NCEF Resource List: Classroom Design
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Information on school classroom design and layout, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

10 Current School Facility Features that are Obsolete
Stack, Greg
(School Design Matters, Jun 20, 2012)
Looks at school facility features that are obsolete today and yet are still in wide use: departmental organizations; learning in prescribed spaces; school corridors; traditional school libraries; computer labs; gyms without natural daylight; teacher centered classrooms; isolate classrooms; institutional food service; and large gang restrooms.

Planning a STEM Classroom Adobe PDF
(Interior Concepts, Apr 2012)
Discusses furniture design and room layout that will help to facilitate STEM curriculum and programs to maximize learning. 4p

Learn for Life. New Architecture for New Learning.
S. Ehmann, S. Borges, R. Klanten
(Gestalten, Feb 2012)
Diverse collection of inspiring architecture and interiors that support progressive models of acquiring knowledge. New interpretations of kindergartens, schools, universities, and libraries are featured along with architecturally innovative offices and conference rooms. These examples are rounded out by more experimental projects that offer further perspectives on the rapidly evolving topic of how best to learn in the new millennium.

The groundbreaking spaces promote learning by inspiring us, providing us with helpful tools, and facilitating opportunities for productive cooperation and the exchange of ideas within groups. In short, the work makes clear that the creative use of architecture and interior design not only provides a new physical framework for acquiring knowledge, but also revitalizes and advances the process of learning as a whole. 288p

LAVA: Classroom of the Future
(Designboom, Jan 25, 2012)
Shows a classroom of the future, a prefabricated and relocatable classroom unit that integrates into the landscape while enhancing the learning environment, allowing adjustments for changing needs of remote schools. Transforming the stigma of unsightly and unpleasant moveable architecture, this design attempts to make learning fun and exciting within a sustainable, practical and cost effective structure. Designed by Australia's laboratory for visionary architecture [LAVA]. Includes renderings, diagrams, and perspectives.

Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration
Dorley, Scott; Witthoft, Scott; Platner, Hasso
(Wiley, Jan 2012)
Tool that shows how space can be intentionally manipulated to ignite creativity. Guide offers novel and non-obvious strategies for changing surroundings specifically to enhance the ways in which teams and individuals communicate, work, play--and innovate. Includes: tips on how to build everything from furniture, to wall treatments, and rigging; scenarios, and layouts for sparking creative activities; bite-sized lessons; candid stories with lessons on creating spaces for making, learning, imagining, and connecting; and a framework for understanding, planning, and building collaborative environments. Full color images and illustrations. 272p

The Third Teacher
(North Shore Country Day School, Dec 16, 2011)
Architect Trung Le talks about Winnetka, Illinois North Shore Country Day's Upper School project, featuring adaptable classroom spaces, common gathering areas, and flexible furnishings.

Student Spaces.
Sims, Joel K.
(School Designer, Dec 2011)
Explores K-12 schools from all over the world that incorporate areas that students find both beneficial and enjoyable. Provides comments from students who have utilized the spaces and enjoyed the benefits first-hand. 118p

Reimagining the Classroom: Opportunities to Link Recent Advances in Pedagogy to Physical Settings Adobe PDF
De Gregori, Alessandro
(McGraw-Hill Research Foundation , Nov 2011)
Examines how a classroom's physical environment (as defined by its design, layout, furnishings, and space utilization) can be manipulated to enhance its learning environment. Presents three case studies on schools where the physical environment has been purposely designed to facilitate unique pedagogical models with marked success; reflects on why the potential for using a classroom's physical setting to optimize its teaching model has not been studied more rigorously; and considers what can be done to enhance the knowledge base in this unexplored yet vital area of study. 16p

Collective Intelligence. Facility's Response to the International Baccalaureate Curriculum.
Lee, Liz
(Perkins Eastman K-12 Group, Oct 2011)
Provides plans for accommodating the ideals of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program within an existing school facility, including Primary Learning Modalities, General Meeting & Collaboration, General Teaching Training, and Diploma College Preparation. Focuses on the library as a dynamic and active place for collaboration and exploration. Includes strategies to minimize costs while providing a first class 21st century educational experience. 16p

A Room to Learn. Rethinking Classroom Environments.
Faulk, Janet; Evanshen, Pam
(Gryphon House, Inc. , Jun 2011)
Based on the latest research about how children learn, this book helps teachers make their classrooms into creative spaces that facilitate teaching and learning. Geared toward showing teachers how to use the learning environment as a teaching tool, the book begins with research and exploration about designing classrooms for child-centered learning. It then delves into specific areas of classroom design such as use of color and plants, room arrangement, learning centers, and impact of clutter. With “before” and “after” photos of real classrooms, teachers can examine each area and determine their own classroom’s need for improvement. 192p.

Classroom Architect: Outline Your Classroom Floor Plan.
(, 2011)
Interactive tool provides an opportunity for experimentation with classroom layout, in order to support learning goals. After selecting the basic dimensions of the room, one can drag objects to a grid from the Items bar, or draw in objects with the Draw bar. The floor plans can be saved to a computer or printed out.

Optimal Learning Environments: Societal Expectations, Learning Goals and the Role of School Designers.
Akinsanmi, Bukky
(, Minneapolis, MN , 2011)
Explores the effects of societal expectations on schools and investigates the relationship among those expectations, learning goals, and the learning theories that undergird schools. Through historical descriptions and practical ideas, advice is offered that can help designers of learning environments create flexible and responsive physical contexts. 7p.

Space Impacts Learning.
Le, Trung
(Steelcase Education Solutions, Jan 2011)
Trung Le's recommendations for using space to help transform teaching and learning include: change the language and lexicon, eliminate "classroom" from vocabulary and talk about learning activities and settings; plan a diversity of agile spaces for learning--no one space can truly be "multipurpose"; accept that creativity isn't just for the arts, and process isn't just for the sciences—find the collisions; put the users, the teachers and the students in control of their space, furniture, technology and digital tools; create spaces at every level that look more like kindergarten--experiential, interactive, collaborative, active, exciting.

Plants in the Classroom Can Improve Student Performance.
Daly, John; Burchett, Margaret; Torpy, Fraser
(University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, Oct 29, 2010)
The aims of this project was to investigate the effects of indoor plants on classroom performance in years 6 and 7 students. The trials were conducted in three independent schools in the Brisbane region, with a total of over 360 students in 13 classes. Half of the classes received 3 plants per classroom, and students were tested with standard tests before plant placements and re-tested after 6 weeks of plant presence or absence. In two of the schools, significant improvements were found with plants present, as compared to classes without plants. The consistency of results among schools, classes, and the large student numbers leads the authors to recommend that indoor plants should be a standard installation in school classrooms. 9p.

Multipurpose Spaces. Adobe PDF
Gordon, Douglas
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2010)
Examines multipurpose spaces in schools. After a brief review of the history of multipurpose spaces, the document covers a variety of key issues to be considered for optimal performance of space that will serve various functions and various student and community populations. These issues include location, technology, food service, acoustics, lighting, seating, ventilation, outdoor space, and stage use. Design advice addressing the space a school symbol, and creative adjacencies is included, as are 12 references. 4p.

Setting Up Classroom Spaces That Support Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Kabot, Susan; Reeve, Christine
(Autism Asberger Publishing Company, Shawnee Mission, KS, Sep 2010)
Illustrates with brief text and photos how to determine what type of furniture and materials to choose for various types of classrooms and how to arrange them in a way that creates an effective learning environment while reducing anxiety and preventing problem behaviors. It uses evidence-based practices of structure and visual supports to enhance the well-being and success of students. Examples are given for students across the age span with lists and resources. 88

Place of Virtual, Pedagogic and Physical Space in the 21st Century Classroom Adobe PDF
Harris, Stephen
(Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning, Aug 2010)
This paper outlines work connected to the successful convergence of digital, pedagogic and physical space. The Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning (SCIL) has been focusing on the gap that has existed in schools where the physical layout is often stuck in an industrial-era education model, rather than reflecting the possibilities of ICT-enhanced personalised learning. SCIL has been working to create digital spaces so that students can consistently transition from the real to virtual world. [Author's abstract] 13p.

Design for the Creative Age.
Fielding, Randall
(DesignShare, 2010)
Illustrates international examples of collaborative and individual learning opportunities in a variety of learning spaces where large and small groups, as well as individuals in personal spaces can study. School/community connections, revealed structural elements, and dedicated interdisciplinary project spaces are addressed.

The Best Paint Color for Classroom Walls.
Dinsmore, Kevin
(eHow, Apr 01, 2010)
The right color shade can transform a distracted, frazzled environment into a calm and focused space. This discusses beneficial colors and what to avoid. 2p.

The Top Color Schemes for a School Classroom.
Stephenson, D. R.
(eHow, Jan 03, 2010)
Discusses considerations in choosing the best colors for a classroom, including color for quiet study, for physical exercise, for regular classrooms, for children of different ages, and for school hallways.

Learning Spaces Bibliography.
(Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia , 2010)
Presents a bibliography of books and periodical articles on the topic of learning spaces.

School 2.0 - Designing Tomorrow's Schools.
(Fielding Nair International , 2010)
Advocates the design schools to accommodate various modalities of learning: aural, visual, and tactile. Spaces where students can work in groups and problem-solve are described. These include creation of small learning communities within the classroom, social spaces. The opportunity to modifying an existing building in this manner is emphasized.

Teaching and Learning: Physical Layout.
Atherton, J.S.
(Teaching and Learning Website, 2010)
This discusses different arrangements of the furniture of a classroom in order to promote a particular kind of interaction, such as teacher-centered teaching, whole-group discussion, and small working groups.

Creating Environments for Learning: Birth to Age Eight.
Bullard, Julie
(Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ , 2010)
Provides a textbook for study of the creation of early childhood and primary learning environments, with chapters on creating healthy and safe environments, arranging the classroom, design considerations, developing learning centers within the space that serve specific subject areas and play, outdoor learning spaces, and family areas. 447p.

Classroom of the Future. Orchestrating Collaborative Spaces. Adobe PDF
Makitolo-Siegel, Kati; Zottman, Jan; Kaplan, Frederic; Fischer, Frank
(Sense Publishers. Technology Enhanced Learning Volume 3. , 2010)
This book brings together the perspectives of researchers, architects, technical designers, and teachers on emerging theoretical and technological developments pertaining to the classroom of the future. Innovative ideas are offered on how new technologies and learning approaches can be integrated into schools, challenging the thinking of learning spaces in a new way. Chapters include: Learning Space Shaped by Instructional, Classroom, and School Building Design; Facilitating Learning Using Technology-Enhanced Objects and Furniture; and Knowledge Building in Virtual and Physical Learning Spaces. 46p

Designing New Learning Environments to Support 21st Century Learning Skills. Adobe PDF
Pearlman, Bob
(DesignShare.Com, Minneapolis, MN , 2010)
Uses examples of innovative school buildings designed for collaborative learning to illustrate how the familiar box-based design of most current schools was designed for an outdated factory-model agenda. The new learning formats of engagement, problem solving, and communication are accommodated by these "form follows function" designs. Includes 26 references. 32p.

Designing Schools for 21st Century Learning. [Video]
(The Pearson Foundation and The Mobile Learning Institute with the Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Oct 18, 2009)
Architect Randall Fielding discusses cutting-edge school design while taking the viewer on a tour of schools. Presented at the CEFPI 86th Annual World Conference & Expo.

Ingenium - Room for Learning [Video]
(Presented at the Council of Educational Facility Planners International 86th Annual World Conference & Expo. , Oct 18, 2009)
In 2001, England's Richmond upon Thames Council assembled a team to work on a vision for the classroom of the future. The result is Ingenium — a completely new approach to classroom design reflecting the demands of 21st Century learning. Core members of the design team were students from the three partner schools. They said they didn’t want a rectangular box with desks: they wanted to be able to arrange the space to suit themselves; to have the resources they needed to be available on demand; and above all they wanted to feel comfortable, in every sense, in their classroom. They said they wanted plenty of light, colour and air. Video shows the resulting classroom and the design process.

Learning Environments: Where Space, Technology, and Culture Converge. Adobe PDF
Warger, Tom; Dobbin, Gregory
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Oct 2009)
Suggests that the time has come to broaden the scope of that inquiry and consider factors beyond space, including learning culture and the changing roles of instructors, students, and other people involved in teaching and learning. The effort to understand and develop effective learning environments includes more individuals and more roles than have generally been involved in the discussion about teaching and learning, and the factors at issue include, but go beyond, technology. 14p.

The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall; Lackney, Jeffery
(, Minneapolis, MN , Sep 2009)
Presents 28 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, entries, student display space, "home base" and individual storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, supervision, dispersed technology, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Appendices include illustrated essays on school design, the future of built schools, author biographies, and 21 references. 214p.

Designing Learning Spaces for 21st Century Learners. Adobe PDF
Brook, Diane
(University of Oregon, Eugene , Jun 14, 2009)
Advocates learner-centered instructional spaces, considering the culture of the school; flexible, connected, and collaborative environments; rich technology; and consideration of physiology in furnishings, lighting, and acoustics. 9p.

21st Century Learning Labs for Students of all Abilities.
(Creative Learning Labs, Jun 2009)
Creative Learning Systems engages learners with fully-integrated classroom systems focused on STEM, technology exploration, alternative energy education and media production.

International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES).
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, Paris, France , May 2009)
Provides a guide for those involved in the International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES): national coordinators and research teams, teaching staff, students, school principals, and others. The purpose of this pilot project is to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in educational spaces. The manual describes four research tools: 1) priority-rating exercise for quality performance objectives, 2) educational facility analysis. 3) student and teaching staff questionnaires, and 4) focus groups. For each tool, this manual presents the tool's objectives, research questions, expected response time, step-by-step instructions on how to implement the tool, and presentation of results in the final report. 71p.

School of One Design Charrette. Adobe PDF
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , May 2009)
Focuses on designing the space for New York City Schools' pilot concept entitled "School of One" which redefines the role of technology in the learning environment. The space has to accommodate asynchronous learning with different students working of varying lessons. In place of classrooms, a series of learning pods, some with fixed and some with movable furnishings were envisioned. 5p.

2009 Open Architecture Challenge: Classroom.
(Architecture for Humanity, Open Architecture Network, San Francisco, CA, 2009)
Presents over 300 school designs from teams made up of architects, students, and teachers, along with detail on the award winnders. The economical designs are intended developing and under-funded areas, with an emphasis on affordability, sustainability, and portable or modular construction.

21st Century Learning Environments.
(Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Tucson, AZ , 2009)
Proposes that learning environments must embrace a diverse and complex world of people, places, and ideas. While a tremendous amount of attention has been paid to standards, assessments, professional development, and curriculum and instruction, the paper finds that learning environments are an essential component to supporting positive 21st century outcomes for students. The report notes that the term learning environment has traditionally suggested a concrete place, but in today s interconnected and technology-driven world, a learning environment can be virtual, online, and remote. While the relationship of physical spaces and technological systems to learning continues to be ever important, even more important is how, and whether, these environments support the positive human relationships that matter most to learning. The paper notes that the greatest challenge to incorporating technology into learning environments is not finding time and money, but finding ways to adequately support the use of these tools. While, today, many schools have advanced well beyond those outdated models and classrooms have become undeniably more flexible, colorful and engaging, this is just an initial step. Successful learning environments must be able to adapt to the constantly evolving and ever-changing nature of technology, teaching, and learning. Includes 66 references. 34p.

Adaptable Spaces and Their Impact on Learning. Adobe PDF
(Herman Miller Inc., Zeeland, MI , 2009)
Quantifies the benefits of flexible learning environments with figures representing the learning benefits of comfort, convenience, lighting, movable furnishings, and good acoustics. 22 references are included. The data and text reflect the observations of various institutions participating in the Learning Studio program.

School of One, Program Overview Video.
(New York City Public Schools, 2009)
Describes New York City's multi-faceted School of One teaching program that combines classroom, individual, and virtual learning customized to a student's skills and interests. This educational delivery system relies on a variety of teaching spaces and personnel.

Steelcase LearnLab---Learning Outside the Box
(SteelCase, 2009)
Classrooms today must support frequent collaboration and communication, easy transfer of information between individuals and groups, the effective display of content and the need for teams to constantly reconfigure and switch between different ways of working. These are the demands that the LearnLab environment was designed to meet. The LearnLab grew out of a user-centered design process developed by Steelcases WorkSpace Futures group. The process begins with research to clearly understand end users and their specific needs.

The Outlook for Learning--Views on the Future. Adobe PDF
(Herman Miller Inc., Zeeland, MI , 2009)
Offers an update to 2005 research on the future of learning. This paper addresses globalization, accommodation of diversity with inclusive learning, an emphasis on learning outside the classroom, reduction of available space, interdisciplinary learning, increased student control of learning, increased student diversity, competition among institutions for students, increased importance of higher learning institutions in local and regional economies, complex institution/faculty relationships and tension between faculty, and an increase in accountability. 14 references are included. 11p.

Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition.
Cavenaugh, William; Tocci, Gregory; Wilkes, Joseph
(John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2009)
Provides design professionals with information on basic concepts, acoustical materials, and technologies for controlling wanted or unwanted sound within and around buildings. The book covers fundamental acoustic principles, design criteria, acoustical materials, control strategies, and methods for a wide variety of building types, including educational facilities. Particular attention is given to places for listening and performance such as theaters, concert and recital halls, outdoor arenas, classrooms, multiuse auditoria, libraries, music practice and rehearsal rooms, recording and broadcast studios, and sports venues. 352p.

Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.
TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press

The Optimal Learning Environment: Learning Theories.
Akinsanmi, Bukky
(DesignShare , Nov 2008)
Explores various learning theories, the learning environments associated with each theory, the physical contexts designers have created to support them, and a perspective from which designers can conceptualize the creation of an optimal learning environment. 5p.

Classroom Design for Student Achievement.
DuFault, Tim; Dyck, James; Jackson, Jeanne
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , Jul 2008)
Presents the insights of a panel of architects regarding school design intent, classroom functionality, and building attributes for effective learning environments. The presentation includes a significant number of floor plans and photographs of recent schools that offer flexible classrooms, out-of-classroom learning and collaboration areas, and examples of "green" school features. 53p.

Patterns for Small Learning Communities at the Elementary Level.
Hill, Franklin
(, Orange, CA , May 05, 2008)
Promotes the "L" shaped classroom as a model to accommodate small learning communities within elementary schools. Suggestions for creating zones within such a classroom are included. 7p.

Classroom Design for Living and Learning with Autism.
Vogel, Clare
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , May 2008)
Advises on classroom design for the autistic, emphasizing flexible spaces, spatial variety, non-treatening large spaces and spaces for refuge, cleanliness and absence of clutter, natural light, predictable navigation, safety for those who might injure themselves or others, and a residential rather than an institutional feel. Includes nine references. 4p.

Classroom of the Future.
(EdTech Planning Group, Mt. Kisco, NY, 2008)
Presents a video tour of a classroom of the future, featuring multiple display screens, flexible furnishings, ample size that allows for circulation, a mobile teacher workstation, abundant power outlets, wireless and video capability, sophisticated zoned lighting, quiet and locally controlled HVAC, and acoustical isolation.

Flip This Classroom. Learning Environments Matter.
In the spirit of the ABC television series "Extreme Makeover: Home Edition", this describes how three Westchester County, New York, classrooms were completely redone from the walls to the windows, and from the floors to the furniture.

Interactive Whiteboards in 1:1 Learning Environments: Defining Public and Private Learning Spaces in the Classroom. Adobe PDF
(SMART Technologies ULC, 2008)
This white paper examines the critical role played by interactive whiteboards in 1:1 classrooms, particularly in the way they support differentiated or personalized learning. 9p.

Future-Proofing Schools: Strategies and Implementation, Part 2.
Locker, Frank
(, Orange, CA , Aug 21, 2007)
Offers specific design suggestions to ensure adaptability of a learning space to future educational delivery. Advice on how to create a suite of connected and varied learning spaces, convert circulation space to learning space, and create flexible casework are accompanied by examples of where these strategies have been implemented. (Part 1 is titled "Future-Proofing Schools." 2p.

Learning Environments: Redefining the Discourse on School Architecture. Adobe PDF
De Gregori, Alessandro
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey School of Architecture, Newark , May 2007)
Investigates the physical environment of the school as only one component, although an important one, of learning environments suitable for learner-centered, consiructivist approaches to learning. Accordingly, school architecture should relate to both, the physical as well as the social environmental contexts. The study addresses the following: a) a review of literature related to education, school architecture, and environmental psychology; b) interviews with school architects and educators; c) case studies of schools that exemplify distinctive approaches to the design of learning environments. Among the findings, the thesis identifies three learning factors: classroom organization, learning technologies, and school climate, as components of a conceptual framework that could advance a common language between educators and architects. 125p.

Learning Journeys, Moving Towards Designs for New Learning Spaces: Two Truths and a Suggestion. Adobe PDF
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Discusses how educational space should reflect the pedagogy, the role of flexible furniture in learning spaces, and how boundaries between formal and informal learning spaces should be blurred. 19p.

The Color of Debate: Chapter 1
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Presents a debate between school designers over the impact of color in the learning environment. The debate contrasts the designers' instincts against the existence and quality of actual research-based evidence on the emotive effect of various colors in learning environments. 7p.

Primary Ideas: Projects to Enhance Primary School Environments.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Presents a toolkit of design principles, creative ideas, and projects for primary school environments, aimed at inspiring staff, pupils and parents. Its aim is to help schools take an inclusive approach towards rebuilding, refurbishing and upgrading premises. The publication contains examples from the United Kingdom and overseas and includes case studies by the authors from work carried out in building two new classrooms at Ballifield Primary School in Sheffield. 86p.

Learning Spaces.
Oblinger, Diana, Ed.
(Educause, Boulder, CO, 2006)
Focuses on less often discussed facets of learning space design: how learner expectations influence such spaces, the principles and activities that facilitate learning, and the role of technology from the perspective of those who create learning environments: faculty, learning technologists, librarians, and administrators. The book begins with fourteen chapters by various authors discussing learning space design principles, followed by 29 higher education case studies. 446

Importance of Informal Spaces for Learning, Collaboration, and Socialization.
Gee, Lori; Hajduk, Terry
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Sep 15, 2005)
Illustrates principles that are central to the importance of informal learning spaces: 1) The entire campus is a learning environment that provides opportunities for further learning. 2) Informal spaces for learning, collaboration, and socialization are critical components of both scheduled and unscheduled campus spaces. 3) Space drives behaviors and behaviors need to change for our society to realize its learning goals. The presentation explores these principles across a range of institutional examples 37p.

Informal Learning Spaces and the Institutional Mission. Adobe PDF
Chism, Nancy
(Educause, Boulder, CO , Sep 14, 2005)
Addresses a shared understanding of what might fall under the heading of "informal learning spaces," discusses what constitutes the "institutional mission" and its various dimensions, identifies how institutional mission and space intersect, examines different spaces and determines what they say about learning, and identifies informal learning space issues about which we need a greater understanding. 4p.

School Design Impacts upon Cognitive Learning: Defining "Equal Educational Opportunity" for the New Millennium.
Hill, Franklin; Cohen, Sarah
(, Orange, CA , Aug 30, 2005)
Describes some design and planning impacts on cognitive learning and student performance. The classroom design impact discussion focuses on the relationship of students to instructional media at the front of the room. Extreme viewing angle or distance from the display results in distorted or missing information. Suggestions for educationally appropriate options are included. The site design discussion involves a school with a campus built on both sides of a ravine. The distribution of the educational program across these two halves resulted in a learning gap between gifted and traditional students, which was resolved by reorganizing the campus into team teaching neighborhoods. 6p.

Some Efficient and Effective Classroom Designs That Accommodate Technology for Promoting Learning. Adobe PDF
Rogers, Vicki
(School Design and Planning Laboratory University of Georgia, Feb 2005)
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the design of classrooms so that instructional technologies will enhance the learning environment. Good design does not happen accidentally, and when classroom designs are in the planning stages, the first priority should be the needs of the students. This paper discusses classroom design issues that can effectively and efficiently accommodate technology for promoting learning. 5p.

Facility Guidelines for General Classroom Design.
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore , 2005)
Advises on classroom design, covering current educational theories, and then presenting two chapters that cover educational and architectural components for all classrooms, K-12. Individual chapters then consider classroom design for pre-K and kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4 and 5, grades 6-8, and then grades 9-12. Extensive photograps, plans, elevations, and 42 references accompany the text. 107p.
TO ORDER: Maryland State Department of Education School Facilities Branch

New Classroom Model is Sustainable and Replicable.
(Educational Technology Support Center, Vancouver, WA, 2005)
Five K-12 classroom teachers have been selected to develop a replicable classroom model of technology integration that is sustainable and that supports research-based instructional strategies through the careful selection of technology tools, the provision of technology-related professional development, and through ongoing support and collaboration. Interactive whiteboards, document cameras and projectors, wireless response systems and classroom audio systems will be used. This describes the sustainable classroom model, the various technologies, and provides supporting documents.

The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall
(, Minneapolis, MN , 2005)
Presents 25 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, common areas, storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Includes 21 references. 118p.

Whatever Happened to the Open Classroom? Adobe PDF
Cuban, Larry
(EducationNext, Spring 2004)
Discusses the development of open classrooms in the early 1970's when school interiors were built without walls, and the backlash that followed by the mid-1970's. 4p.

Best Practice in Classroom Design. Adobe PDF
(Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand , Jan 31, 2004)
Presents detailed results of surveys of New Zealand teachers, students, principals, board members, and design agencies, regarding the effect of good school design on learning outcomes. Survey results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented on the topics of space, shape and layout flexibility; air flow and temperature control; lighting; acoustics and noise management; furnishings; technology; teachers support spaces; student spaces; and grounds and school layout. 174p.

Classrooms of the Future: Innovative Designs for Schools. Adobe PDF
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
Describes twelve pilot projects from British local education authorities creating innovative learning environments that are imaginative and stimulating, with the aim of inspiring children to achieve more. These primary and secondary schools feature increased community use of the buildings, partnerships with other cultural and scientific institutions, relocatable laboratories, sustainable design, and elevated service to rural communities. Includes drawing, plans, and color photographs. 80p.

Teacher's Construction and Use of Space. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
(Texas Tech University, College of Architecture, Lubbock , 2004)
Describes how school architectural design plays a role as a context of teachers’ work in high schools. The paper explores school architectural design supports or constrains teachers’ activity in the classroom and in other workspaces in the school, and gauges the fit between the physical environment and teachers’ conceptions of their work. The paper investigates several questions that consider the variety of activities and interactions that comprise teachers’ daily work lives and how teachers construct and use space as part of that process: 1) How do teachers actually use their work environment? 2) How do teachers’ real use of the school facility compare with expectations about what their experiences should be? and 3) How does school architectural design support or constrain teachers’ execution of current images of teaching and schooling? Ten references are included. 63p.

Feng Shui for the Classroom: 101 Easy-to-Use Ideas.
Heiss, Renee
(Zephyr Press, Chicago, IL , 2004)
Translates ancient Chinese interior decoration concepts to the school, providing teachers with strategies and suggestions for improving harmony and positive energy in their classrooms. The text gives suggestions for arranging the ideal classroom in such a way that the chi, or energy, can move freely. Key features of the ideal classroom are minimal clutter, many plants, calming sounds, and mobiles for movement. A room map, called a bagua, dictates the placement of color, furniture, and learning centers in the classroom. The book is intended for teachers of all grade levels who want to transform an impossible classroom arrangement into a focused learning environment. 128p.

In Sync: Environmental Behavior Research and the Design of Learning Spaces.
Scott-Webber, Lenni
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2004)
Analyzes research relating to the environment's impact on behavior and establishes five different archetypal environments that support learning in the current knowledge age, versus the prevalent but outdated agrarian- and industrial-age models: 1) Environments for Delivering Knowledge; 2) Environments for Applying Knowledge; 3) Environments for Creating Knowledge; 4) Environments for Communication Knowledge; and 5) Environments for Decision Making. 145p.

Creating Flexible Middle School Classrooms.
Valeski, Victor
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark , Apr 2003)
Investigates one school district's efforts to develop, design and construct optimum middle school classroom learning environments. Of particular interest to this author were the mandates, guidelines and processes that impeded optimization of middle school classroom facilities. A variety of stakeholder groups were surveyed and interviewed. Each group's unique perspective collectively led to two findings. The first was that the features of an optimal middle school classroom had not been identified and documented. Additionally, a protocol did not exist that appropriately communicated methodologies for middle school classroom optimization to educational decision-makers, planners and architects. Secondly, current design methodologies did not acknowledge or anticipate the dynamic instructional programming that is transforming both teaching and learning in current middle school classrooms. Consequently, the flexibility of middle school level instructional environments has been limited by the design mandates, guidelines and processes that were followed by educational decision-makers, planners and architects. A planning protocol was developed to help educational planners and decision makers allocate and prioritize limited classroom construction resources. The protocol is intended to identify the essential components of an optimal middle school classroom and permit the user to select from a range of negotiated outcomes. 381p.
Report NO: 3085488


The Importance of Interior Design Elements as They Relate to Student Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Langford, Ann
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA. , 2003)
This study investigated the following questions: (1) "What are the perceptions that elementary school principals have concerning the influence of interior design elements such as floor and wall coverings, lighting, flexibility, acoustics, color, texture, patterns, cleanliness, and maintenance on student achievement, teacher retention, and student attendance?" (2) "Do the acoustics of the environment relate significantly to student achievement?" (3) What floor coverings in the classroom relate significantly to the acoustics of the classroom?" and (4) "Are there any possible links between floor coverings in the classroom and student achievement?" The study found that in all subject areas studied, students attending schools having carpeted classrooms had higher achievement scores than those attending schools having hard surfaced classrooms. The study also found that the importance of a school's interior design is slightly higher for school principals than for teachers. 49p.

Design Features for Project-Based Learning.
Wolff, Susan J.
(DesignShare, Feb 2002)
This publication is a condensed version of a doctoral research study conducted to determine the features of the physical learning environment for collaborative, project-based learning, primarily at the community college level. The characteristics of the physical environment investigated in the study were scale, location, functionality, relationships, and patterns. The findings from the study resulted in 32 design features in the following categories: learning group size; functional spaces for learning activities; adjacencies; furnishings; psychological and physiological support of the learners; and structural aspects. [Author's abstract] 72p.

Teachers' Construction and Use of Space. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
(Texas Tech University, Lubbock , 2002)
Describes the influence of school architectural design on teachers' work by examining how teachers actually use their work environment, how their use of the facility compares with expectations of what their experiences should be, and how school design supports or constrains their work. Extensive diagrams and photographs accompany this case study that examines how 17 teachers in two high schools arrange, use, and move through their teaching spaces. Includes ten references. 63p.

Children's Learning Environments [Australia]
Griffiths, Jasmine; Podirsky, Michaela; Deakin, Suyin; Maxwell, Scott
This explores how different environments influence a child's learning and how best to use and design these environments for optimal learning. It features information about the design and layout of Australian classrooms in the past and the different types of classroom layout currently used. Discusses learning environments, factors to consider, and different types of learning including collaborative learning, cooperative learning, groups, individualistic learning, and competitive learning. Includes numerous photographs of classroom settings from the past and present, showing rows, groups, and alternative arrangements.

Reorganizing Primary Classroom Learning. Adobe PDF
Hastings, Nigel; Wood, Karen Chantrey
(Open University Press, Philadelphia, PA , 2002)
This book addresses the issue of classroom organization in primary education, explaining evidence that it asserts should prompt primary schools to re-think the contexts in which children are expected to concentrate and learn. New ways of arranging classrooms are illustrated through case studies of teachers who take a flexible and strategic approach to the organization of learning. These are intended to demonstrate how children's attention and behavior can benefit from creating a better match between working contexts and tasks. Suggestions and resources are provided to help teachers review how they and their children work, and to plan and evaluate ways of using their classrooms more effectively to support learning. 152p.

Teachers as Placemakers: Investigating Teachers' Use of the Physical Learning Environment in Instructional Design. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.; Jacobs, Paul J.
(School Design Research Studio at the University of Wisconsin-Madison , 2002)
This paper summarizes research conducted to assess how and to what extent teachers actively use and manipulate the physical classroom learning environment as part of their instructional design. A structured interview and participant observation were used to gather data from several teachers at all grade levels, including national board certified teachers. Preliminary findings include the design principles used by various teachers, which indicate that rather than receiving education on research-based design principles during their formal education, teachers have relied on trial-and-error methods. (Contains 19 references.) 9p.

Teacher Interactions within the Physical Environment: How Teachers Alter Their Space and/or Routines Because of Classroom Character. Adobe PDF
Lang, Dale Christopher
(Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle , 2002)
Through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, this study revealed the degree to which 31 high school teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals at a temporary school site. Teachers emphatically desired: (1) an appropriate amount of space to rearrange student furniture, enabling them better interaction with students for planned activities; (2) an ability to control the location and amount of lighting during those activities; and (3) access to adequate computing tools for their students. The ability to control noise, temperature, and ventilation was also important. Teachers' mediation of classroom spaces appeared to be closely associated with individual teaching goals rather than physiological responses to the environment, although there was evidence of the importance of accommodating teachers' perceptions of their own physical wellbeing. The study also disclosed a noticeable social-cultural need for meeting places within the school for teacher peer interactions and equally negative responses to sharing teaching spaces with those with dissimilar tastes and goal aspirations. Four appendixes include consent forms and approval letters; questionnaire, observation form, and interview questions; data results; and classroom physical measurements. 101p.

So Much Stuff, So Little Space: Creating and Managing the Learner-Centered Classroom.
Nations, Susan; Boyett, Suzi
(Maupin House, 2002)
This is a straightforward guide to help kindergarten through fifth grade teachers make the most out of the least space by efficiently and effectively keeping track of all their stuff, from paperwork and lesson plans. to art supplies and bulletin boards. Individual chapters address how to handle disorderly closets and libraries, preparing for absences, keeping student information organized, and more. 69p.

Classrooms of the Future: Thinking Out of the Box. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
Sep 04, 2001)
This presentation on educational facilities design emphasizes the overarching strategy of observing the activities of learning that take place in and out of the classroom setting, and the importance of taking a fresh look at what children do in school so that new ways can be found of approaching school design. The presentation addresses these questions: (1) Where is educational practice headed? In other words, what is or are the emergent paradigms of education that should be designed for? (2) How has the classroom changed over time to accommodate educational change? (3) What strategies can be used to start anticipating educational change? and (4) What are the big trends in school planning that designers should be aware of? The presentation also contains 14 school design case studies illustrating examples of "out-of-the-box" responses to 21st-century educational change. 18p.

The Impact of ICT on Schools: Classroom Design and Curriculum Delivery, a Study of Schools in Australia, USA, England, and Hong Kong, 2000. Adobe PDF
Eadie, Gillian
(Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, Wellington, New Zealand , Feb 2001)
Evaluates current and possible future impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) on school timetables, curricula, and facilities. Facilities-related topics include new configurations of existing space, sharing of spaces, configurations and equipment for classroom flexibility, virtual and linked classrooms and campuses, wireless technology, changes to library areas, and reconfiguration of the teaching schedule. Includes 17 references and 42 website referrals. 46p.

Classrooms and Computers: An Elementary School Case Study.
Bennett, Cheryl
(Proceedings of the International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety XV Annual Conference, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety. , 2001)
Children now use computers throughout their education. As schools have focused on purchasing computers and providing internet access, there has been little consideration of ergonomics. Even if educators and school administrators acknowledge students would benefit from better ergonomics, they may assume it is too expensive or not know where to begin. This paper describes the processes used to implement low cost ergonomic improvements and provide training for teachers, staff and students in an elementary school. 10p.

Classroom Spaces That Work. Strategies for Teachers Series.
Clayton, Marlynn K.
(Northeast Foundation for Children, Greenfield, MA , 2001)
This guide for educators of kindergarten through grade 6 is designed to help teachers set up physical spaces that are conducive to effective learning and teaching. Following an introduction, chapter 1 examines ways to make the classroom fit the range of physical sizes in the group, accommodate children with special needs, and support students' developmental needs. Chapter 2 presents strategies for developing and maintaining an orderly and predictable classroom, including furniture, storage space, clustered work areas, and a personal space for each student. Chapter 3 focuses on the design of the whole-group meeting area of the classroom. Chapter 4 examines how furniture, materials, and storage spaces can be set up for active learning. Chapter 5 presents ways classroom displays can be used as a teaching tool. Chapter 6 discusses how to create ambience in a classroom. Chapter 7 deals with avoiding health hazards in the classroom. 192p.

A Survey Study of Elementary Classroom Seating Designs. Adobe PDF
Patton, James E.; Snell, Jennifer; Knight, Willis J.; Gerken, Kathryn
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, Washington, DC. , 2001)
This paper presents the results of a two-part study that investigated classroom seating design preferences among elementary classroom teachers. In part one, the researchers mapped and classified seating arrangements that were in actual use across 294 regular classrooms (grades K-5) in 21 public elementary schools. Subsequently, the researchers asked 138 elementary regular classroom teachers (grades K-5) to describe, in a survey, the occasions and their rationales for the seating designs they typically employed. In contrast to outcomes from research conducted a decade ago, and irrespective of grade level and school socioeconomic status, results showed that small group cluster designs were now used pervasively (i.e., in 76 percent of observed classrooms, and by 94 percent of surveyed respondents), apparently because many contemporary teachers believe that this type of seating arrangement contributes directly to students' educational growth through the effects of socially facilitated learning. The study did not specifically address the validity of this belief, but it did yield a number of relevant, testable propositions. 8p.

Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Butin, Dan
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2000)
Addresses classroom design trends and key issues schools must consider to attain better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Discusses classroom space design issues relative to technology. Reviews design considerations necessary in classrooms that must accommodate varying grade levels. Also discusses importance of nuances in lighting, furniture, classroom size ratios, and partition arrangement. Includes design principles important for all classrooms at all grade levels, including those relating to outdoor accessibility, clustering, the fostering of creativity and student engagement, and classroom adaptability. 4p.

Great Spaces, Fresh Places: How-To Improve Environments for School-Age Programs. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Facilities Fund, Chicago Most, Chicago, IL. , 2000)
Demonstrates simple but effective solutions to the common problems many out-of-school time programs face regarding facilities and other space-related issues. The guide also highlights the importance of integrating facilities and programs in a coordinated effort, and it teaches school-age care providers how to approach facilities problems and implement realistic solutions within a budget. Chapters address how to think about the relationship between facilities programs; how to makeover classrooms; and how to consider all other aspects of space, including space planning and layout, color, traffic, noise, light, and furniture. The final section includes a resource list and selected bibliography. 26p.

Design Guidelines for Montessori Schools.
De Jesus, Raquel
(University of Wisconsin, CAUPR, School of Architecture and Planning, Milwaukee , 2000)
This report presents guidelines for use by architects, designers, and teachers in designing an environment that will complement and enhance the Montessori teaching method. Provides a history of the Montessori Method, analysis of books written by Montessori and her followers, review of methods and settings, and a section containing interviews and inventories done in six Montessori schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Appendices contain school interview forms and pages describing "muscular education" from the book, "Montessori Method." 80p.

Design Standards for Children's Environments.
Ruth, Linda Cain
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2000)
This 3-part book addresses the design or maintenance of spaces where children are the primary users covering both commercial and residential designs and products. Part I chapters provide anthropometric data of children from birth to age 18, offers dimensions for typical objects within the child's built environment; synthesizes the Consumer Product Safety Commission's safety guidelines for play areas; and provides dimensions of typical, and sometimes untypical, products that are often found in children's environments. Part II features a source list developed for designers that lists products appropriate for use in children's environments. Part III chapters outline the development of children's abilities and perceptions in the first stages of life from birth to age 10, and offers a bibliography of the most effective and highly regarded resources in the area of children's design. 306p.

Modern Foreign Languages Accommodation: A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 92. Adobe PDF
Williamson, Beech; Watson, Lucy
(Dept. for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London , 2000)
This document offers school design guidance for accommodating the needs for teaching modern foreign languages (MFLs) in secondary education. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces in a typical MFL suite and describes how to calculate the number of timetabled spaces required. It includes guidance on planning the suite and what to consider if there is to be community use. Section 2 describes the teaching and non-teaching spaces that might be found in the MFL suite. It gives guidance on the size and shape of spaces and shows typical furniture layouts. Section 3 describes typical MFL equipment and how it can be used most effectively. It also provides guidance on choosing and using furniture. Section 4 outlines the process of setting up and implementing a building project, from briefing to on-site construction. Section 5 presents case studies showing the issues covered in the rest of the document applied to real school projects. 50p.

Telematics and Electronic Communication and Their Effect on Educational Space. Adobe PDF
Morton, James E.
(American Institute of Architects,Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Jul 29, 1999)
A report examines technology's influence on the educational process as well as the physical classroom, and the needs and concerns these new technologies bring to architects and educators in designing an adaptable classroom. Technology and the classroom are examined in the following areas: the use of television; microcomputers and computer terminals; power and communication cable distribution; voice and data distribution; heating and air conditioning needs; furniture requirements; and security issues. 16p.

The Multigrade Classroom: A Resource Handbook for Small, Rural Schools. Book 2: Classroom Organization. Adobe PDF
Vincent, Susan, Ed.
( Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Rural Education Program, Portland, OR , 1999)
Offers guidelines for classroom organization that will accommodate the multiple activities occurring in the multigrade classroom. Outlines an activity-centers approach to classroom design that designates classroom areas for specific purposes. Defines general considerations for planning, including activity level and noise likely to occur during different learning activities, use of visual barriers to define activity centers, placement of teacher and student resources, traffic patterns, age and physical size differences among students, and storage of student belongings. A list of questions clarifies classroom design principles and aspects of a particular classroom plan. Presented in workbook fashion, a three-step design process involves describing the present classroom, identifying specific learning activities that will take place, and drawing the final plan. 37p.

Designing Successful Technology-Rich Elementary Schools
McCreary, Faith; Reaux, Ray; Ehrich, Roger; Hood, Susan; and Rowland, Keith
(Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Society 42nd Annual Meeting, October 5-9, 1998. , 1999)
Computers and network connectivity in the classroom raise new challenges in workspace design. Unlike corporate or dedicated laboratory facilities, a technology-rich classroom plays multiple roles throughout its working day. Classroom design demands flexible and robust construction, particularly when applied in an elementary school setting. Using the PCs for Families project as a case study, this paper discusses design issues of a technology- rich networked classroom from ergonomic design to system support.

Designing For All Children.
Stoecklin, Vicki
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 1999)
This paper examines four key elements in the designing-for-all-children concept for school environments. Designing-for-all-children designs acknowledge that children pass through differing, yet recognizable, stages of development; and that children need usable environments free from physical and social barriers. Key elements address equitable use, safety, and flexibility; and includes a description of the multi-disciplinary, cross-functional team used for design development. 4p.

Learning Environments and Classroom Design.
Sturt, Gary
(Psychology Department, Sixth Form College, Colchester, England, 1999)
Discusses open classrooms, noise, heat and performance, personal space, crowding, territoriality, educational theory and classroom design, home base, and special formations.

Educational Specifications: Milton J. Brecht Elementary School. Manheim Township School District.[Pennsylvania] Adobe PDF
(Manheim Township School District, Brecht Educational Specification Committee, Lancaster, PA. , Sep 25, 1998)
Presents recommended facility specifications for the Milton J. Brecht Elementary School in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which are intended advance children's learning through theories relating to multiple intelligence and brain based learning. The report examines grade levels to be accommodated, expected enrollment capacities, curricular programs and activities, specific utilization plan, instructional procedures, learning space requirements, specialized instructional facilities, auxiliary areas/facilities, and site issues. Miscellaneous concerns such as intercommunications, waste management, heating and air conditioning, acoustics, and signage are also addressed. Appendices explain key points of multiple intelligence theory; a teacher's typical day at Brecht; a memo on wireless possibilities; thoughts concerning room specifications for art, music, and physical education; and a post occupancy classroom and building survey. 62p.

Computer Classroom and Laboratory Design: Bibliography
Kotlas, Carolyn
(University of North Carolina, Institute for Academic Technology, Aug 1998)
Incorporating computer technology into the education process involves redesigning the physical space where instruction takes place. Articles in this guide provide examples and advice on modifying existing classrooms to accommodate new technologies and on designing and building new teaching environments.

School Facility Recommendations for Class Size Reduction. [California]
Evans, Ann M.
(California State Department of Education, Sacramento, CA , May 1998)
The California Department of Education encourages its school districts to make every effort to reduce classroom size and maintain the physical size of 960 square feet for elementary schools and 1,350 square feet for kindergartens. This report examines the Code of Regulations relative to classroom size in elementary, kindergarten, and special education classrooms. It also addresses class reduction and its affects support facilities such as toilets, ventilation, lighting, and fire exits. Concluding comments examine law pertaining to classroom size for self-contained classrooms and the site size issues involved as classroom size necessitates ever larger school sites. 4p.

Creating an Inviting Classroom Environment.
Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.; Adams-Bullock, Ann
(Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN , 1998)
This booklet presents suggestions for teachers, administrators, and parents about how to make a school better by improving the physical environment. Information comes from a study that analyzed environmental features which helped make a difference to students, teachers, and parents. During 1995-1997, two researchers examined classroom environments in rural, suburban, and urban settings. Through observations, interviews, and surveys, they made comparisons between what teachers actually had in their classrooms and what they said was important to have in the classroom learning environment. They compared the information to what parents and students believed. The study looked at five categories for comparison: furniture, aesthetics, comfort, instructional items, and professional items. Over 400 4th-8th grade teachers completed interviews and surveys. There were distinct differences between what was actually in the classrooms and what they ideally should have. 40p.

Spotlight on New Learning Environments, 1997-98. Issues 1 and 2. Adobe PDF
Gerges, Gassia; Appert, Christine; Thomas, Tim; Epps, Beverly; Bourdeaux, Jerry; Ashburn, Donald L., Jr.
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville, VA , 1998)
A two-issue volume presents articles describing innovative schools, classrooms, and alternative learning arrangements found in some of today's schools. Issue One contains three articles offering glimpses of an elementary school committed to the Core Knowledge curriculum of E. D. Hirsch, a renovated school devoted to early childhood learning programs, and a middle school experiential learning program. The three articles contained in the second issue highlight the Minnie Howard School in Alexandria, Virginia, a learning environment exclusively for ninth graders; The Center for Communications, a high-tech learning environment in Henrico County; and a case study of Gildersleeve Middle School in Newport News that follows the school's creation from initial conception to final construction. 64p.

Shared Visions? Architects and Teachers Perceptions on the Design of Classroom Environments.
Horne, Sandra
(Loughborough University, Design Education Research Group, Leicestershire, United Kingdom , 1998)
Discusses the classroom environment and its effects on the practice of teachers, examining through interviews the relationships between the designed classroom and how teachers use it. The ways in which architects understand and influence the learning environment are also explored. The interviews were cross-referenced to identify how the two groups perceive the classroom environment and how much interaction teachers and designers have. There are similarities in these perceptions but also conflicting views of how the interactions do happen and what they contribute to the process. 6p.

Wonderful Rooms Where Children Can Bloom! Over 500 Innovative Ideas and Activities for Your Child-Centered Classroom. K-2
Feldman, Jean R.
( Crystal Springs Books, Peterborough, NH , 1997)
This book for primary grade teachers provides over 500 ideas and suggestions for designing the environment and developing learning activities in a child-centered classroom. Part 1 of the book focuses on the larger school environment, with suggestions for making the whole school inviting for parents and children. Part 2 provides ideas for making the classroom physical space attractive, creating student portfolios, and storing educational materials. Included in part 2 is a classroom rating scale to identify strengths and weaknesses in classroom organization. Part 3 deals with creating a literate environment. Part 4 shows how to use children's art as a main focus in planning the classroom arrangement. Part 5 is devoted to learning centers, providing management and documentation tips and ideas for creative, fun activities, while part 6 details several games to challenge children's minds and build skills. 224

Creating & Managing Learning Centers: A Thematic Approach
Ingraham, Phoebe Bell
( Crystal Springs Books, Peterborough, NH , 1997)
Providing a center-oriented classroom takes more than rearranging the furniture. This book offers guidance to teachers in all aspects of creating learning centers in the classroom. The first section, comprised of five chapters, provides information on using small areas of the classroom for specific activities or tasks. Chapter 1 explains different types of centers and what centers offer students. Chapter 2 outlines physical changes in classrooms, including ideas on how to plan the environment, maintain control, and relate learning centers to curricular objectives. Chapter 3 discusses how to teach students to work in learning centers in an active yet productive way. Chapter 4 explains how the teacher can take student interests into consideration and integrate the curriculum to ensure meaningful connections. Chapter 5 discusses assessment strategies to monitor student progress. The second section, containing four chapters, provides advice on setting up specific centers, including suggested activities for each center, materials, and resources. 199p.

A User Assessment of Workspaces in Selected Music Education Computer Laboratories. Adobe PDF
Badolato, Michael Jeremy
(Doctor of Education Dissertation, Boston University, MA , May 1995)
A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of education computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a questionnaire encompassing 59 items, each representing a specific factor. Significant differences were found in user ratings across the four facilities as well as individual workspace factors. Analyses reveal a trend toward user satisfaction with workspace factors designed in accordance with ergonomic and environmental design guidelines. Included in the Appendices is a glossary of terms, student comments, and an equipment list of general workstation configurations of each lab. 297p.

Transforming the Learning Environment.
Christopher, Gaylaird; Lee, Kelvin K.; Taylor, Anne; Jilk, Bruce
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1994)
This explores areas that are considered important factors affecting the educational environment design. These include work spaces for students; innovative modes of assessment for new learning strategies; media centers as supportive assets to learning; the changing scope of physical education; community involvement in the educational process, and the importance of marrying the architectural environment both visually and functionally to the educational vision. It then presents information from four California booklets that offer restructuring guidelines for individual school districts and provide the groundwork for national educational reforms. These booklets address the needs of preschool students and the importance of ensuring that all students are ready to learn by the time they enter kindergarten; suggests a thinking-centered, interactive curriculum for elementary students; addresses quantum changes in middle school education; and explores the complex needs of high school students preparing for vocational and professional endeavors and for the rigors of higher education. Finally, design concepts are discussed that provide a connection between educator and designer that culminates in properly designing a physical learning environment.

Learning Environment: An Architectural Interpretation of a New Designs. Archetype High School. Adobe PDF
Jilk, Bruce A.; And Others
(National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA , 1992)
The New Designs for the Comprehensive High School project used the break-the-mold design-down process to develop a prototype high school. The basic building block of this design is the personal workstation, not the classroom. Combining the personal workstation with the desire for teaming leads to the idea of a small, flexible group space that accommodates several personal workstations. High school students are grouped into approximately 100 pupils and gathered around a resource/production space to facilitate project-focused tasks. Neighborhoods that are virtually stand-alone schools are created. Along with the multiple-use commons, they give students a meaningful environment with a special identity. The flexible studio frees the school organization from the limitations of the physical environment and allows for the complete integration of vocational and academic subject matter. Support staff are located in as friendly and accessible a manner as possible. Learning technology permits information to be everywhere. Instructional material centers, computer rooms, and the problems of scheduling access to them no longer exist. Many places in the design provide for demonstration and display, now an important part of assessment. This design connects students to their surroundings and provides space for the community in the school. 40p.

The Effect of Selected Physical Features of the General Elementary Classroom on the Learning Environment.
Koval, Joseph G.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute , Aug 1991)
Examines the extent to which selected physical, aesthetic, comfort, and health and safety features of Indiana K-6 general classrooms are perceived by the school principals to affect the quality of the learning environment. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) rest rooms and a wet area for arts and crafts are essential physical features in a kindergarten classroom; 2) provision for technology, a silent reading area, an area for storage, and classroom arrangement by grade level are essential for grades K-6; 3) display areas for student work, student-oriented learning centers, and an abundance of maps and globes are aesthetic features to be included in the general classroom; 4) acoustical treatment, control of thermal conditions, the location of the classroom in relation to the media center, and distance from other noise centers are comfort features which affect the learning environment; and 5) appropriate ventilation, more than one electrical outlet per wall, adjustable classroom lighting, windows which open, a science lab area, close proximity to a rest room and an outside exit are features which provide a healthy learning environment. 135p.
Report NO: 9206046


The Design of Educational Environments: An Expression of Individual Differences or Evidence of the "Press toward Synomorphy?"
Ross, Rhonda P.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, March 19-23, Mar 1982)
Research findings demonstrate that the way the classroom environment is arranged can have important consequences on the attitudes, behavior, and achievement of students. The concept of "synomorphy" is used to examine some of the research literature available on classroom design. Synomorphy refers to the similarity of structure or shape between the behavioral aspects of a school activity program and the physical aspects of the environment. Ecological theory predicts that when synomorphy is low, changes will occur in the physical milieu and/or in the kinds of behavior. The first section of the paper applies this theory to open plan schools. The schools were designed for open education, but teachers using traditional educational programs have modified programs and erected physical boundaries to bring the milieu closer to their teaching styles. The paper's next section cites studies of the classroom environments modified in order to improve the degree of synomorphy between the teacher's instructional program and the physical milieu. The final section examines the extent to which teachers ordinarily rearrange the classroom so that the milieu and the program remain in a state of synomorphy throughout the school day and year. An extensive bibliography is appended. 32p.

Factors Affecting Perception of and Responses to Crowded Classroom Environments. Adobe PDF
Winer, Janice I.
Aug 1977
The effects of density and other situational factors on perceptions of and responses to crowding in classroom learning environments were examined in three separate and concurrent investigations. The first experiment examined the effects of various demographic variables, learning environments and room design variables on crowding. In the second experiment, the effect of two levels of density on classroom achievement was examined in the laboratory. The third experiment examined achievement as a function of class size over a 24-year period in two community school districts. It was concluded from the three experiments that: (1) density is primarily a moderator of arousal; (2) high density can therefore have either positive or negative effects on performance, depending on whether the task contains learned or unlearned components, or both; (3) the same interpretation applies to psychological reactions (affect) to the situation; (4) if perceived violations of personal space accompany high density, the outcome is uniformly negative; and (5) the effects of high density (positive or negative) can be eliminated by diverting a person's attention away from the other people in the room, or by increasing the degree of cooperation between people. 56p.

Open Space Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1971)
Presents numerous examples of noteworthy open space schools. In addition, the authors have drawn from their own experiences with the planning, design, and construction of open space schools. The book explains the justification for, programming, and creation of open space schools, and offers suggestions that might prove helpful, and to report on the state of the art. Includes photographs and plans. 112p.

Contrast Rendition in School Lighting. Adobe PDF
Sampson, Foster K.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jan 1970)
Presents results of measuring and analyzing eighteen significantly different classroom lighting systems in order to determine how contrasts from different light sources affect the ability to see visual tasks in the school room. Using criteria and techniques established from previous lighting research, the lighting systems are evaluated according to their characteristics regarding contrast rendition of pencil handwriting. The comparisons and conclusions presented should be helpful in selecting classroom lighting systems. 105p.

Electronic Classroom. Adobe PDF
Price, Harry A.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Discusses the conversion of a limited-use auditorium at Middletown, New York’s Memorial Elementary School into an electronic classroom to be used as a flexible instructional space. 13p.

Acoustical Environment of School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Fitzroy, Dariel; Reid, John L.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1963)
Discusses results of a field study made of the acoustical environment of schools designed for increased flexibility to meet the spatial requirements of new teaching methods. Questionnaires were sent to teachers in thirty-seven schools in all parts of the country. Teams of acoustical consultants then analyzed each school to accurately determine noise reduction, reverberation, speech interference level and articulation index. The collected data, discussion, and conclusions are presented for each school studied. 129p.

References to Journal Articles

ZoN Classroom 2021
Rydeen, James
American School and University; Jun 2012
Describes a classroom of the future, a technology-rich agile learning environment.

A Variety of Voices: Innovative Learning Spaces Transform the Hartland-Lakeside School District
Jilek, Therese
DesignShare; May 31, 2012
Describes how the Hartland-Lakeside School District, Wisconsin went from typical classrooms to innovative spaces. Across the district, teachers, students and administrators have transformed their Industrial Age classrooms into innovative, state-of-the-art learning spaces

21st Century Learning: A visit to the Georgia Department of Education’s Center for Classroom Innovation
Barrow Media Center; May 07, 2012
Describes a room setup with different spaces depending on the kinds of learning and collaboration taking place. The room also offers flexibility with some mobile furniture such as rolling chairs, rolling tables, and screens that divide the space into different learning areas.

Classroom Design - Feng Shui For Learning
Mercer Hall and Patricia Russac
ASIDE Blog; May 07, 2012
Provides a variety of classroom layouts that are an extension of the learning. Adaptable designs allow for differentiation. They avoid a repetitive setting and instead customize the space for lessons. Redecorating enlivens the children's experiences and provides flexible room for technology or discussions. Feng shui harmony translates to the classroom, as the arrangement matters.

Inside Stories
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; , p38-46 ; May 2012
A group of design professionals show how a school's interior design can inspire teaching and learning.

Creating a College-Going Mindset
Jones, Nathanial and Payne, William
School Planning and Management; , p20-26 ; May 2012
Discusses how educational interiors can help change the face of alternative education by reinventing the look and feel of the classroom. Emphasizes collaborative spaces, layered technology, transparency, and flexibility.

The Classroom of the Future is Here
Futures; Apr 26, 2012
Innovative teachers + technology + smart policies = the active learning and collaborative skills required for the 21st century. Schools will become more like laboratories or art studios, to encourage the innovation and open-ended thinking that countries needs to thrive in the 21st century.

Re-designing Spaces for Learning
Harris, Stephen
Connected Principals; Apr 2012
Based on case study for education redesign for Northern Beaches Christian School, a co-educational K-12 school of 1300 students in the northern region of Sydney, Australia. NBCS created some new spaces for learning: flowing nooks and crannies; design and production suites; multimodal agile spaces. NBCS renovated existing spaces: The Zone (an open learning environment for 180 students and 6 teachers) and Rhythm & Blues (a shared space for music learning) and the Hub.

How to Design an Autistic Classroom
McCormick, Maggie
eHow; Apr 2012
Describes how to make changes to the traditional environment to help foster a learning environment for autistic children.

Build Schools For Today's Learners
Sullivan, Margaret
CBP Articles; Mar 14, 2012
Conventional school learning-area designs are losing functionality as electronic learning tools, such as laptops, tablets, and independent-learning techniques play an increasing role in education. Taking the place of conventional arrangements are open-space designs with good indoor air quality, flexible/movable furnishings, and easy access to power.

Forming Playscapes: What Schools Can Learn from Playgrounds
Quirk, Vanessa
Arch Daily; Mar 07, 2012
When designing classrooms, designers should look at spaces that welcome interaction with the environment and encourage the free reign of energy and imagination--the playground. Describes numerous schools around the world that can inspire the classrooms of the future.

Designing the School Around the Student
McCrea, Bridget
THEJournal; Feb 22, 2012
Case study of a Minnesota high school's planning team that started from scratch and created a 21st century facility that turns the traditional classroom model inside out. Instead of waiting for students to come to class, teachers move about the school equipped with their laptops and other teaching tools.

Creating an Ultra-Flexible Learning Space
McCrea, Bridget
THEJournal; Feb 08, 2012
Designers of the Minnesota School of Environmental Studies (SES) were years ahead of the curve when it came to creating collaborative classrooms that would one day accommodate learning technologies that in 1995 had yet to be conceived--let alone developed and marketed to the educational sector. Cumulatively the various features that went into SES' design have withstood both the test of time and the onslaught of technology in the high school classroom.

15 Low-Cost Tips for School Interiors
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; , p18-22 ; Feb 2012
Interior designer Carla Remenschneider and architects Jeanne Jackson and Steven Shiver share their favorite low-cost techniques for brightening schools, including ideas for casework, colors, furnishings graphics, lighting, windows, flooring materials, and sustainable materials.

School Furniture by the Square Foot
Kiefer, Amy
American School and University; Feb 2012
Discusses redesigning classrooms that requires reconfiguring walls as well as furnishings and making those spaces available for multiple uses. Designs driven by new pedagogy may include a variety of spaces for individual work, small-group work, large-group work, lectures, presentations, breakouts and interaction with faculty. To truly shift the educational paradigm, learning spaces also must reflect a network of connected places outside the classroom, where learning can flow from one space to the next, and a sense of community is fostered.

The Classroom Evolved: Creating an Active Learning Environment
McCrea, Bridget
THE Journal; Jan 25, 2012
Describes Bishop Moore Catholic High School in Orlando, Florida that's borrowed ideas from two major universities to create classrooms that support interactive, hands-on learning. The design for all five of Bishop Moore's active learning classrooms is based on TEAL (Technology-Enhanced Active Learning), a mix of pedagogy, technology, and classroom design

Designing the 21st Century K-12 Classroom
McCrea, Bridget
THE Journal; , 2p ; Jan 18, 2012
Describes six design elements that should be incorporated into the 21st Century classroom: desks and furniture that support collaboration; ample electrical outlets; a smart teacher lectern; lighting that's easy to control; physical space that goes beyond the single classroom; and fewer expansive gathering areas.

Smart Building Spaces Redefine Traditional School Environments
School Construction News; Dec 13, 2011
Discusses serendipity spaces that manifest themselves in a variety of forms — from quiet study alcoves in a library, to a main traffic lounge complete with computer terminals and a nearby café; or a comfortable niche seating area adjacent to a window with a scenic view. These areas often reduce the sterility of classroom-oriented settings by featuring useful amenities such as private workstations, power outlets, wi-fi, convenient access to refreshments, televisions and reading material. Typically, these incorporate comfortable seating, such as couches and loungers with appropriately sized work tables. Such serendipity spaces are truly essential to allow the most efficient use of space and to offer reasons for students and faculty to interact outside the classroom walls.

Genius Loci: MacConnell Award Projects + Ewan Mclntosh's Seven Spaces Adobe PDF
Baibak, Rebecca; Ruiz, Karina; Parker, Ross and Peters. Edward J
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p9-11 ; Dec 2011
Given the surge of technology use in the 21st century, explores the defining characteristics of schools of the future: group spaces, secret spaces, publishing spaces, performing spaces, participation spaces, and watching spaces.

LearnSpace Facility Engages! Enlightens! And Envisions! Adobe PDF
Logue, Neil
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2011
LearnSpace shows that learning can take place in a variety of spaces and places. LearnSpace assists schools in identifying future educational needs and the corresponding spatial requirements for these needs.

21st-Century Learning Q&A
American School and University; Nov 2011
Twenty-five architects comment on the latest innovations in designing for future learning, as well as how design can support these trends. Questions answered include: What are the latest ideas/innovations in designing to support 21st-century learning?; How can the built environment support emerging trends in education?' What are some design trends in specialized classrooms or programs to support future learning styles/methods? and How is technology for today’s learning affecting school design?

This State-of-the-art Classroom Makes Physics Fun
Postal, Leslie
Orlando Sentinel; Oct 09, 2011
Describes studio classroom with white smart boards, writable windows, and giant touch-screen computer monitors encouraging hands-on learning.

Modern Marvels. Today's Classrooms Boast Form and Function for Collaborative Learning.
Jones, Tony
Charter Schools Insider ; Oct 2011
As teaching methodologies have changed to more effectively reach every student in class and engage students collectively for longer, so too have the elements that go into classrooms. The form and function of cutting-edge classroom furniture and technology are designed to enhance mobility, flexibility and personalization.

Team Building in Class.
Korber, Mira
School Planning and Management; , p28-29 ; Oct 2011
Describes how collaboration tables in the 21st century classroom foster stimulating interactions through their functional and aesthetic design.

10 Ways to Create Schools Where Students Thrive
Weekes, John
Learning by Design; , p14-17 ; Fall 2011
Describes 10 innovative strategies for creating 21st century schools: engage all stakeholders in the design process; seek education partnerships and joint use; maximize sites well connected to the community; adapt and reuse existing facilities; utilize the neighborhood and the world as a campus; use sustainable design for a high-performance learning environment; integrate technology throughout; facilitate learning everywhere; break down the scale of the school; and design in support of learning.

Classroom Acoustics Affect Student Achievement.
Ronsse, Lauren M. and Wang, Lily M.;
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Sep 19, 2011
Findings from a study comparing unoccupied classroom noise levels and reverberation times to the age of the school buildings and the elementary student achievement scores attained by students using those classrooms. Recommends that classroom mechanical systems should be designed with lower noise levels to optimize student reading comprehension.

What I’ve Learned After 15 Years of Designing Schools
Southerland, Steve
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
Architect Steve Southerland picks nine favorite lessons to help lift school projects from merely functional to inspirational: know your client; classroom shape; rooms as backdrop; harden the finishes; refuge and prospect; teachable moments; social spaces; program the site; and access to the natural world.

It’s Time for Americans to Rethink the Classroom
Stack, Greg
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
Traditional set-ups aren’t designed to prepare U.S. students with the creative skills they’ll need to compete in the global economy. Illustrates the three main approaches to rethinking the classroom: change classrooms, eliminate classrooms, or change the concept of where people learn.

Student-Centered Interior Design.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p33,34,37 ; Aug 2011
Discusses design of classroom, cafeteria, library, technology and other mobile equipment to accommodate aural, visual, and tactile learners. Flexibility, acoustics, lighting, connection to the outdoors, a variety of large and small learning spaces, scale, technology integration, and mobile storage are discussed.

The Classroom Is Obsolete: It's Time for Something New.
Nair, Prakash
Education Week; Jul 29, 2011
School design needs to change from a classroom-based model to one centered on principles such as personalized education and inquiry-based, student-directed learning.

Aces of Space.
Demski, Jennifer
Campus Technology; v24 n10 , p32-34,36,38,39 ; Jun 2011
Profiles four schools that use technology, new design concepts, and flexible furnishings to reinvent their teaching spaces. Curved rooms, interconnected and networked electronic wall displays, modular furnishings on wheels, and classrooms with no front are described.

Learning Curve. How Museum Design Taught a New Elementary School. Adobe PDF
Skolnick, Lee H. and Secor, Jo Ann
Museum; , p35-36 ; May-Jun 2011
Describes the design of Summit Elementary School in Casper, Wyoming that was influenced by approaches that are central to the best museum design practices: immersive environments, an array of multisensory experiences, entry point activities, and an interpretive look-and-feel approach.

Active Learning.
Alfieri, Tony; Kirkham, Scott
American School and University; v83 n7 ; Mar 2011
Discusses using green concepts to inspire learning and create buildings as teaching tools. Gives examples of complementary learning spaces that acknowledges the role of teachers as guides and students as lifelong learners. Examples include the introduction of "student spaces" and "faculty spaces" for learning encounters.

What is the Classroom of the Future?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p16-18,20 ; Mar 2011
Reports on Slate Magazine's "Fifth Grade Design Studio," a competition to design the fifth grade classroom of the future. Winning design by Greg Stack and Natalia Nesmealnova of NAC Architecture emphasizes flexibility of space use to address the understanding that learning can occur anywhere.

Should a Classroom Have Four Walls?
Jarraud, Francois
DesignShare; Feb 24, 2011
Discusses an innovative approach to educational spaces in schools of the future, where larger student community takes precedent over the smaller one in a traditional, isolated classroom. Many walls are mobile, creating an endless configuration of flexible spaces. This is an English translation of an article by François Jarraud of the on-line French magazine, Café Pedagogique.

Designed for Learning.
Magney, Tammy; Sorenson, Kim
American School and University; v83 n6 , p26,28,29 ; Feb 2011
Discusses an array of classroom design and furnishing options that encourage diverse learning modes, movement, and accommodation of technology.

Radical Idea #13: Build a Better Classroom.
Stein, Laura
Fast Company; Jan 12, 2011
Ideas for propelling classrooms into the 21st century: personalized schedules, telepresence, beautiful buildings, internet everywhere, digital learning library, and flexible furniture.

The Immersive LearningScape. Adobe PDF
Jimenez-Eliaeson, Tomas
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p5-9 ; 2011
Laments the inadequacy of traditional classrooms and technology that leave students disengaged. The author advocates an immersive learning environment that includes intimate spaces for individual learning, flexible spaces for team learning, a "workshop" environment that accommodates hands-on exploration, even traditional classrooms, and purely social spaces. Eleven references are included.

Ecosystems in the Learning Environment. Adobe PDF
Louvier, Gregory
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p10-13 ; 2011
Explores the emulation of natural ecosystems in the learning environment, illustrated with examples of cooperative, adaptive, and self-organized behavior. The implications for digital and classroom connections, patterns, and feedback is discussed. Fifteen references are included.

Clicks and Bricks: How School Buildings Influence Future Practice and Technology Adoption. Adobe PDF
McIntosh, Ewan
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p33-37 ; 2011
Describes six specialized school spaces that encourage digital learning and customized learning. These are secret, group, publishing, performing, participation and watching spaces.

Building Blueprints: Classroom Space.
Nii, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p88,89 ; Jan 2011
Briefly addresses the effect of spatial quality, seating, natural lighting, temperature, and air quality as classroom design elements that impact education.

User Participation: A New Approach to School Design in Korea.
Rieh, Sun-Young; Kim, Jin-Wook; Yu, Woong-Sang
CELE Exchange; 2011/4 ; Jan 2011
Documents work of the Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI). Planning discussions lead to subject-specific classroom clusters.

Learner-Centered Campuses.
Zaiser, David
American School and University; v83 n3 , p212-215 ; Nov 2010
Describes features of a learner-centered educational facility, including spaces that foster active engagement in learning, group-friendly collaboration areas, and technological connectivity.

Recycling Buildings: Aging, Multipurpose Gyms have Future as Repurposed Classrooms.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p22,23 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses the conversion of outdated and undersized school gymnasiums into other uses. Typical re-uses are described, as are issues concerning the extent of renovation required and examples from three public schools whose gymnasiums were converted to a theatre, a health and wellness center, and a computer lab.

Agile and Information-Rich Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Seaman, James
MASA Leader; , 2p. ; Sep 2010
Describes agile learning environments that provide flexibility, adaptability, and a variety of learning environments on demand in order to foster individual learning-style profiles, differentiated instruction, and response to 21st century technological demands.

What Happens in the Arcade Shouldn't Stay in the Arcade: Lessons for Classroom Design.
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Laurich, Lindsay
Language Arts; v88 n1 , p21-31 ; Sep 2010
This article presents an analysis of physical space in video game arcades and participants' positions therein to suggest how language arts teachers can explore student-designed learning spaces. Qualitative analysis of the arcade space revealed three learning principles: clustering and collaborating, inverting traditional structures of power, and reconstituting access and ownership. Following a detailed assessment of the existing literacy environment in one 5th-6th grade classroom, the researchers and the classroom teacher applied these principles through physical arrangement changes in the classroom.

American School and University; v82 n13 , p62,63 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the Hamilton City School District Extended Learning Area and Stephen F. Austin State University's School of Nursing, winning classroom projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Classrooms Designed for Higher Performance.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p51,52,54,56 ; Aug 2010
Responds to research demonstrating that different learning styles co-exist among students in the same classroom, and they must be responded to rather than expecting all students to learn the same way. The authors describe classroom design and planning that acknowledges the six different ways that students learn.

Wanna Improve Education? Demolish the Classrooms.
Le, Trung
Fast Company Co Design; Aug 2010
Discusses the radically different design of Denmark's Ørestad College. Organized around a central staircase and atrium, the boomerang-shaped floor plates spin and shift like a camera shutter to create four distinct learning zones that flow into one another. The design promotes reflective, collaborative learning that mimics the way teenagers think, learn and socialize.

Space Does Matter.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p6 ; Aug 2010
Discusses the importance of flexible classroom spaces so that teachers can accommodate varying student learning abilities.

Rethinking Classroom Design Guidelines.
Leiboff, Michael
Campus Technology; Jun 02, 2010
Discusses the difference between studio and traditional classrooms, with particular emphasis on how this impacts technology integration.

Seven Tips for Building Collaborative Learning Spaces.
Villano, Matt
Campus Technology; v23 n10 , p30-32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Offers tips for creating collaborative learning spaces in either new construction or renovation and retrofit. Involve faculty in design process. Gauge student input. Invest in flexible furniture. Create technological redundancy. Assess acoustical issues. Don't forget low-tech. Train the faculty on effective use.

Flip this Classrom.
Ogurek, Douglas
School Planning and Management; v49 n5 , p20-22,24 ; May 2010
Describes how three classroom at a New York elementary school were "flipped" with a week-long replacement of furniture, carpet, lighting, and learning technology. No new construction was involved, and the results were unanimously deemed positive.

Redesigning Education: Rethinking the School Corridor.
Le, Trung
Fast Company; Mar 26, 2010
Roughly one-third of the typical school building is used not for learning, growing, or interacting, but for getting to the places where that happens via corridors. Recommends using corridors as spaces for informal learning, to display work, to meet and to reflect. Better yet, get rid of corridors all together and let learning spaces freely flow into each other so that every inch of the school can be used to educate.

The Imagined Space of the Web 2.0 Classroom.
Batson, Trent
Campus Technology; Jan 2010
Advises on accommodating technology in a classroom. Rooms should be square or rounded instead of rectangular since sight-lines and visual display of information is now as important as the sound of voices; moving furniture for different ways to work with technology should not cause a sudden roar of noise, chair and table legs scraping on tile, but instead the soft rolling of table and chair on a soft surface.

Learning Modalities and Space. Adobe PDF
Barrett, James
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p10-13 ; 2010
Describes an architectural response to the need for alternative learning modalities. The article addresses the sub-groups that need to accommodated by grade level, subject matter, and instructional needs. The author recommends spaces that enhance the greatest potential for visual learners, maximize spaces and materials that support auditory learners, and anticipate need for flexibility and change over the lifespan of the facility.

'Smart' Spaces Aren't Just for Classrooms Anymore. Adobe PDF
James, Darren L.; Infanzon, Nestor
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p19-21 ; 2010
Describes the revolution in total school design promulgated in Building Information Modeling (BIM). The article discusses the learning that occurs in every school space, not just the classrooms, and suggests how to plan hallways and even exterior spaces to promote dialogue and other interactions among students and teachers.

Building Blueprints: Classrooms/Small Learning Spaces.
Payne, William; Tyler, Charlesa
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p80,81 ; Jan 2010
Discusses four characteristics of effective classrooms: agility, transparent technology, optimized acoustics, and proper daylighting.

Special Education Classroom Infrastructure: Teacher's Views.
Ysin, Mohd, Toran, Hasnah , Tahar, Mokhtar; Bari, Safani
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences; v7 , p601-604 ; 2010
Assesses the suitability of the physical infrastructure of schools and integration of special education programs across the country of Malaysia. 37.7 percent of respondents are not sure about the classroom space needed. The majority of respondents (53.6%) are satisfied with the location (ground floor) of the special education program. However, 41.9 percent of respondents did not approve of their space because it does not match the capacity of students and teachers.

The Creative Classroom: The Role of Space and Place toward Facilitating Creativity.
Warner, Scott A.; Myers, Kerri L.
Technology Teacher; v69 n4 , p28-34 ; Dec-Jan 2009
The authors focus on one important component of the dynamics of making creativity an integral part of the teaching and learning experience. That component is the importance of space and place toward facilitating creativity in the classroom or lab.

American School and University; v81 n13 , p62-67 ; Aug 2009
Profiles six classroom areas selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Freeing Students to Succeed by Changing Classroom Space.
Duncanson, Edward; Volpe, Jan
AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice; v6 n2 , p27-35 ; Summer 2009
This article describes a no-cost, evidenced-based best practice to raise student achievement and engagement in the elementary grades based on the results from a randomized-controlled experiment. The practice is rooted in the belief that the way in which a teacher organized classroom space can significantly affect student achievement and based on positive empirical results.

The New Classroom Look.
Manzo, Kathleen
Education Week; Jun 2009
Describes the technology-rich learning environment of the future, using Sacramento’s Tracy Learning Center as an example. The K-12 charter school has no classrooms or textbooks, with students working at computer stations and in digital projection areas.

Opening Up Learning: from Spaces to Environments. Adobe PDF
Educause Review; v44 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Reflects on the evolution of learning areas from spaces to environments, with the interweaving of classroom, libraries, labs, and informal spaces, as well as the call for all stakeholders to join in designing and developing the learning environment.

Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices.
Open House International; v34 n1 ; Mar 2009
This issue of Open House International explores and investigate qualities and characteristics of learning environments at different scales and in different contexts, from classroom typologies to campus outdoor spaces. The 12 articles emphasize emerging paradigms in learning environments that involve a number of underlying issues including the academic house clustering, the school as heart of the community, the rising interest in new classroom spaces and forms, the user-centered processes, utilizing the learning environment as an open textbook, and the impact of recent advances in information technologies and globalization on the future of learning settings.

The Users in Mind: Utilizing Henry Sanoff's Methods in Investigating the Learning Environment.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p35-44 ; Mar 2009
Analyzes reactions of teachers and students to classroom and cluster prototypes, among other aspects, against a number of spatial requirements and educational objectives. The results of this investigation support the assumption on how the school environment has a direct impact on the way in which teaching and learning takes place. A conclusion envisioning the need for going beyond adopting prescriptive measures to address the quality of the learning environment is conceived by highlighting the need to utilize knowledge generated from research findings into school design process, to pursue active roles in sensitizing users about the value of the school environment in reaching the desired academic performance while increasing teachers productivity.

The Future Setting of the Design Studio.
Senyapili, Burcu; Karakaya, Ahmet
Open House International; v34 n1 , p104-112 ; Mar 2009
Explores the impact of virtual classrooms as an emerging classroom typology in comparison to the physical classrooms in the design process. Two case studies were held in order to infer design students classroom preferences in the project lifecycle. Although the students acknowledged many advantages of web-based communication in the virtual classroom, they indicated that they are unwilling to let go off face-to-face encounters with the instructors and fellow students in the physical classroom. Utilizing the positive aspects of both communication techniques, a hybrid setting for the design studio is introduced, comprising the physical classroom as well as the virtual one. The proposed use for the hybrid setting is grouped under 3 phases according to the stage of the design process; as the initial, development and final phases.

Giving Change a Chance.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p54 ; Feb 2009
Reflects on schools that were designed with collaborative and flexible spaces, but whose spaces are not being used as intended. Encouraging administrators and educators to adapt educational delivery to contemporary spaces is proposed.

The Mobile Classroom.
Busuttil, Lucy
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p22-24 ; 2009
Profiles the learning "Plaza" at the New Line Learning Academy in Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom. The large gathering space features furniture with wheels, 360-degree projection, and divisibility by room dividers.

Making Spaces.
Cross, Cathy; Willetts, Ben
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p10-14 ; 2009
Describes the remodeling of two school spaces into multi-sensory exploration spaces linking narrative, video, and subject knowledge. Theatrical experience can be conducted within the rooms to create participatory history and science lessons.

Learning Spaces: A Tutorial.
MacPhee, Larry
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Focuses on the design of informal and formal learning spaces mostly inside campus buildings, although many of the concepts could be applied in other spaces, including virtual ones. After looking at some examples of learning spaces and considering their general attributes, the details are then discussed-- those specific attributes that can make a learning space effective in supporting pedagogy and widely used by the campus community. That attention to detail transforms a learning space, whether formal or informal, into a space that facilitates student engagement and learning.

In a World of "Us-Ness." Adobe PDF
Pratapchandran, Sarat
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p5-8 ; 2009
Discusses improving a child's sense of belonging to a school community by designing schools around students' needs, creating open plans that are adaptable to future learning modalities, and creating personal spaces within schools.

Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project.
von Ahlefeld, Hannah
CELE Exchange; 2009/9 , p1-6 ; 2009
Provides an update on CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces, which aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in learning environments. The article explains the school selection and implementation process, which is currently being conducted in Mexico,New Zealand, Portugal and the United Kingdom.

Building Blueprints: Flexible Spaces Promote Student Engagement.
McCreery, John
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , p44,45 ; Dec 2008
Advises on creation of extended learning areas (ELA's) in schools. These group spaces require flexible seating, storage, access to amenities, and connection to other resources. Examples of how some schools utilize their ELA's for self-sufficient learning, tutoring, and teamwork are included.

Designing Classroom Spaces to Maximize Social Studies Learning.
O'Mahony, Carolyn; Siegel, Suzanne
Social Studies and the Young Learner; v21 n2 , p20-24 ; Nov-Dec 2008
In this article, the authors discuss how teachers can use the physical environment to promote social studies learning.

Teaching and Learning.
Locker, Frank
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , pF14,F16,F17 ; Oct 2008
Cites the influence of recent research into learning, technology integration, and diverse educational delivery practices on classroom design. 11 examples of innovative schools are included.

American School and University; v80 n13 , p68-76 ; Aug 2008
Profiles seven K-12 and higher education classroom installations that were recognized in the American School and University Magazine s Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their sustainability, character, long-term appropriateness of materials and colors, innovation, adaptability, collaborative spaces, and safety. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Don't Skimp on Classroom Size.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p54 ; Jul 2008
Recommends classrooms of at least 900 square feet, in order to provide sufficient space for current teaching modalities.

Pods vs. Corridors.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p72,7382 ; Jun 2008
Advocates for the organization of classrooms around open, or common, spaces, noting the requirements for and advantages of the open space.

Writing on the Wall: Specifying Green Ideas for Whiteboards.
Lipchik, Mike
The Construction Specifier; v61 n3 , p63-68 ; Mar 2008
Reviews design and materials for markerboards, citing features that make them easy to write on, erase, and clean. The impact resistance, sustainability, and durability of components are considered, as are certifications, warranties, installation, and moisture resistance.

Bent on Designing Flexible Spaces.
Sims, Joel
Schooldesigner Newsletter; n18 ; Feb 2008
Reviews examples of successful flexible school spaces, cautioning against attempts to design one space to serve too many purposes.

Teacher Environmental Competence in Elementary School Environments.
Lackney, Jeffery
Children, Youth and Environments; v18 n2 , p133-159 ; 2008
Investigates teachers' understanding and effective use of the physical environment to meet instructional goals. It examines organizational factors that contribute to poor environmental competence in school environments. The action research approach employed in this study includes a set of interconnected training, research and action activities. Once teachers were introduced to a means of communicating their environmental experience through the training component, they were able to articulate specific environmental concerns, see their interrelationship, and make judgments of priority. The paper suggests avenues for raising the environmental competence of educators within the context of educational reforms advocating for collaborative, learner-centered environments. Free registration required.

Open Plan School in Portugal: Failure or Innovation? Adobe PDF
Martinho, Miguel; da Silva, Jose
PEB Exchange; 2008/12 ; 2008
Offers a brief history of the rise and fall of the open plan school design, along with its advantages and its adoption in Portugal. The case of Portugal’s Escola da Ponte, a successful open plan school requested and embraced by its teachers is then detailed. Includes 15 references.

Swivel Seating in Large Lecture Theaters and Its Impact on Student Discussions and Learning.
Ogilvie, Craig A.
Journal of College Science Teaching; v37 n3 , p50-56 ; Jan 2008
Well-designed university buildings and physical environments have a documented positive impact on student participation, engagement, and feelings of support and belonging. These factors are known to improve learning; however, it is hard to document the direct impact architecture has on student learning outcomes. This paper compares two different designs of remodeled, large lecture-theater designs: one with traditional tiered rows and one with swivel seating to facilitate face-to-face discussions during lectures and the impact these designs had on student learning. Both high- and low-performing students appear to have benefited from the swivel-seat discussions by the end of the semester, with potentially a larger benefit for stronger students.

A Classroom's Size Determines Its Capacity.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p54 ; Dec 2007
Reviews the evolution in classroom capacity as educational programming has changed and offers a contemporary formula for determining a classroom's capacity based on its size and the furnishings, technology, and storage that accompany a proper learning environment.

A Movable Feast.
Waters, John
T.H.E. Journal; Dec 2007
Reviews concepts for continuously adaptable classroom design, noting that wireless technology liberates arrangement from being fixed around the technology, that the L-shaped classroom provides new possibilities, and that areas outside the classroom are learning spaces too.

Appealing Spaces.
Dittoe, William; Porter, Nat
American School and University; v80 n2 , p26,28,29,30,32 ; Oct 2007
Discusses the trend away from traditional school space design based on numbers of students, toward design based on achieving educational outcomes. Features of improved learning space and furnishings in classrooms, hallways, libraries, and residences are included.

Voting with Their Seats: Computer Laboratory Design and the Casual User.
Spennemann, Dirk H. R.; Atkinson, John; Cornforth, David
Behaviour & Information Technology; v26 n5 , p409-420 ; Sep 2007
Student computer laboratories are provided by most teaching institutions around the world; however, what is the most effective layout for such facilities? The log-in data files from computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia were analysed to determine whether there was a pattern in student seating. In particular, it was investigated whether students and academic staff usage was affected by the layout of a computer laboratory and therefore a preference by students in where they were seated. It was found that the layout of the computer laboratories does not affect which computer layout a student will use. Further, it was found that academic staff prefer to use a computer laboratory designed along a more traditional lecture room layout when working with first-year students. This research will be valuable to institutions designing new computer laboratory facilities. [Authors' abstract]

American School and University; v79 n13 , p80-82 ; Aug 2007
Profiles three classroom facilities honored in American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The two higher education and one elementary school projects were selected for their high performance principles, innovation, functionality, contextual relationship, humanism, and building quality. Photographs and building statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Variety Is the Spice of Education! (Part 2)
Sims, Joel
Schooldesigner Newsletter; Aug 2007
Examines distinctive educational interiors, profiling nine facilities that feature exemplary learning spaces, conscientious finishes, and engaging common areas.

Change is Constant.
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v10 n5 , p23-25 ; Jul-Aug 2007
Presents an interview with a school designer that emphasizes the virtues of flexible learning environments. Features of both flexible space, which can be altered by design and construction professionals, and flexible place, which can be altered by the users, are enumerated.

Wall-to-Wall Coverings.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p64-68 ; Jun 2007
Reviews advances in wall coverings that make them impact and scratch resistant, easily cleaned, sound absorbing, and able to reproduce desired graphics to create instant wall murals. Weight categories and cleaning techniques for wall coverings are also described.

Space Craft.
Edutopia; v3 n2 , p18,19 ; Mar 2007
Profiles a classroom that was transformed according to Feng Shui principles, and offers several Feng Shui tips to remedy typical classroom design problems.

A Giant Half Step.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n3 , p70 ; Mar 2007
Reviews possibilities for contemporary classroom arrangement when a more traditional "double-loaded corridor" school design is desired. Size of classrooms, technology integration, and clustering configurations are covered.

The Politics of Education Reform.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , p10 ; Nov 2006
Discusses school facility implications of the mandate to reduce class size.

Display Technology: Picture This!
Villano, Matt
T.H.E. Journal; v33 n16 , p16-20 ; Nov 2006
From interactive whiteboards to handheld tablets, from digital projectors to newfangled video-editing systems, these products are grabbing student attention. Statistics indicate that kids prefer to learn in a visual world and like to have information at their fingertips. Across the board, the latest and greatest classroom display products meet these needs. This article discusses a spate of new multimedia tools that is putting a whole new face on the learning process.

Management of the Physical Environment in the Classroom and Gymnasium: It's Not "That" Different
Culp, Brian
Teaching Elementary Physical Education; v17 n5 , p13-15 ; Sep 2006
This article extends information from a text by Weinstein and Mignano (2003) to address classroom organization in terms of the physical environment. That text is an extrapolation of Steele's (1973) outline of six functions within the classroom setting: (1) security and shelter; (2) social contact; (3) symbolic identification; (4) pleasure; (5) task instrumentality; and (6) growth. Each of the functions has potential significance for effective physical education. This article discusses each environment separately to examine similarities and differences between classroom and the gymnasium. The comparisons demonstrate that management in the classroom and gymnasium share many of the same qualities.

American School and University; v78 n13 , p79-83 ; Aug 2006
Presents a middle school, high school, and three higher education classroom facilities selected for the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their creative renovations and use of existing conditions, engaging and delightful spaces, use of natural light and sustainable materials, technology integration, functionality, and flexibility. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

From Bricks to Clicks: Blurring Classroom/Cyber Lines.
Pape, Liz
The School Administrator; v63 n7 , p18-25 ; Aug 2006
Discusses online learning programs in various schools, including blended learning that occurs in a web-enhanced or hybrid classroom. In the hybrid classroom model, the class typically meets only three or four days per week in the classroom, with the balance of instruction being delivered online. Advantages and disadvantages to these formats are presented.

Children's Brains Are the Key to Well-Designed Classrooms.
Eberhard, John
AIArchitect; Jun 2006
Recommends consideration of children's brain function when designing classrooms for young children, emphasizing smaller private spaces appropriately scaled to children's spatial preferences, minimal background noise, variation of light to offset natural daylight, age-appropriate color selection, and thoughtful wayfinding.

Master Classroom.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall; Lackney, Jeffery
Edutopia; v2 n4 , p26-28 ; Jun 2006
Using the studio arrangements and work habits of Leonardo DaVinci, Albert Einstein, and Jamie Oliver, the authors propose three classroom configurations suitable for contemporary educational models.

Wonderful Walls
Greenman, Jim
Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine ; n168 , p62 ; Mar-Apr 2006
In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as sight and sound conditioners. When effective, they modulate and direct sensory stimulation in service of program goals. The author presents tips on how to make "working" walls wonderful.

Opening the Doors to Learning. Adobe PDF
Van Schelven, Michael
American School Board Journal; v193 n3 , p54,55 ; Mar 2006
Describes Forest Hills Eastern High School of Ada, Michigan. The LEED-certified school features hallways without lockers and classrooms with double doors that incorporate the corridors and adjacent open areas into the learning space.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Your Ideal Classroom
Cookson, Peter W., Jr.
Teaching Pre K-8; v36 n5 , p14, 16 ; Feb 2006
This article provides suggestions for designing a classroom that will offer creative learning opportunities for students--a classroom where work flows throughout, materials are ready and abundant, students feel safe, and there is a logical classroom organization that promotes learning.

Building Blueprints: Classrooms and Teaching Spaces.
Monberg, Gregory; Monberg, Laura
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , p56,57 ; Feb 2006
Discusses innovative school facilities being created in Hammond, Indiana. With extensive teacher input in place, the district boasts several new and remodeled facilities that feature optimal learning technologies, flexible spaces with operable walls, thoughtful casework and furnishings, and sound reinforcement technology.

School Design Effects on Cognitive Learning: Defining "Equal Educational Opportunity."
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v72 n1 , p15-18 ; Jan 2006
Urges consideration of the learning process when designing classrooms, and not just stopping with abundant natural lighting and good looks. Students should be equitably seated around instructional media, without extreme distances or viewing angles. Schools should be sited and designed so that traditional and gifted students will intermingle.

The Relevance of Project-based Instruction.
Kelly, Frank
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p19-23 ; 2006
Describes types of individual, group, and multi-disciplinary project-based classroom instruction and provides facility implications for each.

Thinking Outside the Box: Reinventing the Traditional Classroom.
Nigaglioni, Irene
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p3-8 ; 2006
Discusses shortcomings of traditional learning environments and provides examples of classroom designs appropriate for contemporary educational delivery. These designs accommodate flexibility, variability, extended learning areas, interdisciplinary teaching, and technology integration. Includes 17 references.

Setting the Stage for Student Engagement.
Richards, Jan
Winter 2006
This article presents suggestions for teachers that can increase the chances that their students will be fully engaged during a lesson. The issues of time (length of lessons), space (arrangement of desks), materials (readily available and easily accessible), and relationships (teacher's personality and teaching style) are discussed. p92-94
TO ORDER: Kappa Delta Pi, 3707 Woodview Trace, Indianapolis, IN 46268; Tel: 317-871-4900.

American School and University; v77 n13 , p79-88 ; Aug 2005
Presents eight classroom facilities selected for the American School & University 2005 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their functionality, sustainability, craftsmanship, cost-effectiveness, and community connection. Building statistics, designer information, and photographs are included.

No More Bland Interiors.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v44 n8 , p27,28,31,32-33 ; Aug 2005
Cites five schools for the creative interiors that respectively bring surrounding outdoor elements into the design, reflect the maritime history of the neighborhood, express a finished industrial look, give an aquatic center a zoo theme, and create excitement with innovative furniture.

Closing Up an Open School.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p62 ; Apr 2005
Describes an open school that parents, and some teachers, want to divide into classrooms. The infrastructure of the school must be repaired, but common areas work well as they are and certain aspects of the open plan work well with the educational program.

In This School, the Classroom Revolution Is Now a Reality - All 360 Degrees of It.
Thorpe, Vanessa; Asthana, Anushka
The Guardian; , 2p. ; Feb 27, 2005
This article describes an experimental classroom in the Liverpool area of England that may change the shape of classrooms to come for British schoolchildren. Known as the 360 degree flexible classroom, it challenges the techniques used by teachers down the ages. Instead of simply standing at the front, the teacher circles students on a curved 'racetrack', occasionally taking up a position on a podium in the center of the room. Students sit at their own Q-Pods, special table and chair units on wheels. White writing boards can be used by the students then fit back on to the walls of the classroom so the class's work can be discussed. The wall boards can also become screens for computer projections, while the temperature and light in the room are electronically controlled. Mirrors mounted at three points serve as eyes in the back of the teacher's head.

Classrooms and Their Impact on Learning.
Gardner, Dwayne
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p44,42 ; Feb 2005
Discusses the importance of classroom design on learning. Teaching methodology should inform design, as should the non-traditional ways that classrooms are used by teachers, students, after-school programs, parents, and volunteers. Size, flexibility, accessibility, scale, layout, environment, security, and aesthetic issues are also discussed.

Let the Walls Teach.
Chan, Tak Cheung; Arasi, Anthony
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p35,36 ; Jan 2005
Suggests many uses for classroom walls that enhance teaching. Displays can be used for educational, aesthetic, promotional, competitive, celebratory, and teaching of values functions. Suggestions on wall finishes, colors, and display aesthetics are offered.

The Impact of an Intelligent Classroom on Pupils' Interactive Behaviour.
Tibúrcio, Túlio; Finch, Edward F.
Facilities; v23 n5/6 , p262 - 278 ; 2005
The purpose of this research is to determine whether new intelligent classrooms will affect the behaviour of children in their new learning environments. A multi-method study approach was used to carry out the research. Behavioural mapping was used to observe and monitor the classroom environment and analyse usage. Two new classrooms designed by INTEGER (Intelligent and Green) in two different UK schools provided the case studies to determine whether intelligent buildings (learning environments) can enhance learning experiences. Several factors were observed in the learning environments: mobility, flexibility, use of technology, interactions. Relationships among them were found indicating that the new environments have positive impact on pupils' behaviour. [Authors' abstract]

The L-Shape Classroom: A Pattern for Promoting Learning.
Lippman, Peter C.
DesignShare; , 9p. ; Oct 01, 2004
Re-examines the "Fat L" classroom as a design that supports a range of classroom activity settings, defines the activity settings, examines the shape in practice, evaluates examples from the United States and the Netherlands, and considers how this classroom shape might influence learning activities throughout the school environment.

Death of the Classroom? And, Thank You—It’s Been Great Fun
Long, Phillip D.
Syllabus; Sep 01, 2004
Traditional classrooms have not exactly facilitated the flexible transition from one learning mode to another. The author asks: "So where are the classrooms going, and are we building them to what we currently "know," based on our past and current experiences, or for tomorrow?"

American School and University; v76 n13 , p68-76 ; Aug 2004
Presents eight classroom projects selected for the American School & University 2004 Educational Interiors Showcase. The awards were based on the jury's estimation of the projects' adaptability, innovation, humanism, appropriateness to site, sustainability, and timelessness. Building statistics, designers, and photographs are included.

Required Changes in the Classroom Environment: It's a Matter of Design.
Burke, Karen; Burke-Samide, Barbara
Clearing House; v77 n6 , p236 ; Aug-Sep 2004
The New York City Department of Education has recently set forth new mandates for the redesign of classrooms. Teachers must be taught how to redesign their classrooms correctly so that all students will be provided with the necessary space to accommodate their environmental learning-style preferences. By altering the classroom, teachers give some students the opportunity to work in formal areas--desks, chairs, and tables--and other students the chance to choose informal areas--couches, rugs, soft chairs, and so forth. Within the areas of every classroom, adaptations can be made for sound preferences, lighting needs, and temperature controls. Research findings pertaining to the environmental elements validate the importance of harmonizing individuals' learning-style preferences with congruent educational environments in all school systems. Students should not be expected to change their environmental preferences or to learn regardless of them. Instructional environments should be modified in accordance with individual needs and preferences.

Revoicing Classrooms: A Spatial Manifesto
FORUM: For Promoting 3-19 Comprehensive Education; v46 n1 , p36-38 ; 2004
Why is the physical learning environment in schools largely ignored by teachers within pedagogical practice? The author contends that the "Knowledge Age" requires that school, college, and university classrooms once again be converted to make more functional sense, and that one way of accomplishing this is through a campaign that relates space directly to changes in pedagogy, curriculum and ICT by placing spatial literacy firmly on the agenda of teachers' own learning.

Teachers' Construction of Space and Place: the Method in the Madness. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
Forum; v46 n1 , p28-32 ; 2004
Presents the results of a study within two northern California high schools that examined how different teachers modified their traditional classrooms. Constraints placed on non-traditional teaching styles by traditional classrooms and furnishings are examined, as well as the ways teachers used, and avoided, the non-classroom workspaces provided for them. Includes five references. (Scroll down in PDF for article.)

Space, Power and the Classroom. Adobe PDF
McGregor, Jane
Forum; v46 n1 , p13-18 ; 2004
Examines the spatial relationships of teachers and pupils in the classroom, showing how space is used to create and maintain particular forms of relationship and power structure, and illustrated with examples. Includes 25 references. (Scroll down in PDF for article.)

Dr. Fred Jones's Tools for Teaching: More Time on Task, Less Goofing Off
Jones, Fred
Education World; Aug 2003
A classroom management specialist shares his ideas on ways to arrange classrooms and "work the crowd" to create more time on task and cut down on "goofing off." Jones includes diagrams of arrangements that allow teachers to supervise with the least steps possible.

American School and University; v75 n12 , p80-90 ; Aug 2003
Presents K-12 and college classrooms considered outstanding in a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total cost, total cost/square foot, cost of project entry category, cost/square foot of project entry category, and completion date.

Space Utilization.
Boyer, Michael L.
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p14-21 ; Aug 2003
Describes the development of an Intermediate Center, adjacent to the existing K-12 schools, within a fast-growing community. Designed for children in 5th-7th grades, the center includes a special education classroom that incorporates the needs of students with a variety of disabilities. The L-shaped classroom allows for teacher eye contact with all students while still providing a defined area for alternative, small group instruction.

ABCs of Successful Classroom Renovations.
Lopez, Rob
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p36-37 ; Aug 2003
Asserts that successful classroom upgrades involve an examination of five areas: program fit within an existing building, technology utilization, regulatory compliance, building systems, and aesthetics. A successful renovation project also requires an extensive planning process that includes input from teachers, school administrators, and parents.

Home and School Density Effects on Elementary School Children: The Role of Spatial Density.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Environment and Behavior; v35 n4 , p566-578 ; Jul 2003
Reports findings of an investigation into classroom spatial density effects on elementary school children. The research indicates that amount of space per child in the classroom may be as important as the number of children in a classroom.

Optimizing the Design of Computer Classrooms: The Physical Environment.
Williams, Margot T.,Oostenink, Richard J.,Burns, Mathew B.,Reber, Emily S.,Reed, Virginia A.,Jernstedt, G. Christian,Huffman, Heather B.
Educational Technology; v43 n4 , p9-13 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Suggests two guiding principles as a framework to interpret the research findings of environmental psychology that focus on effective classroom design: effective design promotes attention in the classroom and allows for periodic shifts of learner activities. Examines these principles as they apply to the design of a computer classroom, reviewing components of the physical classroom environment. Elaborates on classroom design techniques that ease the transition between different tasks.

School Construction: Technology Is Changing the Way Kids Learn. . . and the Classrooms in which They Do It.
Daniels, Stephen H.
Architectural Record; v191 n3 , p159-63 ; Mar 2003
Examines recent trends in technology education and how learning success can be influenced by effective design. Describes several technology labs, including those in which modular units replace typical classrooms and curriculum, and discusses the environments necessary to accommodate successful project-based learning. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Small Learning Groups Revive the Open Classroom.
Jones, Morgan
School Construction News; v6 n3 , p16 ; Mar-Apr 2003
Describes educational program and facility design solutions that can help make an open classroom plan successful. Small learning groups are provided with a variety of open, semi-enclosed, and enclosed spaces in which to conduct activities of varying noise levels.

Activity-Enhancing Arenas of Designs: A Case-Study of the Classroom Layout.
Amedeo, Douglas; Dyck, James
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research; v20 n4 , p323-343 ; Winter 2003
Perceptions of how five different classroom spatial layouts differ in the way they influence teaching and learning activities were elicited from primary teachers and evaluated in terms of their educational perspectives. Teachers' beliefs about properties of various spatial designs were assessed by evaluating their spatial layout preferences and by evoking their comments about the relative merits each layout has with respect to facilitating the conduct of activities in the classroom. Results suggest that teachers perceive the influences exerted by various classroom spatial layouts on teaching and learning activities to differ, but their perceptions of such differences are clearly qualified by their educational perspectives.

Classroom Space: Right for Adults but Wrong for Kids.
Duncanson, Edward
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p24-28 ; 2003
Describes the inadequacy of traditional classroom arrangements for children. More square footage with flexible furnishings are required so that open learning areas can be created. (Includes 12 references.)

Impact of Design on Learning: Multimedia in the Classroom.
Hill, Franklin
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n3 , p7-10 ; 2003
Describes proper lighting and audiovisual arrangements to create learning environments where occupants can see without distortion or glare from inappropriate viewing angles.

Design Issues Related to the Creation and Delivery of Asynchronous Multimedia Presentations
Lightfoot, Jay M.
Journal of Educational Technology Systems ; v31 n3 , p343-356 ; 2003
Technology has advanced to the point where it is now possible to create and distribute digital multimedia recordings of class lecture over the Internet to remote learners. More importantly, the price of this technology has decreased to the point where it is also affordable to most instructional institutions. The main factor limiting its widespread use is the knowledge required to setup and apply the technology. This article attempts to alleviate this situation by providing a detailed design for a multimedia-enabled classroom. The design includes components, physical layout, and pricing considerations. It concludes by profiling an actual implementation of the design and discussing future research plans that take advantage of the unique capabilities provided by the room[Author's abstract]

New and Renovated Schools: Design of "Instructionally High Performance Learning Spaces."
Richardson, William M.; Wheeler, Lloyd B.
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n1 , p11-14 ; 2003
Discusses school layout design and furnishing options for maximum use of technology in education.

Educated Walls.
Wittl, Rob
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p17-18 ; Jan 2003
Discusses the advantages for educational facilities of using movable walls, including flexibility, reusability, environmental responsibility, and improved features.

American School and University; v74 n12 , p76-82 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable school classrooms, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

How Do You Make Your Classroom an Inviting Place for Students To Come Back to Each Year?
Schmollinger, Connie S.; Opaleski, Kristie-Anne; Chapman, Marcee L.; Jocius, Roberta; Bell, Sherri
English Journal; v91 n6 , p20-22 ; Jul 2002
Presents five high school teachers' ideas about how to create a desirable environment for their students' learning in English classrooms.

Accessorizing the Classroom.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n10 , p35-37 ; Jun 2002
Describes how, as is the case with the desks they purchase, schools should choose other furnishings such as computer workstations by balancing aesthetics, architects' recommendations, staff preferences, durability, flexibility, and cost.

Space Matters: The A+ Schools Program and the ABCs of Education.
McKinney, Monica B
Educational Foundation; v16 n2 , p77-91 ; Spring 2002
This looks at the need to include the design of school buildings and other physical aspects of the learning environment when attempting to transform pedagogy and make other systemic reforms. The article explores how deeply held cultural assumptions, physically manifested in how space is organized, allocated, and used in schools, influenced one elementary school's efforts to implement a voluntarily adopted arts-based initiative known as the A+ Schools Program. This article presents an ethnographic case study of Rolling Meadow Elementary School (a pseudonym) that illustrates the school's struggles and successes with two simultaneous and sometimes conflicting reforms, the A+ Schools Program and an accountability system mandated by the state, the ABCs of Public Education. The intent of this paper is to show how Rolling Meadow serves as an example of how reform implementation can introduce new spatial challenges and inhibit implementation.

Minimizing Minimal Hearing Loss in the Schools: What Every Classroom Teacher Should Know.
Dodd-Murphy, Jeanne; Mamlin, Nancy
Preventing School Failure; v46 n2 , p86-92 ; Winter 2002
This article explains minimal hearing loss in children and implications for the regular classroom setting. It describes audiograms and discusses developmental effects of minimal hearing loss, identification of minimal hearing loss, intervention, environmental modifications, and teacher strategies. Emphasis is on accommodations that can be provided in the regular classroom.

Using Technology To Enhance the Classroom Environment.
Levine, Lawrence E.
T.H.E. Journal; v29 n6 , p16-18 ; Jan 2002
Addresses the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning in a classroom environment. Discusses classroom setups, including networks and Internet connections; utilizing resources, including lecture notes, software demonstrations, and simulations; the use of laptop computers; and examples of technology use where students don't have access to computers.

A Tale of Two Classrooms.
Chism, Nancy
New Directions for Teaching and Learning; n92 , p5-12 ; Winter 2002
Offers a rationale for increasing attention to learning space design, providing an overview of relevant literature and highlighting implications for learning spaces suggested by modern learning theory.

The Built Environment's Effect on Learning: Applying Current Research.
Dyck, James A.
Montessori Life; , p53-56 ; Winter 2002
This article focuses on six physical attributes of the Montessori "prepared" environment that should be addressed in environmental design: aesthetics, spatial factors, light, noise, color, and thermal factors. Current literature is reviewed.

Using a Technology-Enriched Environment To Improve Higher-Order Thinking Skills.
Hopson, Michael H.; Simms, Richard L.; Knezek, Gerald A.
Journal of Research on Technology in Education; v34 n2 , p109-19 ; Winter 2002
Examined the effects of a technology-enriched classroom on student development of higher-order thinking skills and student attitudes toward computers in grades five and six. Describes use of the Ross Test of Higher Cognitive Processes and the Computer Attitude Questionnaire, compares results with students in traditional classrooms, and suggest implications for classroom design.

Arranging the Classroom with an Eye (and Ear) to Students with ADHD.
Carbone, Eric
Teaching Exceptional Children; v34 n2 , p72-82 ; Nov-Dec 2001
Discusses arrangement of the classrooms furnishings, equipment, activity areas, and supplies to address the ADHD student's issues with hyperactivity, impulsivity, distractibility, and disorganization.

Building Blocks; How Schools are Designed and Constructed Affects How Students Learn.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; v188 n10 , p44-47 ; Oct 2001
Studies show that deteriorating school facilities take their toll on students' and teachers' health and morale. Classrooms should be accessible to the outdoors; clustered around a commons; adaptable and flexible; and aesthetically pleasing. Architects say natural lighting and noise reduction are routine parts of their job. Research studies support the concept of small schools or subdivisions that create a sense of smallness. Sidebars list factors school officials should keep in mind when choosing an architect, and selected references.

Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments=Classroom Management?
Dunne, Diane Weaver
Education World; Apr 04, 2001
Explores comments from classroom management experts and experienced educators about decisions teachers make on whether students will be allowed to select their own seats and about the impact on classroom discipline and effectiveness of instruction created by the physical arrangement of the classroom.

General Classroom Space.
Crane, Steve
School Planning and Management; v40 n4 , p54-55 ; Apr 2001
Illustrates how a Utah school district created classroom learning environments in their elementary schools that prepared students for life-long learning by teaching them in a collaborative, interactive, hands-on way. Arrangement of classrooms as learning centers that foster a team atmosphere are stressed.

Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles
Library Hi Tech; v19 n1 , p77 - 87 ; Mar 2001
This article applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. It discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of the physical space, environmental factors, and the workstations. Includes classroom layouts.

Classroom Size and Number of Students Per Classroom.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n2 , p11-12 ; 2001
Discusses what size classrooms should be and what research is revealing on the concept of social distance and its influence on classroom size considerations. A standard classroom size chart is provided.

The Classroom: Size versus Density.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p21-23 ; Dec 2000
Classroom density may be a more important planning consideration than size. The lower middle range for human social distance is 7 feet--not met in most classrooms containing 20 to 25 students. Students need ample space, since crowding causes behavior problems and increased maintenance costs. (Contains 10 references.)

Computer Labs: A Sensible Solution for the Foreseeable Future.
Smith, Molly
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , p24-25 ; Jun 2000
Discusses how to create effective school computer labs covering such topics as programming, planning considerations, planning a flexible infrastructure, and controlling the environment. Top considerations in designing a good computer lab are listed.

Engaged Learning.
McDonough, James
American School and University; v72 n9 , p60,63-64 ; May 2000
Notes that research on how students learn and retain knowledge is changing not only how teachers teach, but also how facilities planners and architects design a classroom’s shape, size, organization, and furnishings. Suggests that classrooms need to be flexible and dynamic, must integrate new technologies, must be large enough to accommodate transformation, and must include furnishings that move easily and convert from one use to another.

Analyzing Rectangular Classrooms
Al-Haboubi, Muhammad H.
Journal of Architectural Engineering; v6 n1 , p1-5 ; Mar 2000
The shape of classrooms is usually rectangular with various lengths and widths. Certain parts of the classroom are better than others for viewing the board depending on the viewing distance and horizontal viewing angle. Other parts are not as good in viewing the board where students are expected to commit errors in copying from the board and may take longer time in reading. This study attempts to analyze five sections of any classroom size, and an index is developed for each section in a particular academic term to reflect cumulative hours spent in each section by students. A case study is included to apply the concepts of classroom sections. Finally, a new classroom design in the shape of a trapezoid is recommended to maximize the best area for viewing the board. Architectural engineers and architects may find it challenging to design a building with classrooms of nontraditional shape. [Author's abstract]

Trailer Classrooms Suprisingly Popular
Matthews, Jay
Washington Post; , pA9 ; Feb 15, 2000
For many parents, nothing in public education elicits as much scorn as a portable classroom. There are concerns about lack of bathrooms, long treks to the main building, small windows, bad air and poor maintenance. But trailers get a very different and more positive reaction from the students and teachers who use them.

Planning the Middle School Science Classroom.
Biehle, James T.
School Planning and Management; v39 n1 , p60-61 ; Jan 2000
Examines the planning requirements for designing a middle school's science classroom, including the areas of casework and sinks, surfaces, furniture, gas, storage, power, ventilation, and safety issues.

Planning for Flexibility, Not Obsolescence
Ehrenkrantz, Ezra
Design Share; , 9p ; Sep 1999
This keynote speech discusses computer lab/classrooms and the issue of properly combining space, pedagogy, and technology when facility planning to better enhance student learning and support the teaching process. Several case studies illustrate classroom computer workstation configurations and how these may help or impede student learning and instructional methodology. Also addressed is the rapidly changing tools of education and the ways for achieving the flexibility today's schools will need to adequately embrace these changes. It is suggested that enough space must be allocated to allow for a variety of learning environments to be adopted, both large and small, that fit with the curriculum and teaching needs, and be appropriate to the requirements of the students. It is argued that without enough space in the school design to help schools be flexible enough to accommodate changes in learning and teaching over time, the useful life of new schools will be shorter than their predecessors of 20 years earlier.

A Learning Curve.
Keown, Cheryl
American School and University; v71 n12 , p116-19 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the importance of establishing a learning-technology plan when bringing electronic technology into classrooms. Conducting the classroom audit and synthesis phases of the plan are described as are the need to understand the modes of teaching and learning, classroom type, and types of equipment. Tips are offered on properly assessing teaching needs and requirements.

Sounding Off.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v71 n11 , p51-52,54 ; Jul 1999
Discusses how proper classroom design and technology can compensate for poor acoustics and enhance student comprehension. Examines issues that need to be discussed with the school architect. Explores the use of sound amplification systems to ensure that, acoustically speaking, every student is in the front row.

The Death of the Classroom, Learning Cycles and Roger Schank
Fielding, Randall
Design Share; May 1999
Roger Schanks ideas regarding the abandonment of classrooms as the central learning environment and changing the delivery of education are examined. Schank believes todays learning cycles should be divided equally between computer work, talking with others, and making something; none of which requires a formal classroom. Emphasis is placed on doing something as the best way for learning to occur, and computer simulations that engage students to take action, wrestle with failure, and develop emotional connections with the experience is the best solution for this task. Further, Schank believes that virtual universities via the Internet will eventually be in direct competition to the existing secondary and university system.

Designing the Classroom of the Future.
Gomez, Raymond
School Planning and Management; v38 n5 , p32-34 ; May 1999
Explores different K-6 classroom designs that address the changing learning space needs of students. The hexagonal modular design is described as one answer to a classroom that is flexible as well as accommodating to educational technology, now and into the future.

The Future of the Classroom.
Butterfield, Eric
Design Share; , 7 ; Apr 1999
An interview with Dr. William DeJong concerning his thoughts on new teaching models, the advent of computers, and the media hype surrounding school safety. Dr. DeJong addresses what the space requirements are for departmentalized versus interdisciplinary education; what problems he sees affecting elementary schools differently versus high schools; why the high school level was the most resistant to the interdisciplinary approach; what types of materials and furniture he specifies when designing classrooms for block scheduling; how different instruction methods are changing the way he designs elementary schools; how the demographic shift of students from elementary schools to high schools, as a result of the Baby Boomer's children growing older, is now focusing higher construction levels on high schools; whether economic trends will impact school building; and what types of design elements he is using to enhance the safety of schools.

The Future of the Classroom.
Butterfield, Eric
School Construction News; v2 n2 , p12-13, 14 ; Mar-Apr 1999
Discusses the teaching methods shaping the classroom of tomorrow, where sixth graders carry laptops and teachers work in teams. Space requirements for departmentalized vs. interdisciplinary education are examined as are the types of materials and furniture used in design classrooms for black scheduling, and differing instruction methods changing elementary classroom design.

Preparing the Inclusion Classroom for Students with Special Physical and Health Needs
Wadsworth, Donna E. Dugger; Knight, Diane
Intervention in School and Clinic; v34 n3 , 170-75 ; Jan 1999
The Classroom Ecological Preparation Inventory (CEPI) is designed to aid in inclusion of students with physical impairments and health needs in the general-education classroom. The CEPI focuses on health and medical concerns, arrangement of the physical environment, assistive equipment, instructional adaptations, and social-skills management. A sample CEPI and case examples are provided.

The Impact of Lecture Theatre Design on Learning Experience. Adobe PDF
Fleming, David; Storr, John
Facilities; v17 n7/8 , p231-236 ; 1999
Investigates the impact of lecture facilities on the student learning experience by examining student responses to three lecture halls. Students were invited to rate the importance of 16 lecture theatre components. Tables illustrate the responses for each component, along with demographic information for the respondents. 33 references are included.

Flexible Spaces that Work: Renovating Today for Tomorrow's Needs.
Pantano, Phil
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p74-75 ; Jan 1999
Discusses one architectural design firm's answer to designing educational facilities that can grow and change with the times using technology and space planning. Design ideas for libraries/media centers and mini-labs are discussed. The concept emphasizes flexibility in giving teachers a wide range of options in conducting their classes and students a wide range of resources.

The Netherlands Study House: New Designs for New Pedagogies. Adobe PDF
Fisher, Kenn
PEB Exchange; n35 , p12-13 ; Oct 1998
Discusses the Netherland's approach to help students meet the basic competency requirements of employers and tertiary institutions. The new pedagogical approach, called Study House, integrates a nontraditional curriculum delivery that fosters students working in teams and setting their own tasks within an innovative classroom design.

Four Fantastic Floor Plans for Elementary Schools.
Ranyak, Mark W.; Wickstrom, Douglas M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p20-26 ; Apr 1998
Examines four elementary school floor plans designed for efficient and flexible delivery of educational programs while limiting operational problems. Plans examined are the cluster approach, the corridor approach, the urban block school, and the courtyard/campus concept.

Finding a Place To Stand: Negotiating the Spatial Configuration of the Networked Computer Classroom
Kent-Drury, Roxanne
Computers and Composition; v15 n3 , 387-407 ; 1998
Theorizes the spatial dynamics of both traditional and Internet-networked classrooms to reveal that both exhibit indeterminate spatial characteristics, but that network connectivity renders this indeterminacy visible. Argues that networked classrooms need not be disorienting, if students recreate a center by designing a class Web site, creating personal Web sites, and collaboratively analyzing the Internet and its demographics.

Solitaire Confinement: The Impact of the Physical Environment on Computer Training.
McDermott, Irene E.
Computers in Libraries; v18 n1 , p22,24-27 ; Jan 1998
Institutions spend millions of dollars on computer training rooms yet give little thought to lighting, temperature, ambient noise, furniture arrangement, and other physical factors that affect learning. This article examines some problems and suggests remedies: changing furniture, controlling monitors, and redesigning rooms. Lists selected computer-training hardware and software suppliers and products.

Making the Best Decisions: Designing for Excellence!
Bullock, Ann Adams; Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.
Schools in the Middle; v7 n2 , p.37-39,60-61 ; Nov 1997
The authors suggest that classrooms must provide an appropriately stimulating environment that supports learning and provides teachers and students with a comfortable place to learn. Lists requisite factors of the school environment including furniture, aesthetics, color, carpet, building maintenance, decorating detail, comfort, space/design, lighting, classroom elements, instructional items, and professional items. According to the authors, color is the least expensive investment and the fastest change agent available.

Z-Shaped Classroom Supports Technology, Enhances Learning.
Nies, Jim; Hougsted, Steve
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p34-36 ; Oct 1997
Examines the benefits of the Z-shaped science lab classroom configuration as a means of learning enhancement. Each section of the classroom is illustrated and described. Also discusses construction and cost considerations.

Parents Speak Out: What Should Schools & Classrooms Look Like?
Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.; Peel, Henry A.
Schools in the Middle; v7 n1 , p.42-47 ; Sep-Oct 1997
Examines attributes of middle level classrooms and schools perceived by parents as inviting, and attributes related to student behavior and achievement. Notes that inviting schools/classrooms are characterized by a clean, neat building, student work displays, and pleasant wall colors. Environmental features that parents believe are related to student behavior and achievement include appropriate furniture, learning centers, and manual temperature control.

Flexing with the Times.
Pettit, Jon
American School and University; v69 n12 , p87-89 ; Aug 1997
Explains how schools can be designed to meet the changing needs in education, such as changes in classroom function, educational technology, curriculum, and enrollment. Ideas for creating interior design flexibility that optimizes space utilization without increasing cost demands are suggested. Each teacher brings a unique style to the classroom and demands the room function accordingly. Teaching different things in different ways means spaces need to support a variety of activities. Schools need areas for independent study, small-group projects, full-group lessons and two- or three-class presentations. Rooms must allow the possibility of any and all demands.

American Trends in School Design
Passantino, Richard J.
CEFPI Journal; v35 n3 ; May-Jun 1997
Passantino discusses how demographic changes, new teaching paradigms, the integration of technology, and community collaboration will affect educational facility design in the new millenium. New facility space will be needed to accomodate a growing student population. Classroom design will change to allow increased interaction in the classroom, with the teacher serving as a facilitator. The introduction of computer technology in classrooms will require more space per student. Community collaborations will lead to creative plans for shared space.

Split-Level Flexibility
Roberson, Kelly
Texas Architect; v47 n1 , p76-77 ; Jan 1997
Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and natural lighting, including a rectangular courtyard in the academic wing that can serve as an outdoor classroom.

Classroom Clusters
Williamson, Susan
Texas Architect; v47 n1 , p74-75 ; Jan 1997
Presents photographs and the floor plan of a pre-kindergarten through fifth grade school building that is designed with teaching and support areas arranged around a large, triangular room that serves as an auditorium, cafeteria, and overflow teaching space. The school also includes a circular media center and rectangular gymnasium.

Fitting New Technologies into Traditional Classrooms: Two Case Studies in the Design of Improved Learning Facilities
Green, Edward E.; et al.
Educational Technology; v36 n4 , p27-38 ; Jul-Aug 1996
Examines research on the influence of classroom design on student learning attitudes and behavior and presents two case studies on the remodeling of five classrooms in two high schools to accommodate new instructional technology for teaching algebra. Highlights include lighting, color, surface materials, noise, climate control, and seating.

A Loft-y Idea for Learning
George, Jack
Educational Leadership; v53 n3 , 56-57 ; Nov 1995
A fourth-grade teacher describes educational uses of a loft he constructed in his classroom. After drafting a constitution, the children brainstormed possible uses as reading/writing nook, small-group work area, and time-out space. The loft also serves as a minilibrary, private conference room, test makeup room, and staging area.

Reality Check. It Pays to Keep Your Sense of Humor
Whaley, Kanda W.
Learning; v23 n5 , p24-25 ; Mar 1995
A former elementary school teacher shares suggestions for decorating a classroom on a low budget. The article includes tips for decorating bulletin boards and keeping them up-to-date, organizing workspaces and storing materials, and creating appropriate seating arrangements.

Tasks and Tables: The Effects of Seating Arrangements on Task Engagement in Primary Classrooms.
Hastings, Nigel; Schwieso, Joshua
Educational Research; v37 n3 , p279-91 ; Winter 1995
One primary class moved from seating in rows to groups to rows, the other from groups to rows to groups. In both, on-task behavior was higher in rows. In a second study using rows for individual work, time on task increased substantially and, for a target group of three disruptive pupils, it increased dramatically.

The Case for the L-Shaped Classroom.
Dyck, James A.
Principal; v74 n2 , p41-45 ; Nov 1994
Classroom shape is an important variable in educational quality. The traditional squat rectangle may be counterproductive to the learning process. The fat L-shaped classroom, compared to H, X, and T shapes, offers good separation, is more compact, and provides good visibility and ease of movement for the teacher. It has excellent nesting capabilities and can be easily grouped into pods, clusters, or wings.

Classrooms of the Future
Farley, Raymond P.
American School Board Journal; v180 n3 , p32-34 ; Mar 1993
A New Jersey high school district built four prototype classrooms to measure the impact of new technology and telecommunication tools on instruction, assess alternative instructional strategies, and determine the training and development needs of the staff.

Changing the Architecture of Teachers' Minds.
Nelson, Doreen; Sundt, Jule
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p88-103 ; 1993
Presents a collection of case studies that point toward the vital importance of multi-use architecture in the not-as-yet-realized symbiosis between architects and educators. The article argues that only architects as teachers, and teachers as architects, can begin to educate young minds to hypothesize, envision and invent the future instead of replicate it. It also underlines the fact that the classroom talked about, dreamt of, and designed with students and colleagues does not yet exist. Includes nine references. Free registration required.

Psychological Aspects of Classroom Planning
White, Ernest K.
CEFP Journal; v28 n5 ; Sep-Oct 1990
The physical environment has a psychological impact on teachers and students; and consequently, on teaching and learning. Shape, size, arrangement and decor of the room can be inviting or repulsive and can affect communication, sight, and hearing. A carefully designed classroom includes specific elements to maximize learning and minimize those factors that are detrimental to health and comfort. Elements to be considered include spatial relationships, climate control, visual and acoustical environments including colors of walls, floors, etc. Surface finish and colors not only affect psychological attitude, but significantly alleviate or worsen glare as a cause of fatigue and poor learning environment.

Distraction, Privacy, and Classroom Design.
Ahrentzen, Sherry; Evans, Gary
Environment and Behavior; v16 n4 , p437-452 ; Jul 1984
Examines the effect of elementary classroom environment on distraction and sense of privacy among teachers and students. Teacher adjustments to curriculum to prevent distraction, the effect of student private study areas, and explanations for different reactions from students and teachers are also discussed. Includes ten references.

Environments and Interaction in Row-and-Column Classrooms.
MacPherson, J.
Environment and Behavior; v16 n4 , p481-502 ; Jul 1984
Reports findings of an ethnography of Australian high school stduents showing the importance of pupil definition of the classroom arrangement. These categories include control over classmates and teachers, sociability, and academic commitment. Includes 19 references.

Children Planning an Ideal Classroom: Environmental Design in an Elementary School.
Environment and Behavior; v13 n3 , 349-359 ; May 1981
Disscusses the conceptual merging of influence from open education, behavioral psychology, environmental psychology, and architecture into an approach that can be labeled "environmental design." In this study an elementary school teacher and an architect trained a group of third grade students in the principles of designing an ideal classroom. An evaluation of the training demonstrated that the subject's ability to observe and design environments was significantly greater than comparable students not receiving the training. The study demonstrated that children as young as eight or nine can be systematically taught to participate in the designing of their own environments. [Author's abstract[

Location and Interaction in Row-and-Column Seating Arrangements.
Koneya, Mele
Environment and Behavior; v8 n2 , p265-282 ; Jun 1976
Reports on the connection between high- and low-verbalizing students and classroom seat selection, and the effect of seat location on students with moderate verbalizing behavior. Includes 26 references.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).