizing Performance Contracts.
Herbst, Ronald
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Presents a delivery mechanism utilizing the performance contracting process to secure financing for a retro-commissioning (RCx) service. The approach utilizes building level benchmarking to target RCx activities and estimate savings. The implementation of RCx utilizes a program approach, targeting work with highest benefit relative to energy savings. The implementation combines site analysis and corrective actions into compressed and concurrent activities. Results are presented for four K-12 schools, where the financing was secured through performance contracting. 28p.

Creation of a System-Wide Commissioning Program for a Public School District.
Mosier, Roger
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Presents some of the challenges and obstacles involved in initiating a commissioning program in Arlington County (Virginia) Public Schools, as well as anticipated outcomes from the program. As of fall 2002, a commissioning program has been designed and is in place. With the knowledge and supervision of the School Board, approximately $100 million in planning, design, and construction activities will be affected by this program in the next four years. This work will be accomplished by three commissioning firms that have been retained on five-year indefinite delivery contracts. Procurement and funding of commissioning services, as well as their inclusion into the A/E contracts is covered. 7p.

Commissioning Lighting Control Systems for Daylighting Applications.
Phelan, John
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Discusses commissioning activities during design, construction, and acceptance phases for daylighting that help ensure that the lighting control systems perform optimally. While the commissioning process for lighting controls is not fundamentally different than that for any other type of system, this paper highlights the unique aspects lighting control commissioning for daylighting design applications, particularly in regards to occupant training. 11p.

Emory's LEED-EB Pilot Project at Goizueta Business School.
Smith, Robin
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Describes Emory University's efforts to develop a "green" camps, starting with a single building pilot facility. The University organizes its LEED focus into five areas: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor air quality. 11p.

Commissioning K-12 Schools.
Villani, John
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Discusses commissioning of K-12 schools, with its unique challenges and potential for the impacts and benefits of a properly executed commissioning process that can significantly improve the quality of the project, reduce the overall construction budget and, most importantly, get the building turned over on time and functionally operating. This is particularly important in school districts that are desperately in need of classrooms, special purpose and activity space, and updated technology. In these cases, the architects may have the task of giving the districts the space they want, balanced with aesthetically inviting and functionally efficient buildings, the engineers may have budgets smaller than those for the computer technology going in the schools, the facilities engineers may already have too much to do and not enough time to spend reviewing the construction projects, the contractors are procured by the lowest bidder, and the typical construction schedule is 18 to 24 months. All these ingredients make up the recipe for a typical school project, which unfortunately has cost overruns, delays in construction and school starting, and difficult startups on the first day of school. 12p.

Total Building Commissioning: A New Attitude for Quality Control. Adobe PDF
Dunham, Chuck
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Advocates and defines the process of building commissioning, advocating consideration of comprehensive consideration of the building's overall performance. Benefits to the owner, possible cost savings, and the cost of building commissioning services are also discussed. 6p.

System-Inspection Guidelines for Minnesota PK-12 School Construction Projects. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning, Minneapolis , Jan 2002)
This document describes a 1998 commissioning statute passed by the Minnesota legislature requiring that mechanical HVAC systems undergo an inspection process to uncover and rectify problems before or shortly after a school building is occupied. It presents the statute, describes the commissioning/system-inspection process and optional full commissioning process, and discusses the system inspector. Appendices discuss the inspector's roles,responsibilities and qualifications; and offer a pre-functional checklist and functional test form. 29p.

Retrocommissioning Handbook for Facility Managers. Adobe PDF
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. for Oregon Office of Energy, Mar 2001)
This handbook provides building owners and managers with basic information about the retrocommissioning process and helps them receive maximum value from commissioning existing buildings. It discusses commissioning terminology, how to get started, the phases and steps in the retrocommissioning process, roles and responsibilities of the team members, costs, benefits, how to increase cost effectiveness, and more. It is written specifically for facility managers of public buildings and those who are interested in obtaining cost-effective maintenance and operations improvements that do not entail a large capital investment. 55p.

New Construction Commissioning Handbook for Facility Managers. Adobe PDF
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. for the Oregon Office of Energy, 2000)
This outlines the commissioning process and identifys players' roles and responsibilities. It specifically provides information to guide the owner's representative or project manager involved in a commissioning project. This document provides definitions of various commissioning terms; outlines the commissioning tasks chronologically during each phase of the project; and provides a description of each team player's responsibility throughout all phases of the project. 37p.

Building Commissioning Attributes.
(Building Commissioning Association, La Conner, WA , Feb 2000)
Discusses the purpose, essential attributes, and valuable elements of building commissioning.

Commissioning the Building. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Rebuild America, EnergySmart Schools, Washington, DC , 2000)
Defines building commissioning; discusses the selection of a commissioning agent; the benefits, approaches, and components of commissioning; and lists resources.

Commissioning Guidelines.
(Washington State Dept. of General Administration, Olympia , Jul 1999)
Describes Washington state public building commissioning requirements, including items to be specified in construction documents. These requirements define the goals, personnel, systems to be evaluated, and owner training to be accomplished through the commissioning process. 11p.

A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings.
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., Portland, OR; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Apr 1999)
This guide covers the benefits and how-to's of retrocommissioning projects. Includes commissioning terminology, preparing for a retrocommissioning project, getting started, roles and responsibilities of project team members, retrocommissioning in action, organization-wide planning, bibliography, and appendices. 150p

Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications.
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.,Portland, OR , 1998)
Details the commissioning process for new equipment during both the design and construction phases for larger projects. Going beyond commissioning guidelines, the document provides boilerplate language, content, format and forms for specifying and executing commissioning. 500p.

Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Jun 19, 1995)
A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due to dimming. Lower than expected dimming system performance was observed prior to effective commissioning. Difficulties encountered are discussed, as are recommendations for performance improvements. 9p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-283-95

References to Journal Articles

How to Achieve a Tight Building Envelope
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; , p44-48 ; Jun 2012
A tight building envelope provides energy efficiency and other benefits. Shows how to achieve a tight building envelope, along with what's trending in the industry.

Monitoring-Based Commissioning
Enck, H. Jay
College Planning and Management; , p52-57 ; Apr 2012
Using Science Center at Spellman College in Atlanta, Georgia as an example, discusses improving the efficiency of existing buildings with an eye to building controls.

Why Commission
Weaver, Scott
College Planning and Management; , p58-61 ; Apr 2012
Outlines the top ten things to know about new building commissioning.

Long-Term Education Planning
Horkey, Don; Laue, Julianne
American School and University; Nov 2011
Sustainable master planning can produce long-range benefits for education institutions. Discusses tools and strategies such as benchmarking, energy audit, commissioning, and post-commisioning. Includes case studies of Red Wing High Public School District and College of Saint Benedict in Minnesota.

Commissioning High-Tech Facilities. Adobe PDF
Mills, Evan
ASHRAE Journal; , p18-30 ; Nov 2011
Although high-tech facilities, such as laboratories, data centers, cleanrooms, health care, and specialized research facilities, receive a higher level of quality assurance and optimization in construction and operation than traditional buildings, energy performance is often not a central focus. This article discusses two commissioning case studies: The Molecular Foundry and the Advanced Light Source facility, both at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Retro-commissioning in a Campus Energy Efficiency Program.
Powell, Christopher
Facilities Manager; , p62-63 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Retro-commissioning is a systemic approach for conducting forensic evaluations of buildings and its systems. This details how to get started, and discusses costs and savings estimates.

Sustainable Delivery.
Hoffman, Paul
American School and University; v83 n2 , p36,38 ; Oct 2010
Discusses pre-construction modeling, integrated project delivery, and building commissioning as three components of successful "green" building.

Green Is as Good as Gold.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p22,24,26-28 ; Oct 2010
Discusses strategies for "greening" a higher education institution, emphasizing upgrading controls on existing buildings that adjust utilities according to occupancy, designing for sustainability, commissioning new buildings, an conducting energy audits.

Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n3 , p11,12 ; Mar 2010
Interviews three facility managers on what systems to retrocommission, costs, connection of retrocommisioning to preventive maintenance, and expertise required for retrocommissioning.

Commissioning High Performance Buildings.
Enck, Jay
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n1 , p12-14,16,18 ; Jan 2010
Addresses the failure of many "green" buildings to save as much energy as predicted. The article advises retaining the commissioning authority from the predesign through occupancy stages.

Commissioning Strategies.
Della Barba, Michal
College Planning and Management; v12 n5 , p29,30,32 ; May 2009
Discusses retro-commissioning of campus buildings to conserve energy, with emphasis on buildings that were never initially commissioned. A step-by-step approach to retro- commissioning is described.

Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory.
Lengerich, Stan
Laboratory Design; v14 n4 , p1,6-8,10,12 ; Apr 2009
Discusses commissioning of laboratory exhaust systems, listing the types of systems that should be commissioned, the personnel who should be involved, and key elements of the commissioning plan.

Ensuring Quality.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v81 n7 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Discusses commissioning of school buildings to validate that materials and systems perform as intended. Establishing priorities for commissioning, staging the process, retro-commissioning of existing buildings, and engaging commissioning agents are addressed.

HVAC Efficiency: Steps to Savings.
Hughel, Gregory
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p9,10 ; Feb 2009
Discusses HVAC commissioning, retro-commissioning, and energy audits for buildings. Their relative costs and benefits are cited, as are preventive maintenance techniques and obstacles to investing in order to achieving savings, typically presented by administrators.

Optimizing Building Systems with Commissioning.
Harrell, Steve
Buildings; v103 n1 , p36-38 ; Jan 2009
Discusses commissioning, recommissioning, retro-commissioning, and continuous commissioning of buildings. The distinctions between the processes, how they are organized and implemented, and the selection of a firm are addressed. An example from Texas A&M University is included.

Commissioning Labs for Safety.
Click, Michael
Laboratory Design; v13 n6 , p2,6,8,9,12 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the responsibilities of laboratory commissioning professionals, emphasizing confirmation of emergency power for vital systems, coordination of building and laboratory systems, and testing criteria for exhaust fans.

Energy Management: A Strategy for HVAC Savings.
Crow, Carl
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p10,12 ; Apr 2008
Describes retro-commissioning of buildings for energy efficiency. Typical elements for scrutiny include lighting controls, HVAC systems, and the building envelope.

Measure Twice, Cut Once. Adobe PDF
School Construction News; v11 n1 , p14,15 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Addresses questions concerning commissioning of school buildings, including the need for commissioning, inclusion of a third-party commissioning agent early in the design phase, certification of staff for commissioning, and common problems encountered with new building systems.

New School Checklist: Can We Head 'em Off at the Pass?
Turner, William; Caulfield, Steven
Indoor Environment Connections; v8 n10 , p32,33 ; Aug 2007
Reviews design details and building commissioning for good school indoor air quality, as well as triage for furnishings and educational materials that were either salvaged or discarded from a moisture-plagued school that had to be demolished.

Going Back To Get Ahead
Wiggins, Stephen R.
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n6 ; Jun 2006
Retrocommissioning helps managers improve the performance of existing facilities. But managers cannot expect accurate and maximum results from the process without properly identifying the project’s scope, carefully selecting a retrocommissioning professional at an appropriate time, and defining the success of the process.

Looking at Building Commissioning.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , p12 ; Feb 2006
Describes the growing trend toward commissioning of school buildings. The duties of a commissioning agent are described, as are the timing of the agent's participation in the construction, handover, and staff training processes.

Retrocommissioning: Essential Questions
Gilmer, Laurie
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2005
This provides answers to questions about building commissioning that can help managers understand how the process can deliver benefits to organizations. Describes what the role is for commissioning and retrocommissioning, why to retrocommission, what the scope is, and how to ensure results.

Commissioning: Making it Pay.
Liesman, Paul
Building Operating Management; Nov 2005
Having a third party scrutinize building design and performance identifies costly problems and usually saves more money than commissioning costs. This article discusses correcting design errors, catching problems early, working together, and real-world tips for owners.

Facility Asset Management: The Link Between Construction and Maintenance.
Adams, Matt; Wantage, Mark
Facilities Manager; v21 n2 , p50-52 ; Mar-Apr 2005
Discusses the example set by the Ohio School Facilities Commission, using third party building commissioning for new schools. Some typical problems encountered by the OSFC and how they were solved by building commissioning are offered for consideration.

Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus. Adobe PDF
Deng, Song; Turner, Dan; Hood, Jim; Glenn, Mike; Jones, Jerry; Lund, Bob
Energy Engineering; v102 n6 , p26-28,31-38 ; 2005
Describes the measures taken and savings that resulted from the Continuous Commissioning process for the HVAC system of a 1930's community college building that was originally a high school. The energy savings amounted to 15 percent of the annual utility bill. While most of the savings were attributed to the commissioning process, part was attributed to the on-site facility operators who implemented measures over and above those recommended by the engineers.

Making the Most of It.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n5 , p51-53 ; Jan 2005
This discusses 10 ways that administrators can try to accomplish more with the resources they have: facility assessment, computerized maintenance management systems, commissioning, performance contracting, life-cycle costs, outsourcing, online procurement, alternative fuels, cool roofs, and sharing space.

Facility Check-Ups
Ross, Rusty
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2004
It is far easier and less expensive to maintain a building that operates correctly than to maintain one that does not. Commissioning ensures systems operate efficiently and lays the groundwork for effective maintenance. This discusses definitions and benefits; O & M issues; determining return on investment; and identifying culprits.

Texas A&M-sized Savings
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2004
The building commissioning program at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas saves millions in energy costs and improves occupant comfort.

Commissioning Enhances Building Efficiency, Economy, and Sustainability.
Miller, Troy
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p10-13 ; Dec 2003
Describes the process of building commissioning for schools and the benefits to maintenance and environmental quality that acrue where systems have been commissioned. Careful selection of consultants is advised. Four case studies are provided.

Commissioning Provides Value to Campus Facilities.
Heinz, John A.; Casault, Richard B.
Facilities Manager; v19 n6 , p29-34 ; Nov-Dec 2003
Defines "commissioning" of buildings and describes the goals it sets out to achieve: 1)a safe and healthy building, 2)improved energy performance, 3)reduced operating costs, 4)improved staff expertise, 5)improved documentation, 6)improved usefulness to the client. Benefits of building commissioning to the owner, design professional, and contractor are enumerated. Suggestions for what buildings and systems should be commissioned and how the process might go forth are provided.

Cutting Costs.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p20-23 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to maximize their budgets: energy upgrades, security technology, maintenance management systems, partnerships, modernized washrooms, windows, facilities assessment, outsourcing, alternative fuels, and building commissioning.

Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v41 n3 , p12 ; Mar 2002
This article defines commissioning, then describes the reasons and benefits of building commissioning. The challenges of getting schools to buy in to commissioning are discussed.

Good News: No Surprises.
Stum, Karl
Building Operating Management Online; Mar 2002
This article describes the commissioning process, gives advice on managing a commissioning process, and discusses getting the most from commissioning.

Commissioning New Construction at Emory University.
Smith, Robin
Facilities Manager; v17 n5 , p45-50 ; Sep-Oct 2001
Discusses the process of "commissioning" for effectively maintaining and verifying new construction needs for campus facilities on a continuous improvement basis. The Emory University facility management program illustrates how to develop and manage a building commissioning process.

HVAC Trials.
Greim, Clifton W.; DAngelo, David
American School and University; v72 n4 , p22, 24-25 ; Dec 1999
Explains how commissioning can help to ensure that all components in a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system will work together as designed. Bowdoin College's experience with commissioning is highlighted.

The Bowdoin College Experience with Commissioning.
DAngelo, David; Greim, Clifton W.
Facilities Manager; v15 n6 , p33,35-36,39 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Describes how Bowdoin College (Maine) lessened the volume of typical new building occupancy problems by commissioning its new facility prior to use. The school's decision to commission is discussed, the commissioning process is examined, the types of problems commissioning can find and the process used to correct them are described.

Energy Submetering: The Key to Cost-Effective Conservation.
Turner, W. D.; McBride, John R.
Facilities Manager; v15 n6 , p45-51 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Examines the monitoring results from two large-scale metering and energy information projects: Texas LoanSTAR Program; and the Texas A & M Campus Project. Data suggest implementing an energy metering system is cost effective, particularly if the system can be coupled with skilled engineering applications such as energy cost allocation and building re-commissioning.

Commissioning Success.
Lillie, E. Thomas
American School & University; v69 n8 , p46,48 ; Apr 1997
Explores the use of a commissioning agent (CA) during school construction projects to ensure that all building systems work together and to specifications. The types of work done by a CA, the cost involved, and the overall benefits derived are outlined.

"Quality Does Not Have To Cost More": The Counter-Revolution In Florida Construction.
Minter, Jim
E Design News; Jan 14, 1997
Building commissioning is at the center of a growing quality control counter-revolution that is saving Florida taxpayers millions of dollars on new public facilities, including school buildings, by reversing decades of increasingly short-sighted building practices.



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