NCEF Resource List: Classroom Design--Higher Education
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Information on the design and layout of classrooms for colleges and universities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Physical Place On Campus: A Report on the Summit on Building Community Adobe PDF
Rullman, Loren; Kieboom, Jan van den
(Association of College Unions International , Jun 2012)
Report from a summit held at the University of Wisconsin–Madison to consider the relationship between physical place and campus community. Findings included the following: 1) higher education lacks a common definition or vocabulary to democratize participation in facility planning and design, and transparent alignment between research, educational goals, project implementation, and facility management. 2) Places of exceptional community are those that exhibit high levels of human engagement and are imbued with evidence of human-to-human mutuality, psychological safety and refuge, and a strong sense of individual and group ownership. Students, in particular, often seek and develop places of community where it is needed, rather than where it is administratively intended; many times these places are surprisingly low tech and low cost but highly customizable and fully satisfying to their users. 3) The largest barrier to achieving physical community may be leadership. 32p

Learn for Life. New Architecture for New Learning.
S. Ehmann, S. Borges, R. Klanten
(Gestalten, Feb 2012)
Diverse collection of inspiring architecture and interiors that support progressive models of acquiring knowledge. New interpretations of kindergartens, schools, universities, and libraries are featured along with architecturally innovative offices and conference rooms. These examples are rounded out by more experimental projects that offer further perspectives on the rapidly evolving topic of how best to learn in the new millennium.

The groundbreaking spaces promote learning by inspiring us, providing us with helpful tools, and facilitating opportunities for productive cooperation and the exchange of ideas within groups. In short, the work makes clear that the creative use of architecture and interior design not only provides a new physical framework for acquiring knowledge, but also revitalizes and advances the process of learning as a whole. 288p

Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration
Dorley, Scott; Witthoft, Scott; Platner, Hasso
(Wiley, Jan 2012)
Tool that shows how space can be intentionally manipulated to ignite creativity. Guide offers novel and non-obvious strategies for changing surroundings specifically to enhance the ways in which teams and individuals communicate, work, play--and innovate. Includes: tips on how to build everything from furniture, to wall treatments, and rigging; scenarios, and layouts for sparking creative activities; bite-sized lessons; candid stories with lessons on creating spaces for making, learning, imagining, and connecting; and a framework for understanding, planning, and building collaborative environments. Full color images and illustrations. 272p

Classroom. NEXT: Engaging Faculty and Students in Learning Space Design. Adobe PDF
Collier, Amy; Watson, William; Ozuna, Arturo
(EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, Jul 2011)
The Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Texas Wesleyan University undertook a project to find out what a classroom would look like if it were designed by faculty and students—and then to build that classroom. The goal was to promote innovation in learning space design and to advance instructors’ understanding of how classroom design impacts teaching and learning. Classroom.NEXT initiated a campus-wide dialogue on the design of informal and formal learning spaces, and faculty, students, and administrators identified flexibility and interactivity as key attributes to be promoted in all Texas Wesleyan learning spaces. Collaboration, particularly student-faculty collaboration, was a central component of the success of Classroom.NEXT. Faculty participants commented that they learned as much from their students about learning space design and technology as they did from the research. [Authors' abstract] 6p

Steelcase Education Solutions Case Study: University of Michigan
(Steelcase, Feb 17, 2011)
The University of Michigan takes a fresh approach to their classrooms, implementing a strategy that includes engagement, collaboration and flexibility. A variety of classroom set-ups and solutions offer students a variety of classroom experiences. Each incorporating collaborative tools and technology.

Learning Spaces.
Macphee, Larry
(Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff , 2011)
Discusses current low-cost ideas for enhancing informal and formal learning spaces. Informal spaces can include display kiosks in common areas, providing power and comfortable furniture in waiting spaces, distributed dining facilities, and collaborative spaces. Recommendations for formal instruction areas room layout, mobile technology, and furnishings. Details of furniture, acoustics, lighting, sightlines, electricity, and audiovisual equipment are also addressed. 19p.

Steelcase Education Solutions Case Study: Stanford
(Steelcase, Dec 06, 2010)
The d.School's philosophy holds that space, furniture, tools, and technology are integral to pedagogy. Students are encouraged to display their ideas and work in progress. See how they use their space to promote behaviors critical to design thinking, such as empathy and experimentation.

Learning Spaces All Over Campus. Adobe PDF
(, Fall 2010)
Colleges are making better use of real estate by equipping in-between spaces. Add wi-fi, comfortable seating, and room to spread out your work and almost any space becomes useful work space. Some examples: an atrium at the University of Michigan, a corridor that connects two buildings at the University of South Dakota, or a hallway at Stanford University. 4p

Steelcase Node Classroom Chair and Tribeca Flashpoint
(Steelcase, Jun 14, 2010)
Learn what's really happening in today's classrooms through the eyes of a state-of-the-art school, and how the new Steelcase node classroom chair helped solve their needs. The node chair provides the ultimate in flexibility, allowing the students to learn how they best learn, and the instructors to teach how they want to teach. The node chair provides an active learning environment. Something that is important to what Tribeca Flashpoint is looking to accomplish in their space.

New Learning Environments: A Study of How Architecture Can Respond to Interdisciplinary and Mobile Learning.
Hall, Chantel
(University of Cincinnati, OH , May 2010)
By evaluating designs based on the evolution of the American school as a building typology and predicting the future of higher learning based on the progressing pedagogical shift, this thesis explores new generation learning environments as social entities which will promote interdisciplinary interaction among students and faculty and will challenge the status quo in current education. 182p.

Learning Landscapes in Higher Education: Final Report. Adobe PDF
Neary, Mike et al
(Centre for Educational Research and Development, University of Lincoln, England, Apr 2010)
Learning Landscapes is a research project looking at the ways in which academics work with colleagues in campuses and other key stakeholders to develop and manage innovation in the design of teaching and learning spaces in higher education. This project explored new pathways and strategies which universities are using to link academic expertise to the process of quality and cost effective campus development in the redesigning the university for the twenty first century. The research features a series of campus mapping profiles and case studies of particular innovative teaching and learning spaces in the participating universities. These case studies have been used to produce a number of development tools that can be utilised by academics, estates professionals and other key stakeholders working in the HE sector. 29p.

Making the Case for Space: Three Years of Empirical Research on Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Whiteside, Aimee L.; Brooks, D. Christopher and Walker, J. D.
(Office of Information Technology at the University of Minnesota, 2010)
Research project shows that students in new, technology-enhanced learning spaces exceeded final grade expectations relative to their ACT scores, suggesting strongly that features of the spaces contributed significantly to their learning; first-year and sophomore students as well as students from metropolitan areas rated new learning spaces significantly higher than their upper-division and rural counterparts in terms of engagement, enrichment, effectiveness, flexibility, fit and instructor use; different learning environments affect teaching-learning activities even when instructors attempt to hold these activities constant; assignment types greatly impact the study environments students select. [Authors' summary of key findings] 18p.

Learning Environments: Where Space, Technology, and Culture Converge. Adobe PDF
Warger, Tom; Dobbin, Gregory
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Oct 2009)
Suggests that the time has come to broaden the scope of that inquiry and consider factors beyond space, including learning culture and the changing roles of instructors, students, and other people involved in teaching and learning. The effort to understand and develop effective learning environments includes more individuals and more roles than have generally been involved in the discussion about teaching and learning, and the factors at issue include, but go beyond, technology. 14p.

McGill University Building Design Standards. Adobe PDF
(McGill University, Montreal, Canada , Sep 2009)
Presents this institution's guidelines for building design, including location and adjacencies, entrances, support spaces, ceiling height, orientation, acoustics, surfaces, finishes, fixtures, furniture, mechanical systems, lighting, electrical systems, and media. 164p.

Classroom and Technology Design and Construction Minimum Requirements. Adobe PDF
(Pennsylvania State University, University Park , Mar 06, 2009)
Presents minimal considerations for design and construction of all Pennsylvania State University classrooms/seminar/lecture halls, conference and meeting spaces being designed or planned for new or remodeled work. The guidelines are organized by Masterformat sections and cover quality requirements, openings, finishes, specialties, equipment, furnishings, systems, lighting, communication, safety and security, and commissioning. 48p.

2009 Open Architecture Challenge: Classroom.
(Architecture for Humanity, Open Architecture Network, San Francisco, CA, 2009)
Presents over 300 school designs from teams made up of architects, students, and teachers, along with detail on the award winnders. The economical designs are intended developing and under-funded areas, with an emphasis on affordability, sustainability, and portable or modular construction.

21st Century Learning Environments.
(Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Tucson, AZ , 2009)
Proposes that learning environments must embrace a diverse and complex world of people, places, and ideas. While a tremendous amount of attention has been paid to standards, assessments, professional development, and curriculum and instruction, the paper finds that learning environments are an essential component to supporting positive 21st century outcomes for students. The report notes that the term learning environment has traditionally suggested a concrete place, but in today s interconnected and technology-driven world, a learning environment can be virtual, online, and remote. While the relationship of physical spaces and technological systems to learning continues to be ever important, even more important is how, and whether, these environments support the positive human relationships that matter most to learning. The paper notes that the greatest challenge to incorporating technology into learning environments is not finding time and money, but finding ways to adequately support the use of these tools. While, today, many schools have advanced well beyond those outdated models and classrooms have become undeniably more flexible, colorful and engaging, this is just an initial step. Successful learning environments must be able to adapt to the constantly evolving and ever-changing nature of technology, teaching, and learning. Includes 66 references. 34p.

Engaging Students: Using Space as a Tool to Connect with Millennials. Adobe PDF
(HermanMiller, 2009)
Discusses how post-secondary institutions must reconsider how they use classroom space to meet the learning expectations of Millennial students and to increase their engagement in the classroom space. Educational leaders must identify and adapt to their students’ needs, provide amenities to enhance learning, and design classrooms that will encourage certain behaviors. Learning spaces should complement the students’ habits by being as adaptable and flexible as the students who occupy them. 10p.

The Learning Space.
Jorstad, Jim
This blog provides an environment which offers mediated resources in teaching and learning, guidance in classroom design, instructional design, and digital media creation and display.

The Case for New Academic Workspaces. Adobe PDF
Pinder, James; Parkin, Jennifer; Austin, Simon; Duggan, Fiona; Lansdale, Mark; Demian, Peter; Baguley, Thom; and Allenby, Simon
(Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK, 2009)
Looks at how universities can provide more innovative, effective and enjoyable working environments for academics and researchers. This report draws on case study research into new academic workspaces in the UK, distilling the lessons learned from these innovative projects to offer guidelines for future implementation. It describes the challenges of academic workspace design in the 21st century and considers various strategies and design solutions that can help to achieve the goals of a higher education institution and its academic members. The research findings make apparent that there is no single best design response, and that universities must understand each situation in terms of what they are trying to achieve and how they both want and need to work in the future. 37p

Summary Report of a Survey of Learning Space Design in Higher Education.
Vredevoogd, Jeff
(Society for College and University Planners, Ann Arbor, MI , Jul 23, 2008)
Reports the results of a survey higher education planners revealing that, in the two years since the last survey, student expectations surpassed technology as the number one factor driving new needs for higher education learning spaces. Student expectations rose to 37 percent from 9 percent in 2006, while technology rose to 22 percent from 7 percent. The survey also found that the most valuable aspect of effective learning spaces is the support of student and faculty engagement. This response reflects an increase to 59 percent from 29 percent in 2006. In addition, the survey also reveals that the most important measure of effective learning spaces will be those that adapt to support varied pedagogy, which reflects an increase to 56 percent from 14 percent in 2006. Other highlights from the 2008 survey include suggestions for higher education presidents, and characteristics of effective and ineffective learning spaces. 21p.

Emory College Classroom Design Guide. Adobe PDF
(Emory College, Emory University, Atlanta, GA , Aug 30, 2007)
Presents the College's design guidelines for classroom interiors, equipment, and the building envelope. Also included are recommendations for room sizes, room definitions, furniture, equipment, and audio-visual technology. 39p.

UIC Classroom Design Guidelines.
(University of Illinois at Chicago, Office for Capital Programs, Illinois , Aug 2007)
Sets forth interiors guidelines for the renovation of this campus. Most of the buildings were constructed in one campaign during the 1960's. Their condition and functionality are generally held in low esteem, even though their signature architecture is considered worthy of preservation. These guidelines review the building and room types found on campus, and then proceed with recommendations for color, ceilings, walls, inspirational elements, doors and hardware, windows, lighting, acoustics, instructional media, furnishings, and signage. 14p.

Creating New Generation Learning Environments on the University Campus. Adobe PDF
Jamieson, Peter
(Universities 21, University of Melbourne, and Woods Bagot, 2007)
Scrapbook of a 5-day design forum rethinking the design and purpose of the university classroom. This publication outlines the intention, events and outcomes of the forum detailing how participants approached the design challenges. 66p

Minimum Acceptable Standards for Teaching Spaces. Adobe PDF
(Victoria University, Australia, Jul 2006)
Delineates space standards and equipment requirements for designing a higher education teaching laboratory, electronic classroom or specialist teaching space, electronic teaching laboratory, and a lecture theater. 6p.

Spaces for Learning: A Review of Learning Spaces in Further and Higher Education.
(Scottish Funding council, Edinburgh , Feb 2006)
Summarizes a five-month program of research which included a literature review, interviews with representatives of national educational organizations, four case studies of new learning environments in colleges and universities, and an online survey on educational trends sent to all further and higher educational institutions in Scotland. Seven types of new environments for learning are described: group teaching/learning, simulated environments, immersive environments, peer-to-peer and social learning, clusters, individual learning, and external spaces. 47p.

Designing Spaces for Effective Learning: A Guide to 21st Century Learning Space Design. Adobe PDF
(Joint Information Systems Committee, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Addresses the design of entrances, teaching spaces, vocational teaching spaces, learning centres, and social spaces in higher education facilities. Within each category, issues of flexibility, future-proofing, bold look, creative design, supportive environment, and multiple use are covered. Numerous examples from British institutions, along with floor plans and photographs are provided. 34p.

Espaces Study on How Innovative Technologies are Influencing the Design of Physical Learning Spaces in the Post-16 Sector.
(University of Birmingham, Learning Development Unit, United Kingdom , 2006)
This British research details survey results and site visits exploring technology's influence on higher education teaching spaces, open access spaces, social spaces and other learning spaces. Major findings include: 1) The difficulty of forecasting over five years in any area of technology indicates that building and refurbishment projects need to build in contingencies for future changes. 2) The use of wireless networking and mobile computing devices is growing, but there is still a need for the institution to provide wired networking and permanently fixed desktop computers. 3) The provision of power for mobile devices is very important and will continue to be necessary for the next few years. 4) The management and development of technological facilities within open access and social spaces is growing in importance. 5) The design of all learning spaces needs to reflect the trend to more student-centered, collaborative and group learning. 6) The use of learning technologies within social spaces is of growing importance. 7) Access to online services from outside the traditional institutional boundaries is growing rapidly. 154p.

Space Planning for Institutions of Higher Education.
Abramson, Paul; Burnap, Edward
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jan 2006)
Provides a general framework for planning of higher education facilities, with statewide to individual department perspectives. The document begins with overviews of facilities master planning and programming, followed by space planning guidelines that reflect changes in the higher education environment since 1985. Programming guidelines for specific higher education spaces conclude the document. 64p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

SCALE-UP, North Carolina State University.
Beichner, Robert
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this classroom design featuring with 7-foot-diameter round tables that each seat three teams of three students. Each team has a laptop to support their learning, as well as ready access to laboratory equipment in surrounding closets. Computer projection screens sit at opposite ends of the room. Large whiteboards cover the walls. A teacher station, with document camera and possibly a Tablet PC, is usually located near the center of the space. The chapter describes how these spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about them. Includes five references. 29.1-29.6p.

Trends in Learning Space Design.
Brown, Malcolm; Long, Philip
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Relates trends in learning space design to current learning theory and technological advances. The described trends are generated by active and social learning strategies, human-centered design, and personal devices that enrich learning. Advice on design of learning space that involves all users is offered. Includes seven references. 9.1-9.11p.

Challenging Traditional Assumptions and Rethinking Learning Spaces.
Chism, Nancy Van Note
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Reviews traditional concepts of classroom layout and learning, urging consideration of current student demographics and learning theories. Contemporary learning spaces should provide flexibility in seating arrangement, comfort, sensory stimulation, technology support, and decentralization. Examples of effective contemporary learning environments include the studio classroom, information commons, living/learning spaces, and corridor niches. Includes 16 references. 2.1-2.12p.

The ES Corridor Project, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.
Chism, Nancy Van Note
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Describes the conversion of wide corridor into informal learning spaces. Community and industry partners contributed their expertise to create a competitive "parade" of five learning spaces, which are briefly described. The chapter also describes how these spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. Includes three references. 21.1-21.9p.

Seriously Cool Places: The Future of Learning-Centered Built Environments
Dittoe, William
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Describes the use the University of Dayton's Marianist Hall Learning Space, through a fictitious narrative involving students and faculty. The narrative is derived from observation of use of this facility, which places offices in close proximity to communal learning spaces, including a cafe and furniture-filled pathways through the building. Includes three references. 3.1-3.11p.

Human-Centered Design Guidelines.
Gee, Lori
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Outlines leaning center design that is based on human need and diverse teaching and learning styles. Elements of human-centered design are characterized as healthful, stimulating, balancing community and solitude, and adaptable. Under these headings lighting, ergonomics, sensory cues, elements of surprise, transparency, connection to nature, color, texture, diverse shapes, social space, refuges, flexibility, adequate space, ownership, and technology integration are covered. Includes 18 references. 10.1-10.13p.

Stanford University: Wallenberg Hall.
Gilbert, Dan
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Presents this 2002 renovation of a 1900 landmark campus building, featuring five advanced resource classrooms, 19 additional classrooms, a theatre for classes and small performances, and breakout rooms. All the classrooms contain multiple display screens, laptops, wireless networks, flexible furniture, and multiple writing surfaces. The chapter describes how spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about them. 36.1-36.6p.

The Psychology of Learning Environments.
Graetz, Ken
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Discusses the psychological effect of the higher education learning environment. The influence of sensory and physical classroom characteristics is described, including reaction to devices and distractions, collaborative classrooms, virtual learning environments, and mystery and enchantment. Includes 25 references. 6.1-6.14p.

BOX, London School of Economics.
Harrison, Andrew
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Describes this hybrid academic/commercial space that brings together students and businessmen to engage in real world problem-solving and business decisions. The chapter also describes how the space is used, what makes it successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. Includes six references. 23.1-23.7p.

Virginia Tech: Torgersen Hall.
Head, J. Thomas; Moore, Anne
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Presents this 150,000-square-foot facility that features wireless connectivity throughout, wired classrooms with computer-controlled lighting for different teaching scenarios, distance learning classrooms, high-tech auditoriums, a computer-automated virtual environment for 3D virtual reality, electronic reading rooms and study courts, a media center, offices, and laboratories. A heavily used enclosed bridge connects the facility to the library, with the interior spaces of the bridge serving as a major social and collaborative space. The chapter describes the spaces and how they are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, what is unique about them, and why it is a community asset. Includes one reference 43.1-43.8p.

University of Arizona: Manuel Pacheco Integrated Learning Center.
Johnson, Chris
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles an integrated learning center for freshman. The center houses 14 classrooms, a 300-computer information commons, and a variety of other spaces. It provides state-of-the-art instructional materials, academic advising, support services, and access to information resources. The chapter describes the spaces and how they are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about them. 37.1-37.6p.

Olin College of Engineering: Academic and Olin Centers.
Kossuth, Joanne
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles the entirely new Massachusetts campus of an engineering school that graduated its first class in May, 2006. The robust technological infrastructure is describes, as are the tiered classroom, auditorium, laboratory, and library spaces. Extreme flexibility, interchangeability, mobility, and accessibility were the driving factors in campus design. 32.1-32.7p.

Student Practices and Their Impact on Learning Spaces.
Lomas, Cyprien; Oblinger, Diana
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Considers students' digital, mobile, independent, social, and participatory behaviors as informants for higher education learning space design. A discussion of classroom, or formal, spaces is followed by one for informal spaces, and a list of what colleges can do is detailed in sections discussing participation, connections, proximity, integration, flexibility, ubiquitous access, personal devices, support, and involving students. 5.1-5.11p.

The Learning Studios Project, Estrella Mountain Community College.
Lopez, Homero; Gee, Lori
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles two learning studios at this Arizona institution that feature "teaching stations" rather than fixed podiums, and radically flexible furniture that could be configured for individual or group study. Extensive feedback from students and faculty improved the model, which was applied to 22 additional classrooms at the school. The chapter also describes what makes the project successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. 19.1-19.7p.

Messiah College: Boyer Hall.
Lynch, Dennis
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this large new academic building that houses 50 percent of the Pennsylvania college's academic departments and 40 percent of its faculty. Formal and informal instruction spaces are described, as are areas for social events and a cinema/auditorium. The chapter also describes how some spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. 24.1-24.7p.

Collaboration and Multimedia Classrooms, University of Central Florida.
Marshall, Ruth
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Describes these classrooms that are managed through a partnership between the University's Information Technologies and Resources Division and the Division of Undergraduate Studies. These classrooms provide faculty with multimedia resoruces, student work areas, wired and wireless computers, flexibility to allow quick conversion from listening to collaboration mode, extensive staff support. The chapter describes the spaces and how they are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about them. 39.1-39.89p.

Designing Blended Learning Space to the Student Experience.
Milne, Andrew
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Reviews the more informal learning styles of today's students, six categories of learning technologies, and the need to focus on design that accommodates student-technology interface. Problems in traditional learning space design are detailed, and solutions proposed. A discussion of the importance of architecture in defining learning space, the nature of facilities design at academic institutions, and the role of technology consultants is complemented by that of a "design thinking" approach that involves augmentation of design requirements with direct data collection, active prototyping programs, participatory design, and innovative funding. Includes 18 references. 11.1-11.15p.

Pennsylvania State University: Smeal College of Business.
Nourjian, Peter
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this large business school complex featuring a trading room, e-incubator lab, research laboratories, 150-seat auditorium, team study rooms, 22 classrooms, offices, interview rooms, executive spaces for visiting experts, a cafe, administrative offices, and an atrium common space. The chapter describes the many activities that the building hosts, how spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. 33.1-33.5p.

Learning How to See.
Oblinger, Diana
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Advises on how to view higher education space through contemporary concepts learning, engagement, interaction, and excitement. The author suggests what constitutes space shaped by learning, catalyzing social encounters, shifting to learning complexes, developing a service philosophy, integrating technology, design for experimentation and innovation, and involving users. Includes 17 references. 14.1-14.11p.

Learning Spaces.
Oblinger, Diana, Ed.
(Educause, Boulder, CO, 2006)
Focuses on less often discussed facets of learning space design: how learner expectations influence such spaces, the principles and activities that facilitate learning, and the role of technology from the perspective of those who create learning environments: faculty, learning technologists, librarians, and administrators. The book begins with fourteen chapters by various authors discussing learning space design principles, followed by 29 higher education case studies. 446

Student Learning Center, University of Georgia.
Potter, William; King, Florence
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this center serviced by University of Georgia Libraries, Center for Teaching and Learning, Enterprise Information Technology Services, and Computing Services. Interlocking components of classroom and electronic library are co-housed in a design that enables a quick shift from classroom activity to research and study. The chapter describes the spaces and how they are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about them. Includes two references. 41.1-41.7p.

Science Center, Hamilton College.
Reynolds, Nikki; Weldon, Douglas
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this new New York college science teaching facility, highlighting many features including its interior transparency, flexible classrooms distributed throughout the building to encourage circulation, adjacency of student and faculty laboratories, interdisciplinary co-location of faculty offices, study spaces throughout the building, thorough technology integration, and environmentally friendly heating and construction materials. 20.1-20.8p.

LeBaron Hall Auditorium, Iowa State University.
Twetten, Jim
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this new instructional auditorium that accommodates both lectures and group activities. The customized seat design that makes this possible is described. The chapter also describes how the space is used, what makes it successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. Includes two references. 22.1-22.9p.

Center for Integrated Learning and Information Technology, Michigan Technological University.
Urbanek, Paul
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this linked library addition and computer science hall that together provide an integrated learning environment, group study rooms, wireless networking, high-tech instructional spaces, and flexible labs. The chapter also describes how these spaces are used, what makes them successful, how technology is used, design principles, and what is unique about the project. 25.1-25.8p.

AV Technology in Higher Education
(Acclaro Growth Partners on behalf of InfoComm International, Nov 2005)
Overview of the role that AV plays in the Higher Education industry based on surveys and one-on-one interviews. The report identifies product and service purchasing trends by school type, size, goals, and region. The study finds that 75% of the demand for AV equipment in higher education is the result of construction of new classrooms. The total number of higher education students in the United States is expected to peak in 2008, resulting in an increase in construction of new facilities. Technology is being integrated in the new classrooms, reflecting changes in education methods, including the increased use of collaborative techniques and project-based assignments. AV is also being used to attract increasingly tech-savvy students, and to accommodate distance learning programs, which expand both the reach and revenues of higher education institutions. 92p.
TO ORDER: InfoComm Sales

Classroom & Technology Design & Construction Minimum Requirements. Adobe PDF
(Pennsylvania State University, University Park , Oct 06, 2005)
Presents minimal considerations for design and construction of all Pennsylvania State University classrooms/seminar/lecture halls, conference and meeting spaces being designed or planned for new or remodeled work. The guidelines cover doors, windows, walls, ceilings, floors, chalkboards and tackboards, signage, projection screens, window coverings, furnishings, wiring and outlets, plumbing, mechanical systems, building noises, lighting, emergency considerations, corridors, and audiovisual technology. 18p.

An Assessment of Green Design in an Existing Higher Education Classroom: a Case Study.
Lilyblade, Annie
(Colorado State University, Fort Collins , Fall 2005)
Presents a case study assessing the quality of a classroom remodel in a higher education institution. Both the teaching and learning environments as well as the level of green design integration were assessed. The methodology involved five steps of data collection including an existing pre-design survey, interviewing five members of the initial design team, interviewing two faculty members, a post-design survey, and an assessment of the level of sustainability utilizing the LEED-CI (Commercial Interiors) rating system. Results from the data collected demonstrated end-users satisfaction as well as that the classrooms meet the criteria of a sustainable classroom. The project results now teach others how to provide sustainable sites, increase water efficiency, improve overall energy performance, and how to use of sustainable materials and resources. Furthermore, these findings show how to decrease construction waste, create a healthy indoor environment, and how to create an optimal teaching and learning environment. Includes 13 references. 39p.

High-Velocity Change: Creating Collaborative Learning Environments.
Zvacek, Susan; Walter, Scott
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Jul 19, 2005)
Describes how a group of individuals at the University of Kansas worked to design and implement a collaborative learning environment for students, based on theoretical and empirical research along with basic common sense. It discusses the many lessons learned throughout the process and provides recommendations for institutions that are about to embark on a similar project. 12p.

Campus Learning Spaces: Investing in How Students Learn. Adobe PDF
Acker, Stephen; Miller, Michael
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Apr 12, 2005)
Discusses learning space design for contemporary students, addressing classroom space, libraries, and informal learning spaces. Special attention is given to reduced dropout rates and lower cost per student when classes are conducted in thoughtfully designed and equipped spaces. Includes 20 references. 11p.

Moving Beyond the Classroom: Accommodating the Changing Pedagogy of Higher Education.
Jamieson, Peter; Dane, Jo; Lippman, Peter
(Australian Association for Institutional Research, Forum Proceedings, pp 17-23 , 2005)
Questions the future of the physical classroom as a paradigm for teaching and learning settings within the university setting. In turn, it proposes the notion of "learning spaces" as layered transactional settings for liberating thinking and approach to spatial design in order to achieve dynamic learning environments able to meet current and future needs of teachers and students. Includes 22 references. 7p.

Denison University Learning Spaces Project: Checklist for Improving Your Learning Spaces. Adobe PDF
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2004)
Offers a checklist for assessing and improving learning spaces. The checklist items address gathering stakeholders to discuss ideas, stating the teaching styles intended for the space, reviewing attributes of the space that are known to affect learning, and gathering the resources needed to implement the plan. A set of guiding principles covering diversity of learning styles, versatility, aesthetics, comfort, technology, and maintenance are included. 4p.

Capitalizing on Opportunity: Creating a Facility for Innovative Teaching and Collaborative Learning at Emory University. Adobe PDF
Albrecht, Bob; Bender, Bob; Kvavik, Robert
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2004)
Reviews the creation of Emory University's Cox Computer Center, from its beginnings as an outdated utilitarian facility, to a facility composed of a variety of workspaces, configurations, classrooms, and state-of-the-art hardware and software. The success of the facility is evidenced by more the 100,000 student and faculty visits in the first year alone, and by the 18 courses that meet regularly in its classrooms. 16p.

Building Stata: The Design and Construction of Frank O. Gehry's Stata Center at MIT.
Joyce, Nancy
(MIT Press, Cambridge, MA , 2004)
Chronicles with text and extensive photography the planning, design, and construction process for this higher education building designed to bring computer science, artificial intelligence, information and decision systems, linguistics, and philosophy together. 138p.
TO ORDER: The MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493; Tel: 401-658-4226, Toll-free: 800-405-1619

In Sync: Environmental Behavior Research and the Design of Learning Spaces.
Scott-Webber, Lenni
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2004)
Analyzes research relating to the environment's impact on behavior and establishes five different archetypal environments that support learning in the current knowledge age, versus the prevalent but outdated agrarian- and industrial-age models: 1) Environments for Delivering Knowledge; 2) Environments for Applying Knowledge; 3) Environments for Creating Knowledge; 4) Environments for Communication Knowledge; and 5) Environments for Decision Making. 145p.

Space Planning Guidelines. Second Edition. Adobe PDF
(Australasian Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers , 2003)
Presents higher education space planning advice from the Australian Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers. The Guidelines define types of space and offer formulas for calculating square meterage for academic, support, library, parking, and cafeteria use. Standards and benchmarks are offered, and advice on conducting and analyzing space utilization is included, along with a detailed chart suggesting space guidelines by department and discipline. 28p.

University of Cincinnati Design Guidance: Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
(University of Cincinnati , Jan 2003)
Provides this institutions design guidance for instructional spaces. A list of room types is followed by detailed recommendations for room location, size, proportion, acoustics, corridors, entrances, exits, aisles, surface treatments, colors, audiovisual equipment, lighting, signage, and HVAC. Numerous illustrations accompany the text. 67p.

Designing a Classroom For the New Pedagogy: What Comes First, the Chicken or the Egg?
Benney, Alfred
(In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications , 2003)
This is a case study of an effort to “build a better mousetrap” or technology-enabled classroom. Adopting the principle that pedagogy dictates software and hardware is only needed to run the software, a classroom designed to facilitate what professors were already trying to do was developed. The process also specified a set of policy statements and a recommendation for faculty training that focused on pedagogy rather than how to run the systems. p2891-2894

Classroom Guidelines. Design and Construction of Classrooms at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Burnett, Henry; Wagner, Jeff; Gyorkos, Gary; Horn, Bruce
(University of California, Santa Cruz , 2003)
These guidelines have been developed for use by architects, engineers and designers as a tool for designing effective classrooms for the UCSC campus. They provide specific criteria for the design of new classrooms and alterations to existing classrooms. Includes chapters on general classroom characteristics, classroom surfaces and finishes, fixtures and furniture, mechanical,lighting, and electrical systems, media systems, classroom project booths, convergence distance learning considerations. 31p.

Hard Facts on Smart Classroom Design: Ideas, Guidelines, and Layouts.
Niemeyer, Daniel
(Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MD. , 2003)
Covers the principles of college classroom design, the types of college classrooms, levels of technology, architectural guidelines, visual presentation devices, and classroom standards. Seventy layouts, figures, diagrams, and drawings convey ideas and concepts, while 40 photographs demonstrate classroom layouts. 154p.
TO ORDER: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, Maryland 20706. Tel: 800-462-6420.

Design Features for Project-Based Learning.
Wolff, Susan J.
(DesignShare, Feb 2002)
This publication is a condensed version of a doctoral research study conducted to determine the features of the physical learning environment for collaborative, project-based learning, primarily at the community college level. The characteristics of the physical environment investigated in the study were scale, location, functionality, relationships, and patterns. The findings from the study resulted in 32 design features in the following categories: learning group size; functional spaces for learning activities; adjacencies; furnishings; psychological and physiological support of the learners; and structural aspects. [Author's abstract] 72p.

The Evolving Electronic Classroom
Cavenaugh, Robert
(In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2002 , 2002)
Electronic classrooms have become increasingly common over the past decade. The combination of data projectors, computers, video playback, and a range of ancillary devices have been found useful in a variety of instructional formats, resulting in pressures for more, and with an important institutional cost impact. Simultaneously, faculty recognize that the configuration of 'smart' rooms has a powerful influence on the conduct of instruction. A desire to facilitate collaborative/constructivist learning in such spaces has led Dickinson College and this researcher to devise new models for physical learning spaces, while simultaneously trimming the costs of creating them. This paper presents our developing 'Smart3' (3rd generation) classroom designs, including seminar, mid-sized, and larger spaces. Their rationale, underlying research, and the technological and physical features of these spaces are presented. [Author's abstract] p261-262
TO ORDER: Education and Information Technology Library

Thinking Outside the Circle: the Design of Face-to-Face Collaborative Learning Facilities
Cavenaugh, Robert
(Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 , 2002)
Learners working on collaborative assignments using computers (which may also involve blended/hybrid learning) must engage in social as well as intellectual tasks. Many existing facilities support such interaction badly if at all. This writer has undertaken a continuing investigation of persons-computer-facility interaction and has developed a series of learning facilities that appear to strengthen the quality of learner interaction by increasing time on tasks. This report demonstrates the process of creating groupwork oriented class and study spaces, the challenges and variables encountered, and the first pedagogical results of this work-in-progress. It also explores pedagogical strategies for instructors using such arrangements. [Author's abstract] p174-180
TO ORDER: Education and Information Technology Library

Classroom Design Manual: Guidelines for Designing, Constructing, and Renovating Instructional Spaces at the University of Maryland. Adobe PDF
Clabaugh, Sue
(University of Maryland, Office of Information Technology, College Park , Nov 2000)
Identifies the essential design elements of modern, higher education high quality learning environments and includes discussions on facility programming, management, utilization, evaluation, and planning for the future technology. Classrooms examined include general purpose classrooms, lecture halls, seminar rooms, and specialized classrooms such as distance education and interactive video classrooms. Separate guidelines are presented for each classroom type. It also explores the use of technology in classrooms, discusses a team planning approach to programming for classroom design, offers advice on equipment security and on meeting accessability regulations, and provides practical applications for surveying classrooms using illustrative checklists. An appendix covers designi issues involving accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act. 52p.

Electronic Classrooms and Buildings of the Future. Adobe PDF
Schoomer, Elia
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2000)
Examines current issues, problems, and trends related to developing and supporting new high technology classrooms, labs, and student learning spaces to meet the critical demand for teaching innovation, research, and student learning. 4p.

University of Melbourne Teaching Space Design Guidelines.
(University of Melbourne, Australia , Sep 1999)
Presents this institution's teaching space guidelines covering different types of teaching spaces and the environment within them; physical access and movement; electrical, lighting, and mechanical services; acoustics; safety and security; audio-visual and video teaching considerations; computer laboratories. 31p.

Facilities Design Criteria for the Construction and Renovation of Multimedia Classrooms at Case Western Reserve University
(Department of Audio-Visual Services, Case Western Reserve University,Cincinnati, OH. , 1999)
Designing a multimedia based facility which accommodates information and presentation technologies to meet today's needs and future needs requires careful planning and organization. It requires the close collaboration of architect, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, lighting designer, audio-visual specialist, information technologist and instructor. Infrastructure design for "multimedia classrooms" must address requirements for A/C power, HVAC systems, cable distribution, ceiling heights, structural support, noise control, lighting, ergonomics and interior room acoustics.The architectural and interior design criteria presented here includes classroom shape, surfaces, and finishes; wall construction; windows, doors, ceilings; seating requirements; mechanical, lighting and electrical systems.

The Classroom Environment
Hall,Summer;Higgins,Tara; Mowad, Ann-Marie
(Shaping the Learning Environment, Pepperdine University , Winter-Spring 1999)
Provides a colorful floorplan of a proposed classroom with detailed descriptions of classroom features such as teacher's workspace, connecting computer room, library and reference center, storage space, supply island, and meeting area. Includes links to the designers for feedback and comments.

Computer Classroom and Laboratory Design: Bibliography
Kotlas, Carolyn
(University of North Carolina, Institute for Academic Technology, Aug 1998)
Incorporating computer technology into the education process involves redesigning the physical space where instruction takes place. Articles in this guide provide examples and advice on modifying existing classrooms to accommodate new technologies and on designing and building new teaching environments.

Special Planning for Special Spaces. Selected Articles from "Planning for Higher Education." Adobe PDF
Rickes, Persis, Ed.
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 1997)
Presents articles from the journal "Planning for Higher Education" organized around four core spaces commonly found on a college or university campus: cultural spaces, instructional spaces, student spaces, and outdoor spaces. Each article contains references. 143p.

Classroom Design Manual. Third Edition. Adobe PDF
Allen, Robert L.; Bowen, J. Thomas; Clabaugh, Sue; DeWitt, Beth B.; Francis, JoAllen; Kerstetter, John P.; Rieck, Donald
(University of Maryland, Office of Information Technology, College Park, MD , 1996)
This manual identifies the essential design elements of modern, higher education high quality learning environments and includes discussions on facility programming, management, utilization, evaluation, and planning for the future technology. Classrooms examined include general purpose classrooms, lecture halls, seminar rooms, and specialized classrooms such as distance education and interactive video classrooms. Separate guidelines are presented for each classroom type. It also explores the use of technology in classrooms, discusses a team planning approach to programming for classroom design, offers advice on equipment security and on meeting accessability regulations, and provides practical applications for surveying classrooms using illustrative checklists. Appendices provide designing issues involving accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act; regulations, codes, and compliance agencies; a bibliography of books and articles on classroom design; a list professional organizations involved in facility design; the author's biographies; and photos of sample classroom designs. 93p.

Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind. Adobe PDF
Conway, Kathryn
(University of North Carolina; Institute for Academic Technology , 1996)
Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make them flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to provide a wide range of computer, media, projection, communications, and control capabilities, including connection to the campus network for both video and data reception and transmission. Topics on Master Classroom development include creating an interactive information environment, equipping the classroom with computer and projection equipment, and designing integrated control systems for the classroom. Focus is given to projection equipment acquisition and the variables involved when deciding the types of equipment to buy, such as brightness, rear or front projection design, screens available, CRT vs. LCD displays, and displays for smaller classrooms. Tips are given on networking information sources to fully utilize the master classroom's capabilities and the cost considerations. 16p.

Designing Communication and Learning Environments.
Gayeski, Diane M., Ed.
(Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ , 1995)
Designing and remodeling educational facilities are becoming more complex with options that include computer-based collaboration, classrooms with multimedia podiums, conference centers, and workplaces with desktop communication systems. This book provides a collection of articles that address educational facility design categorized in the following four sections: conceptual foundations; design elements; selecting media support technologies; and case studies. Issues discussed include a seven- step plan for building effective learning environments, accessibility for the disabled, color as a design element, acoustics, flooring, electrical wiring and power, and issues on using such media support technologies such as overhead projectors, projection screens, interactive media systems, and desktop video. Case studies address the architecture and technology support learning at Dow Chemical, teaching environments at Penn State, the customer-service inspired environment, and audiovisuals in the boardroom and auditorium. 169p.
TO ORDER: Educational Technology Publications, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632; Toll free: 800-952-2665

Bricks and Mortarboards. A Report on College Planning and Building. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Presents discussions on the current status of the college classroom, laboratory, library, dormitory, and campus planning. Chapters by various authors emphasize that the new classroom buildings and lecture halls should enable fewer teachers to teach more students, which can be achieved only in large teaching areas or in small areas linked electronically; emphasize flexibility that can be attained by nonpermanent partitions and exposed, well-mounted utility feed lines; discuss problems libraries face in housing ever-expanding collections and accommodating the new technologies that have become part of the modern library; report on house plan, core plans, and other arrangements which provide more pleasant physical surroundings and further educational objectives by providing live or electronic aids to learning, and focus on theaters, museums, recital halls, health centers, college unions, and research facilities.

References to Journal Articles

What's New in Educational A/V?
McCrea, Bridget
Campus Technology; Jun 12, 2012
Audiovisual technologies—including LCD displays, flat-panel monitors, video walls, studios, and A/V devices and applications—are gaining presence in today's learning spaces as educators increasingly rely on these technologies to reach and engage students.

Tech Flex
Demski, Jennifer
Campus Technology ; , p20-25 ; Jun 2012
At the University of Southern California, an ambitious campuswide renovation aims to create tech-enabled learning spaces that place a premium on flexibility.

Four More Trends in Higher-Education Facilities
Fabris, Peter
Building Design + Construction; May 2012
Examines trends in college buildings focusing on new classroom designs, flexible space, collaboration areas, and the evolving role of the university library.

Broad Brush. Colorful Strokes.
Nemerson, Laura
College Planning and Management; , p46-53 ; May 2012
Bold color and big statements can enliven a workspace on a budget. Describes the interior design for NYU-Poly.

From Computer Lab to Sandbox.
Grush, Mary
Campus Technology; Nov 02, 2011
The old, traditional Computer Information Systems laboratory at Bentley University in Waltham, MA has been transformed into a unique “Sandbox” with state-of-the art technology-enhanced collaboration spaces--both physical and virtual--that support formal and informal learning and discovery.

FHSU Showcases New Classrooms Designed to Encourage 'Red Balloon' Learning Innovation.
Fort Hays State University News; Nov 01, 2011
Describes newly redesigned learning spaces at FHSU that cultivate new ways of thinking, encourage collaboration, increase all forms of interaction and build knowledge in a discovery-driven process.

Budgeting Academic Space.
Harris, Watson
Planning for Higher Education; , p29-41 ; Nov-Dec 2011
Discusses effective space budgeting and allocation practices and processes needed by higher education administrators. Includes a case study of Middle Tennessee State University.

Furnishing for Connection.
College Planning and Management; , p44-45 ; Oct 2011
Describes how the Fox School of Business at Temple University transformed a traditional classroom into a high-tech meeting and events space that can morph from seminar room to an event area in a few minutes and that offers a very high-tech video wall and wireless projection for all participants.

The Future Of The Campus Isn't The Classroom.
Fast Company Co Design; , 2p. ; Jun 2011
The most holistic educational experiences happen outside of the classroom. To make the biggest impact, the author suggests designing adaptable, sustainable facilities that support student life on campus.

Aces of Space.
Demski, Jennifer
Campus Technology; v24 n10 , p32-34,36,38,39 ; Jun 2011
Profiles four schools that use technology, new design concepts, and flexible furnishings to reinvent their teaching spaces. Curved rooms, interconnected and networked electronic wall displays, modular furnishings on wheels, and classrooms with no front are described.

Creating a Smart Classroom from Scratch.
McCrea, Bridget
Campus Technology; May 2011
Describes new classrooms set up at South College in Knoxville, Tennessee, with new technology equipment, tools and software, including secure wireless Internet access, lecture capture software, videoconferencing tools, and sensor pads.

Design Considerations for Effective Distance Learning.
Gedemer, Linda
University Business; Mar 2011
Discusses proper classroom acoustics, good speech intelligibility, clear sightlines, proper lighting, and seating arrangements that need to be considered when developing an effective distance learning classroom, which will benefit students and instructors alike.

Changing Classroom Design.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n3 , p18,20-22 ; Mar 2011
Addresses two questions: "How are we going to teach?" and "How does education delivery affect classroom and building design?" The author states that lecture and discussion that is faculty- and content focuses remains the standard delivery of education. That model is changing to a student-centered focus on finding and analyzing information. Planners should design a classroom for the future rather than a classroom of the future.

Student-Centered Learning.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n2 , p26,28-30 ; Feb 2011
Profiles the University of Minnesota's active learning classrooms (ACLs). These technology-rich facilities compel collaborative student-led learning, with teachers assuming facilitator roles. Acceptance by teachers and students is addressed, as is the increased contact between teachers and students.

Revision of Space Utilization in the Ontario Colleges to Support Learner Centered Pedagogy, Technology and Users Adobe PDF
Teitelbaum, Marilyn
College Quarterly; v14 n1 ; Winter 2011
This report explores classrooms and adjacent corridors which, when combined, form one of the central areas within the college campus. Additionally, this report questions why these areas do not reflect learning centered principles and flexibility in their physical design. This report incorporates research by those who have explored and in some cases implemented well-designed areas for education that are used to support positive human activity. It also looks at poorly designed or outdated space, which inhibits learning. It has been said that learning can happen anywhere and perhaps it can. However true this statement might appear to those that are not intimately linked to the physicality of space, it can also be said that learning can happen with far more ease where the kind of space provided is specifically targeted for education to include appropriate supportive areas for learning. This report explores well designed areas that support and allow collaboration, discovery and social interaction to flourish.

Build It before They Come.
Leiboff, Michael
Campus Technology; v24 n3 , p30-33 ; Nov 2010
Describes the creation of a full-scale mock-up classroom at the Harvard Business School, where professors worked with architects and engineers to create and test a 96-person classroom before the construction of the final learning environment. The room was built to the professors' preferences, but the model was found to lack intimacy. Adjustments created a desirable outcome in the finished facility.

Wanna Improve Education? Demolish the Classrooms.
Le, Trung
Fast Company Co Design; Aug 2010
Discusses the radically different design of Denmark's Ørestad College. Organized around a central staircase and atrium, the boomerang-shaped floor plates spin and shift like a camera shutter to create four distinct learning zones that flow into one another. The design promotes reflective, collaborative learning that mimics the way teenagers think, learn and socialize.

Facility Focus: Academic Buildings/Lecture Halls.
College Planning and Management; v13 n1 , p81-84 ; Jan 2010
Profiles four new higher education academic buildings, highlighting their large common areas, daylighting, and sophisticated classrooms.

Imagining All of Campus as a Learning Environment.
Lane, Cara
EduCause Quarterly; v33 n3 ; 2010
Key findings of this research project are that although most students own laptops and mobile devices, use of student computing centers at the University of Washington continues to be high; embracing wireless and mobile learning requires imagining all of campus as a learning environment; for the most complete service, consider pursuing a hybrid approach — offering computing centers and support for wireless and mobile learning across campus.

Computer Labs Get Rebooted as Lounges: New Gathering Places for Laptop Users Help Colleges Save on Upkeep.
Terris, Ben
Chronicle of Higher Education; Dec 06, 2009
This discusses new gathering places for laptop users that may help colleges reduce expenses. More than 11% of colleges and universities are phasing out computer labs or plan to do so. New spaces might be lounges filled with modular furniture and plasma televisions; virtual labs that give remote laptops access to software; or better computer rooms with state-of-the-art machines and pleasing architecture that can act as de facto student centers.

Lost in Space: Finding the Right Learning Space for Students.
Jorstad, Jim
University Business; v12 n9 , p45,46,48 ; Oct 2009
Advises on coordinating the design of higher education learning spaces, including managing competing preferences from different teaching and learning styles, organizing design professionals, coordinating technology integration and aesthetics, and consideration of lighting, acoustics, and ergonomics.

Designing Collaborative Learning Spaces Where Material Culture Meets Mobile Writing Processes. Adobe PDF
Bemer, Amanda; Moeller, Ryan; Ball, Cheryl
Programmatic Perspectives; v1 , p139-166 ; Sep 2009
Discusses how a combination of movable furniture and mobile technology, including wireless access and laptops, can enhance student collaboration in group-based writing assignments. The lab included both desktop and laptop seating areas, so the authors created a modified worksite analysis designed to evaluate team collaboration in this new layout. These material changes in the lab allow students to configure the space according to their needs, offering them some measure of control over three crucial elements of successful collaboration: formality, presence, and confidentiality. Includes 31 references.

Cutting-Edge Technology Revolutionizes Learning.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p43,44,46 ; Jun 2009
Profiles Drexel University's Center for Graduate Studies in Sacramento, which occupies leased space in a downtown office building, teaches only evening and weekend courses, and features sophisticated flexible audiovisual and videoconferencing facilities.

Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices.
Open House International; v34 n1 ; Mar 2009
This issue of Open House International explores and investigate qualities and characteristics of learning environments at different scales and in different contexts, from classroom typologies to campus outdoor spaces. The 12 articles emphasize emerging paradigms in learning environments that involve a number of underlying issues including the academic house clustering, the school as heart of the community, the rising interest in new classroom spaces and forms, the user-centered processes, utilizing the learning environment as an open textbook, and the impact of recent advances in information technologies and globalization on the future of learning settings.

Inversions. Adobe PDF
Brown, Malcolm
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p64-66,68-70 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Reflects on inversions as a metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education and learning spaces. Inversions are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. On the basis of constructivist learning theory, networked information technology, and a new kind of student and faculty, the traditional educational layers (with the teacher as the maker and presenter of information and with the student as the recipient and audience of information) are inverting. In the new curriculum, students can be presenters, knowledge creators, and active planners of their own learning. Includes four references.

Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape. Adobe PDF
Dugdale, Shirley
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p50-52,54,56,58,60,62-63 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Discusses ten strategies which are key to improving learning space and stimulating campus transformation. The Learning Landscape is the total context for students learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. Applying a learner-centered approach, campuses need to be conceived as "networks" of places for learning, discovery, and discourse between students, faculty, staff, and the wider community. Includes 9 references.

Assessment: The Key to Creating Spaces that Promote Learning. Adobe PDF
Hunley, Sawyer; Schaller, Molly
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p26-28,30,32-34 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Describes research which has focused on the connections among learning space, learning, and pedagogical methods and on the characteristics of successful programmatic change linked to learning spaces. The authors found that students and faculty engage in a full range of learning behaviors when: 1) environments are constructed to optimize interaction between faculty and students inside and outside of the classroom or course time; (2) there is high engagement with course material both through class preparation, on the part of faculty and students, and through active learning inside class; and 3) when the atmosphere encourages students and faculty to behave as if "serious work" is taking place. Includes 11 references.

PAIR-Up. Adobe PDF
Jorn, Linda; Whiteside, Aimee; Duin, Ann Hill
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p12,14,15 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Relfects on recent conversations elevating the importance of place, space, design principles, and learning in the evolving IT infrastructure of higher education. Today, the impact of emerging technologies, diverse learners, strategic campus issues, new course design methods, and recent findings in learning science continues to inform how people think about learning spaces--virtual and physical, formal and informal. Likewise, ideas continue to converge to create innovative and strategic design practices for building twenty-first-century learning spaces. Experts are finding that conversations around emerging technologies and virtual learning environments can be catalysts for engaging stakeholders in the design process. Conversations about blended learning environments, mobile technologies, games, social networking tools, and holographics work best when stakeholders are involved from the inception of such initiatives. Includes nine references.

Learning Spaces: Involving Faculty to Improve Pedagogy. Adobe PDF
Lippincott, Joan
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p16-18,20,22-25 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Discusses how an institution should clearly articulate its learning objectives and then place a high priority on including curriculum redesign in the planning process for new learning spaces. Faculty who are genuinely engaged in pedagogy, along with others who are concerned with the teaching and learning aspects of the space, should play a central, not peripheral, role in planning groups. Ideally, with new or renovated learning spaces, formal and informal, all stakeholders can win: faculty can enhance their teaching, students can improve their learning, and administrators can point to the positive results of their investments in physical facilities, new technologies, and support services. Includes 15 references.

Signposts of the Revolution? What We Talk about when We Talk about Learning Spaces. Adobe PDF
Long, Phillip D.; Holeton, Richard
Educause Review; v44 n2 , p36-38,40,42,44-48 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Discusses efforts that have resulted in learning environments that promote active learning, critical thinking, collaborative learning, and knowledge creation. These individual projects, possible signposts of the revolution, may show the way to replacing the industrial model with a model of inquiry. Unfortunately, they may also go almost unrecognized by the cultures in which they're found, because of a collective inability to achieve a common language with which to describe learning environments and their aspirations. Includes 20 references..

A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape: Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo.
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a learning landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. The three space concepts described address the needs of different sets of constituents: the Teaching Hub with experimental spaces combined with support, Learning Corridors to enrich the student realm, and the Faculty Hub as a destination for interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars and researchers. These are some of the space concepts and strategies which are currently being applied during the refinement of the draft master plan.

"Where Do You Learn?": Tweeting to Inform Learning Space Development
Aspden, Elizabeth J.; Thorpe, Louise P.
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
The authors took Twitter's "What are you doing?" prompt and instead asked "Where are you learning?" They succeeded in getting 15 students to send tweets that would offer insights into their learning patterns, activities, and environmental triggers. Although the depth and style of their participants' tweets varied greatly, most offered much more than they had hoped for by providing lighthearted but insightful information about how their university, home, and social lives blended together. Above all, the authors were able to take a nonthreatening and decidedly nontraditional activity to engage students in university-wide planning and development. Includes four references.

Learning Spaces as a Strategic Priority.
George, Gene; Erwin, Tom; Barnes, Briony
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Describes how the authors have, by making learning spaces an issue, opened the door for a meaningful institutional dialogue on the quality of teaching at Butler Community College, the role space and technology play in student engagement, and the dynamics of the student-teacher relationship. With learning spaces becoming a strategic priority, Butler pulled together a learning spaces design team with a dozen members representing students, faculty, instructional administration, facilities, student services, research and planning, and technology. Their three-year project will establish guidelines and an implementation plan for engaging, state-of-the-art learning spaces that promote student success. Includes 17 tables.

Best Practices in Learning Space Design: Engaging Users.
Grummon, Phyllis
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Proposes that engaging future users in designing learning spaces increases the likelihood that those spaces will accomplish the mission of achieving student learning outcomes. As research on the physiological aspects of learning has revealed, active engagement with the learning object--whether a lecture, laboratory process, text, or creative medium--increases the likelihood that the learner will both retain and be able to use information and skills later. As it turns out, spaces that are created to engage students in active, collaborative learning are best designed by facilitating similar processes with users to identify their learning space needs. A challenge for designers and planners is how to most effectively bring the user's voice into the design process and, ultimately, deliver the richest use of spaces for learning. Includes seven references.

Collaborative Learning Spaces at Missouri University of Science and Technology.
Hammons, Angie; Oswald, Lauren Brady
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Discusses how the Educational Team at Missouri University of Science and Technology designed their collaborative learning spaces. These spaces not only give students better access to their instructors and each other, but they bring the technology and tools needed to accomplish tasks, complex assignments, research academic work, right to the students' fingertips.

Effects of Studio Space on Teaching and Learning: Preliminary Findings from Two Case Studies.
Taylor, Summer Smith
Innovative Higher Education; v33 n4 , p217-228 ; Jan 2009
Recognizing that traditional classrooms do not facilitate active learning, colleges and universities are increasingly converting traditional classroom space into studio space. Research indicates positive effects on student learning when studio classroom space is combined with active learning pedagogy, but the research does not separate the effect of the space from the effect of the pedagogy or address the effect of the space on teaching. The case studies described in this article suggest that studio space can launch teachers into active learning pedagogy and can increase the positive effects of that pedagogy on learning. Teachers and students perceived direct effects of the space itself. [Author's abstract]

Collaborating with Users to Design Learning Spaces: Playing Nicely in the Sandbox.
Weaver, Barbara
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; Jan 2009
Profiles the conversion of an old YMCA building (Holtzendorff Hall) at Clemson University into an academic building for the engineering department. The old movie theater was converted into a classroom, the old basketball gym into an engineering project lab, and the old ballroom into a SCALE- UP classroom (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs), and former swimming pool into This article tells the story of how the old swimming pool became the Holtzendorff Teaching with Technology Experimental Classroom, or "the sandbox classroom."

American School and University; v81 n3 , p132-219 ; Nov 2008
Profiles 71 outstanding new or renovated higher education facilities, selected for their contribution to the educational program, adaptability, design, technology accommodation, sustainability, and maintainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Incubating Next-Gen.Edu.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; v21 n10 , p26-28,30,32,34 ; Jun 2008
Describes two newly launched initiatives, one at a large public university and the other at a smaller private institution, that demonstrate the journey incubator spaces take from conception to setup and use, even when they have been designed with similar goals. In both cases profiled, many of the actual features are common: flexible seating and tables, portable computing devices that can be stashed away, broadband connectivity, collaboration software, interactive whiteboards, and easily viewed displays. But the details regarding evolution of design, technology assessment and choices, and space usage vary.

Using Assessment to Bring about Cultural Change: The Value of Assessing Learning Spaces.
Assessment Update; v20 n3 , p6-7 ; May 2008
In considering the issue of transforming higher education, people tend to think of the university in the abstract: the idea of providing education and what that means in these changing times. The authors suggest that the physical university should also be considered. At Ferris State University, educators have made a comprehensive effort to transform the university by creating a learning-centered culture focused on three central elements: (1) classrooms; (2) learning spaces outside the classroom; and (3) professional development. They undertook a multistage project to renovate learning spaces in a systematic fashion, combining the renovations with professional development efforts for faculty and administrators. They transformed the academic milieu both physically and intellectually with the primary purpose made of fostering a more learning-centered culture and environment. In this article, the author discusses the multistage renovation project and the role of assessment in creating a learner-centered environment. [Author's abstract]

Taking Control.
Goral, Tim
University Business; v11 n1 , p50-54 ; Jan 2008
Reviews typical features of a "smart" classroom, which avoids the cumbersome necessity of moving instructional technology in and out on carts. The benefits of standardized devices and remote monitoring by IT staff are cited, and examples from several higher education institutions illustrate the text.

Space Matters: Experiences of Managing Static Formal Learning Spaces.
Montgomery, Tim
Active Learning in Higher Education; v9 n2 , p122-138 ; 2008
Managing the space in which learning takes place is subject to ongoing debate. Spatial management and movement can impact upon the construction of meaning within education and upon the dynamic of learning. It is suggested that there are now different learning goals and expectations and consequently a need for different learning environments. Many constraints, however, result in everyday experience not being of high-tech, impressively designed formal and informal spaces. This article contributes to a navigation of the realities of learning space. It recognizes that the literature may be leaving the profession behind and that for many educators the opportunities of design are merely aspirations. Taking as its focal point the small seminar room with sparse furniture, it presents two studies to contribute ideas on how such non-ideal spaces might be managed; one looking at an alternative education space, the museum, and the second drawing on interviews with colleagues about their experiences. [Author's abstract]

Swivel Seating in Large Lecture Theaters and Its Impact on Student Discussions and Learning.
Ogilvie, Craig A.
Journal of College Science Teaching; v37 n3 , p50-56 ; Jan 2008
Well-designed university buildings and physical environments have a documented positive impact on student participation, engagement, and feelings of support and belonging. These factors are known to improve learning; however, it is hard to document the direct impact architecture has on student learning outcomes. This paper compares two different designs of remodeled, large lecture-theater designs: one with traditional tiered rows and one with swivel seating to facilitate face-to-face discussions during lectures and the impact these designs had on student learning. Both high- and low-performing students appear to have benefited from the swivel-seat discussions by the end of the semester, with potentially a larger benefit for stronger students.

The Space is the Message:First Assessment of a Learning Studio. Adobe PDF
Tom, Jim; Voss, Kenneth; Scheetz, Christopher
Educause Quarterly; 2008: 2 , p42-52 ; 2008
Describes the planning, creation, use, and initial assessment of a sophisticated "learning studio" at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Details of the mission, components, budget, design, technology, flexibility, and popularity of the studio are supported by survey results from students. Includes 32 references.

Planning in a Digital World.
Skinner, John
Planning; v73 n9 , p32-35 ; Oct 2007
Profiles the Arizona State University's Decision Theater, a technologically sophisticated classroom equipped with a 260-degree set of seven screens that displays GIS map layers, demographic statistics, and three-dimensional models for use in city and land use planning.

Higher Education Space: Future Directions.
Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p5-15 ; Oct 2007
Discusses the future of higher education space in the United Kingdom, based on interviews with several British higher education administrators. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. Various influences of more, the same, and less available and needed space are covered. Space designations are blurring, increasingly multi-functional, and exploited more efficiently. Includes 23 references.

Designing for Uncertainty: Three Approaches.
Bennett, Scott
The Journal of Academic Librarianship ; v33 n2 , p165-179 ; Mar 2007
Higher education wishes to get long life and good returns on its investment in learning spaces. Doing this has become difficult because rapid changes in information technology have created fundamental uncertainties about the future in which capital investments must deliver value. Three approaches to designing for this uncertainty are described using data from recent surveys. Many of these data are related to the National Survey of Student Engagement. [Author's abstract]

First Questions for Designing Higher Education Learning Spaces
Bennett, Scott
Journal of Academic Librarianship; v33 n1 , p14-26 ; Jan 2007
We often start the design of learning spaces with service and operational considerations rather than with questions about the character of the learning we want to happen in the space. To correct this practice, six questions are here proposed that colleges and universities should ask first and persistently throughout the construction or renovation of learning spaces. Much of this discussion draws on the National Survey of Student Engagement. [Author's abstract]

Entering the Interaction Age Today: Implementing a Future Vision for Campus Learning Spaces. Adobe PDF
Milne, Andrew
Educause Review; v42 n1 , p12-14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30,31 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Discusses the dawning of the "Interaction Age," a logical extension of the Information Age, which, while built on a foundation of familiar information technologies (and emerging new ones), will extend these technologies to emphasize interactivity over mere content delivery. The changing character of technology product options, coupled with a lack of actionable research findings regarding the impact of particular technology solutions, can make it difficult for institutional planners to predict which of these ideas might yield the greatest near-term benefit and which might be best left for future work. But with directed effort, some ingenuity, and a future-focused vision, colleges and universities should be able to identify and leverage existing technologies with which to build aspects of the "future" campus learning space today. Includes 13 references.

New Building Type Unifies Lecture Halls and Food Court.
Rothenberger, Stuart
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p30-32 ; 2007
Profiles Kuztown University of Pennsylvania's new academic building which consists of seven high-tech lecture halls surrounding a 55-foot atrium featuring a central food court and comfortable lounges at the edges. The planning and design of the teaching spaces as well as the common areas are discussed.

The Community College Classroom Environment: Student Perceptions.
Veltri, Sandra; Banning, James H.; Davies, Timothy Gray
College Student Journal; v40 n3 , p517-527 ; Sep 2006
This qualitative case study investigated how community college students perceived specific classroom attributes as contributing to or hindering their learning. The study addressed three questions: What has been the role of students in classroom design within the community college campus? How do students assess the classroom's physical design impact on their learning? And, what can students tell us about their needs for future classroom design? Students were able to clearly identify classroom attributes that enhanced their learning as well as those aspects of the built environment that inhibited their learning. Students completed "wish drawings" that depicted what they believed the ideal built environment would be for them. The article closes discussing how past, present, and future students can be used by community college facilities planners to better design the built environments to make them more conducive to optimal student learning. [Authors' abstract]

American School and University; v78 n13 , p79-83 ; Aug 2006
Presents a middle school, high school, and three higher education classroom facilities selected for the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their creative renovations and use of existing conditions, engaging and delightful spaces, use of natural light and sustainable materials, technology integration, functionality, and flexibility. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

Moveable Walls Allow for Space Flexibility.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v9 n2 , p50,52,54-57 ; Feb 2006
Describes portable and hung moveable wall systems and examples of how they are used to reconfigure spaces and enhance aesthetics. Staff training and acoustics are also discussed and a list of items to be considered in wall selection is included.

Presentation & Display: The Challenge of Next-Generation
Craig, Will
Campus Technology; Jan 2006
Monitors and projectors are getting slicker and sleeker, but that doesn’t mean setting up the smart classroom is without tribulation. This discusses lighting issues, camera and rear projection screen placement, room layout, noise considerations, sightlines, placement of whiteboards, size of monitors, etc.

Leading the Transition from Classrooms to Learning Spaces. Adobe PDF
Oblinger, Diana
Educause Quarterly; v28 n1 , p14-18 ; Oct 2005
Presents considerations for learning space design, emphasizing the migration away from the traditional classroom as the sole venue for instruction. Incorporation of virtual learning and an improved understanding of human cognition inform this discussion of learner- and discipline-centered space design. Includes 12 references.

Technology-Enabled Teaching. If You Build It, We Should Come.
Craig, Will
Campus Technology; v18 n7 ; Jul 2005
When a campus is engaged in an architecture-and-technology integration project, when technology experts are involved from the get-go, ‘smart classroom’ construction projects are dramatically improved—and less costly. This article discusses how and when technology staff should be involved in the planning, programming, and design phase of designing instruction and learning spaces.

Designing Teaching Facilities: Pedagogy as the Driving Force.
Stump, Karen H.; Swensen, Jill
Journal of College Science Teaching; v34 n7 , p25 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Pedagogy, the art and science of teaching, should be the driving force behind the design of any teaching facility. What is taught and how it is taught should determine the size, type, and configuration of educational space. The statement seems obvious, but often miscommunication and ill-considered compromises can divert a capital project from an institution's pedagogical mission. This report describes four steps that should be followed to ensure success.

Inside Purdue's Envision Center
Campus Technology; Jun 2005
Case study of Purdue University’s Envision Center for Data Perceptualization that breaks away from the classroom experience and brings true multi-sensory discovery and learning to students. Discusses the "Virtual Reality" 3D theater that immerse users in the environment they are viewing in real time.

Designing for the Virtual Interactive Classroom.
Boettcher, Judith V.
Campus Technology; May 2005
This discusses tools for Web conferencing, videoconferencing, full collaboration, interactive classrooms, and screen sharing, used by faculty for online and blended courses such as small group meetings, interactive class meetings, and large class meetings.

Taming the 'Smart' Classroom Monster
Craig, Will
Campus Technology; Jan 2005
Best practices for making “Smart Classrooms” affordable, powerful, and easy to use.

The Relationship between Seating Arrangement and Student Behavior in College Classrooms.
Kaya, Naz; Burgess, Brigitte
Educational Facility Planner; v40 n2 , p11-15 ; 2005
Investigates environment-behavior relationships in college classrooms and assesses how students' territoriality and perceptions of social interaction vary according to different seating arrangements. Results revealed that rows of tablet-arm chairs provided the most personal space and students indicated that they could easily spread out and define their own space with this arrangement. The cluster arrangement promoted the most social interaction, followed by the U- shaped arrangement. Includes 12 references.

Defining Interior Architecture: Creating Collaborative Social Spaces within the University Setting.
Wood, Beth
Educational Facility Planner; v40 n2 , p16-20 ; 2005
Discusses the discipline of interior architecture from an academic and professional perspective, and through a series of case studies. Higher education social spaces are emphasized, including their multi-sensory and kinesthetic requirements . Includes eleven references.

What's New with Campus Interior Design?
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v7 n10 , p25,26,28.29 ; Oct 2004
Describes an evolution toward corporate aesthetics in interior design for higher education classrooms, service areas, and residence halls.

Teal is Not the Color of MIT's Introductory Physics Classroom.
Calhoun, Terry
Syllabus: Technology for Higher Education; Sep 16, 2004
This describes a tour of the newer formal learning spaces at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), including classrooms in the Stata Center, and the TEAL classroom (Technology Enabled Active Learning), a very humane new classroom that was designed to work in an integrated fashion with a physical curriculum redesign at MIT.

Lessons Learned Deploying a Digital Classroom.
Rollins, Sami; Almeroth, Kevin
Journal of Interactive Learning Research; v15 n2 ; Apr 2004
A number of university campuses have undertaken the development of digital classrooms that enable presentation of digital media and digital lecture recording. While educators from across disciplines are interested in using the facilities these classroom spaces provide, deploying the infrastructure for a digital classroom is difficult at best even for a technically savvy person. As people from many disciplines become interested in building similar digital classroom spaces, there is a need to produce a useful set of design and implementation guidelines for determining the functionality of such a space and selecting and installing the equipment to achieve that functionality. The goal of this paper is to report on the deployment of the UCSB digital classroom. By using this paper as a guide, future digital classroom architects can reduce the project risk and steepness of the deployment curve. This paper: (1) motivates the use of technology in the classroom by discussing the impact of technology on education; (2) presents a phased model for classroom deployment; and (3) categorizes the set of lessons we have learned during our deployment efforts. [Authors' abstract]

Revoicing Classrooms: A Spatial Manifesto
FORUM: For Promoting 3-19 Comprehensive Education; v46 n1 , p36-38 ; 2004
Why is the physical learning environment in schools largely ignored by teachers within pedagogical practice? The author contends that the "Knowledge Age" requires that school, college, and university classrooms once again be converted to make more functional sense, and that one way of accomplishing this is through a campaign that relates space directly to changes in pedagogy, curriculum and ICT by placing spatial literacy firmly on the agenda of teachers' own learning.

Designing More Effective On-Campus Teaching and Learning Spaces: A Role for Academic Developers
Jamieson, Peter
International Journal for Academic Development ; v8 n1-2 , p119 - 133 ; Nov 2003
Teaching and learning on campus takes place within specific physical settings that are integral to the process. The traditional, teacher-centred and didactic instruction of universities has been embedded in the constructed environment of the campus, particularly the lecture theatres and other formal classrooms. However, these same facilities now threaten to impede the implementation of more student-centred and flexible learning approaches being introduced in higher education worldwide. Recent attempts to create new teaching and learning facilities on university campuses have often resulted in celebrated architecture that has proved to be educationally problematic. What types of physical settings are required to support the teaching and learning processes emerging in higher education? This paper argues that academic developers have a key role to play in assisting universities to engage effectively in the design and development of more effective teaching and learning facilities. [Author's abstract]

Designing the Space: A Conversation with William J. Mitchell.
Syllabus ; Sep 2003
Syllabus interviews William J. Mitchell, Dean of MIT’s School of Architecture and Planning, about the design of technology-enhanced learning spaces.

Take My Chair (Please): Experts Say Students Learn More If They Are Comfortable, But Few Colleges Listen
Bartlett, Thomas
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v49 n26 , A36-A38 ; Mar 07, 2003
Experts on classroom design argue that even the most fascinating lecture or stimulating discussion can be undermined by a bad classroom where temperature, lighting, acoustics, and furniture are inadequate. Experts say it's time colleges finally realized the pedagogical value of a comfortable chair, the ability to see the blackboard, hear the teacher, etc.

Accommodating Students' Learning Styles.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v6 n3 , p30-31 ; Mar 2003
Describes some learning tools that are being used in college classrooms to accommodate various learning styles. They include amplification systems, video systems, and whiteboards.

TEAL: Technology Enhanced Active Learning.
Microsoft Research; 2003
This describes the 3,000-square-foot TEAL classroom at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts that contains an instructor's workstation in the center of the room, surrounded by 13 round, seven-foot tables seating nine students apiece; eight projectors around the perimeter of the room that can project both PowerPoint presentations and applets; and 13 video cameras that project onto 13 different white boards, one for each of the tables. Students work in a computer rich environment; they have one networked laptop per three students, with data acquisition links between laptop and experiments

Learning Spaces: More Than Meets the Eye. Adobe PDF
Brown, Malcolm; Lippincott, Joan
Educause Quarterly; v26 n1 , p14-16 ; 2003
With the advent of technology on campus comes a shift from classroom to learning space. New conceptions of the classroom are being driven by the emergence of new methods of teaching and learning, made possible by the rapid evolution and adoption of information technology.

Smart Classrooms, Dumb Decisions?
Long, Phillip D.
Syllabus. Technology for Higher Education; Nov 2002
More and more technology has been put into classrooms, hoping it makes the learning experience more effective and the teaching options more flexible. This discusses the implications for today.

ABCs of Smart Classrooms.
Murphy, Cathy
Syllabus; v16 n2 , p24-26 ; Sep 2002
Describes issues involved when converting traditional classrooms into smart classrooms that include appropriate educational technology. Highlights include faculty training in advance; flexibility; design considerations; technical support; and an example based on experiences at Virginia Commonwealth University.

New Learning Spaces: Smart Learners, Not Smart Classrooms.
Strauss, Howard
Syllabus; Sep 2002
Improving how students learn will benefit from great information technology and multimedia infrastructure, but ultimately the focus must be on getting smart teachers and students to use smart tools in a learning space that enables them to learn as individuals everywhere, all of the time.

The Black Box Theater and AV/IT Convergence: Creating the Classroom of the Future. Adobe PDF
Valenti, Mark S.
Educause Review; v37 n5 , p52-54,56,58,60,62 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Explains the concept of a "black box" classroom where there is a convergence of audiovisual and information technologies providing both the teacher and the students with essential tools and flexibility. Next generation technologies, such as smart furniture and smart building products, are explored.

Classroom Use and Utilization.
Fink, Ira
Facilities Manager; v18 n3 , p13-24 ; May-Jun 2002
Discusses how college and university classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations.

Evaluation of the Physical Classroom by Students and Professors: a Lens Model Approach
Douglas, Darren and Gifford, Robert
Educational Research; v43 n3 , p295 - 309 ; Winter 2001
A method for linking classroom evaluations to specific physical properties and for comparing the evaluations of different groups is described and illustrated. Thirty-five college classrooms were photographed and shown to 20 professors and 51 undergraduate students, each of whom evaluated the friendliness of and their overall preference for all the classrooms. Seven physical properties of the classrooms were reliably assessed by independent observers. Using a modified Brunswik lens model, the relations between the physical properties and the evaluations by the two groups were established and compared. Between 40 and 57 per cent of the variance in the evaluations could be explained from only three classroom properties: view to outdoors, seating comfort and seating arrangement. Evaluations by the students and professors were surprisingly similar, an encouraging sign for classroom designers. [Authors abstract]

Place and Space in the Design of New Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Jamieson, Peter; Fisher, Kenn; Gilding, Tony; Taylor, Peter; Trevitt, A.C.F.
Higher Education Research and Development; v19 n2 , p221-237 ; Jul 2000
Highlights examples of recent developments of new learning environments which have been enhanced by the contribution of educational developers at several Australian universities. A set of pedagogically-informed principles to guide the development of on-campus teaching and learning environments are detailed. These principals emphasize flexibility of space, use of vertical space, integration of previously discrete campus functions, and design to maximize user access, control and alignment of curricula. Includes 26 references.

Classroom Design at Binghamton University.
Donahue, Jeffrey B.
College & University Media Review; v6 n2 , p43-54 ; Spring-Summer 2000
Describes the work of the Classroom Environment Committee at Binghamton University (New York) that created classroom standards for multimedia technology when renovating classrooms. Data display, network connections, screens, laptop computers, lighting, furniture, design considerations, and the need for communication with faculty are discussed.

Smart Classrooms Require Smart Planning.
Troup, Wilson
College Planning and Management; v3 n4 , p37-38,41 ; Apr 2000
Discusses considerations in flooring, wiring, and furniture when remodeling classrooms for the information age. Conversion planning stages are addressed.

The Changing College Classroom.
Paulien, Daniel K.
Facilities Manager; v 14 n6 , p24-27, 30 ; Nov-Dec 1998
Describes the ways in which college classrooms are changing as a result of technology, furnishings, and educational needs requiring more space and different classroom design concepts. Why the traditional tablet armchair classroom is becoming unpopular is explained.

Resources for Designing Library Electronic Classrooms
Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke
MC Journal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship; v6 n1 ; Spring-Summer 1998
This annotated bibliography identifies resources for librarians who are designing instructional classrooms. These spaces are complex environments and the needs of library instructors, students, computer technology, computer technicians and the electronic resources themselves must all be taken into account as the spaces are planned and built.

Classroom Seating Location, Student Grades, and Attitudes: Environment or Self- Selected.
Stires, Lloyd
Environment and Behavior; v12 n2 , p241-254 ; Jun 1980
Reports on differences in higher education students' grades according to where they were seated in the classroom, and according to whether or not that seating was assigned or by their own choice. Includes ten references.

The Soft Classroom.
Sommer, Robert; Olsen, Helge
Environment and Behavior; v12 n1 , p3-16 ; Mar 1980
Describes the conversion of a higher education from a hard-surface, desks-in-rows configuration, to a more "lounge-like" appearance, with carpeting and upholstered couches instead of desks. Reaction to the space was positive, with stronger student participation and widespread demand for the room among faculty. Includes seven references.

The Effect of Windowless Rooms and Unembellished Surroundings on Attitudes and Retention.
Tognoli, Jerome
Environment and Behavior; v5 n2 , p191-201 ; Jun 1973
Reports on higher education students' learning responses in various combinations of decorated and undecorated, windowed and windowless classrooms, containing both upholstered and unupholstered chairs. Includes 15 references.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).