ATHLETIC FACILITIES DESIGN
Information on the planning and design of school and university sports and recreation facilities, both indoor and outdoor, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. 4th edition
Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.
(Human Kinetics , 2012)
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This ACSM publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility. Part 1 presents a list of the standards for health/fitness facilities and an overview and discussion of those standards. Part 2 sets guidelines concerning the physical plant safety, signage, organizational structure and staffing, user screening, and emergency/safety procedures. Parts 3 through 5 chronicle guidelines governing programming, staffing, safety, and facilities and equipment in programmed activity areas; nonactivity areas; and specialty areas. 256p.
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Mar 2010)
Provides North Carolina Department of Public Instruction recommendations for outdoor bleacher design, construction, and maintenance. Applicable codes are cited. 7p.
Consumer Product Safety Commission Alert: Whitco Co. LP Stadium Light Poles Can Fall Over, Posing Risk of Serious Injury and Death.
(U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC , Aug 24, 2009)
Warns that several stadium light poles from this defunct company have fallen, and that many standing ones have developed fractures and/or cracks where the pole is joined to its base plate. It is recommended that institutions with light poles made by this company, and all stadium light poles, be regularly inspected by a qualified inspector. 4p.
Facility Specification Guide.
(Athletic Business Publications, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Provides field and court specifications for 19 sports, along with contact information for the regulating bodies of that sport. 22p.
Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition.
Cavenaugh, William; Tocci, Gregory; Wilkes, Joseph
(John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2009)
Provides design professionals with information on basic concepts, acoustical materials, and technologies for controlling wanted or unwanted sound within and around buildings. The book covers fundamental acoustic principles, design criteria, acoustical materials, control strategies, and methods for a wide variety of building types, including educational facilities. Particular attention is given to places for listening and performance such as theaters, concert and recital halls, outdoor arenas, classrooms, multiuse auditoria, libraries, music practice and rehearsal rooms, recording and broadcast studios, and sports venues. 352p.
Campus Recreational Sports Facilities: Planning, Design and Construction Guidelines.
National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA)
(Human Kinetics , 2009)
Covers the planning process from the perspective of the campus master planner and the recreational sport director; the feasibility study process, how to determine whether to build new or renovate existing facilities, and how to raise capital to fund design and construction costs; the design and general planning standards for indoor and outdoor recreational facilities, aquatic centers, and climbing walls; the integration of furniture, fixtures, and equipment in the architectural design and construction processes; an overview of the architectural design and construction processes; and moving in and opening a new or newly renovated facility. 296p.
Providing Safe Facilities: Conducting a Facility Risk Review.
Seidler, Todd; Miller, John
(Athletic Business Publication, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Outlines steps of an athletic facility safety audit and offers a sample format of a safety inspection checklist and action report. Includes 12 references. 10p.
References to Journal Articles
Sponsor-Supported Video Boards Make Impact at High School Level
Athletic Business; , p28-32 ; Aug 2012
Installing large video boards in high school football stadiums makes strong fiscal sense. Loaded with paid sponsorships, the boards are entirely dependent on outside revenues and private donations, and they boast a fast rate of return.
A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts
Recreation Management; , p63-66 ; Jun 2012
The economic downturn has been particularly hard on schools and school districts. Respondents from schools and school districts, who made up 7.2 percent of the total response to the Industry Report survey, were the most likely to indicate that they were "extremely concerned" about the impact of the economic downturn on their facilities. Nearly half (49 percent) said they were extremely concerned. This makes sense, as funding for schools is often based on property taxes or funded through referenda, which may not receive the same level of support when taxpayers are already stretching their budgets. In what is hopefully good news for this sector, the recent stimulus package included funding for schools and school districts to retain staff and improve facilities.
Beckerman Athletic Center Hamden Hall Country Day School
Athletic Business; Jun 2012
Comprehensive facility that provides updated fitness and recreational spaces for the entire Hamden Hall Country Day School student population, 50 varsity and subvarsity athletic programs, families, alums, faculty and the community, and also serves as a critical social gathering place.
Exelon Gymnasium Rowe Clark Math & Science Academy
Athletic Business; Jun 2012
Sustainable strategies in the project include a green roof, a super-insulated envelope with high internal thermal mass, diffuse daylighting and heat recovery ventilation. The gym and the school share a sophisticated lighting control system that utilizes occupancy sensors and daylight harvesting technology to save energy.
Renovating Outdoor Athletic Facilities
Stephan Howick andRodney Wiford
School Planning and Management; Jun 2012
Successfully renovating outdoor athletic facilities requires a high level of preparation. Before you start a project, it is important to take the time and answer a few basic questions.
School Districts Embrace Monolithic Domes as Gymnasiums
Athletic Business; , p38-42 ; Apr 2012
Describes the history of the use of monolithic domes for school gymnasiums, and provides case studies of schools in Texas, Missouri and Idaho.
Athletic Business; , p43-50 ; Feb 2012
Describes how to build competitive natatoriums with expansive decks and elevated seating that provides ample space for swimmers and spectators.
Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo
Health Education Research; v27 n1 , p101-114 ; 2012
This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from Scottish secondary school girls and head teachers participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/06 study. Compared with schools with no after school clubs, girls who attended schools with activities at least 1 day per week were likely to have increased MVPAdays. PE allocation and extra-curricular clubs are likely to be of greater importance to girls' participation than school facilities per se. This study demonstrates how schools can maximize their environment to increase girls' PA and offers encouraging findings for those with limited sports facilities. [Authors' abstract]
Landmark School — Alice Ansara Athletic Facility
Athletic Facilities; Oct 2011
The Alice Ansara Athletic Facility in Prides Crossing, Massachusetts includes a gymnasium, a fitness center, a wrestling room, locker rooms, a sports medicine suite, an equipment room, an administration area and a team/community room. Includes a full photo gallery.
Elements to Increase Students' Physical Activity
School Planning and Management; , p36-39 ; Oct 2011
Describes four elements to consider when increasing students' physical activity: equipment and space; creative teachers and creative spaces; athletic trainers; and examples to follow. Includes several successful projects that show a commitment to physical fitness.
Center Stage. The Latest in Scoreboards and Sports Lighting.
Vence, Deborah L.
Recreation Management; Oct 2011
Discusses wireless and LED technology taking the scoreboard industry by storm, and the latest trends in sports lighting. Includes key steps to selecting a scoreboard.
Ripley High School Event Center.
Design Cost Data; , p29-31 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Case study of Ripley High School Event Center in Ripley, Mississippi. The 26,500-square-foot building houses a gymnasium along with the support functions of boys/girls home locker rooms with showers and laundry, four visiting team locker rooms for tournament play, restrooms, concession, coaches offices/showers, stage, green room, hospitality room, janitor/mechanical, and closet/storage.
Nothin' But New.
School Construction News; , p16-18 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Case study of the new basketball and volleyball facility at Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Virginia.
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p28-30,32-34 ; Jul 2011
Profiles the field house of Vermont's Putney School, a net-zero facility that features careful siting, double insulation, daylighting, photovoltaic energy, and the capture of cool night air during the Summer.
Design for All Times: Trends in Sports Facility Design.
Recreation Management; v12 n7 , p28-33 ; Jul 2011
Records history of athletic facilities use for social, personal growth, and even spiritual uses by students. No longer "just a gym," athletic facilities have meditation gardents, conferences rooms, and chapels.
Cause a Stir.
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 2011
Discusses destratification of air in large athletic spaces with fans or fabric ducts. Common HVAC mistakes in these spaces are also addressed.
24th Annual Architectural Showcase.
Recreation Management; v35 n6 , 29-165 passim ; Jun 2011
Profiles the winners of 24th annual Architectural Showcase for athletic facilities. Forty K-12 and higher education facilities are featured among the winners.
A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v12 n6 , p68-71 ; Jun 2011
Summarizes survey responses from K-12 school administrators, indicating steady or slightly declining budgets and staff reductions. 53.7 percent have no plans for construction, with the remainder planning renovations. Survey response and programming statistics are also discussed.
Suit Yourself: Locker Rooms to Fit Your Facility.
Recreation Management; v12 n5 , p12-17 ; May 2011
Details design and safety consideration for locker rooms, including locker and floor selection, lighting, sight lines, ventilation, family changing rooms, and appropriateness for the sport or sports that will be using them.
Sports Stadiums/Athletic Facilities.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p143-157 ; Nov 2010
Profiles fourteen athletic facilities honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.
The Key to Designing Specialty Spaces.
Bane, Dennis; Miller, Steven; Cordon, Andrew; Lerner, Jonathan; Aldis, Jonathan
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p20 ; Nov 2010
Dicusses specialty educational spaces by providing general design advice, illustrated with five examples from various schools. A media center, music suite, auditorium, outdoor classroom, and athletic facility are addressed.
Athletic Business; V34 n11 , p32-35 ; Nov 2010
Discusses floor selection for gymnasiums according to the activities they host. For basketball, wood is still the most highly favored surface. Synthetic floors may be permanent or rolled out over wood floors specific activities. Synthetic surfaces are typically less expensive and easier to maintain, and are frequently preferred for second gymns that host multiple sport and exercise activities.
Athletic Business; V34 n11 , p47-49 ; Nov 2010
Discusses athletic laundry issues, addressing equipment and chemical selection, and the interaction of water temperature, chemicals, mechanical action, and time in the washing process.
Cover Ups: Selecting the Right Shade Structure for Your Needs.
Recreation Management; v11 n10 , p20-27 ; Oct 2010
Discusses shade structures for athletic and recreational facilities, noting attention to climate, potential vandalism, aesthetics, self-installation, water resistance or porosity, and orientation toward the sun are discussed.
Recreation, Health and Learning at Sac State "WELL" Center.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p24,25 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Profiles this new recreation center that integrates health services, outdoor adventure clubs, and exercise. The LEED Gold-rated facility features a transparent exterior that reveals the activities going on within, and makes it a beacon that attracts students.
Recycling Buildings: Aging, Multipurpose Gyms have Future as Repurposed Classrooms.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p22,23 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses the conversion of outdated and undersized school gymnasiums into other uses. Typical re-uses are described, as are issues concerning the extent of renovation required and examples from three public schools whose gymnasiums were converted to a theatre, a health and wellness center, and a computer lab.
Athletic Business; v34 n9 , p47,48,50,52,54 ; Sep 2010
Describes the variety of athletic equipment that can be suspended from a gymnasium ceiling, or rolled in from storage to create courts for basketball, volleyball, wrestling, or even non-athletic events. The advantages and disadvantages of both suspended and stored systems are discussed, as are the floor coverings needed to soften a gymn floor for some sports and netting that is desirable for separating simultaneous activities within the gymn.
Building Blueprints: Sports and Athletics.
Schuster, Fred; Woolever, Tim; Dillonis, Dave
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p52,53 ; Jul 2010
Discusses flooring for athletic facilities, noting issues of maintainability, performance, aesthetics, installation, and recyclability of various options.
Sports Venue Renovations: How to Make the Building Code Work for You.
Facilities Manager; v26 n4 , p53,54 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses the influence of modern codes on athletic facility renovations. Restrooms, spectator seating, and equivalencies are addressed.
A look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v11 n6 , p54-57 ; Jun 2010
Summarizes survey responses from K-12 school administrators, indicating concern that budget cuts will have on their facilities. Nonetheless, 55.4 percent of respondents plan new construction, which is an increase over the previous year. New construction plans are largely limited to enhancement or replacement of existing playing surfaces and amenities.
Architectural Showcase 2010.
Athletic Business; v34 n6 , 34-167 passim ; Jun 2010
Describes winners of 23rd annual Architectural Showcase for athletic facilities. Text and photographs illustrate innovations and best practices.
Athletic Business; v34 n4 , p53,54,56 ; Apr 2010
Reviews examples of stadiums where the light fixtures are an integral part of the stadium's aesthetics. Citi Field, Rio Tinto Stadium, and Target Field are described.
From the Ground Up: What You Need to Know to Get Climbing Right.
Recreation Management; v11 n4 , p24-27 ; Apr 2010
Advises on the construction of climbing walls, with an emphasis on selecting the right type of wall for the facility's space and typical user. Types of walls and their component materials are described, as are essential safety features.
Building Blueprints: Locker Rooms.
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p40,41 ; Feb 2010
Advises on locker room design that accommodates more students, a variety of sports, administrative areas, and learning spaces.
Community-Based Athletic Facilities.
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p70-73 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the creation of school athletic facilities that can be used by the community. Zoning and placement, programming and scheduling, and operational costs for expanded-use facilities are addressed, as are their advantages to building community support for the school construction.
Athletic Business; v34 n1 , p42-44,46,48,49 ; Jan 2010
Describes athletic venues that use seating, concessions, locker rooms, restrooms, and other amenities for more than one athletic field or court. Designs at various schools are described, as well as advantages to space saving, and peculiarities of hosting simultaneous events.
Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblocks.
Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p38-43 ; 2010
Reports results of study measuring noise levels in elementary, middle, and high school physical education settings, and compare them to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for acoustics in educational settings. The findings show that all of the settings were significantly higher than the established standards. Strategies for reducing high noise levels in physical education settings are discussed.
A Safe Bet.
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p74-79 ; Dec 2009
Advises on safety in athletic facilities, addressing the use and integration of surveillance, biometrics, radio-frequency identification (RFID), smart cards, and video analytics.
American School and University; v82 n3 , p149,150,152-171 ; Nov 2009
Profiles 19 specialized educational facilities, awarded for their adherence to the stated goal of the facility, their ability to enhance learning, functionality, and sustainability. These include athletic, adult education, and arts facilities. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine s school design awards.)
Audio and Illumination: Space-Specific, Sport-Specific.
Recreation Management; v17 n11 , p24-27 ; Nov 2009
Advises on proper design of sound and lighting systems in sports facilities. Even illumination of the field and distribution of sound is emphasized. Examples of poorly and well-designed systems are detailed, noting the increasing popularity of energy-efficient fluorescent lighting in indoor venues.
Recreation Management; v10 n11 , p20-23 ; Nov 2009
Discsusses the lowering price of high-definition video that has made elaborate scoreboards available even at the high school level. Not all fans are happy about the advent of these multi-tasking boards, as they feel it detracts from the game. Scoreboard one-upmanship between schools, the risks of faulty installation, and environmental considerations are also addressed.
Fit(ness) Designs: Meeting a Growing Need.
Recreation Management; v17 n11 , p28-31 ; Nov 2009
Advises on selection of fitness equipment to accommodate various ages and abilities, including those with disabilities. The welcoming of beginners who might be intimidated by elaborate equipment is emphasized.
Athletic Business; v33 n10 , p55,56,58,59 ; Oct 2009
Discusses athletic facilities dryers, including the tendency to over-dry, the benefits of high-extraction washers, axial airflow, auto-dry features, proper matching of dryer to washer capacity, and proper laundry room design.
Recreation Management; v10 n10 , p20-27 ; Oct 2009
Discusses shade structures at recreational and athletic facilities, including playgrounds and stadiums. Solid and cloth structures are addressed, as are budgeting, durability, and design.
Making Organization a Team Sport: Winning Approaches for Auxiliary Athletic Spaces.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n10 , p54-63 ; Oct 2009
Provides detailed guidance on the design of auxiliary athletic spaces, including equipment room, team and locker rooms, storage areas, laundry rooms, offices, and meeting space. Square footage recommendations, traffic flow, security, safety, sanitation, and instilling pride are addressed.
Southside High School Activity Center.
Design Cost Data; v53 n5 , p32,33 ; Sep 2009
Profiles this athletic facility that accommodates indoor football, baseball, and soccer. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.
Physical Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p107-111 ; Aug 2009
Profiles three higher education and one high school athletic facility selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p37-38,40,42 ; Aug 2009
Discusses gymnasium floor coatings, which are evolving toward polymers with lower volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to more stringent attention to and regulation of indoor air quality. Application techniques, costs, color, maintenance, and durability of both oil- and water-based products are described.
A Drain on Resources?
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p27,28,30-32,34 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the high cost of maintaining pools and how some schools are closing theirs, even though interest in competitive swimming is increasing. Cost-saving measures and alternative funding strategies for building and maintaining pools are addressed.
Under the Lights: Athletic Facilities Take Center Stage in Establishing School Identities.
School Construction News; v12 n5 , p14-17 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Profiles athletic facilities at two universities and one high school. The new arena at Missouri State University features a dedicated student seating section and concourse, the University of Arizona facility features expanded and consolidated practice facilities for all indoor sports, and the Union City, New Jersey, high school football field was built on the roof of a new high school.
Athletic Business; v33 n7 , p31-37 ; Jul 2009
Discusses sustainable design of athletic facilities, citing projects that are using passive cooling, solar hot water, high-efficiency HVAC systems, and rainwater capture. The particular problems of athletic facilities with their large spaces and roof spans are addressed.
Athletic Business; v33 n7 , p38-40,42,44,46,48,40,42 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the environmental impact of natural grass, synthetic turf, synthetic tracks, hardwood courts, and ice sheets.
A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v10 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Discusses trends in K-12 school athletic facilities, based on a survey of school district athletic facility personnel. Effects of the recession, plans for new and renovated facilities, increase in usage, and planned amenity additions are highlighted.
Arena Security Is No Game Taken Lightly.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n5 , p10-12,14 ; May 2009
Advises on security at athletic venues, discussing perimeter and access control, credentialing, physical protection systems, risk and emergency management, recovery, security personnel, training, and toxic materials protection.
Down and Dirty: Dress up Your Locker Rooms and Restrooms.
Recreation Management; v10 n5 , p14-19 ; May 2009
Discusses the range of features that have become expected, or preferred, in athletic facilities locker rooms. Social spaces, handicapped access, security, aesthetics, cleanliness, alternatives to metal, and sustainability are addressed.
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p64-66,68,70 ; Apr 2009
Discusses computer modeling of acoustics in athletic facilities to assess and vary sound properties in a three-dimensional model during the design phase.
Building Blueprints: Sports and Fitness Facilities.
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p90,91 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the evolution of high school physical education curricula into programs that more closely resemble the offerings of local health clubs. Group exercise, weightlifting, and fitness equipment amenities are accompanied by computer programs that monitor fitness progress. Fusion of fitness programs with academic subjects is also described, as are opening of the fitness facilities to public use.
Picking up the Pieces.
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p72-78 ; Apr 2009
Discusses preparation for and recovery from natural disasters, citing examples of several athletic facilities that were damaged or destroyed, and how they were rebuilt. Proper preparation includes adequate insurance coverage and thorough equipment inventories. Recovery strategies included community help in cleanup and temporary relocation to other facilities.
American School and University; v81 n7 , p32-34 ; Mar 2009
Discusses automatic external defibrillators in schools, citing arguments for and against their installation. An installation program should be accompanied by training of key personnel, maintenance of the units, and placement in key locations.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p34-37 ; Feb 2009
Discusses control of noise and reverberation in noisy school spaces, such as gymnasiums. The balance of reflective and absorptive materials is discussed, as are HVAC systems and other sources of background noise. Acoustics should be considered in the design phase, but is frequently overlooked, or eliminated to save costs.