ATHLETIC FACILITIES MAINTENANCE
Information on the maintenance of school and university indoor and outdoor athletic facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Bleacher Safety: Inspections, Maintenance and Risk Management. Facility Masters Webcast Recording.
(SchoolDude.com , Sep 2011)
Webinar covers bleacher safety tips, recommendations and preventive maintenance checks including: general safety; code compliance; inspections; maintenance best practices; protecting your investment; performing bleacher self-evaluations; understanding liabilities and risk.
Consumer Product Safety Commission Alert: Whitco Co. LP Stadium Light Poles Can Fall Over, Posing Risk of Serious Injury and Death.
(U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC , Aug 24, 2009)
Warns that several stadium light poles from this defunct company have fallen, and that many standing ones have developed fractures and/or cracks where the pole is joined to its base plate. It is recommended that institutions with light poles made by this company, and all stadium light poles, be regularly inspected by a qualified inspector. 4p.
Providing Safe Facilities: Conducting a Facility Risk Review.
Seidler, Todd; Miller, John
(Athletic Business Publication, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Outlines steps of an athletic facility safety audit and offers a sample format of a safety inspection checklist and action report. Includes 12 references. 10p.
Standard Design for Wyoming Schools: Track and Field, Football and Soccer Facilities.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , May 2006)
Provides a standard guideline narrative, specifications, and design plans for these athletic facilities in Wyoming schools. General design guidance is provided for tracks, site drainage, and fencing, as well as for specific field event areas. Technical specifications for demolition, sitework, asphalt, concrete, running surfaces, vaulting boxes, and jump boards are included. 91p.
Facility Design and Management for Health, Fitness, Physical Activity, Recreation, and Sports Facility Development.
Sawyer, Thomas, ed.
(Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, IL , 2005)
Offers extensive advice on athletic facility and event management, common facility components and their design, field and court specifications, recreational spaces, specialty areas, and trends. The book incorporates the knowledge of over 30 experts in the facilities planning and development field and may be used as a text for use in sport management and physical education administration courses. On-line resources are listed including a glossary, author biographies, 34 additional appendices, instructor's guide, Power Point presentations, and a VersaChad software design program with custom exercises 523p.TO ORDER: 804 N. Neil St., Champaign, IL, 61820
(North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. , Aug 2003)
Plans for permanent bleachers (consisting of five or more rows of seats) purchased and installed for use on K-12 athletic/play fields must be reviewed by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's (NCDPI) School Planning Section of the School Support Division. Bleachers may be purchased by local school boards as part of a regular new school, addition or renovation project, or stand-alone bleacher project, designed by a North Carolina licensed architect and/or engineer and submitted to School Planning for review in the normal process. They may also be purchased through the North Carolina Division of Purchase and Contract. School Planning is always required to review the plans. Structural designs for pre-engineered structures or systems used for school projects are often incomplete when bid documents are completed. Conditional certificates of review that allow mobilization and site preparation to begin prior to completion of final structural designs can be issued following review of bid documents. Project reviews are completed and certificates of review issued upon certification to School Planning that foundations and other structural systems have been designed or reviewed and approved by North Carolina registered structural engineers. This report presents NCDPI planning section recommendations, codes and design standards, NC Accessibility Code Volume I-C, and National Fire Protection Association requirements. 10p.
Real-time Measurement of Dust Levels in a Carpeted and Non-carpeted School Gym Room.
Turner, W.A.; Caulfield, S.C.; Ellis, T.; Lewia, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on research where particle data were collected in two school gyms for fifteen weeks in Kennebunk, Maine. The floor coverings of the two gyms were vinyl composition tile (VCT) and vinyl cushioned tufted textile (VCTT), or high-grade commercial carpet, respectively. Intensive one-minute data was also collected during three "experiments" that evaluated the measured effect of typical sweeping, vacuuming, and burnishing of VCT. It was concluded that advances to contain breathable dust during burnishing activities are needed and that modern vacuum cleaning devices likely produce the least impact on indoor air quality. In the two rooms studied, dust levels were similar in the hard and soft-surface floors. (Includes three references.) 6p.
Guidelines for Retrofitting Bleachers.
(Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC , 2001)
This brochure offers guidance on bleacher retrofitting to prevent falls, and it suggests follow-up inspections and maintenance practices. Bleacher styles are described. Descriptions are provided of deaths, injuries, and hazards associated with bleachers. An appendix presents an overview of current code and standards requirements for guardrails and openings in bleachers and grandstands. 16p.Report NO: CPSC-R-330
Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual.
(U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Assoc., Ellicott City, MD.; U.S. Tennis Assoc., White Plains, NY. , 1999)
This addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. Numerous design and layout drawings are also included along with Tennis Industry Magazine's maintenance planner. Sources of information and a glossary of terms conclude the manual. 187p.
Sports Facility Management.
Walker, Marcia L.; Stotlar, David K.; And Others
(Jones and Bartlet Publishers , 1997)
This book focuses on managing sports facilities and includes examples in physical education, athletics, recreation, health/fitness, and aquatics. It discusses planning for personnel, finances, operations, events, marketing, legal liability, and security, as well as issues involving affirmative action, gender equity, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. 268p.TO ORDER: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 40 Tall Pine Drive, Sudbury, MA 01776
Facility and Equipment Management for Sport Directors.
Olson, John R.
(Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL , 1996)
This book, intended for directors or managers of sport facilities, presents an overview of management techniques, strategies, and considerations. The first section focuses on planning for effective facility and equipment management. Part 2 presents specific strategies for implementing and evaluating these plans. These strategies include guidelines, checklists, and forms that illustrate important components of an equipment management plan. The section also describes the importance of facility maintenance to the satisfaction and safety of users, provides operational guidance to the overall supervisor and coordinator of the multiple activities in the facility, considers the multiple aspects of facility scheduling, and outlines a comprehensive model for planning and conducting new facility construction. 171p.TO ORDER: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076.
The Pool Maintenance Manual.
(McGraw-Hill , 1996)
All aspects of pools are covered in detail, from design and construction to lighting, winterizing, fiberglassing, tiling, and troubleshooting and repair. Major topics include basic and advanced plumbing systems, pumps, motors, horsepower, and hydraulics; filters and heaters; and water chemistry. The book concludes with lists of product resources and relevant publications.
Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities Guide 2.
(Department for Education and Employment, Suffolk, England , 1993)
This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, necessary procedures for safely handling chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains technical terms, provides a range of desirable pool temperatures, and includes a checklist for swimming pool management. 21p.
References to Journal Articles
Athletic Business; v35 n4 , p26-28,30,32,34 ; Apr 2011
Describes the use of student employees in college athletic centers. The student employees learn valuable skills and help stretch the athletic facility's budget for staffing.
Beauty and the Beast: Maintaining Your Gymn.
Recreation Management; v12 n2 , p20-22 ; Feb 2011
Details inspection and maintenance of gymnasium bleachers, floors, and basketball backstops, including the hiring of qualified personnel and maintaining records of work done.
Athletic Business; v34 n7 , p35,36,38,40 ; Jul 2010
Discusses maintenance of sport surfaces to prevent injuries and their accompanying litigation. A variety of situations that can degrade playing surfaces are addressed, as are regular inspections and preventive maintenance. Examples of injuries and the lawsuits that followed are included, and improperly designed locker rooms are cited as well.
Working It Out: Student Recreation Complex at Arizona State University.
Recreation Management; v17 n11 , p38 ; Nov 2009
Describes how Arizona State University solved its cardio exercise equipment problem by leasing all its machines from a single vendor, thus ending diverse maintenance and replacement issues, and providing the latest equipment for its users.
A Drain on Resources?
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p27,28,30-32,34 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the high cost of maintaining pools and how some schools are closing theirs, even though interest in competitive swimming is increasing. Cost-saving measures and alternative funding strategies for building and maintaining pools are addressed.
Cleaning Up: Battling Germs in School Facilities.
School Business Affairs; v75 n2 , p15-17 ; Feb 2009
Describes the threat of norovirus and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Saphylococcus aureus) in schools, typical places where germs reside in schools, and proper cleaning to combat germs. Includes three references.
Fowl Ball: Keeping Ballparks Safe from Bird Infestations.
Facility Management Journal; v18 n6 , p100,102-104 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Reviews health risks and cleaning costs for bird infestations in stadiums, as well as non-lethal and environmentally sensible methods for discouraging them.
The Next Precedent.
Athletic Business; v32 n9 , p45,46,48-50 ; Sep 2008
Advises on liability for injuries related to athletic equipment and game accidents. Cases are cited and techniques which athletic facility managers use to lower risk are described.
Journal of Architectural Coatings; v4 n4 , p54-56,58,60,61 ; Jul 2008
Reviews slip resistance, durability, and transparency considerations for maple athletic floor coatings. The article also provides step-by-step and product guidance for sealing and finishing maple athletic floors, LEED guidance, and a discussion of typical problems that may be encountered in maple floor maintenance.
Tennis Courts 101.
College Planning and Management; v11 n5 , pA18-A20 ; May 2008
Advises on surface selection, maintenance, and financing for higher education tennis courts. Overlay systems to refurbish old courts, leasing of these systems, the connection between cost and softness of surfaces, and environmental considerations are addressed.
The New Tennis Construction Boom.
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , pA10,A12,A14 ; May 2008
Reviews the growing participation in school tennis team, and accompanying growth in court construction. Surfaces, costs, and maintenance issues of new and rebuilt courts are addressed.
Athletic Business; v32 n4 , p38-4,42,44,46,48 ; Apr 2008
Reviews strategies that higher education institutions are using to lower energy consumption and improve the environment in their recreation centers. These include solar hot water, "green" cleaning, recycling, and reduction in the use of disposable products.
Shower Strategies: Reducing Maintenance and Water Use.
Recreation Management; v9 n2 , p10,11 ; Feb 2008
Discusses strategies for athletic facility showers, including maximizing shower room space, use of easy-to-clean surfaces, sophisticated temperature control valves, and low-flow showerheads.
Horseshoe Concrete Repairs: Bringing Luck to the Buckeyes with CFRP.
Childress, Michael; White, David
The Construction Specifier; v60 n12 , p94-98 ; Dec 2007
Discusses the use of advanced carbon fiber- and epoxy-enhanced concrete products, as well as polyurethanes in the repair of Ohio State University's stadium. The badly deteriorated but much-loved stadium was restored and enlarged, but retained its distinctive shape and architectural detailing.
MRSA-Epidemic or Media Storm?
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p10 ; Nov 2007
Reviews cases and treatment for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), emphasizing related points of school facility cleanliness and particular attention to athletic facilities and equipment.
Athletic Business; v31 n11 , p46-52,54 ; Nov 2007
Advises on humidity control in athletic facilities, with particular attention to natatoriums and ice rinks. HVAC design, vapor barriers, dehumidification, water temperature, and indoor air conditions are covered.
Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions.
Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators; v21 n1 , p21-25 ; Sep-Oct 2007
School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks.
Refuse to Win.
Athletic Business; v 31 n5 , p58-63 ; May 2007
Advises on recycling programs for post-athletic event refuse. Typically, all trash is collected together and sorted afterward, as spectator use of marked recycling bins is negligible, or at best, unreliable. Examples of equipment and procedures in place at various venues are provided, as well are statistics from some of the more successful recycling programs.
Isolate Your Track.
Recreation Management; v8 n1 , p14,15 ; Jan 2007
Advises on drainage system design and installation to prevent water buildup on outdoor running tracks.
St. Clair, Stacy
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p40,41 ; Oct 2006
Presents ideas to improve the eco-friendliness of athletic facilities, citing "The Four R's" of reduction, reuse, recycling, and rebuying. Under these categories come advice on construction and maintenance waste reduction, landscaping, water conservation, turf maintenance, recycling, and specification of materials with recycled content.
American School and University; v78 n1 , p29-31 ; Sep 2005
Discusses touchless cleaning and better athletic facility design in order to mitigate the spreading of germs.
Maintenance & Repair - Prevent Defense
Wallace, Brian; Kline, Dennis
Athletic Business; v29 n4 , p77,78,80,82 ; Apr 2005
Discusses cleaning, inspection, and preventive maintenance of fitness equipment.
The Long Haul.
Athletic Business; v28 n4 , p96-98.100,102,104 ; Apr 2004
Explains varieties of materials and installment methods for outdoor tracks, how they should be maintained, and how they typically wear.
Athletic Facilities; v28 n3 , p61,62,64,66 ; Mar 2004
Advocates the closing and draining of indoor aquatic facilities for annual maintenance and suggests seven tasks to be performed during this procedure.
Athletic Business; v27 n11 , p86-88,90,92 ; Nov 2003
Advises on a wide selection of floor finishes, cleaning equipment and cleaning solutions for the many varieties of floors found in athletic facilities. Offers criteria for matching use of the floors with finishes, equipment and chemicals, along with suggestions for scheduling of cleaning and stripping.
Field of Dreams.
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , p24-26 ; Jul 2003
When planning summer work, school athletic facility managers must address the maintenance and renovation of natural grass and synthetic fields, tennis courts, and running tracks. This article presents a guide to the simple, effective, and relatively inexpensive summer maintenance of athletic facilities in order to help extend the life of a schools athletic facilities.
The Sweet Smell of Success.
Athletic Business; v25 n11 , p63-64,66,68,70 ; Nov 2001
Examines how careful attention to the design and maintenance of locker rooms can not only contain odors, but greatly enhance a facility's image. Locker systems, flooring options, ventilation, and cleaning regimens are addressed.
A Clear Vision.
Athletic Business; v24 n10 , p87-88,90,92,94 ; Oct 2000
Explores the process of keeping pool water safe and healthful through careful planning of filter purchases and replacement. Deciding when filters need replacing, the type of filter required, and installation planning are discussed.
From Classroom to Courtside: Extending the Benefits of Carpet in Schools.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , pAF2-AF3 ; Oct 2000
Discusses the use of carpeting in athletic facilities, why it is a good idea, how it would look, and cleaning and maintenance issues.
LEDing the Way.
Athletic Business; v24 n9 , p73-74,76,80-81 ; Sep 2000
Discusses how advances in light-emitting diode (LED) technology is helping video displays at sporting events get fans closer to the action than ever before. The types of LED displays available are discussed as are their operation and maintenance issues.
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p47-48,50,52,54-55 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the high priority nature and maintenance needs of keeping playing surfaces to sports and recreation facilities. Grass and synthetic field and track surface maintenance are discussed as are gym floors, hard-surface tennis courts, and ice surfaces.
Preventive Maintenance, Part Replacement Key to Avoiding Costly Repairs
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p71-72,74,76,78,80 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the importance of avoiding costly repairs in fitness centers by keeping up on preventive maintenance and part replacement. One university's answer to weight training equipment rehabilitation is highlighted as is a solution for racquetball wall repair. Several "tricks-of-the-trade" notes are included.
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p56-58,60,62,64,66,68 ; Jul 2000
Examines the difficulties and solutions to wet environment repairs in pools and locker rooms. Issues include crack and leak repairs, repairs to grout and tile, on-deck accessories, and underwater lights. Several "tricks-of-the-trade" notes are included as is a brief discussion on emergency shutdowns.
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p83-84,86,88-90,92,94 ; Jul 2000
Discusses repair issues that are unique to gyms and arenas, where wear and tear can be excessive over brief time periods. Addresses issues of bleacher understructure inspection, and maintenance issues regarding divider curtains, basketball goals, wall padding, cables, dasher boards, glass panels, and hockey goals. Several "tricks- of-the-trade" notes are included.
An Eye on Prevention.
American School and University; v72 n9 , p65-66 ; May 2000
Discusses the types of washroom fixtures and locker room equipment that educational facilities can utilize to help minimize and discourage student mischief. Topics include controlling germs by substituting epoxy paint for tile grout, using phenolic toilet-stall partitions to reduce vandalism, and using expanded metal lockers to control locker odor.
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p31,33-34 ; May-Jun 2000
Discusses indoor air quality issues related to school gyms, locker rooms, and pools; explores ways to keep the indoor environment healthy. Includes discussions of mold and fungus control as well as air issues stemming from indoor pools.
On Your Marks.
Athletic Business; v24 n5 , p76-80,82-83,88 ; May 2000
Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed.
Cleaning Physical Education Areas.
Griffin, William R.
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p36-38 ; Dec 1999
Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, bi-annual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted, as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas.
Greven, Erik D. W.; Knox, Winthrop S.
Athletic Business; v23 n10 , p57-58,60-62,64,66,68 ; Oct 1999
Discusses each of the major system components of a maintenance survey that can provide pool facilities with the information needed to properly maintain aging pools. Components examined include mechanical and structural systems; pool structure; and the filtration, circulation, and chemical treatment systems.
Lowe, Jason; Noyes, Brad
Athletic Business; v23 n9 , p69-70,72-74 ; Sep 1999
Explains how proper athletic facility locker-room design can save time and money. Design factors that address who will be using the facility are discussed as are user requirements, such as preparation areas, total storage area per user, grooming area, and security areas. Final comments address maintenance and operations issues.
Bleacher Safety: What Do We Look For? What Can We Do?
IEA Environmental Consultant; , p1, 2 ; Spring 1999
Discusses safety issues surrounding aging bleacher systems, highlighting the following three primary safety considerations: space between seats and footboards; guardrails; and the structural provisions of the 1997 Uniform Building Code. Tips for bleacher accident prevention assessment and excerpts from federal and Minnesota legislation on bleacher standards are provided.
Ways To Keep Grandstands Safe.
School Planning and Management; v38 n3 , p44,46-47 ; Mar 1999
Provides guidelines for actions that maintenance staff can take to maximize the safety of sporting grandstands, such as using maintenance and inspection checklists that include comments sections and also developing procedures for inspecting guardrails, the area beneath grandstands, concession stands, and exit routes. Also explores the use of outside security and the need to maintain proper documentation.
The Finish Line.
Athletic Business; v22 n11 ; Nov 1998
Details what is expected in a good floor finish for athletic facilities, and explores the different categories of finishes and their content within the context of environmental regulation and manufacturing standards. It also discusses urethane finishings, the debate over using waterbased finishes, and the influence of regulatory control that may affect finish purchase decisions.
Locker Room Maintenance Made Easy.
College Planning and Management; v1 n3 , p55-56 ; May 1998
Describes ways that locker rooms can be designed and outfitted to minimize required maintenance and heighten satisfaction by students that use these facilities. Suggested possibilities for improvements include installing numerous floor drains to cut mildew buildup, ensuring adequate ventilation to reduce musty smells, creating better hot water management, utilizing ceramic tiles to reduce necessary water-damage repair and painting needs, and controlling odors from urinals by installing automated flushers.
Automated Water Chemistry Control at University of Virginia Pools.
Facilities Manager; v13 n6 , p37, 39 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Describes the technologically advanced aquatic and fitness center at the University of Virginia. Discusses the imprecise water chemistry control at the former facility and its intensive monitoring requirements. Details the new chemistry control standards initiated in the new center, which ensure constant chlorine and pH levels.
Pool Maintenance: Fact and Fiction.
Schmid, Sue; Rowley, William N.; Witeaker, Doug; Teekell, Gordon
Athletic Business; v21 n10 ; Oct 1997
Examines the myths of swimming pool maintenance as applied to commercial pool use. Myths concerning backwashing filters, their run time and operational costs, and the necessity of pool covers for indoor pools are examined.
Chairman of the Boards.
American School and University; v69 n11 , p32,34 ; Jul 1997
Discusses the decision process for replacement or renovation of aging school bleachers. Topics address building code adherence, bleacher safety inspection, bleacher repair tips, and floor-traction power retrofitting.
13 Points to Washroom Safety.
School Planning and Management; v36 n3 , p.31-32,34 ; Mar 1997
Washrooms today must be outfitted according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but many of the safety features mandated by the ADA also make good common sense for any school restroom. Provides checklists of items to look for in safe washrooms and locker rooms.
Home Court Advantage.
Athletic Business; v19 n4 , p65-68 ; Apr 1995
Provides low-cost tips for keeping gymnasiums aesthetically pleasing as well as revenue supporting for their multi-team functions. Use of banners, logos for chairs and end wall padding, scorer tables with illuminated front panels for advertisements, and logo and advertising space built into speakers are discussed as are bleacher maintenance and acoustical panels to reduce reverberating sound.
Don't Give 'Em the Slip.
Athletic Business; v18 n10 , p53-56 ; Oct 1994
Discusses the selection criteria for athletic facility locker room flooring that will provide safety, ease of maintenance, cost savings. Comparative comments are provided on ceramic tile, carpeting, epoxy quartz, coated concrete, rubber flooring, flow-thru tile, and terrazzo.
Safe and Sanitary.
Turner, Ed; Hauser, Dan
Athletic Business; v18 n5 , p61-64 ; May 1994
Explains how daily maintenance and design planning can reduce the potential safety hazards found in athletic facility locker rooms. Topics include designing locker rooms for visual openness and traffic control, providing non-slip surfaces and proper drainage, installing ventilation systems that can handle the moisture produced in locker rooms, maintaining cleanliness for a healthy environment, and planning for bench type and placement.