Information on school classroom design and layout, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
10 Current School Facility Features that are Obsolete
(School Design Matters, Jun 20, 2012)
Looks at school facility features that are obsolete today and yet are still in wide use: departmental organizations; learning in prescribed spaces; school corridors; traditional school libraries; computer labs; gyms without natural daylight; teacher centered classrooms; isolate classrooms; institutional food service; and large gang restrooms.
Planning a STEM Classroom
(Interior Concepts, Apr 2012)
Discusses furniture design and room layout that will help to facilitate STEM curriculum and programs to maximize learning. 4p
Learn for Life. New Architecture for New Learning.
S. Ehmann, S. Borges, R. Klanten
(Gestalten, Feb 2012)
Diverse collection of inspiring architecture and interiors that support progressive models of acquiring knowledge. New interpretations of kindergartens, schools, universities, and libraries are featured along with architecturally innovative offices and conference rooms. These examples are rounded out by more experimental projects that offer further perspectives on the rapidly evolving topic of how best to learn in the new millennium.TO ORDER: http://usshop.gestalten.com/catalog/product/view/id/4630
The groundbreaking spaces promote learning by inspiring us, providing us with helpful tools, and facilitating opportunities for productive cooperation and the exchange of ideas within groups. In short, the work makes clear that the creative use of architecture and interior design not only provides a new physical framework for acquiring knowledge, but also revitalizes and advances the process of learning as a whole. 288p
LAVA: Classroom of the Future
(Designboom, Jan 25, 2012)
Shows a classroom of the future, a prefabricated and relocatable classroom unit that integrates into the landscape while enhancing the learning environment, allowing adjustments for changing needs of remote schools. Transforming the stigma of unsightly and unpleasant moveable architecture, this design attempts to make learning fun and exciting within a sustainable, practical and cost effective structure. Designed by Australia's laboratory for visionary architecture [LAVA]. Includes renderings, diagrams, and perspectives.
Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration
Dorley, Scott; Witthoft, Scott; Platner, Hasso
(Wiley, Jan 2012)
Tool that shows how space can be intentionally manipulated to ignite creativity. Guide offers novel and non-obvious strategies for changing surroundings specifically to enhance the ways in which teams and individuals communicate, work, play--and innovate. Includes: tips on how to build everything from furniture, to wall treatments, and rigging; scenarios, and layouts for sparking creative activities; bite-sized lessons; candid stories with lessons on creating spaces for making, learning, imagining, and connecting; and a framework for understanding, planning, and building collaborative environments. Full color images and illustrations. 272pTO ORDER: http://www.wiley.com
The Third Teacher
(North Shore Country Day School, Dec 16, 2011)
Architect Trung Le talks about Winnetka, Illinois North Shore Country Day's Upper School project, featuring adaptable classroom spaces, common gathering areas, and flexible furnishings.
Sims, Joel K.
(School Designer, Dec 2011)
Explores K-12 schools from all over the world that incorporate areas that students find both beneficial and enjoyable. Provides comments from students who have utilized the spaces and enjoyed the benefits first-hand. 118pTO ORDER: http://www.lulu.com/product/ebook/schooldesigner-student-spaces/18739202
Reimagining the Classroom: Opportunities to Link Recent Advances in Pedagogy to Physical Settings
De Gregori, Alessandro
(McGraw-Hill Research Foundation , Nov 2011)
Examines how a classroom's physical environment (as defined by its design, layout, furnishings, and space utilization) can be manipulated to enhance its learning environment. Presents three case studies on schools where the physical environment has been purposely designed to facilitate unique pedagogical models with marked success; reflects on why the potential for using a classroom's physical setting to optimize its teaching model has not been studied more rigorously; and considers what can be done to enhance the knowledge base in this unexplored yet vital area of study. 16p
Collective Intelligence. Facility's Response to the International Baccalaureate Curriculum.
(Perkins Eastman K-12 Group, Oct 2011)
Provides plans for accommodating the ideals of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program within an existing school facility, including Primary Learning Modalities, General Meeting & Collaboration, General Teaching Training, and Diploma College Preparation. Focuses on the library as a dynamic and active place for collaboration and exploration. Includes strategies to minimize costs while providing a first class 21st century educational experience. 16p
A Room to Learn. Rethinking Classroom Environments.
Faulk, Janet; Evanshen, Pam
(Gryphon House, Inc. , Jun 2011)
Based on the latest research about how children learn, this book helps teachers make their classrooms into creative spaces that facilitate teaching and learning. Geared toward showing teachers how to use the learning environment as a teaching tool, the book begins with research and exploration about designing classrooms for child-centered learning. It then delves into specific areas of classroom design such as use of color and plants, room arrangement, learning centers, and impact of clutter. With “before” and “after” photos of real classrooms, teachers can examine each area and determine their own classroom’s need for improvement. 192p.TO ORDER: http://www.gryphonhouse.com/
Classroom Architect: Outline Your Classroom Floor Plan.
Interactive tool provides an opportunity for experimentation with classroom layout, in order to support learning goals. After selecting the basic dimensions of the room, one can drag objects to a grid from the Items bar, or draw in objects with the Draw bar. The floor plans can be saved to a computer or printed out.
Optimal Learning Environments: Societal Expectations, Learning Goals and the Role of School Designers.
(Designshare.com, Minneapolis, MN , 2011)
Explores the effects of societal expectations on schools and investigates the relationship among those expectations, learning goals, and the learning theories that undergird schools. Through historical descriptions and practical ideas, advice is offered that can help designers of learning environments create flexible and responsive physical contexts. 7p.
Space Impacts Learning.
(Steelcase Education Solutions, Jan 2011)
Trung Le's recommendations for using space to help transform teaching and learning include: change the language and lexicon, eliminate "classroom" from vocabulary and talk about learning activities and settings; plan a diversity of agile spaces for learning--no one space can truly be "multipurpose"; accept that creativity isn't just for the arts, and process isn't just for the sciences—find the collisions; put the users, the teachers and the students in control of their space, furniture, technology and digital tools; create spaces at every level that look more like kindergarten--experiential, interactive, collaborative, active, exciting.
Plants in the Classroom Can Improve Student Performance.
Daly, John; Burchett, Margaret; Torpy, Fraser
(University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, Oct 29, 2010)
The aims of this project was to investigate the effects of indoor plants on classroom performance in years 6 and 7 students. The trials were conducted in three independent schools in the Brisbane region, with a total of over 360 students in 13 classes. Half of the classes received 3 plants per classroom, and students were tested with standard tests before plant placements and re-tested after 6 weeks of plant presence or absence. In two of the schools, significant improvements were found with plants present, as compared to classes without plants. The consistency of results among schools, classes, and the large student numbers leads the authors to recommend that indoor plants should be a standard installation in school classrooms. 9p.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2010)
Examines multipurpose spaces in schools. After a brief review of the history of multipurpose spaces, the document covers a variety of key issues to be considered for optimal performance of space that will serve various functions and various student and community populations. These issues include location, technology, food service, acoustics, lighting, seating, ventilation, outdoor space, and stage use. Design advice addressing the space a school symbol, and creative adjacencies is included, as are 12 references. 4p.
Setting Up Classroom Spaces That Support Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Kabot, Susan; Reeve, Christine
(Autism Asberger Publishing Company, Shawnee Mission, KS, Sep 2010)
Illustrates with brief text and photos how to determine what type of furniture and materials to choose for various types of classrooms and how to arrange them in a way that creates an effective learning environment while reducing anxiety and preventing problem behaviors. It uses evidence-based practices of structure and visual supports to enhance the well-being and success of students. Examples are given for students across the age span with lists and resources. 88TO ORDER: http://www.autismbookstore.com/
Place of Virtual, Pedagogic and Physical Space in the 21st Century Classroom
(Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning, Aug 2010)
This paper outlines work connected to the successful convergence of digital, pedagogic and physical space. The Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning (SCIL) has been focusing on the gap that has existed in schools where the physical layout is often stuck in an industrial-era education model, rather than reflecting the possibilities of ICT-enhanced personalised learning. SCIL has been working to create digital spaces so that students can consistently transition from the real to virtual world. [Author's abstract] 13p.
Design for the Creative Age.
Illustrates international examples of collaborative and individual learning opportunities in a variety of learning spaces where large and small groups, as well as individuals in personal spaces can study. School/community connections, revealed structural elements, and dedicated interdisciplinary project spaces are addressed.
The Best Paint Color for Classroom Walls.
(eHow, Apr 01, 2010)
The right color shade can transform a distracted, frazzled environment into a calm and focused space. This discusses beneficial colors and what to avoid. 2p.
The Top Color Schemes for a School Classroom.
Stephenson, D. R.
(eHow, Jan 03, 2010)
Discusses considerations in choosing the best colors for a classroom, including color for quiet study, for physical exercise, for regular classrooms, for children of different ages, and for school hallways.
Learning Spaces Bibliography.
(Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia , 2010)
Presents a bibliography of books and periodical articles on the topic of learning spaces.
School 2.0 - Designing Tomorrow's Schools.
(Fielding Nair International , 2010)
Advocates the design schools to accommodate various modalities of learning: aural, visual, and tactile. Spaces where students can work in groups and problem-solve are described. These include creation of small learning communities within the classroom, social spaces. The opportunity to modifying an existing building in this manner is emphasized.
Teaching and Learning: Physical Layout.
(Teaching and Learning Website, 2010)
This discusses different arrangements of the furniture of a classroom in order to promote a particular kind of interaction, such as teacher-centered teaching, whole-group discussion, and small working groups.
Creating Environments for Learning: Birth to Age Eight.
(Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2010)
Provides a textbook for study of the creation of early childhood and primary learning environments, with chapters on creating healthy and safe environments, arranging the classroom, design considerations, developing learning centers within the space that serve specific subject areas and play, outdoor learning spaces, and family areas. 447p.TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com
Classroom of the Future. Orchestrating Collaborative Spaces.
Makitolo-Siegel, Kati; Zottman, Jan; Kaplan, Frederic; Fischer, Frank
(Sense Publishers. Technology Enhanced Learning Volume 3. , 2010)
This book brings together the perspectives of researchers, architects, technical designers, and teachers on emerging theoretical and technological developments pertaining to the classroom of the future. Innovative ideas are offered on how new technologies and learning approaches can be integrated into schools, challenging the thinking of learning spaces in a new way. Chapters include: Learning Space Shaped by Instructional, Classroom, and School Building Design; Facilitating Learning Using Technology-Enhanced Objects and Furniture; and Knowledge Building in Virtual and Physical Learning Spaces. 46p
Designing New Learning Environments to Support 21st Century Learning Skills.
(DesignShare.Com, Minneapolis, MN , 2010)
Uses examples of innovative school buildings designed for collaborative learning to illustrate how the familiar box-based design of most current schools was designed for an outdated factory-model agenda. The new learning formats of engagement, problem solving, and communication are accommodated by these "form follows function" designs. Includes 26 references. 32p.
Designing Schools for 21st Century Learning. [Video]
(The Pearson Foundation and The Mobile Learning Institute with the Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Oct 18, 2009)
Architect Randall Fielding discusses cutting-edge school design while taking the viewer on a tour of schools. Presented at the CEFPI 86th Annual World Conference & Expo.
Ingenium - Room for Learning [Video]
(Presented at the Council of Educational Facility Planners International 86th Annual World Conference & Expo. , Oct 18, 2009)
In 2001, England's Richmond upon Thames Council assembled a team to work on a vision for the classroom of the future. The result is Ingenium — a completely new approach to classroom design reflecting the demands of 21st Century learning. Core members of the design team were students from the three partner schools. They said they didn’t want a rectangular box with desks: they wanted to be able to arrange the space to suit themselves; to have the resources they needed to be available on demand; and above all they wanted to feel comfortable, in every sense, in their classroom. They said they wanted plenty of light, colour and air. Video shows the resulting classroom and the design process.
Learning Environments: Where Space, Technology, and Culture Converge.
Warger, Tom; Dobbin, Gregory
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Oct 2009)
Suggests that the time has come to broaden the scope of that inquiry and consider factors beyond space, including learning culture and the changing roles of instructors, students, and other people involved in teaching and learning. The effort to understand and develop effective learning environments includes more individuals and more roles than have generally been involved in the discussion about teaching and learning, and the factors at issue include, but go beyond, technology. 14p.
The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall; Lackney, Jeffery
(DesignShare.com, Minneapolis, MN , Sep 2009)
Presents 28 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, entries, student display space, "home base" and individual storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, supervision, dispersed technology, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Appendices include illustrated essays on school design, the future of built schools, author biographies, and 21 references. 214p.TO ORDER: http://www.designshare.com/index.php/language-school-design/order-process
Designing Learning Spaces for 21st Century Learners.
(University of Oregon, Eugene , Jun 14, 2009)
Advocates learner-centered instructional spaces, considering the culture of the school; flexible, connected, and collaborative environments; rich technology; and consideration of physiology in furnishings, lighting, and acoustics. 9p.
21st Century Learning Labs for Students of all Abilities.
(Creative Learning Labs, Jun 2009)
Creative Learning Systems engages learners with fully-integrated classroom systems focused on STEM, technology exploration, alternative energy education and media production.
International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES).
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, Paris, France , May 2009)
Provides a guide for those involved in the International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES): national coordinators and research teams, teaching staff, students, school principals, and others. The purpose of this pilot project is to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in educational spaces. The manual describes four research tools: 1) priority-rating exercise for quality performance objectives, 2) educational facility analysis. 3) student and teaching staff questionnaires, and 4) focus groups. For each tool, this manual presents the tool's objectives, research questions, expected response time, step-by-step instructions on how to implement the tool, and presentation of results in the final report. 71p.
School of One Design Charrette.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , May 2009)
Focuses on designing the space for New York City Schools' pilot concept entitled "School of One" which redefines the role of technology in the learning environment. The space has to accommodate asynchronous learning with different students working of varying lessons. In place of classrooms, a series of learning pods, some with fixed and some with movable furnishings were envisioned. 5p.
2009 Open Architecture Challenge: Classroom.
(Architecture for Humanity, Open Architecture Network, San Francisco, CA, 2009)
Presents over 300 school designs from teams made up of architects, students, and teachers, along with detail on the award winnders. The economical designs are intended developing and under-funded areas, with an emphasis on affordability, sustainability, and portable or modular construction.
21st Century Learning Environments.
(Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Tucson, AZ , 2009)
Proposes that learning environments must embrace a diverse and complex world of people, places, and ideas. While a tremendous amount of attention has been paid to standards, assessments, professional development, and curriculum and instruction, the paper finds that learning environments are an essential component to supporting positive 21st century outcomes for students. The report notes that the term learning environment has traditionally suggested a concrete place, but in todays interconnected and technology-driven world, a learning environment can be virtual, online, and remote. While the relationship of physical spaces and technological systems to learning continues to be ever important, even more important is how, and whether, these environments support the positive human relationships that matter most to learning. The paper notes that the greatest challenge to incorporating technology into learning environments is not finding time and money, but finding ways to adequately support the use of these tools. While, today, many schools have advanced well beyond those outdated models and classrooms have become undeniably more flexible, colorful and engaging, this is just an initial step. Successful learning environments must be able to adapt to the constantly evolving and ever-changing nature of technology, teaching, and learning. Includes 66 references. 34p.
Adaptable Spaces and Their Impact on Learning.
(Herman Miller Inc., Zeeland, MI , 2009)
Quantifies the benefits of flexible learning environments with figures representing the learning benefits of comfort, convenience, lighting, movable furnishings, and good acoustics. 22 references are included. The data and text reflect the observations of various institutions participating in the Learning Studio program.
School of One, Program Overview Video.
(New York City Public Schools, 2009)
Describes New York City's multi-faceted School of One teaching program that combines classroom, individual, and virtual learning customized to a student's skills and interests. This educational delivery system relies on a variety of teaching spaces and personnel.
Steelcase LearnLab---Learning Outside the Box
Classrooms today must support frequent collaboration and communication, easy transfer of information between individuals and groups, the effective display of content and the need for teams to constantly reconfigure and switch between different ways of working. These are the demands that the LearnLab environment was designed to meet. The LearnLab grew out of a user-centered design process developed by Steelcases WorkSpace Futures group. The process begins with research to clearly understand end users and their specific needs.
The Outlook for Learning--Views on the Future.
(Herman Miller Inc., Zeeland, MI , 2009)
Offers an update to 2005 research on the future of learning. This paper addresses globalization, accommodation of diversity with inclusive learning, an emphasis on learning outside the classroom, reduction of available space, interdisciplinary learning, increased student control of learning, increased student diversity, competition among institutions for students, increased importance of higher learning institutions in local and regional economies, complex institution/faculty relationships and tension between faculty, and an increase in accountability. 14 references are included. 11p.
Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition.
Cavenaugh, William; Tocci, Gregory; Wilkes, Joseph
(John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2009)
Provides design professionals with information on basic concepts, acoustical materials, and technologies for controlling wanted or unwanted sound within and around buildings. The book covers fundamental acoustic principles, design criteria, acoustical materials, control strategies, and methods for a wide variety of building types, including educational facilities. Particular attention is given to places for listening and performance such as theaters, concert and recital halls, outdoor arenas, classrooms, multiuse auditoria, libraries, music practice and rehearsal rooms, recording and broadcast studios, and sports venues. 352p.
Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press
References to Journal Articles
ZoN Classroom 2021
American School and University; Jun 2012
Describes a classroom of the future, a technology-rich agile learning environment.
A Variety of Voices: Innovative Learning Spaces Transform the Hartland-Lakeside School District
DesignShare; May 31, 2012
Describes how the Hartland-Lakeside School District, Wisconsin went from typical classrooms to innovative spaces. Across the district, teachers, students and administrators have transformed their Industrial Age classrooms into innovative, state-of-the-art learning spaces
21st Century Learning: A visit to the Georgia Department of Education’s Center for Classroom Innovation
Barrow Media Center; May 07, 2012
Describes a room setup with different spaces depending on the kinds of learning and collaboration taking place. The room also offers flexibility with some mobile furniture such as rolling chairs, rolling tables, and screens that divide the space into different learning areas.
Classroom Design - Feng Shui For Learning
Mercer Hall and Patricia Russac
ASIDE Blog; May 07, 2012
Provides a variety of classroom layouts that are an extension of the learning. Adaptable designs allow for differentiation. They avoid a repetitive setting and instead customize the space for lessons. Redecorating enlivens the children's experiences and provides flexible room for technology or discussions. Feng shui harmony translates to the classroom, as the arrangement matters.
School Planning and Management; , p38-46 ; May 2012
A group of design professionals show how a school's interior design can inspire teaching and learning.
Creating a College-Going Mindset
Jones, Nathanial and Payne, William
School Planning and Management; , p20-26 ; May 2012
Discusses how educational interiors can help change the face of alternative education by reinventing the look and feel of the classroom. Emphasizes collaborative spaces, layered technology, transparency, and flexibility.
The Classroom of the Future is Here
Futures; Apr 26, 2012
Innovative teachers + technology + smart policies = the active learning and collaborative skills required for the 21st century. Schools will become more like laboratories or art studios, to encourage the innovation and open-ended thinking that countries needs to thrive in the 21st century.
Re-designing Spaces for Learning
Connected Principals; Apr 2012
Based on case study for education redesign for Northern Beaches Christian School, a co-educational K-12 school of 1300 students in the northern region of Sydney, Australia. NBCS created some new spaces for learning: flowing nooks and crannies; design and production suites; multimodal agile spaces. NBCS renovated existing spaces: The Zone (an open learning environment for 180 students and 6 teachers) and Rhythm & Blues (a shared space for music learning) and the Hub.
How to Design an Autistic Classroom
eHow; Apr 2012
Describes how to make changes to the traditional environment to help foster a learning environment for autistic children.
Build Schools For Today's Learners
CBP Articles; Mar 14, 2012
Conventional school learning-area designs are losing functionality as electronic learning tools, such as laptops, tablets, and independent-learning techniques play an increasing role in education. Taking the place of conventional arrangements are open-space designs with good indoor air quality, flexible/movable furnishings, and easy access to power.
Forming Playscapes: What Schools Can Learn from Playgrounds
Arch Daily; Mar 07, 2012
When designing classrooms, designers should look at spaces that welcome interaction with the environment and encourage the free reign of energy and imagination--the playground. Describes numerous schools around the world that can inspire the classrooms of the future.
Designing the School Around the Student
THEJournal; Feb 22, 2012
Case study of a Minnesota high school's planning team that started from scratch and created a 21st century facility that turns the traditional classroom model inside out. Instead of waiting for students to come to class, teachers move about the school equipped with their laptops and other teaching tools.
Creating an Ultra-Flexible Learning Space
THEJournal; Feb 08, 2012
Designers of the Minnesota School of Environmental Studies (SES) were years ahead of the curve when it came to creating collaborative classrooms that would one day accommodate learning technologies that in 1995 had yet to be conceived--let alone developed and marketed to the educational sector. Cumulatively the various features that went into SES' design have withstood both the test of time and the onslaught of technology in the high school classroom.
15 Low-Cost Tips for School Interiors
School Planning and Management; , p18-22 ; Feb 2012
Interior designer Carla Remenschneider and architects Jeanne Jackson and Steven Shiver share their favorite low-cost techniques for brightening schools, including ideas for casework, colors, furnishings graphics, lighting, windows, flooring materials, and sustainable materials.
School Furniture by the Square Foot
American School and University; Feb 2012
Discusses redesigning classrooms that requires reconfiguring walls as well as furnishings and making those spaces available for multiple uses. Designs driven by new pedagogy may include a variety of spaces for individual work, small-group work, large-group work, lectures, presentations, breakouts and interaction with faculty. To truly shift the educational paradigm, learning spaces also must reflect a network of connected places outside the classroom, where learning can flow from one space to the next, and a sense of community is fostered.
The Classroom Evolved: Creating an Active Learning Environment
THE Journal; Jan 25, 2012
Describes Bishop Moore Catholic High School in Orlando, Florida that's borrowed ideas from two major universities to create classrooms that support interactive, hands-on learning. The design for all five of Bishop Moore's active learning classrooms is based on TEAL (Technology-Enhanced Active Learning), a mix of pedagogy, technology, and classroom design
Designing the 21st Century K-12 Classroom
THE Journal; , 2p ; Jan 18, 2012
Describes six design elements that should be incorporated into the 21st Century classroom: desks and furniture that support collaboration; ample electrical outlets; a smart teacher lectern; lighting that's easy to control; physical space that goes beyond the single classroom; and fewer expansive gathering areas.
Smart Building Spaces Redefine Traditional School Environments
School Construction News; Dec 13, 2011
Discusses serendipity spaces that manifest themselves in a variety of forms — from quiet study alcoves in a library, to a main traffic lounge complete with computer terminals and a nearby café; or a comfortable niche seating area adjacent to a window with a scenic view. These areas often reduce the sterility of classroom-oriented settings by featuring useful amenities such as private workstations, power outlets, wi-fi, convenient access to refreshments, televisions and reading material. Typically, these incorporate comfortable seating, such as couches and loungers with appropriately sized work tables. Such serendipity spaces are truly essential to allow the most efficient use of space and to offer reasons for students and faculty to interact outside the classroom walls.
Genius Loci: MacConnell Award Projects + Ewan Mclntosh's Seven Spaces
Baibak, Rebecca; Ruiz, Karina; Parker, Ross and Peters. Edward J
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p9-11 ; Dec 2011
Given the surge of technology use in the 21st century, explores the defining characteristics of schools of the future: group spaces, secret spaces, publishing spaces, performing spaces, participation spaces, and watching spaces.
LearnSpace Facility Engages! Enlightens! And Envisions!
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2011
LearnSpace shows that learning can take place in a variety of spaces and places. LearnSpace assists schools in identifying future educational needs and the corresponding spatial requirements for these needs.
21st-Century Learning Q&A
American School and University; Nov 2011
Twenty-five architects comment on the latest innovations in designing for future learning, as well as how design can support these trends. Questions answered include: What are the latest ideas/innovations in designing to support 21st-century learning?; How can the built environment support emerging trends in education?' What are some design trends in specialized classrooms or programs to support future learning styles/methods? and How is technology for today’s learning affecting school design?
This State-of-the-art Classroom Makes Physics Fun
Orlando Sentinel; Oct 09, 2011
Describes studio classroom with white smart boards, writable windows, and giant touch-screen computer monitors encouraging hands-on learning.
Modern Marvels. Today's Classrooms Boast Form and Function for Collaborative Learning.
Charter Schools Insider ; Oct 2011
As teaching methodologies have changed to more effectively reach every student in class and engage students collectively for longer, so too have the elements that go into classrooms. The form and function of cutting-edge classroom furniture and technology are designed to enhance mobility, flexibility and personalization.
Team Building in Class.
School Planning and Management; , p28-29 ; Oct 2011
Describes how collaboration tables in the 21st century classroom foster stimulating interactions through their functional and aesthetic design.
10 Ways to Create Schools Where Students Thrive
Learning by Design; , p14-17 ; Fall 2011
Describes 10 innovative strategies for creating 21st century schools: engage all stakeholders in the design process; seek education partnerships and joint use; maximize sites well connected to the community; adapt and reuse existing facilities; utilize the neighborhood and the world as a campus; use sustainable design for a high-performance learning environment; integrate technology throughout; facilitate learning everywhere; break down the scale of the school; and design in support of learning.
Classroom Acoustics Affect Student Achievement.
Ronsse, Lauren M. and Wang, Lily M.;
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Sep 19, 2011
Findings from a study comparing unoccupied classroom noise levels and reverberation times to the age of the school buildings and the elementary student achievement scores attained by students using those classrooms. Recommends that classroom mechanical systems should be designed with lower noise levels to optimize student reading comprehension.
What I’ve Learned After 15 Years of Designing Schools
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
Architect Steve Southerland picks nine favorite lessons to help lift school projects from merely functional to inspirational: know your client; classroom shape; rooms as backdrop; harden the finishes; refuge and prospect; teachable moments; social spaces; program the site; and access to the natural world.
It’s Time for Americans to Rethink the Classroom
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
Traditional set-ups aren’t designed to prepare U.S. students with the creative skills they’ll need to compete in the global economy. Illustrates the three main approaches to rethinking the classroom: change classrooms, eliminate classrooms, or change the concept of where people learn.
Student-Centered Interior Design.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p33,34,37 ; Aug 2011
Discusses design of classroom, cafeteria, library, technology and other mobile equipment to accommodate aural, visual, and tactile learners. Flexibility, acoustics, lighting, connection to the outdoors, a variety of large and small learning spaces, scale, technology integration, and mobile storage are discussed.
The Classroom Is Obsolete: It's Time for Something New.
Education Week; Jul 29, 2011
School design needs to change from a classroom-based model to one centered on principles such as personalized education and inquiry-based, student-directed learning.
Aces of Space.
Campus Technology; v24 n10 , p32-34,36,38,39 ; Jun 2011
Profiles four schools that use technology, new design concepts, and flexible furnishings to reinvent their teaching spaces. Curved rooms, interconnected and networked electronic wall displays, modular furnishings on wheels, and classrooms with no front are described.
Learning Curve. How Museum Design Taught a New Elementary School.
Skolnick, Lee H. and Secor, Jo Ann
Museum; , p35-36 ; May-Jun 2011
Describes the design of Summit Elementary School in Casper, Wyoming that was influenced by approaches that are central to the best museum design practices: immersive environments, an array of multisensory experiences, entry point activities, and an interpretive look-and-feel approach.
Alfieri, Tony; Kirkham, Scott
American School and University; v83 n7 ; Mar 2011
Discusses using green concepts to inspire learning and create buildings as teaching tools. Gives examples of complementary learning spaces that acknowledges the role of teachers as guides and students as lifelong learners. Examples include the introduction of "student spaces" and "faculty spaces" for learning encounters.
What is the Classroom of the Future?
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p16-18,20 ; Mar 2011
Reports on Slate Magazine's "Fifth Grade Design Studio," a competition to design the fifth grade classroom of the future. Winning design by Greg Stack and Natalia Nesmealnova of NAC Architecture emphasizes flexibility of space use to address the understanding that learning can occur anywhere.
Should a Classroom Have Four Walls?
DesignShare; Feb 24, 2011
Discusses an innovative approach to educational spaces in schools of the future, where larger student community takes precedent over the smaller one in a traditional, isolated classroom. Many walls are mobile, creating an endless configuration of flexible spaces. This is an English translation of an article by François Jarraud of the on-line French magazine, Café Pedagogique.
Designed for Learning.
Magney, Tammy; Sorenson, Kim
American School and University; v83 n6 , p26,28,29 ; Feb 2011
Discusses an array of classroom design and furnishing options that encourage diverse learning modes, movement, and accommodation of technology.
Radical Idea #13: Build a Better Classroom.
Fast Company; Jan 12, 2011
Ideas for propelling classrooms into the 21st century: personalized schedules, telepresence, beautiful buildings, internet everywhere, digital learning library, and flexible furniture.
The Immersive LearningScape.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p5-9 ; 2011
Laments the inadequacy of traditional classrooms and technology that leave students disengaged. The author advocates an immersive learning environment that includes intimate spaces for individual learning, flexible spaces for team learning, a "workshop" environment that accommodates hands-on exploration, even traditional classrooms, and purely social spaces. Eleven references are included.
Ecosystems in the Learning Environment.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p10-13 ; 2011
Explores the emulation of natural ecosystems in the learning environment, illustrated with examples of cooperative, adaptive, and self-organized behavior. The implications for digital and classroom connections, patterns, and feedback is discussed. Fifteen references are included.
Clicks and Bricks: How School Buildings Influence Future Practice and Technology Adoption.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p33-37 ; 2011
Describes six specialized school spaces that encourage digital learning and customized learning. These are secret, group, publishing, performing, participation and watching spaces.
Building Blueprints: Classroom Space.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p88,89 ; Jan 2011
Briefly addresses the effect of spatial quality, seating, natural lighting, temperature, and air quality as classroom design elements that impact education.
User Participation: A New Approach to School Design in Korea.
Rieh, Sun-Young; Kim, Jin-Wook; Yu, Woong-Sang
CELE Exchange; 2011/4 ; Jan 2011
Documents work of the Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI). Planning discussions lead to subject-specific classroom clusters.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p212-215 ; Nov 2010
Describes features of a learner-centered educational facility, including spaces that foster active engagement in learning, group-friendly collaboration areas, and technological connectivity.
Recycling Buildings: Aging, Multipurpose Gyms have Future as Repurposed Classrooms.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p22,23 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses the conversion of outdated and undersized school gymnasiums into other uses. Typical re-uses are described, as are issues concerning the extent of renovation required and examples from three public schools whose gymnasiums were converted to a theatre, a health and wellness center, and a computer lab.
Agile and Information-Rich Learning Environments.
MASA Leader; , 2p. ; Sep 2010
Describes agile learning environments that provide flexibility, adaptability, and a variety of learning environments on demand in order to foster individual learning-style profiles, differentiated instruction, and response to 21st century technological demands.
What Happens in the Arcade Shouldn't Stay in the Arcade: Lessons for Classroom Design.
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Laurich, Lindsay
Language Arts; v88 n1 , p21-31 ; Sep 2010
This article presents an analysis of physical space in video game arcades and participants' positions therein to suggest how language arts teachers can explore student-designed learning spaces. Qualitative analysis of the arcade space revealed three learning principles: clustering and collaborating, inverting traditional structures of power, and reconstituting access and ownership. Following a detailed assessment of the existing literacy environment in one 5th-6th grade classroom, the researchers and the classroom teacher applied these principles through physical arrangement changes in the classroom.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p62,63 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the Hamilton City School District Extended Learning Area and Stephen F. Austin State University's School of Nursing, winning classroom projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
Classrooms Designed for Higher Performance.
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p51,52,54,56 ; Aug 2010
Responds to research demonstrating that different learning styles co-exist among students in the same classroom, and they must be responded to rather than expecting all students to learn the same way. The authors describe classroom design and planning that acknowledges the six different ways that students learn.
Wanna Improve Education? Demolish the Classrooms.
Fast Company Co Design; Aug 2010
Discusses the radically different design of Denmark's Ørestad College. Organized around a central staircase and atrium, the boomerang-shaped floor plates spin and shift like a camera shutter to create four distinct learning zones that flow into one another. The design promotes reflective, collaborative learning that mimics the way teenagers think, learn and socialize.
Space Does Matter.
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p6 ; Aug 2010
Discusses the importance of flexible classroom spaces so that teachers can accommodate varying student learning abilities.
Rethinking Classroom Design Guidelines.
Campus Technology; Jun 02, 2010
Discusses the difference between studio and traditional classrooms, with particular emphasis on how this impacts technology integration.
Seven Tips for Building Collaborative Learning Spaces.
Campus Technology; v23 n10 , p30-32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Offers tips for creating collaborative learning spaces in either new construction or renovation and retrofit. Involve faculty in design process. Gauge student input. Invest in flexible furniture. Create technological redundancy. Assess acoustical issues. Don't forget low-tech. Train the faculty on effective use.
Flip this Classrom.
School Planning and Management; v49 n5 , p20-22,24 ; May 2010
Describes how three classroom at a New York elementary school were "flipped" with a week-long replacement of furniture, carpet, lighting, and learning technology. No new construction was involved, and the results were unanimously deemed positive.
Redesigning Education: Rethinking the School Corridor.
Fast Company; Mar 26, 2010
Roughly one-third of the typical school building is used not for learning, growing, or interacting, but for getting to the places where that happens via corridors. Recommends using corridors as spaces for informal learning, to display work, to meet and to reflect. Better yet, get rid of corridors all together and let learning spaces freely flow into each other so that every inch of the school can be used to educate.
The Imagined Space of the Web 2.0 Classroom.
Campus Technology; Jan 2010
Advises on accommodating technology in a classroom. Rooms should be square or rounded instead of rectangular since sight-lines and visual display of information is now as important as the sound of voices; moving furniture for different ways to work with technology should not cause a sudden roar of noise, chair and table legs scraping on tile, but instead the soft rolling of table and chair on a soft surface.
Learning Modalities and Space.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p10-13 ; 2010
Describes an architectural response to the need for alternative learning modalities. The article addresses the sub-groups that need to accommodated by grade level, subject matter, and instructional needs. The author recommends spaces that enhance the greatest potential for visual learners, maximize spaces and materials that support auditory learners, and anticipate need for flexibility and change over the lifespan of the facility.
'Smart' Spaces Aren't Just for Classrooms Anymore.
James, Darren L.; Infanzon, Nestor
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p19-21 ; 2010
Describes the revolution in total school design promulgated in Building Information Modeling (BIM). The article discusses the learning that occurs in every school space, not just the classrooms, and suggests how to plan hallways and even exterior spaces to promote dialogue and other interactions among students and teachers.
Building Blueprints: Classrooms/Small Learning Spaces.
Payne, William; Tyler, Charlesa
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p80,81 ; Jan 2010
Discusses four characteristics of effective classrooms: agility, transparent technology, optimized acoustics, and proper daylighting.
Special Education Classroom Infrastructure: Teacher's Views.
Ysin, Mohd, Toran, Hasnah , Tahar, Mokhtar; Bari, Safani
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences; v7 , p601-604 ; 2010
Assesses the suitability of the physical infrastructure of schools and integration of special education programs across the country of Malaysia. 37.7 percent of respondents are not sure about the classroom space needed. The majority of respondents (53.6%) are satisfied with the location (ground floor) of the special education program. However, 41.9 percent of respondents did not approve of their space because it does not match the capacity of students and teachers.
The Creative Classroom: The Role of Space and Place toward Facilitating Creativity.
Warner, Scott A.; Myers, Kerri L.
Technology Teacher; v69 n4 , p28-34 ; Dec-Jan 2009
The authors focus on one important component of the dynamics of making creativity an integral part of the teaching and learning experience. That component is the importance of space and place toward facilitating creativity in the classroom or lab.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p62-67 ; Aug 2009
Profiles six classroom areas selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
Freeing Students to Succeed by Changing Classroom Space.
Duncanson, Edward; Volpe, Jan
AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice; v6 n2 , p27-35 ; Summer 2009
This article describes a no-cost, evidenced-based best practice to raise student achievement and engagement in the elementary grades based on the results from a randomized-controlled experiment. The practice is rooted in the belief that the way in which a teacher organized classroom space can significantly affect student achievement and based on positive empirical results.
The New Classroom Look.
Education Week; Jun 2009
Describes the technology-rich learning environment of the future, using Sacramento’s Tracy Learning Center as an example. The K-12 charter school has no classrooms or textbooks, with students working at computer stations and in digital projection areas.
Opening Up Learning: from Spaces to Environments.
Educause Review; v44 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Reflects on the evolution of learning areas from spaces to environments, with the interweaving of classroom, libraries, labs, and informal spaces, as well as the call for all stakeholders to join in designing and developing the learning environment.
Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices.
Open House International; v34 n1 ; Mar 2009
This issue of Open House International explores and investigate qualities and characteristics of learning environments at different scales and in different contexts, from classroom typologies to campus outdoor spaces. The 12 articles emphasize emerging paradigms in learning environments that involve a number of underlying issues including the academic house clustering, the school as heart of the community, the rising interest in new classroom spaces and forms, the user-centered processes, utilizing the learning environment as an open textbook, and the impact of recent advances in information technologies and globalization on the future of learning settings.TO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
The Users in Mind: Utilizing Henry Sanoff's Methods in Investigating the Learning Environment.
Open House International; v34 n1 , p35-44 ; Mar 2009
Analyzes reactions of teachers and students to classroom and cluster prototypes, among other aspects, against a number of spatial requirements and educational objectives. The results of this investigation support the assumption on how the school environment has a direct impact on the way in which teaching and learning takes place. A conclusion envisioning the need for going beyond adopting prescriptive measures to address the quality of the learning environment is conceived by highlighting the need to utilize knowledge generated from research findings into school design process, to pursue active roles in sensitizing users about the value of the school environment in reaching the desired academic performance while increasing teachers productivity.TO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
The Future Setting of the Design Studio.
Senyapili, Burcu; Karakaya, Ahmet
Open House International; v34 n1 , p104-112 ; Mar 2009
Explores the impact of virtual classrooms as an emerging classroom typology in comparison to the physical classrooms in the design process. Two case studies were held in order to infer design students classroom preferences in the project lifecycle. Although the students acknowledged many advantages of web-based communication in the virtual classroom, they indicated that they are unwilling to let go off face-to-face encounters with the instructors and fellow students in the physical classroom. Utilizing the positive aspects of both communication techniques, a hybrid setting for the design studio is introduced, comprising the physical classroom as well as the virtual one. The proposed use for the hybrid setting is grouped under 3 phases according to the stage of the design process; as the initial, development and final phases.TO ORDER: http://www.openhouse-int.com/volissudisplay.php?xvolno=34_1
Giving Change a Chance.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p54 ; Feb 2009
Reflects on schools that were designed with collaborative and flexible spaces, but whose spaces are not being used as intended. Encouraging administrators and educators to adapt educational delivery to contemporary spaces is proposed.
The Mobile Classroom.
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p22-24 ; 2009
Profiles the learning "Plaza" at the New Line Learning Academy in Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom. The large gathering space features furniture with wheels, 360-degree projection, and divisibility by room dividers.
Cross, Cathy; Willetts, Ben
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p10-14 ; 2009
Describes the remodeling of two school spaces into multi-sensory exploration spaces linking narrative, video, and subject knowledge. Theatrical experience can be conducted within the rooms to create participatory history and science lessons.
Learning Spaces: A Tutorial.
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Focuses on the design of informal and formal learning spaces mostly inside campus buildings, although many of the concepts could be applied in other spaces, including virtual ones. After looking at some examples of learning spaces and considering their general attributes, the details are then discussed-- those specific attributes that can make a learning space effective in supporting pedagogy and widely used by the campus community. That attention to detail transforms a learning space, whether formal or informal, into a space that facilitates student engagement and learning.
In a World of "Us-Ness."
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p5-8 ; 2009
Discusses improving a child's sense of belonging to a school community by designing schools around students' needs, creating open plans that are adaptable to future learning modalities, and creating personal spaces within schools.
Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project.
von Ahlefeld, Hannah
CELE Exchange; 2009/9 , p1-6 ; 2009
Provides an update on CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces, which aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in learning environments. The article explains the school selection and implementation process, which is currently being conducted in Mexico,New Zealand, Portugal and the United Kingdom.