NCEF Resource List: Build New or Renovate School Facilities?
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Information on the process of assessing whether to renovate and modernize existing school buildings in need of repair or construct new facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Alternatives to Construction [Portland Public Schools] Adobe PDF
(Long Range Plan, Portland Public Schools. Issue Paper 5.2, Mar 20, 2012)
This white paper explores program changes, the use of modular classrooms, leasing, and public/private partnerships as alternatives to new construction and major renovation of Portland, Oregon's public schools 5p

What Types of School Capital Projects are Voters Willing to Support?
Zimmer, Ron; Buddin, Richard; Jones, John; Liu, Na
(Public Budgeting and Finance, v31, n1, Mar 04, 2011)
In many states, investments in school capital must be approved by bond referenda. Consequently, voter preferences can directly impact the quality of school facilities and their infrastructure. Researchers have often analyzed the causal mechanisms of referendum passage, but they have not examined whether the type of capital project affects the outcome of the referendum itself. In this paper, we use data from the state of Michigan to examine whether voters are willing to provide more or less support for specific types of capital investments. We focus on the relationship between voter support for maintenance versus the construction of a new building or additions to existing buildings. Our analysis suggests there is a higher approval rate for maintenance of existing facilities than the construction of new school buildings or additions. [Authors' abstract] p37-55

Renovate Ohio's Historic Schools
(Renovate Ohio Schools, Feb 2010)
Advocates for the preservation of historic Ohio schools, which are being lost quickly. The website offers several publications to assist the preservationist, a description of the benefits of saving schools, myths surrounding older schools, and a photographic inventory of saved and lost schools in Ohio.

Older and Historic Schools: Restoration vs. Replacement and the Role of a Feasibility Study. Adobe PDF
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2010)
Provides a checklist to help create a complete and fair feasibility study when deciding whether to restore or replace an older school. Selecting the proper consultant, proper accounting, building codes, public participation, cultural and historic significance, site plan, scheduling, and educational programming, components of the study, and steps in executing the study are addressed. 7p.

Rethinking Schools Capital Investment: The New 3Rs? Refresh, Refurbish, Reuse. Adobe PDF
(British Council for School Environments, London , 2010)
Examines the opportunities that refurbishing existing school buildings can offer, breaking the term refurbishment into what the authors call "the new 3Rs." They are: Refresh, which looks at the valuable contribution that good interior design and high quality furniture can make; Refurbishment, which includes more major upgrading of the building fabric and services as well as remodelling of internal spaces; and Reuse, which considers new functions for redundant buildings, whether it is breathing new life into old school buildings or converting existing offices or retail units into new schools. 24p.

Executive Summary for First Priority Projects (51-100 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 51-100 years. According to the assessment, these first priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 47.81 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to priority one schools is approximately $353.73 million. This cost reflects, to a great extent, the aging condition of facilities. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $163.64 million in additional funding needed over the next ten years. The current FCI of 47.81 percent would deteriorate to 69.93 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility system 10p.

Executive Summary for Second Priority Projects (31-50 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 31-50 years. According to the assessment, these second priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 55.53 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to Priority Two school facilities is approximately $1.69 billion. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $497.96 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 55.53 percent would deteriorate to 71.83 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 12p.

Executive Summary for Third Priority Projects (16-30 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 16-30 years. According to the assessment, these third priority Schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 51.74 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to the Priority Three school facilities is approximately $77.33 million. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $34.99 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 51.74 percent would deteriorate to 75.15 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 9p.

Renovate or Build New? Adobe PDF
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , Jan 2008)
Briefly reviews issues surrounding the decision to renovate or replace a school. A list of eight questions to ask is followed by advice on assessing the facility, and preserving elements from the old building in the replacement. 2p.

Educate Yourself About Preservation: Preserving Pennsylvania’s Historic School Buildings.
(Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC), 2007)
From one-room nineteenth-century schoolhouses to the sprawling post-war high schools of the mid-twentieth century, historic schools across Pennsylvania are threatened. The PHMC’s historic school buildings initiative includes resources that encourage the preservation and continued use of historic school buildings. Included here is online information on the following: 1) Why Historic Schools are Important; 2) Why are Historic Schools at Risk?; 3) A Brief History of Public Education Policy in the Keystone State; 4) Guidelines for School Rehabilitation and New Construction; 5) Rehabilitation Technical Assistance; 6) School Renovation Successes ; 7) Advocacy Efforts; 8) Where to Go for More Information; and 9) Bibliography.

Renovate or Replace: The Case for Restoring and Reusing Older School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Hylton, Tom
(Save Our Land, Save Our Towns Inc. with funding by the William Penn Foundation, on behalf of the Pennsylvania Historic Schools Task Force , 2007)
Helps school boards and communities assess their options when considering replacing or renovating an established school. Considering the renovation the school within the context of neighborhood revitalization is emphasized, as is the construction quality typical of older schools, the assistance design professionals can provide, the value of small schools, the benefits of walking to school, the environmental wisdom of reusing older buildings, and the potential for adaptive reuse of older commercial buildings as schools. Case studies and opportunities particular to Pennsylvania are included. 32p.
TO ORDER: Save Our Land, Save Our Towns Inc., 222 Chestnut Street Pottstown, PA 19464. Tel: 610.323.6837

An Appraisal Guide for Older and Historic School Facilities.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2005)
Assists in the evaluation of the physical condition and educational adequacy of older and historic school facilities. The authors discuss principles of school facility assessments, the appraisal process, and preparation of the final report. Appraisal criteria include educational adequacy, educational environment, the school site, safety and security, structural and systems condition, and maintainability. A glossary and scoring instrument are included. 50p.

School Construction Handbook.
(Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Mechanicsburg , 2004)
Advises school board members on a variety of school condition and construction issues, including the impact of facilities on student achievement, how to get started with capital improvements, new construction versus renovation, project management, selecting design professionals, key components of school design, "green" construction, financing, and typical legal problems of school construction. 186p.

Schools for the Future. Transforming Schools: An Inspirational Guide to Remodelling Secondary Schools.
(Department for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
Presents recent British school renovation case studies that illustrate the benefits of refurbishing some facilities, and replacing others. Also described is how each school's budget will be set, with guidance on how to make the best use of those funds according to the vision and ethos of the school. Project statistics, floor plans, and photographs are included. 95p.

Hard Lessons: Causes and Consequences of Michigan's School Construction Boom.
McClelland, Mac; Schneider, Keith
(Michigan Land Use Institute, Beulah, MI , 2004)
This provides a detailed review of how school construction decisions — whether to renovate existing buildings or build new, greenfield facilities — are made in Michigan and their effect on development patterns. The report aims to help school officials, community leaders, homeowners, and parents evaluate the full cost of new school construction or renovation. It recommends changes in state policy that, if implemented, will capture the economic and cultural benefits of renovating older schools or building new ones in town. 20p.

Historic Neighborhood Schools Deliver 21st Century Educations. Adobe PDF
Beaumont, Constance E.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , May 2003)
Examines the numerous advantages that can be gained from preserving older neighborhood schools. Debunks the notion that well-renovated historic schools cannot meet modern standards. Recounts the experiences of three successful school renovation projects in Spokane, Washington; San Antonio, Texas; and Boise, Idaho. Concludes with several briefer examples illustrating how communities have found creative solutions to common problems encountered during historic renovation. Fifteen color photographs convey the value of these projects from an architectural and aesthetic perspective. 16p.

State Policies and School Facilities: How States Can Support or Undermine Neighborhood Schools and Community Preservation. Adobe PDF
Beaumont, Constance E.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , May 2003)
This report reaffirms the contribution made by historic neighborhood schools to their communities. It offers guidance to officials and local preservationists for creating state policies that help preserve and maintain historic community schools, and for building new schools that serve as community centers. The report describes state requirements for community involvement in school planning, the overly generous site standards that contradict the creation of community schools and preservation, and funding mechanisms that help preserve historic schools. Information for the report was gathered from telephone interviews, correspondence with state school facility officials,and online reviews of printed school facility standards. Includes 13 references. 32p.

Historic Schools Technical Assistance Consortium. Final Report. Adobe PDF
Williams, Judith B.
(Columbus Landmarks Foundation, Columbus, OH , Dec 2002)
This in-depth study of selected historic schools in the Columbus Public School district demonstrates that the renovation of such buildings can achieve a high standard of educational adequacy for a cost that is less than new construction. Four case studies are beautifully illustrated with photographs, floor plans, and artist's renderings of conceptual design solutions. 86p.

Why Johnny Can't Walk to School: Historic Neighborhood Schools in the Age of Sprawl. Adobe PDF
Beaumont, Constance E.; Pianca, Elizabeth G.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , Oct 2002)
This report examines public policy effects on historic neighborhood school expansion, renovation, and replacement needs. It addresses four basic questions: (1) Are public policies inadvertently sabotaging the very type of community-centered school that many parents and educators are calling for today? (2) Do some policies and practices promote mega-school sprawl at the expense of older neighborhoods? (3) Why can't kids walk to school anymore? and (4) How have some school districts overcome policy and other barriers to the retention and modernization of old historic schools? Included are examples of how some communities are addressing these policies, including several school renovation successes. Concluding sections provide recommendations for policy reforms to buttress neighborhood conservation and smart growth efforts that can help to retain and improve good schools that have served established neighborhoods for generations. 52p.

Westinghouse Career Academy.
Lackney, Jeffery
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , May 2002)
Presents concepts for the renovation or replacement of this Chicago high school, outlining the schools programs, partnership, administration, community involvement, sustainability, and several design options. 33p.

Historic Neighborhood Schools: Success Stories. Issues and Initiatives. Adobe PDF
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC. , 2002)
This document offers 19 case studies that show how people across the United States have kept historic schools as vital parts of their communities. The case studies offer concise summaries of information that architects, contractors, and school administrators have shared with the National Trust for Historic Preservation. They describe projects that illustrate reasonable solutions to: building code compliance, structural problems, deferred maintenance, mechanical-HVAC upgrades, safety issues, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, integration of 21st-century technology, adaptation to modern educational programmatic needs, and sympathetic additions to historic structures. Contact information provided in each "success story" gives school facility decision makers and neighborhood preservationists the opportunity to talk directly with experts who have overcome vexing problems in school rehabilitation. The schools profiled are: (1) St. Helena Elementary School, St. Helena, California; (2) Portland Middle School, Portland, Connecticut; (3) The Thomas A. Edison Charter School, Wilmington, Delaware; (4) William McKinley High School, Honolulu, Hawaii; (5) Boise High School, Boise, Idaho; (6) Evergreen Academy, Chicago, Illinois; (7) William H. Ray Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois; (8) Carl Schurz High School, Chicago, Illinois; (9) The Shakespeare School, Chicago, Illinois; (10) East Boston High School, Boston, Massachusetts; (11) Fairhaven High School, Fairhaven, Massachusetts; (12) Sidney Pratt School and Community Education Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; (13) Edward Lee McClain High School, Greenfield, Ohio; (14) Logan Elementary School, Columbia, South Carolina; (15) St. Louis School, Castroville, Texas; (16) Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, Texas; (17) Appomattox Regional Governor's School, Petersburg, Virginia; (18) St. Andrew's School, Richmond, Virginia; and (19) Latona Elementary School, Seattle, Washington. 61p.

Reconstructing School Renovation: A Study of the Renovation of Johnson-Williams Middle School, Berryville, Virginia. Building Blocks to Better Learning Series, Volume Six. Adobe PDF
Tuttle, James B., II
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Richmond , 2002)
This document provides a case study of the renovation of Johnson-Williams Middle School in Clarke County, Virginia. Chapter 1, "Planning and Designing a School Renovation," describes considerations for measuring the quality of a school renovation project, including its value to users and its imapct on learning. It presents the condition of the school prior to renovation, and articulates the planning phases of the construction processes. It concludes by delineating the projected outcomes and expected benefits of the renovation project to its stakeholders. Chapter 2, "Undertaking the Construction Process," discusses the guiding principles of the project and the punch-list phase of construction. Chapter 3, "Outcomes of Renovation," discusses the results of the renovation in terms of industry standards of renovation quality, user perceptions of facility quality, changes in social interactions and school relationships, and student achievement outcomes. The concluding chapter provides thoughts on educational facilities research and implementing school renovation. (Appendices contain a list of the primary sources and the plans of Johnson-Williams Middle School.) 42p.

Modernization Study and Report Natick High School [Massachusetts].
(Knight, Bagge & Anderson, Inc., Boston, MA, Jul 2001)
Discusses changes affecting Natick High School, which was constructed in 1954, expanded in 1965 because of growing enrollment, and partially renovated in 1985 to increase energy efficiency and improve interior finish quality and exterior appearance. This study assesses not only anticipated enrollment growth but also the existing building's ability to sustain a quality educational program for students. Includes a physical assessment of the present building conditions, an education program analysis and forecast of pupil growth, and cost estimates for renovating the existing high school or for building a new high school. 87p.

Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2001)
This report addresses the decision-making process for replacing or modernizing District of Columbia public schools. The three-section document discusses old and historic schools and their future; the schools’ historical and architectural value; cost of replacement and modernization; design; materials; and the environmental impact of school replacement. The first section explores issues related to the modernization or replacement of old and historic schools and factors that should be considered in the District. The second section presents a history of the school system. The third section provides detailed school-by-school surveys of the historical and architectural details of public schools built in the District before 1945, including address, school size, site size, the architect involved, architectural style, design date, dates of construction, past alterations, and additions. 158p.
TO ORDER: Twenty-First Century School Fund, 2814 Adams Mill Road NW, Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-745-3745.

Assessing the Fit Between Educational Programs and Older Buildings.
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Feb 2000)
Explores the evaluation of an aged school facility's ability to support today's educational programs and ways of enhancing this support through building improvements. Covers national school condition assessments and considerations regarding building new or renovating; presents a methodology for performing a school condition assessment, including economic analysis; offers case studies used during the workshop. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation consisting of 50 slides used in a community workshop. 50p.

Preserving Heritage While Restoring and Improving Facilities: A Rural Community's Experience. Adobe PDF
Dickerson, Burton Edward
(Chapter 3 in: Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support., 2000)
In Waitsburg, Washington, the community was actively involved in a rural school facilities improvement project. The district serves approximately 410 students in three buildings on a single campus. Spurred by growing enrollment and aging facilities, the project included the complete renovation and restoration of a historic school building to serve as a junior high school, as well as remodeling and new construction for the elementary school building. A new superintendent, hired after efforts to build a new elementary school failed, established a facilities steering committee of key community members, launched a monthly district newsletter, held a series of community meetings to gather feedback, and conducted surveys to determine priorities of need for facilities improvement and to offer the community a range of project options. After the scope of the project was established, a bond issue was narrowly passed and state matching funds were obtained. Separate committees worked on the design of each building, with the local historical society involved in decisions about the historic junior high building. To offset the limited funding available, crews of community volunteers did the initial interior demolition work, moved furniture to temporary classrooms in churches and community buildings and then back to the schools when the renovation was complete, and did landscaping. (Contains 26 references and a brief literature review on rural school-community involvement.) 16p.

Maintaining Respect for the Past and Flexibility for the Future: Additions and Renovations as an Integrated Sequence. Adobe PDF
Swedberg, Dan
(Chapter 6 in: Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support., 2000)
As an alternative to new construction or consolidation, many rural communities are considering the option of retaining their existing schools, upgrading them through renovations, and providing community-sensitive and effective additions as needed. The feeling of being connected to one's community can be enhanced by the continuity of community institutions, and in rural areas the school is an important community institution. The integrated sequence approach to an addition or renovation project is distinguished primarily by the commitment and effort applied to analyzing the existing building and integrating meaningful existing elements with new elements. Challenges to successful school renovation include state and federal building codes and standards, the need for flexible design, and environmental concerns. Steps in the integrated sequence approach involve organizing participants; formulating a plan that considers the life expectancy of existing buildings, elements with potential for reuse, the value of existing building components, and other cost variables; maintaining good communications with the community and the builders during the construction phase; commissioning the building; and final completion. Case histories describe the sequential renovation and development of school buildings in Cambridge, Minnesota, and McGregor, Minnesota. 25p.

Renovating Older Schools: Reusing Older Schools. Adobe PDF
Poros, John
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Jun 24, 1999)
A slide presentation text examines the decision making process behind whether a community should renovate their older school facilities or abandon them for new facilities. Three factors to be considered in this decision are addressed and involve the school's location, the history of the school, and the relationship of the school to the community and the opportunities the older school affords. Each factor is examined and examples of school design are provided, including modifying double loaded corridors to provide resource areas and cluster learners to promote collaboration. 22p.

Renovating Early and Middle 20th Century Schools [Conference] (St. Louis, Missouri, June 24-26, 1999). Adobe PDF
Biehle, James T.; and others
(Sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Architects National Committees on Architecture for Education and on Construction Management , Jun 1999)
A conference of school architects, construction managers, and school administrators convened to examine the question of renovation or replacement of aging public schools. The panel discussed such topics as turn-of-the-century architectural features and sources of renovation financing. The proceedings contrast the distinguishing characteristics of schools from the early 20th century and the mid 20th century and they address the unique design principles and materials typical of facilities constructed during these eras. Other subjects include evaluation and assessment of existing school buildings; the tools and techniques for condition assessment; management of K-12 renovation projects; construction management as a construction delivery method of school renovation; the role of the architect as construction manager; construction scheduling; renovation programs that preserve valuable resources; and alternative funding possibilities such as public/private development partnerships. 24p.

Options for Improving Rural School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Stewart, G. Kent
(Invitational Conference on Rural School Facilities, Appalachia Educational Laboratory, Kansas City, MO , Jun 06, 1998)
Many options exist for improving rural school facilities, among which are questions of school closure versus modernization or replacement. This report addresses the question of the future of the community rural school and how communities, school board, and school executives can approach school improvement problems. It defines and examines various available options in the areas of facility improvements, school maintenance, building operations, modernization. In addressing the issue of school closure, it lists several questions that should be answered so that the closure decision is in the best interests of the students and also supports the school district mission. The report also explores the option of reorganizing rural schools as either magnet, charter, or theme schools as well as using facilities for other educational or non-education uses. Finally, the option of marketing the rural school to students in neighboring school districts is examined. (Contains 2 references). 24p.

Rural Schools Facilities: Additions & Renovations As an Integrated Sequence
Swedberg, Dan
(Invitational Conference on Rural School Facilities, Appalachia Educational Laboratory,Kansas City, MO , May 02, 1998)
The community/school relationship is considered vital in helping rural school districts adapt to changing needs through renovation and/or expansion of its school facilities. How these needs are met involves choices that include consolidation with another district, new school construction, or renovation and adding on to an existing school. This paper argues that the addition/renovation choice can often be a successful one in meeting the changing needs of a school or district, and presents the "integrated sequence" method for analyzing an existing building's reusable resources in meeting those needs. It presents an overview on how the rural school is the center of community life and the consequences of consolidating school districts followed by a discussion of the issues surrounding an integrated sequence of development, such as site size, the planning process, building valuation, creation of a flexible design, issues involving construction, and environmental concerns. Two case histories of school districts using this approach are presented. (Contains 13 references). 22p.

Feasibility and Cost Analysis Forms. North Carolina Public Schools Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh, NC , Apr 08, 1998)
A comprehensive set of checklists and rating systems on 13 pages intended to help evaluate the cost and feasibility of renovating or replacing an old school building. The forms are intended to be used by North Carolina Schools whenever a new project would replace an older school building. 13p.

Guide for School Facility Appraisal
Hawkins, Harold L.; Lilley, H. Edward
(Council for Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1998)
This guide provides a comprehensive method for measuring the quality and educational effectiveness of school facilities and may be used to perform a post-occupancy review; to formulate a formal record; to highlight specific appraisal needs; to examine the need for new facilities or renovations; or to serve as an instructional tool. Suggestions are made for developing a facilities report. New trends in design and construction are summarized. Appraisal criteria are categorized into six areas: (1) the school site; (2) structural and mechanical features; (3) plant maintainability; (4) school building safety and security; (5) educational adequacy; and (6) environment for education. 52p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

What Difference Do Local Schools Make? A Literature Review and Bibliography. Adobe PDF
Salant, Priscilla; Waller, Anita
(Rural Schools and Community Trust. Prepared for the Annenberg Rural Challenge Policy Program. , 1998)
This paper reviews the literature on the noneducational impacts of rural schools on their communities and provides an annotated bibliography of sources. Taken as a whole, the literature suggests that the school-community relationship is multifaceted. Community schools have positive economic impacts related to local employment, retail sales, and infrastructure; have positive social impacts related to social integration and collective community identity; function as an arena for local politics; provide a resource for community development through student projects and school-to-work programs; and offer a delivery point for health and social services, improving access to health care and other services. The annotated bibliography has two sections containing 43 research papers and 68 advocacy and position papers. Entries were published 1938-98 (primarily in the 1980s and 1990s) and include journal articles, federal documents, conference papers, monographs, books, book chapters, research bulletins, and master's theses. 48p.

School Renovation Handbook. Investing in Education.
Earthman, Glen I.
(Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Lancaster, PA , 1994)
Provides detailed guidelines that school systems can use in renovation projects. The text examines the problems inherent in maintenance and renovation and outlines the information that must be obtained when deciding whether or not to renovate. It describes how to organize staff for renovation projects and the planning for such projects that is required within an educational organization. Tips on financing the renovation projects, developing a program for renovations, and complying with federal regulations are included. Also detailed are suggestions for selecting, and working with, the architect; monitoring the bidding and construction phases; building administrator responsibility; evaluating the renovation project; and adapting the building to educational trends. 186p.

Revitalization of School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Coffey, Andrea Barlow
(Phd. Dissertation, East Tennessee State University , May 1992)
This study analyzed current practices in the revitalization of school buildings and assimilates data that can be used by school administrators when deciding on revitalization issues. Data from nine revitalized schools since 1985 and a literature review of the elements for planning the revitalization of school facilities indicate that structural soundness, program support, site, and cost are the areas of concern with planning of the revitalization of a school. Specific planning elements included the development of educational specifications, attention to site condition, consideration of playground areas, importance of the exterior appearance of the school buildings, space utilization, condition of mechanical and electrical systems, importance of energy efficiency, development of barrier-free environments, treatment of thermal environments, consideration of acoustics, management of visual environments, selection of furniture and equipment, and attention to aesthetics. Appendices provide a roof management program, energy conservation measures of the National Petroleum Council, the functions of carpeting in schools, the National Council of Schoolhouse Construction Brightness Goals, a list of areas where the school facility can enhance student learning, and a revitalization of school facilities review guide. (Contains 51 references.) 133p.

The Politics of School Board-Community Interaction: A Case Study of a High School Construction Project. Adobe PDF
Schmieg, Patricia A.
(Dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA , 1990)
This study examined the politics of school-community interaction around a high school construction project, describing the events surrounding one school board's decision to renovate versus rebuild its high school building. The study examined: public involvement in the decision to renovate; the political after-effects of this decision; socioeconomic conditions within the community at the time of perceived need for renovation; how the school board reached the decision to renovate; how the public was involved in the decision to renovate; and the effects of the decision to renovate on the subsequent school board election. Data collection included school board minutes, a school board authorized feasibility study, architectural notes and memos, school build building and maintenance committee minutes, newspaper coverage and reaction to major events, state reports, and minutes of state-required meetings. Interviews were conducted with key participants. Results indicated that the public had input into the decision to renovate. The school community was undergoing socioeconomic changes at the time. Community members believed they did not have enough voice in the process. The renovations project became the main issue in the subsequent school board election. The decision to renovate rather than rebuild was directly responsible for the defeat of three incumbent board members. (Contains 105 bibliographic references.) 176p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9100338

Step by Step to Better School Facilities.
Boles, Harold
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY , 1965)
Considers the improvement of school facilities in four parts: 1) development of a long-range plan including curriculum and building needs; 2) development of an individual project, covering stages from planning through occupancy; 3) planning for specifics of function, health, beauty, and economy, and 4) whether to modernize or build new. 382p.

References to Journal Articles

Renovating the Old Instead of Building the New
Wernick, Laura
Facility Management; , p22-24 ; May-Jun 2012
For public charter schools, expanding their school facilities or constructing a new school building can be a challenging experience. More than half of all U.S. charter schools are located in dense urban areas, where few buildable sites are available and developable land carries a hefty price tag. One option is to consider the revitalization and repurposing of older building stock. At first blush, planning a school in a building that was never meant for educational uses may seem counter-intuitive. However, the benefits of bringing back older buildings in core urban areas can serve the community in many ways. While their original purpose may be obsolete, comprehensive renovations to an existing structure can both offer a cost-effective alternative to building new and incorporate modern sustainable improvements to prepare older buildings for the future.

Complicated Issues: To Renovate or Build New
American School & Hospital Facility; , p8-10 ; Mar-Apr 2012
Discusses issues to consider when making the difficult decision to renovate or build new

Making the Renovation Decision.
College Planning and Management; , p18-24 ; Nov 2011
Presents three factors that determine if an existing campus facility can see new life and adaption to future use: structural configuration; campus location; and renovation cost.

Renovate, Rebuild, Restore
Peter Gisolfi; Bill Harris; Kevin Havens; Amy Jones; Andy Joseph; and Adele Willson
School Planning and Management; Nov 2011
Five examples of how school districts have tapped the creativity of board members, architects and/or planners to restore, renovate or rebuild some of their local structures to serve as educational, green spaces.

Historic Schools: Restore or Replace?
Grulich, Gene
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
As school districts examine options in today’s economic environment for maximizing student capacity, reducing operating costs and accommodating ever-changing educational programming, the question of whether to replace or restore historic schools looms large. Operational costs, programmatic adequacy, repair and modernization costs and more all require consideration in order to chart the most appropriate course. Advises to not decide without first conducting a feasibility study to weigh the pros and cons.

The Value of New: Elementary School Facility Age and Associated Housing Price.
Gibson, Huston
Journal of Housing Research; , p67-86 ; Apr 14, 2011
The purpose of this article is to assess the relationship between elementary school facility age and single-family housing price in the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area. This is a cross-sectional study employing multivariate regression. The model includes facility age as a measure of perceived school quality, along with a series of control variables to assess the relationship between public elementary school facility age and the corresponding housing prices within the associated school attendance zones. This study provides evidence that housing prices are associated with school facility age. The findings show housing prices to be positively correlated with newer and historic school facilities. [Author's abstract]

Portfolio Management.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p20-25 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advocates the consideration of higher education facilities as a portfolio of assets, considering the risks and rewards involved with the individual portfolio components when making decisions about maintenance, repair, remodeling, and new construction. Various risk “scoring” schemes are proposed, depending on the mission of the institution, as well as potential hazards related to location and condition.

Truly Green: A Look at the Advantages of Maintaining Historic Campus Buildings. Adobe PDF
Brown, Julie; Hillman, Luce
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p26-30,32 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Examines the environmental benefits of maintaining historic higher education buildings. Definitions of what constitutes an “historic” building are followed by examples of signature historic buildings that help define their respective campuses. The virtues of older buildings built to withstand the elements and be comfortable without the aid of mechanical HVAC are emphasized, as well as their embodied energy, the availability of LEED certification for existing buildings, and the practicalities and exceptions of maintaining historic buildings.

Find Out If Your School Is Fit for a Retrofit.
Merth, Gail; Durston, Lee
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Addresses the advantages of pursuing school renovation, rather than new construction, during a weak economy. Savings realized through closing air leaks and water intrusion are also discussed.

Lasting Value.
Jolicoeur, Mark; Kahl, Melanie
American School and University; v8 n12 , p16,18,19 ; Jul 2010
Promotes the value of retrofitting and renovating older, neighborhood schools. Improved public health from walking to school, lower property taxes for having not built a new school, saved transportation costs, and a strengthened community are cited. The example of Illinois' Lake Forest High School is cited.

Replacement vs. Renovation: The Reincarnation of Hubble Middle School.
Ogurek, Douglas
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p18-22 ; May 2010
Profiles the new Warrenville, Illinois, Hubble Middle School, which replaced an unloved and inconvenient high school to middle school conversion. Placing the school on a new site enabled more students to walk or bike to school. Features that led to LEED Gold certification are described.

Making the Case for Facility Modernization, Renovation, and Repairs.
Kwok, Michael
School Business Affairs; v75 n11 , p29,30 ; Dec 2009
Advises on maintaining a master plan for school facilities, accurate assessments of their condition, cost estimates for addressing deficiencies, and how to avoid the "build-neglect-build" cycle the often overwhelms school districts.

The Long Haul.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v81 n12 , p12-15 ; Jul 2009
Advises on determining whether to renovate and remodel a school, or to build a new one. Master planning and a facility assessment should be conducted to determine a buildings condition and adequacy for the educational program. Evaluation of options should consider a variety of issues including cost, disruption to the school year, achieving sustainability, ultimate building life, and energy efficiency.

Renovate or Replace: Planning for the Future in a Recession.
Matson, James
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Presents questions to be considered when deciding whether to renovate or replace a university facility. Typical reasons for renovating are discussed, as are how to save money when replacement is in order.

Restore, Renovate, or Rebuild?
Schmidt, Edwin; Heckendorn, Matthew; Eddy, Timothy; Havens, Kevin;
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p28-30,32-35 ; Mar 2009
Profiles three historic schools that were renovated into effective modern learning environments, as well as one classroom annex that was created in an early 20th-century industrial building.

Making the Old New Again.
Policastro, Jason
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , p20-22,24,25 ; Dec 2008
Promotes the advantages of school renovation over new construction, particularly in harder economic times. Home foreclosures are predicted to lower enrollment in areas where new construction might have been previously indicated, and renovation of older schools can ease their typically overcrowded situation at a lower cost per square foot than new construction.

Fix of Flatten? (Will Renovations Work for Your School Buildings?)
Willson, Adele
American School Board Journal; v195 n10 , p24,25 ; Oct 2008
Advises on how to determine if a school is worth renovating, or should be replaced. Evaluation if the building's physical condition, historical significance, a conversion planning process, scheduling, and design of a renovation is illustrated with an example from Aurora, Colorado.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Renovation vs. New Build.
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p64,65 ; Feb 2008
Profiles four Grand Rapids, Michigan, schools, three of which were renovated for economic or historical reasons, and one of which was replaced.

Second Chances.
Boyd, Karen
American School and University; v79 n13 , p162-165 ; Aug 2007
Offers a checklist to assess campus buildings for renovation and adaptive reuse. Points to consider include suitability of the space to the proposed reuse, physical attributes of the building, architectural character, location, historical context, and financing.

Cinderella Stories: Adaptive Reuse of Older Buildings. Adobe PDF
Brinkman, Joseph; Miller, David
Facilities Manager; v23 n4 , p24-27 ; Jul-Aug 2007
Highlights the advantages of adaptive reuse of older campus buildings and offers several criteria for assessing whether or not an adaptive reuse is desirable or feasible.

Restoration vs. New Construction: How to Make the Right Decision.
Ilg, Timothy
School Business Affairs; v73 n7 , p16-18 ; Jul 2007
Presents points consider when deciding between new construction or renovation of a school. These help to decide between renovating or restoring a school; to assess the architectural merit, condition, and educational usefulness of a school; to involve the community; to select the right design and construction professionals; and to get the best project for the money.

Trash or Treasure.
Willson, Adele; Petri, Gary
American School and University; v70 n12 , p14-16 ; Jul 2007
Provides guidance in assessing the renovation potential of a school. Sustainability, community attachment, and academic performance factors are considered.

Planning for School Facilities. School Board Decision Making and Local Coordination in Michigan.
Norton, Richard K.
Journal of Planning Education and Research; v26 n4 , p478-496 ; Apr 2007
A prominent part of current debates on sprawl involves the relationship between schools and communities. Two key questions on this issue are to what extent considerations about community growth and development influence school boards as they decide, first, whether to renovate an existing school or build new and second, if building new, whether to site the new school in an urban or exurban location. Research on these questions to date has relied largely on case study or anecdotal analysis and has yielded a variety of recommended policy reforms. This paper presents the results of a systematic statewide study of local school board decision making in Michigan. The findings suggest that school boards, in general, are influenced most by a sense of competition with neighboring districts and by shifting demographics. Moreover, little meaningful coordination is occurring between school districts and local governments, largely because of the institutional arrangements that shape the school board decision-making process. [Author's abstract]

Should You Renovate or Build New?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n3 , p20,22,24-26 ; Mar 2007
Presents five factors to consider when deciding to build a new school or renovate and existing one: 1)Can the existing school be renovated to accommodate contemporary educational programming? 2) Are there unresolvable site issues with the existing building? 3)What seen and unseen existing building conditions affect the intial cost of renovation? 4) What are the long-term maintenance and operation costs connected to the existing building. 5) What construction complications will be encountered while renovating a school that is in use?

Steps to Success.
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v9 n6 , p33-35 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Presents an interview with Ed Kodet that addresses proper planning of school projects, including inventory of needs, the decision to renovate or build new, master planning, acoustics, and consensus building.

Sins of the 60's: Makeovers Help Aging "Boomer Buildings" Meet the Needs of a New Millennium.
Wills, Eric
Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n8 , pA26, A27 ; Oct 14, 2005
Describes renovations of unloved higher education buildings from the 1960's building boom into pleasing, updated, and safer facilities. The particular structural and financial problems of renovating these structures, and the movement to save specimens of modern architecture are also discussed.

The Big Fix.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77n12 , p14-16,18,20 ; Jul 2005
Discusses motivations for renovating, retrofitting, and adding on to existing buildings, rather than building new. Included are examples of successes, sometimes with cherished older buildings, and sometimes with those that were transformed from unremarkable to noteworthy.

New Life.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n9 , p34-36,38,40,42 ; Apr 2005
Suggests ways to preserve historic schools, including examples of partnerships with the private sector to reuse schools for other purposes. Where some people see decaying eyesores, many educators, preservationists, architects and neighborhood activists see once-impressive buildings that can be resuscitated to recapture their past glory and upgraded to serve the needs of modern students and surrounding communities.

School Choice: Build New or Not
Greim, Clif
Building Operating Management; Mar 2005
Before a school district embarks on a major renovation project, it must determine whether it is better to replace the existing facility with a new school. While sometimes the cost of replacing outdated systems, upgrading life and safety deficiencies, and accommodating program expansions within existing K-12 schools far exceeds the cost of building a new facility, there may be good reasons for to renovate an older building rather than build a new one. This discusses the question of character, health and safety upgrades, system upgrades, electrical systems, program upgrades, and aesthetic gains.

Renovation vs. New Construction.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , p29,30,32 ; Jul 2004
Describes formulas used by some states to determine whether a school should be renovated or replaced. Some states also distinguish further by determining if a building needs to be restored, remodeled, or modernized. When neither renovation or replacement is feasible, then creative conversion of vacant commercial properties into schools is worth considering.

Equity: Keeping the Core Community Happy. Adobe PDF
SHW Concepts; Winter 2004
Provides five suggestions for assessing the renovation or replacement of an older school building, particularly when trying to bring old schools up to the standard of new schools built within the district.

A Final Determination.
Rabenaldt, Carl A.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p284-87 ; Nov 2003
Discusses ways of comparing costs of renovation and maintenance of a facility versus building new. A detailed table provides an itemized example of how capital renewal costs might compare to new construction costs. In this case, as in most cases, the cost of renovating and maintaing an existing building that has been properly cared for is less than the cost of new construction.

Surviving Closings and Consolidations.
Hughes, Brad
The School Administrator; v60 n7 , p16-18 ; Aug 2003
Kentucky School Boards Association director provides school administrators with several suggestions for surviving the frequently controversial decisions involving school closings and consolidations during the facilities planning process. Three examples are (1) compile a comprehensive report on all data to be used in the decisions, (2) meet with concerned citizens at each affected school, and (3) keep listening and responding after the final decision.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

Adaptive Reuse: Reusing Buildings for Future Generations while Maintaining Connections to the Past.
Rossi, John M.
Bulletin ; v71 n3 , p34-39 ; May 2003
Describes adaptive reuse of college buildings, which involves reconfiguring existing buildings for entirely new functions, including its benefits. Examples include Bartlett Hall at the University of Chicago, Annenberg Hall and Locker Chambers at Harvard University, Goodrich Hall at Williams College, and Sarratt Student Center at Vanderbilt University.

Build New or Renovate: How Facility Assessments Can Help.
Denton, Bob
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p14-17 ; 2003
Explains what a facilities assessment consists of, what it measures, the benefits of engaging a professional, and how long it might take.

Preserving Our Older and Historic Schools: Rehabilitation Versus New Construction.
Gilberg, Mark; Weihs, Janell
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p3-5 ; 2003
Advocates a sequence for assessing older and historic schools for use by existing educational programs, and for special and alternative uses so that more older schools may be saved. (Includes 15 references.)

To Build New or Renovate--That Is the Question.
Lam, Mark
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p22-26 ; 2003
Presents seven categories for evaluating a school building when attempting to determine renovation versus replacement: 1) appropriateness of site and location, 2) building condition, 3) code compliance, 4) flexibility of spaces, 5) economics of replacement or renovation, 6) time considerations, 7) political considerations.

Site Planning for Older and Historic School Facilities.
Peters, Ron
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p27-30 ; 2003
Discusses site location and size requirements to be considered when renovating a school. Changes in transportation habits, environment, accessibility regulations, and student athletics laws will affect the suitability of a current site.

Old Buildings: Obstacle or Opportunity.
Wernick, Laura
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p31-34 ; 2003
Describes four successful renovations, two of which were of buildings not previously used as schools: 1) The Media and Technology Charter High School (MATCH), Boston, 2) Arts and City Magnet High School, Lowell, 3) Arts and City Magnet High School, Newport, 4) High Tech High, San Diego.

Renovation vs. Replacement: Beyond Arbitrary Rules in the 21st Century.
Yeater, Royce A.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p18-21 ; 2003
Urges reconsideration of percentage rules that too frequently dictate replacement over renovation of schools. The history of these rules and the evolution of new attitudes are described.

To Renovate or Build New: Looking Beyond the Numbers. Adobe PDF
Yurko, Amy M.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p6-8 ; 2003
Presents steps for reaching a decision on whether to renovate or replace a school: 1) Define the vision for the school. 2) Evaluate the existing school according to the vision. 3) Assess the resulting costs, life span, and community significance of a new or renovated facility.

Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n9 , p18-22 ; May 2002
Describes how schools and universities are finding new uses for outmoded facilities, thereby saving on land and construction costs and in many cases preserving buildings that have achieved historical status in a community. Offers several examples.

School Gymnasiums--When To Renovate.
Knouse, S. Dwight, II
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p41-44 ; Apr 2002
Discusses considerations when contemplating gym renovation, including examples of illustrative schools: Is the current volume adequate to consider renovation? Does the current structure allow for expansion? How will Americans with disabilities regulations affect the project? Is there an alternate space to hold classes and sporting events during renovation? If the gym cannot be salvaged, what are its alternate uses?

By Design.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p16-22 ; Jan 2002
Examines some key areas that school administrators need to consider when creating new, or updating old, school spaces for students and staff. Design considerations encompass space management, building flexibility, technology integration, school accessibility to the disabled, sensitivity to the environment, and cost effectiveness.

This Old Campus
Rosenbert, Amy; Adelman, Michelle
University Business; Jan 2002
When deciding whether to build or renovate, cost is only one of many things to consider. This discusses other factors considered by university facilities managers and developers who specialize in campus work, such as whether or not the old building is worth saving, the problems that would need correcting, the affect on program space and revenue, disruptions, and risks.

Handling Rapid Growth; Renovate, Repair, or Rebuild?
Scheideman, Dale; Dufresne, Ray
American School Board Journal; v188 n10 , p24-26 ; Oct 2001
Nevada's Clark County, the fastest growing school district in the nation, uses a life-cycle facilities management approach that monitors the individual components of each building on a database. The district's 10-year building program is addressing facilities infrastructure renewal, deferred maintenance, replacement, and new school construction.

Old Buildings, New Life.
Smith, Charles R.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p150-53 ; Aug 2001
Explains how schools can cost-effectively upgrade their existing science facilities and offer technologies normally found only in new buildings. Explores the decision-making process leading to a decision to build or renovate. Includes a case study on meeting the challenges poised by a building's infrastructure.

Renovate or Build New?
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p45-47 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how school districts can best determine when it is most cost efficient to build a new school or renovate the present one. Examples are used to illustrate the decision making process.

Blending Old and New.
Smith, Sylvia J.
American School and University; v72 n12 , p156-60 ; Aug 2000
Discusses how schools and universities can transform outmoded urban structures, such as factories, warehouses, and department stores, into attractive and functional school facilities. Issues addressed include the importance of sound planning to maximize building funds, the problems of blending new facilities with older ones, and working without the benefit of an older building's original architectural drawings.

Location, Location, Location.
Finucan, Karen
Planning; v66 n5 , p4-8,11 ; May 2000
Discusses how good schools have drawing power in revitalizing both urban and rural communities and increasing property values. Several examples of the value of school renovation and its impact on the surrounding community and enrollment are discussed, including descriptions of planning and financing renovation efforts by some communities.

Closing Doors.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v71 n11 , p16-18,20,22 ; Jul 1999
Explores how various school districts assessed and decided on whether to reinvest in expanding old schools or to construct new ones. Discusses the balancing between school enrollments, construction versus renovation costs, and varying community support.

To Renovate or Build?
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v2 n5 , p22-24 ; May 1999
Discusses decision-making processes facility directors can use when deciding between building renovation and new construction. Considerations include renovation costs compared to building life expectancy, changes in school policy, and maintaining architectural traditions.

Renovate or Replace: Deciding the Fate of Your School
Biehle, James T. AIA
AIArchitect; Apr 1999
Notes that the 1996 General Accounting Office estimate to renovate and modernize U.S. schools is $112 billion, and that school districts must decide when renovation makes sense and when it does not by first establishing the value of existing school buildings through such techniques as inspection and listing strengths and weaknesses. Includes a case study.

Saving Community History
Kaplan, Arthur R.
American School Board Journal; v185 n10 , p32-34 ; Oct 1998
Though full of memories, landmark schools are often deemed inadequate for today's educational needs. The community and school officials should ask: What factors should we consider when evaluating older schools for extensive remodeling versus building new schools? Lists steps for conducting a technical feasibility study.

Hidden Opportunities.
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p131-133 ; Aug 1998
Discusses transforming outmoded educational facilities to meet the new and diverse educational needs of students. Describes how to assess an old facility's potential for new uses and create added-value benefits to an older building through careful renovation.

Revitalized Gyms.
Schmid, Sue; Romer, Steve
Athletic Business; v21 n7 , p49-55 ; Jul 1997
Provides examples of why four educational facilities decided that renovation of their gyms was preferable over building new ones. Tips on managing gymnasium revitalization are suggested.

To Renovate or Replace?
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v36 n4 , p16-18 ; Apr 1997
The School Building Authority (SBA) of West Virginia is responsible for evaluating the state's school buildings, selecting capital outlay projects, and helping fund renovation and new building projects. The SBA has strict guidelines and criteria to help the state's 55 counties evaluate the condition of their school buildings.

New Schools from Old Space
Peters, Ron; Smith, Molly
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n3 , p7-13 ; 1997
Discusses the planning process of renewing old school facilities through the imaginative use of a district's existing resources. The following five planning and implementation steps are examined: the evaluation of existing resources; reconfirming the district's educational philosophy; compiling key facility program information; recognizing the impact to existing facilities; and analyzing outcomes.

Play it Again.
Katz, Jane Sarah
American School & University; v68 n11 , p30-32 ; Jul 1996
Explores questions of renovation or new construction when evaluating older gymnasiums in schools. Discusses the drawbacks of older structures and the relevant issues of building a new gym, such as access and the use of space, daylight, and materials.

Worth the Fight.
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v35 n4 , p26-28 ; Apr 1996
The community of Crawfordsville, Indiana debated for more than seven years over whether to renovate the existing high school, built in 1910, or construct a new building on a new site. Factors of cost, space availability, and energy efficiency entered into the decision in favor of a new facility.

Scoring with Renovation.
Miller, David
American School and University; v67 , p44-46 ; Jul 1995
Existing sports and recreation facilities can be renovated and expanded as a cost-effective option to new construction. Administrators must determine the school's needs in a recreational facility, determine whether renovating or expanding makes more sense, commission architects and facility planners to program buildings to accommodate the needs of future users, reconcile the program with the existing structure, consider life-safety issues, and keep a contingency allowance for unexpected conditions.

Renovation Steps for Aging Schools
Peterson, Lawrence
School Administrator; v52 , p30 ; Jun 1995
School districts that choose to renovate older buildings should determine whether renovation makes economic sense, attempt to create a united and harmonious structure, include existing surfaces into the design, create macro and micro construction plans, maintain a safe environment for students, and involve staff, students, and parents.

Scrap It or Rehab It: A Process for Deciding When to Renovate.
Earthman, Glen I.
School Business Affairs; v60 n1 , p3-7 ; Jan 1994
The number of students in schools is growing, and school boards are faced with the choice to renovate or build new schools. Terms used when talking about remodeling and building schools are defined. Formulas to use when challenged by the renovate-or-rebuild dilemma and questions that need consideration during the decision-making process are addressed.

Deteriorating School Buildings: And the Walls Come A-Tumblin'Down
Glass, Thomas E.
Illinois Issues; v16 n11 , p21-24 ; Nov 1990
Describes the challenge that Illinois faces in trying to bring its older schools up to date. Discusses the debate over replacement versus renovation, enrollment and projected rises in this rate, the need to accommodate advanced technology programs, and the billions of dollars it will take to render these structures suitable for instruction.

Stop, Look, and Listen before You Mothball that Priceless Old School
English, Fenwick
American School Board Journal; v173 n1 , p28-29 ; Jan 1987
Old schools are among the finest examples we have of period architecture, craftsmanship, and decorative use of building and art materials. Advises on how to decide if a school is worth saving, identifies preservation groups that can help, and describes three New Jersey schools that are classics.

That Aging School Building: Weigh These Eight Factors before Bringing in the Wrecking Ball
Deering, Thomas E.; Kinder, Paul A.
American School Board Journal; v169 n5 , p28-29 ; May 1982
Lists the American Association of School Administrators' criteria for judging whether school building renovation is a sound investment. Eight categories should be investigated: historical information, architectural characteristics, material integrity, regulatory codes, and structural, mechanical, electrical, and educational adequacy.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).