NCEF Resource List: School Cleaning and Maintenance Practices
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Information on custodial standards and procedures, equipment, safety, and product directories for the cleaning and maintenance of schools and colleges.

References to Books and Other Media

Green Clean Schools
(National Association of State Boards of Education, Feb 2012)
Ten states now have laws or policies regarding green cleaning in schools. The National Association of State Boards of Education highlights these state actions and many other facets of green cleaning and healthy school buildings in the February 2012 edition of its journal, the State Education Standard. Includes the following articles: Existing and Emerging Third-Party Certifications Programs; Making Green Cleaning Easy for Local School Boards; Roadmap to Implementing Green Cleaning in Districts and Schools; State Governments: Promoting Green Cleaning in Schools;Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning; Why Green Clean Our Schools?

Five Simple Steps to Green Cleaning
(Healthy Schools Campaign, 2012)
Describes five steps to take to implement a green cleaning program in a school: develop your program; use green cleaning products; introduce green equipment and supplies; adopt green cleaning procedures; and share the responsibility. 1p

Operational Guidelines for Educational Facilities: Custodial, third edition
Bigger, Alan S. editor
(APPA, 2012)
Addresses topics including: the cost of cleaning, sustainability, determining APPA Levels of Cleanliness in buildings, and scientific measurement of cleanliness. Special sections address the cleaning of residence halls and healthcare facilities. In addition to the cleaning operations of four-year institutions, solutions for public and private K-12 facilities as well as vocational, trade, and community colleges are covered. 356p

Green Cleaning in Schools: Developments in State and Local Policy.
(Environmental Law Institute. Indoor Environments and Green Buildings Policy Resource Center, Jul 2011)
This regularly updated website summarizes selected state laws, proposed state legislation, and school district policies that promote environmentally conscious cleaning methods and materials in schools.

College of Central Florida Facilities Deferred Maintenance Guide. Adobe PDF
(College of Central Florida, Ocala , Mar 2011)
Details in a building-by-building format the current status of deferred maintenance at this College's campuses, including recent and planned upgrades, as well as deficient systems. 11p.

Cleaning for Healthy Schools Toolkit.
(National Collaborative Work Group on Green Cleaning and Chemical Policy Reform in Schools , 2011)
Offers learning modules designed to introduce all audiences to the concept of green cleaning and cleaning for healthy schools. The Toolkit is an open-source, industry-free, customizable, comprehensive program to safeguard human health, reduce exposures to chemicals, and cost-effectively improve the performance of cleaning programs.

Mold Resources.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011)
Resources include an introduction to molds, basic mold cleanup guidelines, ten things you should know about mold, asthma and mold, floods/flooding, health and mold, homes and mold, indoor air regulations and mold, large buildings and mold, schools and mold and indoor air quality, and other mold-related resources and links.

New York's Green Cleaning Program.
(New York State Office of General Services Environmental Services Unit, 2011)
Provides public facility managers, school administrators, educators, parents, and citizens free information and tools to promote adoption of effective green cleaning practices, leading to healthier indoor environments.

Digging Deep Through School Trash: A Waste Composition Analysis of Trash, Recycling and Organic Material Discarded at Public Schools in Minnesota.
(Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul , Sep 2010)
Presents an analysis of all garbage, recycling, and organic material discarded by six Minneapolis area schools over a two-day period. Two days'worth of refuse from six schools (two elementary, two middle, and two high schools) were sorted in 19 different categories. The study revealed that over 78% of school waste could be diverted from the trash to organics composting and container/paper recycling collection programs, 50% of school waste could be managed via organics composting programs that accept food waste, liquids, and nonrecyclable paper, 23.9% was food waste, and 23.5% was recyclable paper. The schools had an average per person total waste generation of just over half a pound per day. Reflections on how to reduce waste and increase recycling are included. 72p.

How To Clean and Disinfect Schools To Help Slow the Spread of Flu.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Sep 2010)
Tips on how to slow the spread of flu specifically through cleaning and disinfecting, including how to do it correctly and how to handle waste properly. 2p.

Guidelines and Specifications for the Procurement and Use of Environmentally Sensitive Cleaning and Maintenance Products for All Public and Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools in New York State. Adobe PDF
(New York State Office of General Services, Albany , Apr 02, 2010)
Advises on "green" cleaning practices and products for New York State schools. Sections of the document cover the state green cleaning legislation, a definition of green cleaning products, recommendations for utilizing the guidelines and product list, and certification standards for green products. 14p.

Northeast-CHPS Operations and Maintenance Guide. Adobe PDF
(Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA , Apr 2010)
Advises on a wide range of topics from energy and water efficiency in a school, to incorporating renewable energy systems, as well as technologies for improved school indoor environmental quality. Additionally, there are detailed guidelines for implementing environmentally friendly policies and practices for existing buildings, such as anti-idling policies, recycling programs, using green cleaning agents, and developing training for building operators. 90p.

Collaborative for High Performance Schools Operations Report Card.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA, 2010)
Provides a tool to benchmark the current performance of existing schools, provide a report card of results and make suggestions for improvement. Assessments take place in five categories: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, visual comfort, indoor air quality, and acoustics. The ORC is an interactive online tool. While designed for district-wide deployment over multiple school sites, it is also usable by single public schools, charter schools, and private schools.

Green Cleaning in Schools: A Guide for Advocates. Adobe PDF
(Regional Asthma Management and Prevention, Oakland, CA , 2010)
Discusses the importance of "green" cleaning in schools, four steps to initiate change, illustrated with fact sheets on improved environmental health and possible saving with green cleaning, additional green cleaning resources, and links to sample letters, presentations, and policies. Includes 33 references. 16p.

The 2010-2011 ChildSafe Guidelines: "Green" Cleaning Products for Schools. Adobe PDF
(Grassroots for Environmental Education, Port Washington, NY , 2010)
Discusses why children are uniquely vulnerable, how exposure impacts health, and state legislation. The guidelines describe general purpose cleaners, sanitizers and disinfectants, and floor care, The ChildSafe Guidelines are based on recommendations originally developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its “Final Guidance on Environmentally Preferable Purchasing” and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s “Environmentally Preferable Green Cleaning Chemical Model. 5p.

Guide to Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Guides a district or school-wide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The Guide provides organizational and technical information for integrating energy and high-performance facility management into existing operation and maintenance practices. The Guide helps school district management, facility managers, business officials, and administrators identify energy savings, develop an energy management plan, and address technical considerations. Accompanying the Guide are Action Plan Templates that provide a snapshot of customizable checklists used for planning and implementing energy-focused operations and maintenance. The Action Plans, which are organized by building system component, are tools for senior facilities managers and custodial staff to schedule preventative maintenance and training. 64p.

Public School Facilities, Maintenance, Repair and Renovation Manual. Adobe PDF
(Arkansas Division of Public School Academic Facilities and Transportation, Little Rock , Sep 2009)
Mandates a uniform standard for custodial, maintenance, repair and renovations of Arkansas' public school facilities. The document requires districts to develop and implement a custodial care plan and specifies what the minimum content of that plan will be regarding custodial job descriptions, cleaning types and frequencies, work schedules, training, staffing, and supervision. Standards for maintenance, repair, and renovation are likewise specified, including a work order procedures system, training, inspection, and licensing. Sample custodial handbooks are included. 56p.

CDC Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza during the 2009-2010 School Year.
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , Aug 31, 2009)
Provides guidance to help decrease the spread of flu among students and school staff during the 2009-2010 school year. It provides a menu of tools that school and health officials can choose from based on conditions in their area and provides a checklist for making decisions at the local level. Also included is advice on separating ill students and staff, hand hygiene, routine cleaning, school dismissal, and increasing social distances between students and staff at school. 5p.

Technical Report for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators on CDC Guidance for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza during the 2009-2010 School Year.
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , Aug 07, 2009)
Provides information on the reasons for the strategies presented in the CDC Guidance for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza During the 2009-2010 School Year and suggestions on how to use them. The Technical Report includes advice on separating ill students and staff, hand hygiene, routine cleaning, school dismissal, and increasing social distances between students and staff at school. 13p.

Cleaning, Indoor Environmental Quality and Health: A Review of the Scientific Literature.
(Minnesota Dept. of Health, St. Paul , Aug 2009)
Advises on the relationship between cleaning, indoor environmental quality, and health. The report discusses allergens in school dust, the effect of poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on learning, reservoirs of allergens in chronically under-cleaned areas and what these areas typically are, the role of cleaning in improved IEQ, actions that can be taken by school staff, and calculating the number of custodians needed for cleaning. 15p.

ABC's of Healthy Schoolhouses: Asthma, Bugs, and Chemicals.
Barnett, Claire
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses reasons why children's bodies are more vulnerable to environmental hazards; why unhealthy school environments present a special hazard to children due to occupant density, multiple uses, compulsory attendance, and special needs population; practical solutions for school environmental problems; and federal laws promoting healthy schools. 24p.

Capitol News Briefing on Proposed Legislation Concerning Cleaning Products That Are Used in School Buildings.
May 05, 2009
This press conference video reviews Connecticut's Green Cleaning Products in Schools Law (CT Public Act 09-81). Advocates, legislators, and health professionals address the impact of the law, historical incidents that precipitated the law, the particular impact of environmental toxins on children, and its fiscal neutrality.

Antimicrobial Products Registered or Use Against Influenza A Virus on Hard Surfaces. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 28, 2009)
Lists antimicrobial products that are registered by EPA to disinfect hard, non-porous surfaces that may be contaminated with the 2009-H1N1 flu. As part of the registration process, EPA evaluates the product efficacy to make sure the public health label claims are accurate. Currently, over 500 disinfectant products are registered for use on hard, non-porous surfaces against influenza A viruses. EPA believes, based on available scientific information, that the currently registered influenza A virus products will be effective against the 2009-H1N1 flu strain and other influenza A virus strains on hard, non-porous surfaces. This is not a complete list since some products may have different distributor or product names and may not be referenced. The list will be updated as more information becomes available. 20p.

Building and Grounds Maintenance Checklist and Background Information Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides the building and grounds maintenance staff in assessing products, practices, equipment, and building conditions that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 5p.

Custodial Standards. Adobe PDF
(Brevard Public Schools, Rockledge, FL , 2009)
Presents the custodial standards for Florida's Brevard Public Schools. The guidelines first address the general procedures and maintenance for the school, including universal precautions for the protection of the custodial staff. It then details maintenance and cleaning requirements for each area of the school, including classrooms, restrooms, cafeterias, gymnasiums, locker rooms, and corridors. Samples of facility custodial assessment forms; emergency lighting, fire extinguisher inspection, and air conditioner maintenance/service log sheets; and monthly custodial preventative maintenance forms are included. 50p.

Green Existing Schools Implementation Workbook.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Assists with the evaluation and improvement of current school operations and maintenance practices and policies. The workbook is organized by LEED for Existing Buildings: O&M prerequisites and credits, though not all prerequisites and credits in the rating system are addressed by the workbook. The guidance and tools contained in the workbook correspond to prerequisites and credits that lend themselves to a campus- or district-wide application. The workbook includes sample policies, programs, plans, and surveys, along with data collection forms, worksheets, and tables. 108p.

Green Existing Schools: Project Management Guide.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Helps schools and school districts "green" their existing facilities and achieve LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. The guide outlines the process for navigating LEED certification for existing schools and provides details on how to conduct organizational assessments,educate and train staff, initiate the certification process, and manage a campus- or district-wide plan. It is designed to be used in concert with additional resources contained in the Green Existing Schools Toolkit ( 85p.

New Research Links School Air Quality to School Cleaning Supplies.
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , 2009)
Reports on tests of 21 cleaners used in 13 California school districts indicating that when used as directed, the products released six chemicals known to cause asthma, 11 contaminants that are known, probable, or possible cancer-causing substances in humans, and hundreds of other compounds for which there is little or no hazard information. In all, air testing revealed 457 chemicals emitted by these products. While some of these airborne compounds are known to be hazardous, nothing is known about the health risks of most of them. Manufacturers' documents disclosed the presence of another 38 chemical ingredients that air testing could not pick up. The results also showed that green cleaning supplies can reduce chemical exposure by releasing a lower overall number of measurable air contaminants and especially by producing lower levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 48p.

Primary Green Product Standards and Certification Programs: A Comparison. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2009)
Compares eight programs identified in as primary market movers for standardization and certification of "green" building and building maintenance products. These are Energy Star, WaterSense, Cradle to Cradle Certification, Greenguard, Green Seal, GreenSpec, and the Forest Stewardship Council. 30 references are included. 23p.

Indoor Environmental Quality within an Elementary School: Measurements of Felis Domesticus I, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides Farinae I, And Blatella Germanica in Carpeting.
Fowler, Jennifer
(University of South Florida, Tampa , 2009)
Quantifies the concentrations of cat (Felis domesticus I), dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus I, Dermatophagoides farinae I), and cockroach (Blatella germanica) allergens in carpeting in an elementary school kindergarten class and documents student group activities that are floorbased. One Florida elementary school classroom was identified as the study site. A total of eight reservoir dust samples were collected during the school year to be analyzed. The sampling reservoir was the carpeting used for group floor-based activities by the school children. Dust samples from the carpet were analyzed by The Johns Hopkins University Reference Laboratory for Dermatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology (DACI). Following discussions with the kindergarten teacher regarding curriculum and scheduled classroom activities, group floor activities were identified. The kindergarten class was observed periodically throughout a school year to document and quantify classroom activities that were floor-based. The information documented includes: occupancy of classroom, occupied floor area, occupant density, and time spent on carpeting. Based upon the DACI criteria, dust mite concentrations were moderate to high and cat concentrations were low to moderate. Kindergarten children spent approximately 38% of classroom time in floor-based activities. [author's abstract] 57p.

Green Seal Environmental Standard for Industrial and Institutional Cleaners.
(Green Seal, Inc., Washington, DC , Aug 29, 2008)
Establishes environmental requirements for industrial and institutional general-purpose, restroom, glass, and carpet cleaners. For purposes of this standard, industrial and institutional cleaners are defined as those cleaners intended for routine cleaning of offices, institutions, warehouses, and industrial facilities. The standard includes product performance requirements and environmental and health considerations for vulnerable populations in institutional settings such as schools, day-care facilities, nursing homes, and other facilities. 84p.
Report NO: GS-37

Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education.
Campbell, Jeffery
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , Apr 2008)
Reports on a survey of college students to determine any correlation between five levels of cleanliness and academic achievement. The findings showed that eighty-eight percent of students reported that the lack of cleanliness becomes a distraction when cleanliness descends to the third level. Eighty-four percent reported that they desire the first and second levels of cleanliness to create a good learning environment. Cleanliness ranked as the 4th most important building element to impact their personal learning, after noise, air temperature and lighting. Seventy-eight percent reported that cleanliness has an impact on their health, providing 892 comments of how cleanliness affects their health and 681 comments on how to improve campus cleanliness. 144p.

Checklists and Step by Step Instructions: Funding, Building and Maintaining Schools in New Mexico.
(State of New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority, Santa Fe , 2008)
Provides step-by-step guidance, checklists, and forms to New Mexico school districts in taking advantage of state resources for school construction. The contents accommodate the planning, funding, project development, construction, and occupancy stages. 88p.

Cleaning Chemicals and Their Impact on Indoor Environments and Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Examines the health impacts associated with cleaning products and systems, especially chemical and particulate emissions that can be inhaled. It also discusses the importance of cleaning products in the green building movement and examines the various third party certification programs that are used to ensure products are safe for both the outdoor and indoor environments. In addition, the technology and testing protocols for measuring VOC emissions and for establishing the health risks associated with these emissions are highlighted. Includes 49 references. 15p.

CleanOpsStaff Software.
(APPA, Alexandria, VA, 2008)
This software package covers the five APPA Appearance Levels, 33 standard room categories, and custodial data in cleanable square feet (CSF). CleanOpsStaff performs custodial staffing calculations, generates reports, generates audit package with LEED Existing Building EQ credits calculation, and exports reports. Variables and space categories may also be configured to meet local conditions.

Green Cleaning in Schools: Summary of Selected State and School District Policies. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Oct 2007)
Summarizes selected state laws, proposed state legislation, and school district policies that promote environmentally conscious cleaning methods and materials in schools. 11p.

Environmentally Sensitive Cleaning and Maintenance Product School Impact Report Pursuant to Chapter 584 of the Laws of 2005.
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , Jun 2007)
Presents information surrounding the performance, cost, and overall availability of environmentally sensitive cleaning and maintenance products for New York schools, as well as the survey information on whether policies exist which direct faculty, staff, and students not to bring their own cleaning products to school, whether custodial and maintenance staff receive training on the use of the environmentally sensitive cleaning and maintenance products, and general school implementation of green cleaning both before and after the state began requiring it. 14p.

Guidelines for Reducing the Spread of Staph/Community-Associated MRSA in Non-Healthcare Settings. Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Feb 2007)
Proprietors of facilities in which occupants have bare skin contact with others or with shared equipment or surfaces (e.g., gyms)should be concerned about the potential transmission of CAMRSA. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, with consultation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, GA has prepared cleaning and hygiene guidelines for reducing the spread of CAMRSA in non-healthcare settings. 3p.

List H. EPA’s Registered Products Effective Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecalis or Faecium (VRE). Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , Jan 16, 2007)
This is a listing of EPA’s registered antimicrobial products effective against MRSA. Information of listed products are current as indicated by the dates on the list and only primary product names from the primary registrants are included. 25p.

An Act to Reduce Asthma and Other Health Threats from Cleaning Products Used in Schools, Hospitals and Public Housing.
This is the Massachusetts legislation mandating "green cleaning" products in schools. 7p.

Buy Green: Ten Products that Will Make Your School More Environmentally Friendly. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , 2007)
Guides participants in the Toronto District School Board's EcoSchools program on environmentally conscious purchases of office supplies, cleaners, restroom products, light bulbs, computer monitors, refrigerators, dishwashers, and clothes washers. 24p.

Green Cleaning Schools Act.[Illinois]
(State of Illinois General Assembly, Springfield , 2007)
Mandates the establishment of green cleaning policies and use of environmentally sensitive cleaning supplies in Illinois public and private schools with 50 or more students. 4p.

Property Manager's Child Care Resource Book 2007. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Services Administration, PBS Office of Childcare, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 78p.

Report on the Comparison of (OS1) and Zone Cleaning.
(University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill , Oct 2006)
Compares the traditional zone cleaning program currently in use at the University of North Carolina and the OS1 program taught by a private cleaning education firm. The report covers cleaning and housekeeping effectiveness, training, equipment, ergonomics, quality control, work loading, indoor environmental quality and building health, worker safety, physical security, and environmental sustainability. Under the OS1 system, the cleaning process is workloaded to teams and each worker is trained and certified on specialized tasks. Workers are "kitted" with specific tools and chemicals for each job function, which have been benchmarked as the best practice. The report reveals that this simplification of the cleaning process results in a safer, healthier and easier working environment. 52p.

Best Practices Maintenance Plan for School Buildings. [Idaho]
(Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise , Sep 2006)
Advises schools on preventive maintenance program, detailing elements of building component inventory and condition assessment, ranking maintenance projects and evaluating their costs, planning for long- and short-term preventive maintenance, structuring a framework for a preventive maintenance program, optimizing the preventive maintenance program, advancing the competence of maintenance personnel, and involving maintenance personnel in decision making and communication. Appendices provide appropriate inspection checklists, evaluation forms, and additional resources. 96p.

Guidelines and Specifications for the Procurement and Use of Environmentally Sensitive Cleaning and Maintenance Products for All Public and Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools in New York State. Adobe PDF
(New York State Office of General Services, Albany , Aug 2006)
Advises on "green" cleaning practices and products for New York State schools. Sections of the document cover characteristics of green cleaning products, best cleaning management practices, consulting to develop advanced custodial practices, designation of green cleaning products, cleaning product categories and definitions, and reporting requirements. 48p.

Custodial and Maintenance, Section 3 of the Arkansas School Facility Manual.
(Arkansas General Assembly, Task Force to Joint Committee on Educational Facilities, Little Rock, AR , Jun 21, 2006)
Presents Arkansas' detailed standards for school custodial care, maintenance, preventive maintenance, staffing levels, and funding of custodial and maintenance operations. 50p.

Finding the One Best Way to Clean
Rathey, Allen P.
(, Mar 28, 2006)
Finding the one best way to clean means analyzing the facility's needs and the tasks involved in meeting those needs, assessing method and equipment options and available workforce, and then putting it all together in a systematic cleaning program. This article covers conducting a needs analysis, identifying and timing tasks, time saving practices, considering method and equipment options, eliminating wasted steps, working with the workforce and then putting it all together.

Maintaining Food Service Areas.
Griffin, William
(, Orange, CA , Feb 15, 2006)
Advises on the particular cleaning needs for food service facilities, emphasizing attention to the different types of surfaces, materials, and equipment; written cleaning procedures and goals; organization of cleaning around the types of surfaces and chemicals involved; safety and accident prevention; and quality control. Specific techniques for cleaning typical features and equipment found in food service areas are included. 3p.

Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Best Practice Manual: Volume IV, Maintenance and Operations.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), CA, 2006)
This volume presents high performance guidelines for the maintenance and operation of schools. Information in this volume will help ensure that high performance school buildings continue to operate as their designers intended, providing optimal health, efficiency, and sustainability. Introductory chapters are geared toward district and managerial staff. The remaining chapters address the needs of maintenance, custodial, and groundskeeping staff and cover such topics as cleaning and calibrating building systems, selecting green cleaning products, and reducing waste. Specific guidelines are included for the building envelope, lighting, HVAC, landscaping, plumbing, and snow management and de-icing. 82p.

Montgomery County Public Schools Healthy, High Performance Cleaning Program (Green Cleaning). Adobe PDF
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD , 2006)
Informs the school systems' facility managers and educates the building service staff on how to achieve "green housekeeping" requirements. The plan also serves as the US Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED submittal to demonstrate the intent for a "green cleaning & housekeeping" innovation credit has been met. Sections of the document cover cleaning practices, grounds care, product standards and recommendations, mechanical systems operational requirements, staff training, resources, definitions, an a cleaning checklist. 20p.

The Right to Know. School Custodial Maintenance Workers. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, 2006)
This fact sheet describes the standards and some of the hazards and health effects of chemicals that school maintenance workers may be exposed to. It details important protective measures that should be undertaken. 7p.

Green Cleaning Programs in Schools Get High Scores.
Clarke, Bob
(OneSource Management, Atlanta, GA , 2006)
Defines environmentally sensitive "green cleaning" and cites the benefits of green cleaning to learning, as it improves school morale and indoor air quality. Twelve basic principles of green cleaning are provided. Includes four references. 3p.

An Act to Amend the Education Law and the State Finance Law, in Relation to the Procurement and Use of Environmentally Sensitive Cleaning and Maintenance Products in Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York State Assembly, Albany , May 20, 2005)
This is the New York state legislation mandating the use of "green cleaning" products in schools. 3p.

Guide to Healthier Cleaning & Maintenance: Practices and Products for Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York State Association for Superintendents of School Buildings and Grounds, Albany; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY. , 2005)
This paper helps those concerned with keeping schools clean and properly maintained in adopting healthier cleaning and maintenance practices and promoting the purchase and use of environmentally preferable products which perform well and are cost effective. It explains how children are exposed to toxic chemicals in school cleaning and maintenance products, highlights the problem of indoor air pollution, and cautions about the lack of toxic testing on commercially used cleaning chemicals. A checklist for prevention of dirt and grime by anticipating people and their messes is detailed. Also discussed are tips on purchasing environmentally preferable cleaning products, including a checklist of human health and environmental considerations. Final sections cover vendor, price and performance considerations; and thoughts on how schools buy cleaning and maintenance products. Lists of helpful organizations and agencies and how-to guides are included. 8p.

Maintenance and Operations Administrative Guidelines for School Districts and Community Colleges.
(Florida Department of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee, FL , 2005)
The purpose of this manual is to provide an update of acceptable and effective maintenance and operations management practices and current standards for educational facilities. Chapters include: 1) Laws and Statutory Requirements; 2) General Maintenance and Operations Guidelines; 3) Organizational Structure of Maintenance and Operations Departments; 4) Management of Custodial Programs; 5) Management of Maintenance Programs; 6) Educational Facility Infrastructure Management; 7) Contracted Services; 8) Standard Procedures; 9) Relevant Codes, Standards, and Regulations; 10) Maintenance and Operations Program Performance Criteria. 240p.

Best Practices for Metal Halide Lighting Systems, Plus Questions and Answers about Lamp Ruptures in Metal Halide Lighting Systems.
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, VA , Dec 10, 2004)
Provides information for the selection, operation, and maintenance of metal halide lighting systesm, with specific emphasis on items pertinent to risks associated with lamp rupture. Bulbs in these fixtures can continue to function when the outer, ultraviolet-screening bulb breaks, thus exposing occupants to harmful radiation. 13p.
Report NO: LSD 25-2004

School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices for Controlling Energy Costs. Adobe PDF
(Prepared by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Rebuild America EnergySmart Schools Program, Washington, DC; Princeton Energy Resources International, Rockville, MD; HPowell Energy Associates, Westford, MA; Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2004)
Provides detailed practical guidance on how K-12 school districts can plan and implement enhancements to their current operations and maintenance programs that can successfully maintain their facilities while also reducing energy costs up to 20 percent. Most of the strategies detailed entail limited capital costs and produce rapid paybacks. In addition to technical information, the guide provides organizational information on barriers, challenges, the steps necessary to develop this type of program. Reviews successful strategies from a wide variety of American school districts and includes case studies. 114p.

Environmental Health & Safety Issues in Massachusetts' Schools.
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Dept. of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment, Boston , Feb 2004)
Assists school systems in identifying and remedying indoor environment health and safety problems. Chapter 1 contains a checklist for schools to use to identify important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a school building. By maintaining the checklist for each issue, school personnel will be able to determine if there are any specific areas that may warrant attention. Chapter 2 contains references that provide specific regulations for each issue and any industry standards/guidelines that are available. This section also provides a quick resource guide for additional assistance. Chapter 3 provides a list of resources for further guidance. 24p.

The Carpet and Rug Institute's Carpet Maintenance Guidelines for Commercial Applications.
(The Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Feb 2004)
Presents guidelines for carpet cleaning in non-residential settings, including schools. Chapters advise on the elements of a maintenance plan and schedule, developing a carpet maintenance plan, vacuuming, treatment of hard surfaces adjacent to carpet, deep cleaning, and spot removal. 22p.

Custodial Procedures. Adobe PDF
(Office of Plant Operations, School Board of Brevard County, Rockledge, FL , Jan 2004)
These procedures describe the following: plant operations and maintenance policy; safety in school operations; supplies; basic office cleaning; restroom cleaning and sanitation; hard surface floor maintenance; classroom and corridor cleaning; and basic carpet care. 56p.

Custodial Standards. Adobe PDF
(Brevard Public Schools, Office of Plant Operations and Maintenance, Rockledge, FL , 2004)
The Brevard County School Board has issued this document detailing maintenance and custodial standards district wide for its schools. Guidelines first address the general procedures and maintenance for the school, including universal precautions for the protection of the custodial staff. It then details maintenance and cleaning requirements for each area of the school, including classrooms, restrooms, cafeterias, gymnasiums, locker rooms, and corridors. Samples of facility custodial assessment forms; emergency lighting, fire extinguisher inspection, and air conditioner maintenance/service log sheets; and monthly custodial preventative maintenance forms are included. 51p.

Take a Deep Breath and Thank Your Custodian.
(National Education Association, Washington, DC , 2004)
Two brochures discuss ways to improve indoor air quality in schools. The first (9 pages) presents six steps for organizing a school indoor air quality action plan. The second (15 pages) presents ideas for furnishings, cleaning, and renovation that will reduce mold, dust, lead, asbestos, and other hazardous materials contamination. 26p.

Technology Revolutionizes the Cleaning Process.
Griffin, William R.
( , 2004)
Discusses significant changes in cleaning practices, brought on by technology and a desire to clean for health rather than just for appearance. Products and practices that lead to quick resoiling and environmental degradation are being abandoned. Anti-microbial surfaces and finishes, robotic cleaning, sophisticated vacuums, vapor cleaning, and greatly improved training programs are available and being developed. 5p.

Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Forum on Education Statistics, School Facilities Maintenance Task Force; Association of School Business Officials International, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
The planning guide was developed to help readers better understand why and how to develop, implement, and evaluate a school facilities maintenance plan. The guide is designed for staff at the local school district level, where most facility maintenance is planned, managed, and carried out. This audience includes school business officials, school board members, superintendents, principals, facilities maintenance planners, maintenance staff, and custodial staff. The document is also relevant to the school facilities interests of state education agency staff, community groups, vendors, and regulatory agencies. The guide focuses on: (1) school facility maintenance as a vital task in the responsible management of an education organization; (2) the needs of an education audience; (3) strategies and procedures for planning, implementing, and evaluating effective maintenance programs; (4) a process to be followed, rather than a canned set of "one size fits all" solutions; and (5) recommendations based on best practices, rather than mandates. The document offers recommendations on the following issues, which serve as chapter headings: (1) "Introduction to School Facilities Maintenance Planning"; (2) "Planning for School Facilities Maintenance"; (3) "Facilities Audits (Knowing What You Have)"; (4) "Providing a Safe Environment for Learning"; (5) "Maintaining School Facilities and Grounds"; (6) "Effectively Managing Staff and Contractors"; and (7) "Evaluating Facilities Maintenance Efforts." 184p.

Flood Cleanup: Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003)
Discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms. This fact sheet provides tips to avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. 2p.

Recommendations for the Care and Maintenance of High Intensity Metal Halide and Mercury Lighting in Schools.
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, VA , 2003)
Recommends procedures to protect occupants from skin burns and eye irritation resulting from broken high intensity metal halide or mercury bulbs, typically used in school sports facilities and assembly halls. These bulbs can continue to function when the outer, ultraviolet-screening bulb breaks, thus exposing occupants to harmful radiation. 1p.

The Property Professional's Guide to the ANSI/WCA 1-14.1 Window Cleaning Safety Standard.
(Building Owners and Managers Association International, Washington, DC, 2003)
Written specifically for building owners and property managers, the guide focuses on safety guidelines for the use of window cleaning access equipment, and contains information for manufacturers, designers, and installers of window equipment. The standard also addresses rope descending systems, transportable and permanent suspended scaffolds, ladders, and man-lifts. 40p.
TO ORDER: BOMA, Tel: 800-426-6292, Email:

Improving Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Training Program.
Csobod, Eva; Heszlenyi, Judit; Schroth Agnes
(Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest, Hungary , 2003)
Presents a European outlook on school indoor air quality, with special attention to procedures an substances used to clean schools. 31p.

Cleaning for Health: Products and Practices for a Safer Indoor Environment.
Culver, Alicia; Feinberg, Marian; Klebenov, David; Muskinow, Judy; Sutherland, Lara
(INFORM, Inc., New York, NY, Aug 2002)
This report is a guide to environmentally preferable cleaning products and methods that have been effectively used in office buildings, schools, hospitals and other facilities in the United States and Canada. It describes pioneering product evaluation programs and lists the brands that were chosen based on environmental and performance criteria. It also provides a model specification, as well as manufacturer contacts and other resources for those who want to develop a safer cleaning program for their buildings. 86p.

A Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Floor Coverings in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Bishop, Jeff
(The Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Mar 2002)
Presents life cycle cost analyses of school building floors with light-to-medium traffic and heavy traffic, comparing them with the figures for carpet and vinyl composition tile (VCT). The initial purchase cost, installation charges, maintenance requirements and associated costs, plus the costs of cleaning chemicals are factored into the analysis to yield the true outlay of monies over time. The analysis envisions a twenty-two (22) year time period, which is the expected usable life of VCT flooring in schools. 11p.

Building and Grounds Maintenance Checklist. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2002)
This checklist discusses six major topics areas: buildings and grounds maintenance supplies; dust control; floor cleaning; drain traps; moisture, leaks, and spills; combustion appliances; and pest control. 2p.

School Safety and Security. [California]
(California Department of Education, School Safety and Violence Prevention Office, Sacramento, CA , 2002)
This document offers guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled access to campuses; windows; visibility; traffic patterns and parking areas; play and sports areas; landscaping; fencing and gates; exterior lighting; lavatories; environmental design features; visitor control and access; and specialized sites. An extensive list of related resources is also provided. Regarding lighting standards, the document offers research-based design recommendations and suggestions concerning reflectances, fixture brightness, ceiling height, excess wall luminance (windows), nonuniformity of illumination (general lighting), and energy conservation. This section also includes a glossary. The section on clean school standards offers questions to consider when establishing policies for a maintenance and operations program. Finally, the section on technology resources includes Web sites on comprehensive technology planning, integration of technology into the curriculum, and staff development. 32p.

The Contribution of Restoration and Effective Operation and Maintenance Programs on Indoor Environmental Quality and Education Performance in Schools. Adobe PDF
Berry, M.A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a the link between effective facility management programs for cleaning and maintenance, and environmental quality of schools. The quality of the school environment, to include air quality, determines an overall sense of well-being, and shapes attitudes of students, teachers and staff. Attitudes affect teaching and learning behavior. Behavior in turn affects teaching and academic performance. (Includes four references.) 6p.

School Repair and Maintenance Handbook: Questions, Answers and Procedures. Adobe PDF
(State of Hawaii, Dept. of Education, Honolulu , Oct 2001)
Outlines Hawaii's policies for obtaining school repairs, furniture replacement, refuse pickup, contractual maintenance for mechanical systems, community projects, and tree trimming. The document includes official forms to be used in making requests. 103p.

Best Practices for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation, Columbus , 2001)
Provides information and practices employed by Ohio school districts in achieving successful employee safety and health, as well as workers' compensation management. The document covers management commitment, communication, safety education and training, injury reporting and treatment, return to work and transitional work, and safety audits and inspections. Also provided is a list of internet sites for school employee safety and health. 23p.

Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, 2001)
The purpose of this guide is to provide basic information about the use of sanitizers and disinfectants in schools. The Healthy Schools Network recommends schools follow all public health laws and regulations, and proceed with extreme caution when using any chemicals around children or staff. Includes a germ reduction and pesticide exposure prevention checklist, and a glossary. 4p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

Educational Performance, Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments. Adobe PDF
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , 2001)
This paper briefly discusses research on the negative impact of indoor air environments within educational facilities and the positive impact of a scientifically based cleaning process. Included is a form for calculating the environmental performance for a school environment and definitions of relevant terms. Final sections discuss building management and cleaning and list the principles of cleaning effectiveness in school environments. 10p.

Indoor Air Quality. Tools for Schools. [With Videotape].
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. , Dec 2000)
This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. Along with the IAQ coordinator’s guide, the kit contains IAQ coordinator forms; an IAQ backgrounder; and a variety of checklists for administrators, teachers, and school health workers. The checklists focus on ventilation, building maintenance, waste management, food service, renovation and repairs, and inspection. Also provided is a problem-solving wheel that assists school teachers and others in identifying indoor air problems and correcting them. A 14-minute videotape is included which explains the importance of good indoor air quality and shows how to properly operate and maintain school ventilation systems.
TO ORDER: Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 37133, Washington D.C. 20013-7133; Toll free: 800-438-4318.

Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Adobe PDF
Torres, Vincent M.
(University of Texas, Texas Institute for the Indoor Environment, Austin , Jun 2000)
Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building equipment maintenance and repair; housekeeping practices and equipment; and wind velocity. It includes recommendations on parameters within these areas which can provide optimal air quality. 14p.

Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance. Adobe PDF
(State University of New York, Center for Integrated Waste Management, Buffalo. , 2000)
This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The objectives of this guide and the associated workshop are: (1) to instill the principles of pollution prevention into daily staff practices; (2) to foster recycling and reuse of spent and used materials; (3) to reduce waste disposal to the extent possible; (4) to raise the awareness of the impact of individual daily actions on the environment; and (5) to review the requirements of specific New York state and federal regulations that interface with many daily work practices. 47p.
Report NO: NP982048

Lead-Safe Schools Kit.
(University of California, Lead-Safe Schools Project, Berkeley, CA , 2000)
This kit contains four trainers tools for educating California school maintenance and operations personnel on providing lead-safe schools. Contents include the "Lead-Safe Schools Curriculum" that has complete lesson plans and masters for overheads and handouts. Separate sets of overheads and handouts are also provided for easy copying. Also included are the "Lead-Safe Schools Guide" that provides in-depth background information on lead hazards and state policies on managing lead in schools. The "Working in a Lead-Safe School" booklet is of for use by class participants and is designed to accompany the curriculum. Finally, the kit provides a video, "Lead The Invisible Threat", that is shown during the class and focuses on lead exposure and lead-safe work practices.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120; Tel: 510-642-5507

Maintenance & Operations Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of Improving School Facilities.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Facilities Project Team, Reston, VA , 2000)
This paper examines the impact current maintenance and operations (M&O)practices have on U.S. school performance and offers possible opportunities for improvement through the judicious use of technology and methodology. The paper also presents a regional comparative analysis of M&O costs across the country. A list of equipment and their service life is provided as are suggested equipment to be considered for M&O programs, the financial benefits of preventive maintenance operations, and ways of integrating new M&O into existing plans. Final sections examine the budgeting of M&O processes in new school construction projects, and the steps school officials can take to implement a proper M&O plan that can avoid excessive costs, protect assets, and increase staff productivity. (Contains 16 references.) 16p.

Working in a Lead-Safe School. Facts for School Maintenance Workers.
(University of California, Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This booklet is intended for school custodians and maintenance staff who may work around lead while doing their day-to-day tasks. The discussion includes facts about where lead is found, exposure risks and ways that exposure can take place, effects on the body, and ways to help eliminate lead from school property. The booklet discusses Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements for protecting workers who are involved in lead work, how much lead exposure is too much, and ways to safely work around lead. 28p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

Lead-Safe Schools Guide For Maintenance and Operations Departments.
Dewey, Robin; Bateson, Gail; Arroyo, Michele; Plog, Barbara A.; Dionne, Leonor
(University of California,Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This guide provides California school districts with information for creating safer lead-free school environments through better custodial and maintenance policies and practices. The guide examines the health effects of lead, elements of a lead program, strategies to identify lead in schools, maintenance task analysis, worker protection guidelines, safe work practices, worker training strategies, and program documentation and evaluation. Examples of program forms are also provided. Appendices contain summary reports from the California Department of Health Services, Lead in Construction Standards, Hazard Communication Standard, and Injury and Illness Prevention Program. Also included is information on the Lead-Safe Schools Protection Act and Title 17 of California's regulations for working around lead hazards, contractor requirements, volunteer guidelines, a resource list, and glossary. 172p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

Lead-Safe Schools Curriculum.
Dewey, Robin; Dionne, Leonor; Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez
(University of California, Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This guide presents lesson plans, overheads, and handouts that can be used to present a five-hour course on lead hazards in school maintenance work. The course is designed to give school employees the necessary information and skills they need to protect themselves and school children from exposure. The course requires no health or safety expertise to teach. Each topic is taught using participatory learning activities. Lessons cover reasons why there should be concern over the presence of lead in schools, where lead is found in schools, effects of lead exposure, ways that lead exposure typically takes place, respiratory protection, lead-safe work practices, and a summary lesson. 81p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

Custodial Methods and Procedures Manual.
Johnson, Donald R.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2000)
This manual discusses school facility cleaning and maintenance from the expanded perspective of work management, physical assets management, and resource management. Work management encompasses the organization of work and personnel, scheduling of daily or routine duties and tasks, and handling of demand work. Physical asset management includes developing historical data relating to the facilities, updating and changing that data, managing facility assets, and providing asset accounting. Resource management includes identifying cleaning procedures, developing and maintaining a preventive maintenance program, supporting a full inventory and purchasing system, tracking in-house and outside service costs, and interfacing with the school district's financial management system. A reference section contains guidelines and forms for custodial equipment storage and care, including safety measures and employee management forms. 96p.

Caretaking Manual
Abbott, Lynn; Boehme, Daryl; Hoffart, Rodd; Malcolm, John; Merkowsky, Gary
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Saskatchewan, Canada , 1999)
Information for school maintenance staff in their role of providing clean, attractive, and pleasant educational facilities for students and staff. Addresses local school division policy. Presents general guidelines of first aid and safety, including guidelines for treating choking, giving CPR, treating of burns and poisonings, handling of environmental injuries, and caring for and using various types of safety and disaster equipment. Presents the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. Examines the development of a properly supplied and maintained caretaker's room. Explains the types of chemicals available to caretakers and their intended use. Covers cleaning procedures from dusting and cleaning chalkboards to all aspects of floor care, including finishing/sealing, spray buffing, and stain removal, and troubleshooting. Presents a sample facility review form which provides a means of determining that the various areas of a facility are acceptable or needing improvement. Includes a glossary of terms related to building maintenance and cleaning.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Guidelines for Green Building Housekeeping and Maintenance.
Ashkin, Steve
(Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pittsburgh, PA, 1999)
These guidelines have been designed to help an owner/manager of a facility understand the relevant issues and to insure that the correct or best practices are being employed. The guide presents information necessary to complete a building survey and to assist in developing and maintaining a green building indoor environment. Includes information on selecting environmentally preferable cleaning products. 24p.

Chemicals in Classrooms. Pesticides and Maintenance Chemicals in Vermont Schools. Adobe PDF
Sterling, Peter; Browning, Brigid
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 1999)
This report is the second in a series of studies on the serious threat toxic chemical use may pose to the health of Vermont's children, teachers, and school staff. Of the sources of toxic chemical exposure, pesticides and maintenance chemicals potentially pose the most serious threat. Parts 1 and 2 of this report outline the health effects of exposure to toxic pesticides and maintenance chemicals. Part 3 discusses the numerous short- and long-term impacts these chemicals may have on a child's physiological development. Part 4 presents the results of a School Pesticide & Maintenance Chemical Use Questionnaire. Part 5 offers some possible solutions concerned parents, teachers, children, and school officials may take to remove these chemicals from the classrooms. (Appendices contain recommendations by the New York Board of Regents, and resources for further information.) 19p.

Maintenance Manual for School Buildings in the Caribbean.
Bastidas, Pedro
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , Mar 1998)
A manual provides guidelines for school maintenance activities for schools located in the Caribbean and examines the organization of a maintenance program, the inspection process, and the maintenance plan. The assessment process is detailed and forms are provided for assessing school roofs, building exteriors and interiors, plumbing, electrical systems, and grounds. 17p.

Checklist for School Maintenance Surveys. Adobe PDF
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore , 1998)
The Maryland State Department of Education provides a checklist for school maintenance surveys covering 31 maintenance areas. Maintenance areas covered include roadways and parking lots; site utilities; exterior appearance; roofing conditions; entryways and exits; walls, interior doors, and ceilings; and fire and safety. 8p.

Maintenance Matters: Maintenance and Minor Works in Primary Schools. A Manual for Boards of Management. Adobe PDF
(Department of Education and Science, Dublin, Ireland , 1998)
This manual provides guidance in the maintenance requirements of primary education schools covering roofing; floors and walls; doors and windows; external and internal finishes; heating, plumbing, and drainage; electrical installations; paved and grassed surfaces; and furniture and loose equipment. The basic considerations are covered for each area followed by a list of the types of problems encountered, why these problems arise, and tips for maintenance surveillance. Also included is advice on work planning covering applications, appointing consultants and contractors, and key points on health and safety regulations. An appendix contains grant regulations for minor works to national schools and maintenance checklist sample forms. 213p.

Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore. , 1996)
Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed in this bulletin. The focus is on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these parameters is warranted, along with guidance for the interpretation of the data obtained, are covered. This is followed by an overview of equipment types that are available to quantify the specific parameters; a comparison table presents key factors that differentiate the types of equipment available. Various measurement techniques, such as measuring a room s air velocity, are summarized along with the methodologies recommended for obtaining useful data. Some of the common problems encountered when measuring IAQ are described. It is claimed that with a good understanding of the dynamics of the key IAQ parameters and a modest investment in monitoring equipment, school facilities staff can provide quick, cost-effective responses to IAQ complaints and establish a program that can identify potential IAQ problem areas. (Contains 5 tables and 10 references.) 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Good School Maintenance: A Manual of Programs and Procedures for Buildings, Grounds and Equipment
(Illinois Association of School Boards, Springfield, IL , 1996)
Describes the basics of good school maintenance, including managing the program, using computers, controlling energy costs, ensuring safe practices, designing buildings for efficient maintenance, and being informed about environmental issues. Included are guidelines for operating cleaning and general building services and guidelines for building maintenance, specifically, caring for the exterior and roof. Procedures for maintaining school grounds are detailed, as well as the maintenance of mechanical equipment, including heating and air conditioning systems, sanitary systems and fixtures, sewage treatment plants, and electrical systems. 279p.
TO ORDER: Illinois Association of School Boards, 430 East Vine Street Springfield, IL 62703; Tel: 217/528-9688

A Guide to the Management and Maintenance of School Grounds. Adobe PDF
Wood, Joan; Littlewood, Michael
(Learning Through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
A guidebook helps schools identify their maintenance requirements, choose the best organizational model of maintenance to ensure they receive a good quality service for their money, and help teachers and administrators achieve whole school awareness and commitment to school maintenance management. Sections address evaluating a school's maintenance situation, understanding what the different types of grounds maintenance organizations do, choosing the most appropriate kind of maintenance agreement, and deciding who to work with. Also included are several case studies. 94p.

The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.
Wheeler, Arthur E.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1995)
To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable levels. Such extremes in humidity or temperature can lead to respiratory distress and other problems. To manage IAQ, facilities managers must take the lead and ensure that an effective plan is in place for dealing with HVAC maintenance and other matters. Such plans usually begin with an IAQ profile, which includes an audit of the HVAC and related systems. Documentation is an important component of the plan, as is ensuring that all personnel are properly trained. HVAC commissioning, in which performance and design are verified using computerized controls to monitor the HVAC system, are other vital aspects of an HVAC plan. When such plans are not in place, or even when plans fail, some of the consequences for IAQ include inadequate ventilation, malfunctioning controls, excessive humidity, odors, and irritating vapors.

Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health
Berry, Michael A.
(Tricomm Twenty First Press, 1994)
This book covers the following topics: methods of high quality cleaning for good health; the global environment's effect on the built environment; why you should be environmental managers, rather than just maintainers of the aesthetic; how to ensure worker and customer safety; techniques to save time and money through proven cleaning industry management; environmental laws and regulations; how people respond to the indoor environment; where polutants come from and what they do; how to evaluate a building before cleaning it; specialty cleaning: fire and water damage restoration; how to market environmental cleaning using Total Quality Management (TQM). 274p.

Department Procedures for Custodial Services. Adobe PDF
(State of Hawaii, Dept. of Education, Honolulu , May 1993)
Clarifies for school administrators and custodians the extent of their duties and responsibilities. Sections of the document outline duties for the principal, school custodian, resident custodian, and classroom cleaner. Procedures for daily maintenance of restrooms and classrooms, as well as a staffing formula are provided. Appendices include sample work schedules, cleaning of the cafeteria, and guidelines on the proper use and care of safety equipment. 94p.
Report NO: RS 93-3829

Maintenance of Electrical Services. Maintenance and Renewal in Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 76. Adobe PDF
(Department of Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch,London, England. , Jul 1992)
This document provides guidance on the overall electrical services and maintenance strategy in educational facilities, the individual components of which are considered in the following sections: record documentation and systems; inspection and testing; condition appraisal; maintenance requirements; and maintenance works procedures. Other sections include discussions on electrical requirements for particular uses, community use, spare capacity, and tasks for school staff. Many specific types of electrical services are considered and their planned maintenance requirements are dealt with in the appendices. 64p.

Health Hazards Manual for Custodians, Janitors and Housekeepers
Brown, Nellie J.
(Cornell University, Workplace Health and Safety Program (formerly Chemical Hazard Information Program). Preparation of this manual was funded by a grant from the New York State Department of Labor Hazard Abatement Board. , Oct 1990)
This reviews the principal occupational health hazards and exposures themselves and some of the related issues, looking closely at the chemical composition of cleaning products to see what components appear to be particularly hazardous, how one is exposed to them, and what one can do to minimize exposure. 58p.

Maintenance of Mechanical Services. Building Bulletin 70. Adobe PDF
Hacker, M. S.; Patel, M. J.; Daniels, R. L.; Haworth-Roberts, A.; Omar, H.Wix, J.
(Department of Education and Science, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Jul 12, 1990)
School building maintenance must find an appropriate balance between planned and reactive work in order to conserve costs. This British document provides ways in which authorities can assess their maintenance requirements and make better use of the resources available. It considers how to deal with problems which have their roots in historical design factors and provides guidance on what action should be taken to prevent future maintenance problems. It also addresses whether to repair or replace equipment by providing guidance for making these decisions. A 6-point plan for avoiding equipment failure is proposed. The appendices, which comprise two thirds of the document, provide a glossary; the principle generic types of equipment in use, common faults which they exhibit and their life expectancy; staff training to ensure the timeliness and quality of maintenance work; checklists for routine inspection and maintenance by school personnel; information on troubleshooting for a range of mechanical services components; information on use of operating and maintenance manuals; and data that include calculating the likelihood of equipment failure, life-cycle costing, forecasting/planning workloads, and the application of new technology to maintenance management and operations in schools. 77p.

School Custodial Services.
Hill, Frederick; Colmey, James
(T.S. Denison, Minneapolis, MN , 1968)
Discusses school cleaning and maintenance, including organizing of custodial services, scheduling, supervision, inspection, supplies, equipment, employment, working conditions, training, cleaning standards, cleaning procedures, safety, grounds care, security, vandalism, and preventive maintenance. 294p.

References to Journal Articles

The Asthma-Friendly Facility: Cleaning Methods and IAQ
Robinson, Kelly
Facility Management; Jul 12, 2012
With rising rates of asthma and other recurring lung-health-related problems, schools and other large facilities should scrutinize their cleaning practices, before poor indoor air quality (IAQ) causes losses in productivity and funding.

Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance
Henriksen, Missy
American School and University; Jun 2012
Tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

Stick With a School Maintenance Plan
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must follow through on their maintenance management plans to ensure that facilities are kept in good shape. Includes a formula for determining how many workers are needed to get the job done properly. The factors weighed: number of teachers, number of students, type of school, size of facility and the number of washroom fixtures:

JOC Be Nimble, JOC by Quick
Schreyer, Paul R.
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p43-45 ; Jun 2012
Explores the Job Order Contracting (JOC) procurement method that allows school administrators to complete a large number of high quality maintenance projects quickly with a single, competitive bid contract.

Green Cleaning: Unplugging It
Ashkin, Stephen
American School and University; , p38 ; May 2012
Discusses the training of custodians to reduce energy consumption without compromising their cleaning duties.

Q&A: Maintenance and Operations, 21st-Century Style
Kopochinski, Lisa
School Construction News; , 1p ; Apr 2012
Interview with Ken Wertz, director of maintenance and operations of the Sharon Public Schools District in Massachusetts and president of the Massachusetts Facilities Administrators Associations, who discusses maintenance and operations challenges with older school buildings, energy efficiency, and preventive maintenance strategies.

The Cleaning Component
Mudarri, David
School Planning and Management; , p38-44 ; Apr 2012
This outlines what custodians need to know for effective cleaning to maintain a healthy indoor environment: training plus product and technology choices.

Chemical-Free Cleaning
Swanson, Kyle
College Planning and Management; , p46-50 ; Apr 2012
Liquid ozone offers a sustainable, economical cleaning solution for the University of Michigan.

A Night-And-Day Difference To Cleaning On Campus
Zudonyi, Corinne
Housekeeping Solutions; , p133-142 ; Apr 2012
Illinois Central College facility executives are reaping the rewards of team cleaning during the day.

A Wrench in the Works
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; , p26-28 ; Mar 2012
Discusses mechanical system maintenance, including conducting assessments that identify various maintenance needs such as recommissioning, carrying out inspections as well as preventive and corrective maintenance, and retraining maintenance technicians.

Clean and Safe Washroom School Maintenance
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; , p24-26 ; Mar 2012
Schools and universities must be vigilant about upkeep of their washrooms to avoid potential health and behavior problems. Discusses health issues, problems with bullies and vandalism, and water conservation.

BIM: A Better View of Maintenance
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2012
Discusses the benefits of BIM to maintenance and engineering managers. BIM software includes architectural data, and it holds comprehensive information on a facility's HVAC components, plumbing fixtures, doors, and windows, including product manufacturers and model information.

Then and Now: Innovations, Ideas Advance Cleaning Process for Healthier Schools
Robinson, Kelly
School Planning and Management; , p23-27 ; Feb 2012
Describes Process Cleaning for Healthy Schools (PCHS), a standardized system for cleaning schools.

The School Maintenance Rental Option
Schaffer, Michael
American School and University; Jan 2012
For some education facilities, renting cleaning equipment as it is needed may be preferable to purchasing it. Describes the reasons for renting and what to look for when selecting equipment.

Bed Bugs. Real Risks for Educational Facilities
Pest Control Technology Magazine; Dec 28, 2011
Schools need a lesson plan on how to deal with bed bug infestations. This describes appropriate monitoring and treatment options to really make a difference.

Cutting Costs and Improving Outcomes for Janitorial Services.
Campbell, Jeffrey L.
Facilities Manager; Sep-Oct 2011
Janitorial services account for nearly 30 percent of facility budgets. Innovative approaches are being introduced that efficiently manages university janitorial services by utilizing measurable standards and up-to-date business practices.

Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools
Simmons, Brian
American School and University; Sep 2011
Schools can implement a cost-effective, sustainable floor cleaning program to meet green initiatives. Discusses equipment selection, cleaning chemicals, and green cleaning procedures.

Lifts: Elevated Safety Considerations.
Camp;lin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p16,18 ; Aug 2011
Introduces OSHA regulations, as well as proper testing and inspection of aerial work platforms.

A Pending Disaster.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p6 ; Aug 2011
Quotes statistics on excess deferred maintenance of schools and warns against disastrous results if maintenance is not properly funded.

Raising Productivity.
Morrison, Rex
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p24,26,28,29 ; Aug 2011
Discusses the work of the non-profit organization Process Cleaning for Healthy Schools (PCHS). The organizations provides consulting and support to help schools improve cleanliness and environmental quality.

Ergo Sum.
Robinson, Kelly
College Planning and Management; v14 n8 , p39,40,42 ; Aug 2011
Discusses the benefits of microfiber mops and dual-compartment buckets, citing savings of time, water, and chemicals that this equipment affords, even while cleaning more thoroughly. Microfiber cleaning rags are also recommended, as they do not shred or leave lint.

Setting Standards for Custodial Operations.
Wick, Casey.
Facilities Manager; v27 n4 , p18-21 ; Jul 01, 2011
Details contents of categories for evaluation of custodial operations: time standards, performance standards, quality standards, and management standards.

Maintenance Needs.
Errickson, Paul
American School and University; v83 n8 , p24,26,-28 ; May 2011
Demonstrates that life-cycle cost value practices lead to reduced maintenance because of use of superior materials and the ability to anticipate a schedule and costs of major repairs and maintenance.

MRO Storerooms: Bottom-Line Issues.
Murphy, Frank
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p22,24 ; Apr 2011
Advises on maintaining well-organized, well-stocked, and inventoried facilities parts storerooms. Reduction of staff time spent looking for parts, consolidated inventory, and quick response to facilities situations are emphasized.

Infrared Imaging: Tracking the Evolution.
Sirmans, David
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n3 , p13,14 ; Mar 2011
Discusses the evolution of infrared detection of facilities issues, with a rapid progress to less expensive, smaller, lighter, and more technologically advanced machines. It is now possible, even advisable, to train in-house staff on the use of this technology, rather than to hire outside contractors.

Drain Cleaning: Keeping the Lines Open.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p18,20 ; Feb 2011
Describes the often-neglected issue of drains, including their use and mis-use. Discarded items and grease can create significant problems. New equipment is available but risks inattention by those who are supposed to maintain it.

Keys to Success.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Dec 2010
Describes 10 ways that schools can overcome and move beyond impediments to providing safe, healthful, and high-quality education. The 10 areas include finances, sustainable design, operating efficiency, educational technology, distance learning, security, indoor air quality, maintenance / cleaning, managing space, and community connection.

Smart Cleaning.
Thompson, John
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p26,28,30 ; Nov 2010
Describes how a Michigan school system reorganized their custodial program for equitable job assignments and standardized cleaning frequencies. These, along with new ergonomic and efficient equipment resulted in several of the schools receiving "Green" designation by the Michigan Green Schools Program.

Green Doesn't Mean Non-Toxic.
Belew, Rachel
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p32,34,36-39 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the discrepancy in volatile organic compound (VOCs) content in cleaning supplies, and the extent to which these compounds are emitted when the product is used. Also addressed is the potential for reactions between these compounds and the atmosphere, and the cumulative effect of these compounds on occupant health.

Clean Break.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n1 , p22,24,25 ; Sep 2010
Discusses "green" cleaning in schools, citing cleaning product certification, improved mixing and dispensing equipment, and coordination of products and cleaning implements.

Green Sweep.
Gregerson, John
Buildings; v104 n8 , p30-32 ; Aug 2010
Discusses green cleaning as an element of LEED compliance, describing its inclusion of cleaning agents, techniques, equipment, matting, and documentation.

Aerial Lifts: Reaching for Safety.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p18,20 ; Aug 2010
Describes importance of rigorous training for workers using aerial work platforms.

Get Your Money's Worth.
Cole, Tim
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p56-59 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on finding the most cost-effective measures to prioritize and clean building areas. Preventing dirt from entering a building is emphasized, and entrance and shoe-cleaning strategies are emphasized. Green cleaning of dirt that ultimately does make it into the building is addressed.

A Checklist for Meeting Green Goals.
Gregory, Bill
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p67-69 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Offers an annotated checklist for working with suppliers to meet requirements for "green" facilities operations and maintenance. Areas covered are green supply chain protocols and product selection, maintenance to extend useful life, and end of life options.

Healthy Drains Lead to a Healthy Environment.
Schauff, John
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses sources of drain odors and clogs, with recommendations on how to remove them without the use of chemicals that are a threat to the environment or sewer system.

On Board with Green Cleaning.
Lo Bosco, Maryellen
Building Operating Management; v57 n4 , p39,40,42 ; Apr 2010
Discusses gaining the cooperation of janitorial staff and building occupants when instituting a green cleaning and green bathroom supplies program. Sources of resistance, the need for training with new equipment, occupant acceptance of different products, and costs are addressed.

Water-Tech: Making Green Greener.
Griffin, William
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p76-82 ; Apr 2010
Lists new opportunities for chemical-free cleaning. Without introduction of petroleum products, water can be electrolyzed, vaporized, heated, pressurized, oxygenated, softened, and filtered for cleaning purposes. New opportunities for water-only cleaning include electrolyzed water, dry steam-vapor cleaning, spray-and-vacuum sanitizing systems, and chemical-free scrubbing and stripping.

Mowing: Sustainable Strategies.
Hounsell, DAn
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p25 ; Apr 2010
Discusses mower emissions, mulching mowers, and alternatively fueled mowers, with particular attention to propane-powered mowers.

Lifts: Seven Key Questions.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p15,16 ; Apr 2010
Proposes seven questions to ask when choosing a lift for building maintenance. These address the type of job the lift will be doing, the capacity, ease of use, power source, site condition, and operator training.

Solutions to Help Facilities Improve "Green" Performance: LEED Credits and Cost Savings.
Zhang, Ying
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n2 , p10,12,13 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses the "green" cleaning benefits and LEED points available through the use of microfibers for cleaning. Microfiber implements last longer than convention cleaning cloths, require less water and chemicals, and are easier to maintain.

Worker Safety: Costly Pitfalls.
Casavant, David
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p18 ; Feb 2010
Describes typical violations of worker safety, necessary personal protective equipment, and education on electrical hazards.

Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p9,10 ; Feb 2010
Presents an interview with three facilities managers who describe what resources they use for training their staff, how training methods have evolved, what key skills are lacking in new staff, what building systems require the most training, and how they budget for it.

Solving the Parts Puzzle.
Murphy, Frank
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p13 ; Feb 2010
Discusses inventory control in maintenance and operations parts storerooms. Bar coding, radio frequency identification, and parts vending machines are described.

Motor Management: Powerful Benefits.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p7,8 ; Feb 2010
Discusses building motor management programs that reduce repairs and service interruptions. Elements of the program include regular testing while the motor is online, and software programs for this function are advised. Suggestions for convincing building owners to invest in such a program are provided.

Saws That Make the Right Cut. [Power Tools: Finding the Right Saw.]
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p17 ; Feb 2010
Describes the properties of a variety of saws for various tasks. Recent technological advances for jigsaws, reciprocating saws, circular saws, miter saws, concrete saws, and abrasive cutoff saws are also addressed.

Take Good Care of Building Facades.
Wiscons, Michael
Buildings; v104 n2 , p340,42 ; Feb 2010
Advises on attention to mortar erosion, cracking, spalling, and efflorescence, as well as deteriorating lintels and parapets, all of which contribute to the degradation of the building envelope.

PCBs in Schools: What about School Maintenance Workers?
Newman, David
New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v20 n2 , 189-191 ; 2010
Addresses the insufficient consideration of the school maintenance workers and contractors who maintain and replace PCB caulk, even though they may constitute the school population with the highest exposures and risks. The commentary briefly assesses recent PCB-related developments at the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the New York State Education Department from an occupational health perspective. [author's abstract]

New Dimensions in Maintenance Zone Design. Adobe PDF
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v25 n6 , p38,39 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses the division of campuses into maintenance zones of manageable and/or relatively comparable workloads.

Daylight Cleaning: Are You Willing to Make the Move?
Hewett, Dave; Kohlhagen, Rob
Facility Management Journal; v19 n6 , p20-22 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses the value of daytime cleaning to custodial job satisfaction, interaction with building occupants, reduced energy consumption, nighttime light pollution and hazards to birds. Advice on initiating day cleaning is included.

Reaching for Productivity.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n11 , p16,17 ; Nov 2009
Advises on selecting the right type of lift equipment for overhead facilities jobs. Types of lifts are described, as well as application strategies and a variety of work platform options that will expand the usefulness of the lift.

Hazmat: Safety Solutions.
Camplin Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p18,19 ; Oct 2009
Advises on how to manage hazardous materials using inspection, inventory, and regular cleanout. Also addressed are special considerations for flammables, proper storage, and recordkeeping strategies.

Cleaning Up Green.
Garland, Bill
Building Operating Management; v56 n10 , p29,30,32,34 ; Oct 2009
Discusses standards for certifying "green" cleaning and details six areas of cleaning materials purchasing, cleaning practices, and pest management that can contribute points towards LEED certification for existing buildings (LEED-EB).

Measured Success.
Keating, Tom
American School and University; v82 n2 , p29,30 ; Oct 2009
Discusses techniques for assessing cleanliness in school facilities. ATP meters and black light revealing devices are described, as well as techniques for promoting collegiality and respect between students and custodial staff.

The Rigors of Renting.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p20,21 ; Oct 2009
Discusses rental of construction and maintenance equipment, emphasizing seeking the advice of the rental company in order to get the right equipment, determining the total cost of rental and delivery costs, and training the operators.

Seeing is Solving.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p14,16 ; Oct 2009
Discusses camera technology for drain inspection, along with transmitters that indicate the location of the camera, viewing monitors, and safety training for the users.

Filter Facts: IAQ and Efficiency.
Winterland, Philip
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p17 ; Oct 2009
Discusses types of HVAC air filters, their respective filtering efficiencies, and resistance to air flow. Advantages and disadvantages of newer electrostatic filtering are also addressed.

Maintenance and Operations: Brilliant Ideas Needed.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p18-23 ; Aug 2009
Describes innovative school maintenance and operations practices that improve facility condition and save money. These include hiring retired staff to conduct inspections, working a four-day week when school is not in session, banning personal appliances from classrooms, remotely controllable HVAC, lighting, and irrigation systems, and staggering the shifts of maintenance workers.

Pumps: Strategies for Savings.
McCown, Paul
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p9 ; Aug 2009
Discusses improvement of pump efficiency in institutional buildings. Pump operation and performance data that should be collected, revising control systems, and right-sizing the pump's operation are addressed.

Cleaning for Healthy Schools: How Green Cleaning Can Save Money, Boost Student Achievement, and Safeguard Health. Adobe PDF
Moore, Deborah
CASH Register; v30 n8 , p7-9 ; Aug 2009
Describes the benefits of green cleaning to occupant health, current labeling of products, and cases where schools have saved money by switching to "green" cleaning products that were more concentrated than the conventional products previously in use.

Meeting the Challenge: M & O Budgets.
O'Connor, Shannon
College Planning and Management; v12 n8 , p20,22,24 ; Aug 2009
Describes how some higher education institutions are accommodating cutbacks in maintenance and operations budgets by asking non-custodial staff to do some cleaning up after themselves, bringing outsourced services back in house, reducing cleaning and maintenance frequencies, and adjusting thermostats.

Building Envelope: Focus on Energy.
Seaverson, Eric
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses use of infrared technology and visual inspection to identify air leaks, wet insulation, and thermal bridging, along with suggested elements of a maintenance checklist and current products to remedy unsatisfactory conditions.

Maintaining High-Performance Schools after Construction or Renovation. Adobe PDF
Luepke, Gary; Ronsivalli, Louis
School Business Affairs; v75 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2009
Discusses maintaining high performance schools to achieve the benefit that they were designed for. Deferred, preventive, predictive maintenance, and reliability-centered maintenance are addressed.

The True Benefits of Cleaning "Green."
Sisk, Ed
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Cites the health risks from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in carpet cleaning compounds, advises on how to identify environmentally compounds and methods such as encapsulation. Advantages of dry cleaning methods, certification of cleaners by the Carpet and Rug Institute, and improved school attendance where green cleaning has been implemented are also discussed.

A "White Glove" Inspection for the Invisible.
Bigger, Alan
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p37,38,40,42 ; Jun 2009
Describes Integrated Cleaning and Measurement (ICM) that uses scientific analysis to determine the effectiveness of cleaning beyond that which can be detected visually. The technique can accommodate zone, team, daytime, and green cleaning. Benefits of hygienic surfaces to reduced absenteeism are detailed.

Taking Safety to a New Level.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p17,18 ; Jun 2009
Advises on safe use of mobile aerial work platforms, or lifts, in facilities maintenance. Adherence to manufacturer guidelines, knowledge of the equipment, thorough training, an environment of attention to safety, and securing of work areas are addressed.

LEED 2009: Impact on Operations and Maintenance.
Dowrey, Gordon
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p6,7 ; Jun 2009
Discusses how the LEED v3 rating system will affect building operations and maintenance. The three enhancements detailed are harmonizing prerequisites and credits for increased consistency, adjusting credit weightings based on their impact on human and environmental health concerns, and prioritizing select credit weightings to address regional environmental issues. Advice on assembling a LEED certification team is included.

Healthful Cleaning.
Gerba, Charles
American School and University; v81 n11 , p36-39 ; Jun 2009
Describes some of the typical germs that are found in schools, along with the ailments they cause. Studies that measured bacteria on a variety of school surfaces and the positive effects of disinfecting cleaning on absenteeism are cited.

Drain Cleaning: Tools for Success.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n4 , p26,27 ; Apr 2009
Reviews drain cleaning considerations, including specification of equipment that matches the diameter and length of pipes, as well as the type of clog. Safety procedures and inspection cameras are also described.

Green Restrooms: Sustainability Meets Savings.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n4 , p14 ; Apr 2009
Advises on savings that can be realized from upgraded plumbing fixtures, air dryers, and dispensers in restrooms. Opportunities for maximizing custodial productivity through better scheduling are also discussed.

Measured Results.
Wiley, Frank
American School and University; v81 n9 , p28-31 ; Apr 2009
Discusses raising the standard of school cleanliness to improve occupant health and reduce absenteeism. A measuring program to discern the amount of microbes left on school surfaces is recommended, and the results of study that correlated cleanliness with attendance are described.

The Predictability of Unplanned Failures.
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p62,63 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Organizes planned and unplanned maintenance into three categories each, along with the increasing severity and cost for each category. Techniques for using these categories and cost coefficientsto budget for unplanned maintenance are offered.

Infrared Imaging: Critical Tools for Critical Times.
Overley, Matthew
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n3 , p12,13 ; Mar 2009
Discusses the use of infrared cameras to detect energy loss through the building envelope and moisture in unwanted places throughout the building. Types and features of infrared scanners and their implementation are discussed.

Cleaning Up: Battling Germs in School Facilities.
Gerba, Charles
School Business Affairs; v75 n2 , p15-17 ; Feb 2009
Describes the threat of norovirus and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Saphylococcus aureus) in schools, typical places where germs reside in schools, and proper cleaning to combat germs. Includes three references.

Decisions, Decisions, Decisons.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v12 n2 , p27,28,30 ; Feb 2009
Discusses selection of janitorial products, emphasizing "green" products, reduction of vendors to reduce deliveries, cost-effectiveness, and involvement of the janitorial staff.

Efficient Operations and Maintenance LEED to Savings.
Bauer, Tom
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p6,8,9 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews elements of the 2008 LEED operations and maintenance component, part of the United States Green Building Council's LEED for Existing Buildings (LEED-EB) rating system. Areas covered by the criteria, certification requirements, emphasis on energy and water savings, and the State of California's LEED imperative are addressed.

Making Green the Way to Go.
Taylor, Bill
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p18-20 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews state green-cleaning legislation and recommendations, and discusses the advantages of touchless cleaning in achieving them. Spray-and-squeegee technology is reviewed.

Maintenance at a Higher Level.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n1 , p16 ; Jan 2009
Advises on selection of the most appropriate lift equipment. Issues such as capacity, elevation, reach, maneuverability, footprint, handling, safety, ergonomics, stability, and warranty are addressed.

Diagnostic Technology: A Closer Look.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p10 ; Dec 2008
Reviews the benefits of portable diagnostic technology for monitoring indoor air quality, and for temperature and power quality monitoring within equipment, systems, and motors.

Drain Cleaning: Putting Technology to Work.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p14,15 ; Dec 2008
Reviews recent drain cleaning technology, including lightweight augers that are kink- and tangle-resistant, video inspection devices, heavy-duty rodders, and water jetters. Incorporation of drain maintenance into a regular preventive maintenance program is also detailed.

Maintenance is More than "Maintenance."
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p42,43 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on what constitutes planned versus reactive maintenance, and that facility departments keep track of staff time spent on expected services that are not maintenance at all.

Custodial and Maintenance Services: Examining Standards.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n11 , p20,22,24 ; Nov 2008
Examines trends in higher education institution custodial and maintenance standards, examining the categories of cleaning types and frequencies, work schedules and work order procedures, staffing, training, supervision, inspections, and necessary licensing.

School Maintenance and Operations Report.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n11 , p22,24,26,28 ; Nov 2008
Reviews two school districts' custodial and maintenance standards, examining the categories of cleaning types and frequencies, work schedules and work order procedures, staffing, training, supervision, inspections, and necessary licensing.

Multi-Tasking: Protecting Your Facilities from Infections Diseases.
Torry, Chris
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p34-37,46 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on campus cleanliness and disease prevention, citing five levels of perceived cleanliness and the point at which lack of cleanliness becomes a distraction. Types of cleaning and sanitation that protect custodians and effectively kill lethal germs involve touchless equipment that deliver correctly dosed products at low pressures.

Motors: Defining and Improving Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2008
Defines what constitutes an energy-efficient motor, discusses what energy cost savings might be realized by using them, and advises on assessing motors for efficiency and replacement, as well as on how to prevent motor failure.

Tapping the Power of a CMMS.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p18,19 ; Sep 2008
Advises on how to take the best advantage of a computerized management maintenance system, including selecting the appropriate system, interface with other applications, staff training, and customization.

Methods that Increase Productivity, Reduce Cost and Still Get the Job Done.
Parillo, Rick
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n5 , p10,12,13 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Compares the advantages and disadvantages of zone, team, day, blended, collaborative, and skip cleaning in schools. Situations where one strategy might be preferable over another are discussed, citing points of building occupancy, size, and age that will affect the decision.

Making Equipment Rental Work.
Hounsel, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p26,27 ; Aug 2008
Advises on maintenance equipment rental, including equipment condition, availability of staff to use the equipment in a timely manner, proper training, how to obtain honest appraisals of models, and when it is time to buy rather than rent.

Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education.
Campbell, Jeffrey; Bigger, Alan
Facilities Manager; v24 n4 , p28-35 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Summarizes a publication with the same title that presents the results of a survey of college students to determine any correlation between five levels of cleanliness and academic achievement. The methodology and size of the survey are discussed, and graphs illustrate the the students' opinions of the effect of cleanliness on the ability to learn, their tolerance for levels of cleanliness, the impact of various building elements on their perceived ability to learn, and the impact of cleanliness on health. Six recommendations for improving cleanliness are included.

What the Writing on the Wall Can Tell You.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p18,20-22 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the roles of graffiti "taggers," their potential affiliation to gangs, and the escalation that can occur when opposing taggers "cross out" another's graffiti. Interpretation of graffiti can help identify the perpetrator's affiliation and also help diffuse potential gang rivalries.

Snow and Ice Removal: No Offseason.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p36,37 ; Jul 2008
Discusses how some campuses have moved from informal programs for snow removal, to organized and prioritized plans that list all campus assets and the person and equipment responsible for clearing that area. Reduction in the use of rock salt helps meet environmental goals and reduces infrastructure and landscape damage. Standardization and off-season maintenance of the equipment improves the effectiveness of the plan.

Maintenance: Down the Drain.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p34,35 ; Jul 2008
Advises on equipment selection for drain cleaning, emphasizing matching the size of the device to the diameter, length, and material of the drain pipe. Safe use, protective equipment, and renting versus buying are also addressed, and a 12-point safety training checklist is provided.

Remove It and Prove It.
Rathey, Allen
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p43,46,48-50 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testers, biodetectors, and mold detectors to confirm the cleanliness of school interior surfaces.

Greening the Maintenance Arsenal.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p30,32,34,38,40 ; Jun 2008
Reviews green cleaning equipment and products, while also profiling the University of Tennessee's long-certified program for green cleaning and its Center for Clean Products.

Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable. Adobe PDF
Campbell, J. Kirk
Facilities Manager; v24 n3 , p32-36 ; May-Jun 2008
Describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging, carpeting, waste, recycling, and composting. A chart and a custodial plan of action are included that demonstrate the institutions sustainable and green initiatives goals.

Floor Care Equipment: Dedicated or All in One.
Cuddy, Mark
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p14-16 ; May-Jun 2008
Briefly narrates the evolution of floor care machinery from dedicated single-task machines to all-in-one machines, citing improvements in both types that can justify investment in either. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed, and the careful training of workers on whatever is selected is emphasized.

Clearing the Clog.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p18-20 ; May 2008
Discusses typical sources of school drain clogs and the standard tools used to remove them. Ownership of basic drain cleaning devices and training of custodial staff on them is advised in order to expedite drain cleaning and save call to a plumber.

MRSA Prevention: A Guide for Environmental Services.
Thompson, Kirsten
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p22-24 ; May-Jun 2008
Reviews how Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus (MRSA) is spread, how it affects people, and especially how to control it. High-touch surfaces in high-traffic areas should be cleaned and disinfected more frequently and the efficacy and dilution of cleaning agents carefully considered. Training for staff with frequent turnover and possible language barriers is also discussed.

Stopping MRSA.
Vogel, Carl
District Administration; v44 n6 , p42-46 ; May 2008
Reviews procedures for prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurea (MRSA) in schools. Identification of an outbreak, extra cleaning of areas where an infected student has been, and careful attention to cleanliness of athletic facilities and equipment are recommended.

A Course in Sustainable Maintenance Procedures.
Baldwin, Cheryl
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p44,46,48,50,52 ; Apr 2008
Provides an overview of GS-42, the Green Seal Environmental Standard for Cleaning Services. The standard embraces planning, products, equipment, cleaning procedures, communication, and training.

Mastering Maintenance: Facilities Masters Award Recognizes Exceptional Facilities Programs.
Tucker, Erin
School Business Affairs; v74 n4 , p27-29 ; Apr 2008
Profiles this awards program that recognizes school districts displaying exemplary performance in facility maintenance planning, facility audits, environmental safety, maintenance and management, and facility maintenance evaluation and practice.

Thorough Control.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n7 , p24,26-28 ; Mar 2008
Reviews cleaning strategies for carpeted and hard school flooring, including vacuuming, spot removal, mopping, and polishing.

The Scoop on Green Cleaning.
Kravitz, Robert
Facility Management Journal; v18 n2 , p66-69 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews results from a new green cleaning program at the Empire State Plaza Building in Albany, New York. Environmentally preferable floor finishes were less durable and had to be re-applied more frequently. Brushes were recommended over pads for floor buffers, as were machines that vacuum up the particulates. Extensive high-performance matting was particularly effective.

High-Level Maintenance Decisions.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n3 , p22,24 ; Mar 2008
Reviews considerations for lift equipment for maintenance personnel, including inspection, equipment size and reach, and safety features. Proper training and safety procedures are also discussed.

Outlook 2008: What's ahead for Educational Facilities and Business in the New Year and Beyond.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v80 n5 , p14-16,18-26 ; Jan 2008
Predicts 2008 trends in school enrollment, construction, sustainability, maintenance, indoor air quality, security, technology, business and finance, and energy use.

Reducing Absenteeism From Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Illness in Elementary School Students: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Infection-Control Intervention.
Sandora, Thomas; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldman, Donald
Pediatrics; v121 n6 , pe1555-e1562 ; 2008
Reports on a school-based controlled trial at a single elementary school. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. The presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces were also compared. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%).

Green Floor Care.
Schaffer, Mike
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan 2008
Reviews environmentally responsible options for vacuuming, floor care chemicals, and floor equipment. Training personnel in "green" cleaning practices is emphasized, and additional advice for carpet care and selection is provided.

Green Cleaning Award for Schools and Universities. Adobe PDF
American School and University; v80 n4 , p31,32,34 38,40,42,43 ; Dec 2007
Profiles the school districts and higher education instutions that received this award. The jury made its selections by considering the institutions' use of green-cleaning products, equipment, procedures, and recycled paper and plastic products; the quality of equipment, products, and procedures in place; and the level of institutional support, as determined by assessing policies and funding.

Quality Custodial Programs-One Tool in Minimizing Infections.
McMilin, Edward
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p29,30,32 ; Dec 2007
Reviews the threat of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in schools and outlines particular cleaning steps for locker/shower rooms that may help prevent its transmission.

Implementing a Cleaning and Maintenance Standard.
Wagner, Daniel
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Describes the benefits of certification under the Cleaning Industry Management Standard (CIMS) administered by ISSA, as illustrated by the certification of the University of Michigan Plant Building and grounds Services.

Making the Transition to Team Cleaning.
Embree, Kari
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n3 , p13,14 ; Fall 2007
Discusses the four divisions of team cleaning, describes how such a program works at the University of Texas, and advises on how to convert from zone to team cleaning.

Planning Matters.
Niklaus, Bruno
American School and University; v80 n2 , p34,36,37 ; Oct 2007
Discusses the importance of creating a daily cleaning plan for schools, including how to involve cleaning, administrative, and teaching staff, as well as proper training and equipping of custodians.

Prevention: A Key to Effective Cleaning.
Sawchuk, Mike
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n3 , p23-25 ; Fall 2007
Discusses the value of matting systems in keeping dirt and pollutants out of a building. The types of outdoor and indoor mats and their respective placements are reviewed, as well as potential monetary savings from reduced cleaning needs.

Becoming Part of the Team.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v10 n10 , p54,56 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the process and multiple advantages of team cleaning for higher education facilities, illustrate with the example of the University of Washington. Four individuals are typically part of a team, with assignments as a light-duty specialist or starter, and utility, bathroom, and vacuuming specialists. Each person completes his or her assigned tasks and works with equipment suited to his or her needs.

Nothing Shocking: Electrical Safety Pays.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n9 , p17,18 ; Sep 2007
Reviews electrical safety procedures, emphasizing the importance of isolation of power when working on systems, personal protective equipment, replacing extension cords with permanent outlets, and ground fault circuit interruptors.

Setting a Standard for Cleanliness: Vacuuming Clears the Way to Great IAQ.
Jansik, Dave
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n5 , p14,16,17 ; Sep-Oct 2007
Reviews the current focus on school indoor air quality, behavioral and building use guidelines for better indoor air quality, and features of vacuum cleaners that help maintain it.

That Fresh Feeling.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v10 n8 , p23,24,26 ; Aug 2007
Reviews custodial staffing for desired levels of cleanliness in campus buildings, empowerment and organization of custodial staff, desirable cleaning chemicals and equipment, custodial storage, and green cleaning practices and materials.

Hundreds of Vacuum Cleaners. One Purchase. How to Make the Decision.
Holmes, Jessica
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Jul 2007
Reviews potential debates over vacuum purchases, including quantity versus quality of equipment, day versus night cleaning, backpacks versus uprights, and indoor air qulaity.

Mold Clean-Up and Prevention.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul 2007
Reviews causes of mold in buildings, identification and assessment of mold infestation, correction of the causes, and scrubbing of the air after mold remediation.

Doing More with Less.
Weber, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p14-17 ; Jul 2007
Reviews floor cleaning and finishing considerations that lower maintenance time and costs. Ten tips for floor stripping and refinishing are included, as is a brief discussion of "green" floor care.

Developing a Drain Odor Control Program.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p6-8 ; May 2007
Discusses control of odors due to floor drains. Cleaning and ensuring that floor drains always contain water to block odors are also covered.

Vacuum Virtues.
Rathey, Allen
American School and University; v79 n9 , p43-47 ; Apr 2007
Details considerations of soil removal, filtration, motors, construction and design, durability, upkeep, service and support, and cost of ownership for commercial vacuum cleaners.

Vaporizing Soils for Effective Cleaning and Decontamination.
Shoemaker, Dawn
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , pG40-G42 ; Apr 2007
Discusses steam vapor cleaning that cleans without harmful chemicals and, in some systems, even help prevent re-soiling for a period after the cleaning. The procedure kills mold, germs, is quick, and not labor-intensive. Advice on selecting a vapor cleaning system is included.

A Clean Campus is a Healthy Campus
Rathey, Allen P.; , 1p. ; Mar 05, 2007
When custodians are trained properly, they aren't just making a building look good; they're improving the health and welfare of everyone on campus, and contributing positively to the educational opportunities for its students. This article discusses the "One System" process created by Salt Lake City-based Managemen Inc., using standardization, training and re-training to turn cleaning workers into multi-talented professionals.

[Green Cleaning] In the News.
Adams, Cameron
American School and University; v79 n7 , p51-53 ; Mar 2007
When schools publicize their green-cleaning programs effectively, it can persuade the entire community to embrace their efforts. This article promotes green cleaning programs, advising on the inclusion of all building occupants in the program, development of credibility, inclusion of green cleaning in the curriculum, and publicity.

Reducing the Cost of Floor Care.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n2 , p17-19 ; Mar 2007
Reviews budgeting, training, and equipment selection for floor care, as well as green trends in floor care products and equipment.

Should you Use Microfiber Cleaning Products?
Henry, Chapin
Indoor Air Quality in Northwest Schools; , p5, 10 ; Winter 2007
The use of microfiber products in schools greatly ensures better air quality because these fibers are able to accumulate and absorb more particles of dirt and bacteria. This describes the features and benefits of microfiber towels and mops, including cost savings, decreased back and shoulder injuries, and a reduction in the use of toxic cleaning solutions.

Snow and Ice Management Checklist for School Administrators.
Anderson, Rodney
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS8 ; Nov 2006
Offers a checklist to use in preparation for snow and ice removal season.

Quality Programs.
McMilin, Edward
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , p27,28,30 ; Nov 2006
Details a quality school custodial program, using that of the Milwaukee Public Schools as an example. Daily, emergency, Summer, and progressive cleaning is described, as are five types of employees and their duties. The Milwaukee Public Schools' thorough program for training, evaluation, and supervision is also detailed.

Setting the Standard for Maintenance Programs.
Wick, Casey
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , p18,20,22 ; Nov 2006
Advises on effective school maintenance programs by aligning the program with the institution's mission, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the present program, setting a course for a future program, and building flexibility into maintenance plans.

Steaming Clean.
Hoverson, Rick
American School and University; v79 n2 , p24,26 ; Oct 2006
Describes the virtues of steam vapor cleaning systems for chemical-free cleaning and sanitizing in schools, particularly the restrooms.

Quality Partners.
Clark, Bob
American School and University; v79 n1 , p36,38 ; Sep 2006
Outlines steps in the process of getting started with green school cleaning partner: determine reasons for going green, assess the building, evaluate the provider's janitorial products, request proof of third-party product certification, investigate the provider's cleaning practice, confirm that products match the need, and confirm that the right equipment is being used.

Day to Day.
Jurecki, Dennis
American School and University; v79 n1 , p40,42,43 ; Sep 2006
Discusses the virtues of daytime school cleaning, including reduced security and energy costs, and increased productivity and communications between occupants and cleaning staff. The particular problems of daytime floor care are detailed, and suggestions on complementary scheduling are included.

CSU-San Marcos Wins RecycleMania Contest.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v9 n8 , p16-18 ; Aug 2006
Describes this contest which attracted 93 schools, and the strategies of the winning school, where the custodial supervisor and staff lead the effort.

New-generation Maintenance Issues
Huff, Winston
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n6 ; Jun 2006
The plumbing industry is responding to changing priorities in facilities by producing fixtures that use less water and, as a result, produce less waste. But because these fixtures use technology advances not available with standard fixtures, managers should be aware they often demand new installation and maintenance routines. This discusses waterless urinals, dual-flush water closets, sensor-operated fixtures, low-flow water closets, and low-flow showers.

Quiet Ride.
Rathey, Allen
American School and University; v78 n11 , p26,29 ; Jun 2006
Advises on assessing cleaning equipment for the amount of noise it generates, citing five myths concerning decibel levels, frequency range, and noise control.

HEPA Help.
Rathey, Allen
American School and University; v78 n10 , p47-49 ; May 2006
Discusses types of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in vacuum cleaners. Although they can offer thorough filtration of vacuumed air, they are considerably more expensive, and their benefit may be negated by particles entering the space from open windows or doors. Claims by manufacturers can be confusing and require careful study.

The Greening and Savings of Public Schools.
Ashkin, Stephen
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG22, G24 ; Apr 2006
Describes savings realized by school involved in "green cleaning" programs, including reduced chemical use, better-trained staff that assumes more responsibility for building systems, and reduced absenteeism.

The Importance of Green Cleaning.
Greeley, Geoff
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , pG36-G38 ; Apr 2006
Discusses products and procedures of green cleaning, which allows more frequent and healthier, and even less expensive cleaning.

Pest Prevention: Indoor Maintenance Practices. Adobe PDF
Simmons, Sewell
CASH Register; v27 n4 , p9,11,12 ; Apr 2006
Outlines indoor maintenance practices that help deter pests. These are organized according by classroom, service, receiving, and storage areas. Topics addressed include sealing openings, sanitation with food and waste, thorough cleaning, moisture management, and harborage reduction. Includes four references.

Sometimes Green Sucks.
Walker, John
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG36-G39 ; Apr 2006
Discusses elements of effective and environmentally thoughtful vacuuming, including filtration, ergonomics, energy efficiency, air flow, and filter changing. Cost advantages of "green" vacuuming systems and practices are included.

ABCs of Green Cleaning Programs
Clarke, Bob; Mar 07, 2006
This short article describes some basic principles of green cleaning programs, including focusing on entryways, minimizing particles and chemicals in the air, using environmentally preferable cleaning chemicals, ensuring proper vacuuming, focusing on preventative maintenance, using green paper products, and implementing an effective recycling program.

A Green Clean.
Kravitz, Robert
American School and University; v78 n7 , p42,44,45 ; Mar 2006
Explains components of "green" cleaning, including matting, carpet cleaning methods, dangers of overly wet carpet, and low-moisture cleaning techniques.

Campus Profile: University of British Columbia.
DiPaolo, Richard
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p16-19 ; Winter 2006
Profiles this institution's facilities maintenance program, detailing a major restructuring that began in 1999. This included updating equipment, cleaning procedures, and staff training. Awards won by the staff and plans for continued improved service are included.

Get Control of Snow and Ice Removal.
DiPaolo, Richard
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p26,27 ; Winter 2006
Discusses the effectiveness and environmental impact of various ice melting compounds, as well as heated mats that leave no chemicals in the soil.

Perception is Reality.
Shoemaker, Dawn
College Planning and Management; v9 n1 , p78-80 ; Jan 2006
Discusses the value of campus cleanliness in student recruitment, recommending that administrators tour their campuses and note cleanliness as a visitor might. No-touch cleaning procedures are also described.

Preventing Deferred Maintenance.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n12 , p19,20 ; Dec 2005
Describes some management features of the Jefferson County Public Schools (Louisville) cleaning and maintenance program. Custodians are thoroughly trained and begin their employment by working as a substitute across many schools. Buildings are regularly inspected by multi-disciplinary teams including safety, electrical, mechanical, and grounds professionals.

Maintenance Sourcebook.
Adams, Danna; Haymond, Dan; Stanislaw, David; Wehr, Craig
College Planning and Management; v8 n10 , p20-22,24-28 ; Oct 2005
Discusses maintenance of flushometers, fire extinguishers, carpet extractors, electronic locks, and vacuum cleaners.

Custodial Prowess.
Knopp, Alan
American School and University; v78 n2 , p24,26,29 ; Oct 2005
Describes steps to improve custodial services, including site safety inspections, "back-screen" criteria, cleaning standards, replacement of hazardous chemicals with safer ones, chemical dispensers and pre-portioned systems, green cleaning, efficient scheduling, staff recognition and training, proper matting and floor coating, and safety programs.

Green Cleaning: Effective and Environmental Floor Care Products.
Kravitz, Robert
Environmental Design + Construction; Oct 2005
According to some estimates, more than a third of the cleaning products used today to clean schools contain ingredients that can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Floor care products — which are some of the most powerful chemicals used in the industry — include many of these same ingredients. Proper floor maintenance usually requires several cleaning chemicals and products. These include strippers to remove old floor finish, sealants and waxes to put a protective covering over the floor, cleaners and detergents for general cleaning and “deep scrubbing,” restorers for improving the shine and to prevent slips, trips and falls, as well as floor care equipment and pads. In order to “green” a floor care program, each part of this program may need to be examined.

Education, Noise, and Cleaning.
Kravitz, Robert
College Planning and Management; v8 n7 , p42-44,46,47 ; Jul 2005
Discusses sources and effects of excessive noise on campuses, and how to reduce cleaning noise, which is the second highest contributor of unwanted decibels.

Sick Buildings, Sick Kids.
Sausner, Rebecca
University Business; v8 n7 , p48-52 ; Jul 2005
Discusses responses to illnesses induced by over-recirculated indoor air, surface contamination, and mold. Staff should be properly trained in prevention and response to pathogenic outbreaks, and older buildings, even though they are typically exempt from newer ventilation requirements, should be brought up to modern standards.

The Why and How of Maintenance.
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p28-31 ; Jun 2005
Details reasons behind deferred maintenance, including willingness to cut maintenance and operations budgets to preserve educational program funding, lack of master planning for maintenance, lack of administrative understanding of maintenance due to insufficient communication from maintenance administrators, and lack of priority for maintenance.

Get Ready for Summer: IAQ Cleaning and Maintenance.
McPhee, Nicole
School Business Affairs; v71 n5 , p24-27 ; May 2005
Discusses management steps and procedures for Summer cleaning and maintenance that address indoor air quality. Involving and communicating with all stakeholders, training custodial staff, and establishing clear accountability is emphasized. Specific HVAC maintenance and cleaning procedures are listed, along with advice for preventing mold as a result.

Writing on the Wall.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v8 n5 , p29,30 ; May 2005
Discusses motivations for graffiti: fame, rebellion, self-expression, and power. Quick removal is recommended, and cleaning should proceed cautiously lest masonry be damaged. Sacrificial coatings that come off with the graffiti, obstructive plantings, and even sprinklers are also discussed.

Green Cleaning Tips.
Sawchuk, Mike
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , pGB21-GB23 ; May 2005
Suggests environmentally conscious cleaning methods, beginning with a written plan that minimizes frequency and quantity of chemical use. Floor mats, technologically advanced cleaning equipment, education of all occupants on clean habits, and selection of environmentally preferable cleaning products are recommended.

Everything Old is New Again
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Apr 2005
The challenge at the College of William and Mary is ensuring a renovated historic building is maintained and operated efficiently. Maintenance technicians and others in the department worked closely with architects and contractors to work out the details of the renovation work and to make equipment and structural changes to the building that would both ensure its historic nature and its cost-effective maintainability in the future.

Working in a Vacuum.
Rathey, Allen
American School and University; v77 n7 , p34,36,38 ; Mar 2005
Disputes eight concepts concerning vacuum cleaner performance, offering instead four benchmarks for use in comparing units: airflow, lift, filtration, and design.

Maintenance Strategies: Team Cleaning.
Harris, Jim; Rathey, Allen
College Planning and Management; v8 n2 , p36,38-40 ; Feb 2005
Advocates team cleaning, describes how to organize it, and how to equip staff to clean well in order to reduce the necessity for frequent inspections.

Winter Carpet Cleaning Tips.
Williams, Steve
College Planning and Management; v8 n2 , p34 ; Feb 2005
Describes Winter's particular hazards to carpet, offering prevention and cleaning advice.

Deck the Walls.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , p23,24 ; Nov 2004
Describes three options for covering interior walls: paint, panels, and industrial coatings.

Cleaning Methods: Revitalizing a School Through Cleaning.
Kravitz, Robert
Facility Management; Oct 2004
Case study of a Chicago school that had faltered badly in cleanliness—as a result of insufficient training, under staffing, inadequate cleaning tools, and the lack of a well thought out cleaning and maintenance program. Several manufacturers of cleaning equipment joined forces to revitalize the school, cleaning virtually every surface of the school—chairs, walls, carpets, floors, and restrooms—that were covered with decades of dirt and grime. The deep cleaning made such a dramatic improvement in the school that the emotional health of students and staff has been greatly enhanced.

Insulation: A Win-Win for IAQ
Casagrande, Robert
Maintenance Solutions; Aug 2004
Often overlooked, insulation can help facilities improve their indoor air quality and maximize energy efficiency. This discusses building exteriors, HVAC ducts, pipe insulation, and maximizing benefits.

A Review of the Most Common Carpet Cleaning Methods.
Griffin, William R.
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p30,32,34 ; Aug 2004
Describes five standard carpet cleaning methods: 1) water extraction, 2) bonnet/spin pad, 3) absorbent powder, 4) dry foam shampoo, and 5) encapsulation. Also included are ten spot removal steps and a list of recommended vacuum cleaner maintenance practices.

Effectively Maintaining Tile and Grout.
Mitchell, Joel
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p35 ; Aug 2004
Describes techniques for cleaning and restoring tile and grout in restrooms. Restorative bonding is a relatively new technology that eliminates the cycle of staining, cleaning, and resealing of tile and grout.

Working as a Team.
Harris, Jim
American School and University; v76 n12 , p39,40 ; Jul 2004
Describes the composition of a team cleaning group, their respective tasks, and how to schedule them for maximum efficiency.

Many Merits of a Clean School.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p10 ; Jun 2004
Outlines five levels of facility cleanliness, and how much square footage a single custodian might be expected to cover at each level.

When is "Run-to-Failure" Appropriate? Adobe PDF
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v20 n2 , p57,58 ; Mar-Apr 2004
Discusses considerations for removing systems from planned maintenance, allowing them to fail, and then replacing them. Issues of return on maintenance investment and avoidance of collateral damage from failing systems are highlighted.

Mending Your Ways.
Strahle, Julie
American School and University; v76 n7 , p47-51 ; Mar 2004
Discusses ways to increase janitorial efficiency through combinations of team and area cleaning, limitations on varieties of chemicals stocked, investing in labor-saving equipment, and reorganizing shifts.

Restroom Cleaning Revisited.
Bigger, Alan S.; Bigger, Linda B.
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
Issues that range from facility image, user access, and the bottom line are prompting facilities managers to rethink their cleaning and product-buying strategies. This discusses restroom-cleaning kits, power-assisted cleaning equipment, steam or vapor cleaning, and going touchless. Includes a sidebar on the problem of restroom cleanliness and the impact unclean restrooms can have on students and others.

IAQ and the Older Facility
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
Attention to key HVAC components can help managers improve the indoor environment in aging facilities. This discusses air handlers, filtration equipment, and cooling towers.

The All-Purpose Solution.
Ashkin, Stephen P.
American School and University; v76 n2 , p51-53 ; Oct 2003
Advocates for improved worker and student performance through improved cleaning practices. Cites studies showing significant improvement in indoor air quality and improved health of occupants through deep-cleaning strategies. Illustrates how employee cost benefits accrue when productivity increases with improved indoor environments.

Getting with the Program.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n2 , p47,49,50 ; Oct 2003
Describes elements of formal preventive maintenance programs designed to extend the life of buildings and equipment. Advocates consistent gathering and monitoring of data and ongoing training of staff.

Cleaning for Health-Marketing a Change for the Better.
Walker, John
College Planning and Management; v6 n10 , p26,28-29 ; Oct 2003
Discusses the concepts of cleaning for an improved indoor environment rather than for appearance. Emphasizes choices in cleaning products, equipment and techniques that clean more efficiently and leave less residue.

Staff Cuts Remake the Custodial Closet.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p33-35 ; Aug 2003
New cleaning and finishing materials and new equipment are helping facility departments cope with staff cuts by enabling smaller school custodial staffs to work faster, and smarter. This discusses chemicals and dispensers, safety training and information, and tools and power equipment.

Keeping It Clean by Going ‘Green.’
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2003
This discusses how to integrate highly productive equipment with environmentally friendly and cost-effective products to enhance the level of cleanliness in restrooms. Using the resources of such entities as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Green Seal can help managers develop an arsenal of cleaning chemicals that are green, priced right, and perform.

Designing with Maintenance in Mind.
Hoffman, Kisty
School Planning and Management; v41 n12 , p34-35 ; Dec 2002
When planning for a new facility, consideration of maintenance needs is crucial to successful design. Designing for maintenance needs involves considering such factors as the durability of materials used, the cost and lifecycle of the materials, and the flexibility of the maintenance staff. Stresses the importance of including key members of the school system's maintenance staff in decision making processes and establishing maintenance standards from the beginning.

Better Work Environments.
Murray, Chris
School Planning and Management; v41 n12 , p22-23 ; Dec 2002
Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack vacuums are worn and used properly.

Preventive Maintenance: Fighting Time and Elements.
Vasfaret, Gordon
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p6-10 ; Dec 2002
Describes school facilities preventive-maintenance procedures. Includes sample preventive maintenance program and suggestions for prioritizing preventive-maintenance procedures.

Building Successful Cleaning Processes.
Walker, John P.
School Planning and Management; v41 n12 , p25-26 ; Dec 2002
Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and measuring productivity; and cleaning for health.

New Tools for Cost-Effective Restroom Cleaning.
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
College Planning and Management; v5 n11 , p28-30 ; Nov 2002
Reviews labor-saving innovations and processes in restroom cleaning, including cleaning kits, vapor cleaning technology, and pressure washer/squeegee/vacuuming systems. Also includes a sidebar on choosing better mop equipment.

Solid as a Rock.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v75 n3 , p349-51 ; Nov 2002
Discusses the benefits in terms of moisture and therefore mold resistance of using masonry products for a building's envelope. Also describes maintenance steps to help combat moisture problems.

University of New Mexico Converts to Team Cleaning.
Walker, John
College Planning and Management; v5 n11 , p24-26 ; Nov 2002
Describes how team cleaning, which relies on specialists with specific responsibilities such as restrooms or vacuuming, has allowed administrators at the University of New Mexico to save on labor costs while improving cleanliness overall.

Stretching Resources.
Robinson, Bob, Sr.
American School and University; v75 n1 , p26-31 ; Sep 2002
Discusses factors leading to the current problem of poorly maintained schools, such as budget and labor cuts and misdirected purchasing policies. Provides an overview of some solutions, such as innovations in cleaning supplies and equipment, and having an integrated system to clean the school district.

Hard Floors, Tough Decisions.
Weise, George
Maintenance Solutions; Sep 2002
Discusses how to find the right combination of equipment, products and processes to keep hard floors looking their best.

Options and Strategies for Tackling Graffitti.
Dubin, Hy
The Construction Specifier; v55 n8 , p53-54 ; Aug 2002
Describes methods for graffiti removal, products specifically designed to eliminate remaining stubborn ghosts and shadows, and effective barrier coatings.

Maintenance Sourcebook: A Caretaker's Manual.
Yeatts, G. Dewey; Stoverink, Al; Conry, Terry; Goulet, Nicole; Wilson, Joe; Ryan, Rob
College Planning and Management; v5 n8 , p12-18 ; Aug 2002
Discusses five areas of custodial maintenance caretaking in which facility managers need continual education: first aid and safety, hazardous materials, products and supplies, chemicals and their intended use, and cleaning procedures. Includes an annotated list of resources related to these areas.

A System-Based Approach.
Goforth, Dean; Wooldridge, Jeffrey B.
American School and University; v74 n11 , p36-37 ; Jul 2002
Discusses how school restroom cleaning can be simplified by a standardized maintenance procedure. Details sources of odor, steps for spot cleaning and deep cleaning, and cleaning tools such as microfiber wipes and mop heads.

Department Reengineering Improves Service at Miami-Dade Community College.
Menendez, Alfredo
Facilities Manager; v18 n4 , p47-48 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Details the process of reengineering Miami-Dade Community College's maintenance department to lower costs while increasing services. Changes included work flow, communications, purchasing, staffing, and technology methods.

Custodial Training Makes Sense and Saves Dollars.
Petersen, David
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , p50-53 ; Jul 2002
Explains that due to the complexity of today's custodial work, extensive education and training is required. This includes basic commercial/industrial cleaning techniques; hygiene procedures; asbestos awareness; management, scheduling, and budgeting; chemical usage; and calculating operations efficiency. Details the in-depth custodial training of Fairfax County Public Schools and the resulting cost savings.

Ergonomics: A Commonsense Activity That Can Save Schools Money.
Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin
School Business Affairs; v68 n6 , p24-30 ; Jun 2002
Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome that often effect custodians, foodservice workers, maintenance personnel, and computer users. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees working on computers.

Keeping It Clean.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v74 n10 , p30-33 ; Jun 2002
Describes how the dirt and grime tracked onto school building floors can be minimized with a few simple steps, such as walkoff mats, and using vinyl composition tiling.

The Secrets of Effective Floor Care.
Michels, Ed
College Planning and Management; v5 n5 , p22,24 ; May 2002
Discusses the importance of staff training and a maintenance program to the care of hard floors. Describes four key features to look for in a computer-based training program and types of floor pads and matting used to keep flooring clean.

Spit and Polish for Furniture Maintenance?
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v5 n4 , p30,32-33 ; Apr 2002
Offers tips from furniture manufacturers to keep classroom furniture looking good for many years: (1) select quality furniture(2) pay careful attention to the surface material(3) stack it and roll it (ease of portability and storage); (4) clean it properly; and (5) choose good a partner in maintenance.

Cleaning Up.
Walker, John
American School and University; v74 n8 , p44,46-47 ; Apr 2002
Offers strategies to make school cleaning operations run more smoothly. Discusses how to estimate the amount of space that needs cleaning and how long it should take, the benefits of team cleaning versus zone cleaning, and the importance of monitoring complaints and overtime to ensure staff is performing efficiently.

Maintaining the Halls of Learning.
Grady, Pat
School Planning and Management; v41 n1 , p21-23 ; Jan 2002
Discusses the essential role played by the school custodian in providing a clean and healthy environment. Details various floor cleaning methods and materials.

Cleaning Up High.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v40 n11 , p54-55 ; Nov 2001
Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums.

Dry and Safe.
Weise, George
American School and University; v74 n3 , p349-50 ; Nov 2001
Explores ideas for controlling mold buildup in educational facilities. Topics addressed include source identification, prevention of standing water, carpet cleaning, and odor removal tips following water damage.

Down and Dirty.
Greeley, Geoffrey
American School and University; v74 n2 , p38-39 ; Oct 2001
Offers 10 tips that can help school and university custodial staffs maintain a healthy physical environment. Suggestions include ideas for carpet cleaning, maintenance planning, and trapping outside dirt.

Floor Maintenance Tips from the Experts.
O Connor, Shannon
College Planning and Management; v4 n10 , p30-33 ; Sep 2001
Presents advice from three university maintenance directors on what they see as the most important parts involved in keeping floors in top shape. Training, staff motivation, flexible scheduling, and proper use of supplies are addressed.

Shortcuts to Cleanliness.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Jun 2001
Shows how faster, more efficient machines can help maintenance staffs keep schools and universities clean and manage maintenance tasks more efficiently.

Irritants and Allergens at School in Relation to Furnishings and Cleaning
Smedje G.; Norbäck D
Indoor Air; v11 n2 , p127-133 ; Jun 2001
In order to study the influence of furnishings and cleaning on the indoor air quality at school, 181 randomly chosen classrooms were investigated. The amounts of open shelves, textiles and other fittings were noted, data were gathered on cleaning routines, and a number of pollutants were measured in the classrooms. In classrooms with more fabrics there was more settled dust and the concentration of formaldehyde was higher. Classrooms with more open shelves had more formaldehyde, and more pet allergens in settled dust, and classrooms with a white board, instead of a chalk board, were less dusty. Classrooms mainly cleaned through wet mopping had more airborne viable bacteria but less settled dust than classrooms mainly cleaned by dry methods. In rooms where the desks and curtains were more often cleaned, the concentrations of cat and dog allergen in settled dust were lower. It is concluded that furnishings and textiles in the classroom act as significant reservoirs of irritants and allergens and have an impact on the indoor air quality at school. Furnishings and textiles act as reservoirs of irritants and allergens and are of importance for the indoor air quality at school. The amount of such fittings should be minimised. Cleaning could be helpful in reducing the concentration of allergen. In schools without textile flooring, it would seem important to improve the cleaning of furniture and fabrics

A Clean School Is a Healthy School.
Shideler, Larry
American School and University; v73 n9 , p52,54,56 ; May 2001
Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can derive when they emphasize health and safety in their cleaning practices. Use of the Cleaning for Health and Safety program to reduce or eliminate potentially harmful products and processes and lower absenteeism, illness, and injury is discussed.

Mixed-Up Floors.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v73 n6 , p46-47 ; Feb 2001
Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials, which reveals the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Highlights a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University in Ohio.

Make It a Team Effort.
Rathey, Allen
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p89-91 ; Jan 2001
Describes how one school district transformed its cleaning program to increase efficiency, improve performance, and reduce errors and training time. Equipment cost savings and other benefits experienced from the new cleaning program are revealed, as is how the district overcame worker resistance to change.

Stop Sagging Doors.
Cronk, Bob
American School and University; v73 n3 , p392-95 ; Nov 2000
Explains how continuous geared hinges can help prevent doors from pulling away from their frames and can last as long as 20 years with little maintenance. Descriptions of three main applications for continuous geared hinges are described.

Plugging Leaks.
Fitzemeyer, Ted
American School and University; v73 n3 , p396-399 ; Nov 2000
Explains how routine maintenance can help schools and universities avoid plumbing disasters. Common trouble spots and preventive techniques are discussed, as are tips for making repairs without disrupting school activities.

Airing It Out.
Fitzemeyer, Ted
American School and University; v73 n2 , p20,22,25 ; Oct 2000
Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed.

How To Maintain Your Masonry Facade.
Jones, Ralph C.
College Planning and Management; v3 n8 , p28,30-31 ; Aug 2000
Discusses facade maintenance procedures that will help protect the facility and its structure, building systems, interior finishes, and occupants from inclement weather. Facade assessment methods and maintenance solutions are described.

Tool Talk: Safety First
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jun 2000
To succeed, tool safety training must help managers create a culture of safety within maintenance and engineering departments and get workers to buy into the personal and organizational benefits of safe tool use. Includes a list of resources.

How Safe Is Your Playground? Part 2. Risk Factor Four: Equipment and Surfacing Maintenance on Safe Playgrounds
Kalinowski, Lyn Burdick; Bowler, Thomas
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, & Dance; Apr 2000
The authors explain the necessity of developing an ongoing playground maintenance program. They provide a step-by-step process for creating a good maintenance plan specific to any given play facility, from training personnel for inspections to creating and filing appropriate documentation materials. They also offer detailed inspection forms listing equipment that needs to be checked (and, if necessary, repaired, or replaced) on a daily and weekly basis. [Authors' abstract]

Defeating the Drips.
Moss, Lincoln
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p34-36 ; Mar 2000
Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings, emphasizing the related topics of roof leaks and roof waterproofing, condensation, and HVAC design.

Might of the Machines.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n2 , p38,40 ; Oct 1999
Discusses the ways equipment innovations can help schools clean more effectively and improve staff performance. Advice is provided on cleaning strategies and types of equipment used for different areas, including tips for buying vacuum cleaners that fit the school's needs and conserve budgets.

Defining Quality in Your Cleaning Operation.
Sears, James E.
Facilities Manager; v14 n4 , p39-40 ; Jul-Aug 1999
Discusses a step-by-step process for building a cleaning services mission statement that can help guarantee the service performance meets an organization's expectations and needs. The importance of communicating what quality level is expected, developing standards and corresponding labor models and work assignments, and validating the process with a quality assurance program are examined.

Better Cleaning with Continuous Quality Improvement.
Griffin, William R.
School Planning and Management; v38 n5 , p55-57 ; May 1999
Examines ways of improving school cleaning costs and quality by adhering to 15 specific principles. Principles discussed include the use of employee training, accountability, quality equipment and supplies, assignment scheduling, written self audits, computerized management, and industry involvement.

Getting the Architects to Listen
Powers, Mary Caroline
Cleaning Management and Maintenance Online; 1999
Cleaning maintenance managers should get involved in the earliest stages of building design, armed with in-depth knowledge of what it will cost to clean the architect's vision.

Keep It Clean.
Griffin, William R.
College Planning and Management; v1 n6 , p41-42,44-45 ; Nov 1998
Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self inspection check list and the 12 essentials for managing towards cleaner facilities.

Targeted Cleaning.
Frank, David J.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p35,36 ; Jun 1998
Discusses the creation of an effective carpet vacuuming program by combining area usage assessment and vacuuming requirements with a scheduling plan. It also explains vacuum cleaner suction and filtration and how it makes custodian work more efficient. A complementary articles discusses creating an effective floor-maintenance plan for resilient flooring.

Setting the Cleaning Standard.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v37 n5 , p29-31 ; May 1998
Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care.

Changing Faces.
Stauffer, John
American School and University; v70 n8 , p54-56 ; Apr 1998
Discusses the benefits of painting a school's concrete buildings and considerations when painting new or insufficiently aged concrete. Painting issues include allowing moisture to escape, choosing alkali-resistant paint, removing efflorescence, and surface preparation.

Are Your Custodians Exposed to Excessive Lead Levels?
School Business Affairs; v63 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 1997
Data from a 1994 University of Maryland study suggest that typical janitorial tasks (sweeping, vacuuming, emptying trash receptacles, cleaning fixtures, and other related housekeeping activities) would not result in an airborne lead exposure that exceeded Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Lead abatement work should incur potentially greater exposure risks.

Healthy Advice or Alarmist Literature? National Education Association Handbook Creates Unease in Cleaning and Maintenance Industry
Cummings, Sean
Cleaning Management and Maintenance Online; , 4p. ; Jun 1997
The publication of an educational handbook on indoor environmental quality has renewed the contentious debate between advocates for the cleaning and maintenance industry and environmental activists on whether American schools are safe. But both sides may be missing the point that quantifiable and significant improvements can be made to the indoor environment without using scare tactics or laboratory findings.

Brushing Up.
Blackburn, Lane
American School & University; v69 n4 , p38-40 ; Dec 1996
Describes how an understanding of paint basics will ensure that the selected coatings will both revitalize facilities and ease maintenance. Discusses the differing qualities of paint, environmental considerations, tips in choosing the right type of paint, and what to consider when selecting a finish or sheen.

Staying out of the Cold.
Levinson, Patrick J.
American School & University; v68 n11 , p26, 28 ; Jul 1996
Discusses how annual boiler maintenance can help cut fuel costs and prevent downtime. Outlines a cleaning program, which includes inspecting the fireside of the boiler, checking the refractory, and checking the waterside. Describes other maintenance measures, such as checking hydraulic fluid levels, and offers tips for analyzing combustion.

A Step-By-Step Plan for an Inhouse Maintenance Audit of School Buildings
Mutter, Davida W.; Nichols, Randolph
Educational Facility Planner; v25 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1987
In order to fix the problem of deteriorating school buildings, one must start with a comprehensive evaluation of the maintenance needs. The authors provide a 7 step plan for assessing the condition of existing school buildings, from selecting a building survey, to creating a long-term building renewal plan. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting such an assessment are discussed, in order to help districts make an informed decision.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).