NCEF Resource List: Athletic Facilities Design
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Information on the planning and design of school and university sports and recreation facilities, both indoor and outdoor, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. 4th edition
Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.
(Human Kinetics , 2012)
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This ACSM publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility. Part 1 presents a list of the standards for health/fitness facilities and an overview and discussion of those standards. Part 2 sets guidelines concerning the physical plant safety, signage, organizational structure and staffing, user screening, and emergency/safety procedures. Parts 3 through 5 chronicle guidelines governing programming, staffing, safety, and facilities and equipment in programmed activity areas; nonactivity areas; and specialty areas. 256p.

Outdoor Bleachers. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Mar 2010)
Provides North Carolina Department of Public Instruction recommendations for outdoor bleacher design, construction, and maintenance. Applicable codes are cited. 7p.

Consumer Product Safety Commission Alert: Whitco Co. LP Stadium Light Poles Can Fall Over, Posing Risk of Serious Injury and Death.
(U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC , Aug 24, 2009)
Warns that several stadium light poles from this defunct company have fallen, and that many standing ones have developed fractures and/or cracks where the pole is joined to its base plate. It is recommended that institutions with light poles made by this company, and all stadium light poles, be regularly inspected by a qualified inspector. 4p.

Facility Specification Guide.
(Athletic Business Publications, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Provides field and court specifications for 19 sports, along with contact information for the regulating bodies of that sport. 22p.

Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition.
Cavenaugh, William; Tocci, Gregory; Wilkes, Joseph
(John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2009)
Provides design professionals with information on basic concepts, acoustical materials, and technologies for controlling wanted or unwanted sound within and around buildings. The book covers fundamental acoustic principles, design criteria, acoustical materials, control strategies, and methods for a wide variety of building types, including educational facilities. Particular attention is given to places for listening and performance such as theaters, concert and recital halls, outdoor arenas, classrooms, multiuse auditoria, libraries, music practice and rehearsal rooms, recording and broadcast studios, and sports venues. 352p.

Campus Recreational Sports Facilities: Planning, Design and Construction Guidelines.
National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA)
(Human Kinetics , 2009)
Covers the planning process from the perspective of the campus master planner and the recreational sport director; the feasibility study process, how to determine whether to build new or renovate existing facilities, and how to raise capital to fund design and construction costs; the design and general planning standards for indoor and outdoor recreational facilities, aquatic centers, and climbing walls; the integration of furniture, fixtures, and equipment in the architectural design and construction processes; an overview of the architectural design and construction processes; and moving in and opening a new or newly renovated facility. 296p.

Providing Safe Facilities: Conducting a Facility Risk Review.
Seidler, Todd; Miller, John
(Athletic Business Publication, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Outlines steps of an athletic facility safety audit and offers a sample format of a safety inspection checklist and action report. Includes 12 references. 10p.

NFHS Court and Field Diagram Guide.
(National Federation of State High School Associations, Indianapolis, IN , 2008)
Provides a comprehensive collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national sports governing bodies for Olympic/Pan American sport organizations, affiliated sport organizations, armed forces sport organizations, community-based multisport organizations, and disabled and education-based multisport organizations. 129p.

Unlevel Playing Fields.
(Washington Lawyer's Committee, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Reports on inadequate athletic programs and facilities in District of Columbia schools. The report shows how the District lags in critical areas, such as funding and facility management; compares the District's investment in its athletic programs with those in the surrounding counties and other peer cities; and looks at the deteriorated state of the athletic facilities at Cardozo High School, which was highlighted in an earlier report by the same organization. Finally, the report closes with a discussion of the need for renewed efforts by city officials, concerned citizens, and business leaders to close the gap between District of Columbia Public School's athletic programming and the opportunities and facilities available elsewhere. 26p.

Space Planning Guidelines for Campus Recreational Sport Facilities.
National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA)
(Human Kinetics, 2008)
Space-per-student facility planning guidelines are cross-referenced by facility type and total enrollment or school size and presented in a simple chart format. Guidelines are given for five facility types, total indoor space, fitness facilities, climbing and outdoor adventure facilities, aquatic facilities, and outdoor sports facilities. 136p.

A Complete Guide to Sports and Recreation Surfaces.
(CAB Communications, Recreation Management Magazine, Palatine, IL , Jul 2007)
Advises on selection and care of synthetic turf, track and tennis court surfaces, and fitness room and gymnasium floors. 28p.

Facility Specifications.
(Athletic Business, Madison, WI , 2007)
Provides regulation court and field diagrams for badminton, baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, racquetball, squash, handball, team handball, rugby, soccer, softball, wheelchair softball, swimming, tennis, track and field, volleyball, water polo, and wrestling. 26p.

Running Tracks: A Construction and Maintenance Manual, 6th ed.
(American Sports Builders Assn., Ellicott City, MD , 2007)
Discusses running track budgeting, planning and design; project delivery methods; the construction process; surface selection; field events, equipment, and amenities; marking; indoor tracks; and care and maintenance. Appendices include a glossary. Numerous drawings are included. 180p.

Standard Design for Wyoming Schools: Track and Field, Football and Soccer Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , May 2006)
Provides a standard guideline narrative, specifications, and design plans for these athletic facilities in Wyoming schools. General design guidance is provided for tracks, site drainage, and fencing, as well as for specific field event areas. Technical specifications for demolition, sitework, asphalt, concrete, running surfaces, vaulting boxes, and jump boards are included. 91p.

Healthy Children Ready to Learn: Facilities Best Practices. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2006)
This looks at how educational design can contribute to healthier children through such design solutions as improved food service and physical education facilities, and site selection to encourage more walkable schools. 66p.

Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual, 4th ed.
(American Sports Builders Association and U.S. Tennis Association , 2006)
Discusses tennis court budgeting, planning and design considerations; project delivery methods; the construction process; surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor court considerations; care and maintenance; and repair, reconstruction, and renovation. Numerous drawings accompany the text and a glossary is included. 246p.

Schools for the Future: Inspirational Design for PE & Sport Spaces.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2005)
Advises on how to create physical education spaces that will serve all ability levels and promote lifelong habits of healthy living. The book consists of four parts: 1) "Vision," which discusses British policies that are setting the standard for new physical education and emphasizes the contribution good design can make. 2) "Design Principles," which summarizes the key issues that should be addressed to enable a successful project. 3)"Design Realisation," which offers design guidance for and case studies of high quality physical education delivery. 4)"Technical Detal," which offers technical guidance for design teams. Extensive photographs and diagrams accompany the text. 151p.

Planning Playgrounds and Athletics Facilities.
Hill, Franklin
(, Orange, CA , 2005)
Provides examples of typical problems encountered when school playgrounds and athletic fields are planned after the buildings, rather than as part of the educational specifications process. This oversight can lead to poor service to the educational program, depreciated safety of students, and lost opportunities for community use. Examples and recommondations are organized by high school, middle school, and elementary school considerations. 3p.

Facility Design and Management for Health, Fitness, Physical Activity, Recreation, and Sports Facility Development.
Sawyer, Thomas, ed.
(Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, IL , 2005)
Offers extensive advice on athletic facility and event management, common facility components and their design, field and court specifications, recreational spaces, specialty areas, and trends. The book incorporates the knowledge of over 30 experts in the facilities planning and development field and may be used as a text for use in sport management and physical education administration courses. On-line resources are listed including a glossary, author biographies, 34 additional appendices, instructor's guide, Power Point presentations, and a VersaChad software design program with custom exercises 523p.
TO ORDER: 804 N. Neil St., Champaign, IL, 61820

Lighting Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(Amateur Softball Association of America, Oklahoma City, OK , 2004)
Presents this organization's recommendations for softball field lighting, including electrical and pole specifications, lamp selection, perimeter lighting, and environmental considerations. Schematic drawings and a glossary are included. 14p.

Baseball and Softball Fields: Design, Construction, Renovation, and Maintenance.
Puhalla, Jim; Krans, Jeff; Goatley, Mike
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2003)
Offers guidelines, specifications, and tips for the creation, reconstruction, maintenance, and management of baseball and softball facilities. Stadium and field design, fences, dugouts, bullpens, irrigation and drainage, soil selection, turf management, field aesthetics, renovation, and skinned-area maintenance are covered, along with material w ith material addressing growing zones and seasons in North America. 240p.

Unlevel Playing Fields II: An Update on District of Columbia High School Athletic Programs, Facilities and Funding.
(Parents United for DC Public Schools, Washington , Jul 2002)
Evaluates the state of these reforms proposed after the report "Unlevel Playing Fields" (2001) and the current state of D.C. high school athletic programs and funding. It also focuses special attention on the effort to establish a private foundation to supplement funding. 19p.

Unlevel Playing Fields: A Comparative Study of Athletic Programs, Facilities and Funding in the District of Columbia and Suburban Public School Districts.
(Parents United for DC Public Schools, Washington , Jun 2001)
Reports on the neglect of the District of Columbia school athtletic facilities, citing dangerously deteriorated buildings, equipment, and fields, and comparing them to superior facilities in suburban districts. 29p.

Designing Space for Sports and Arts: Design Guidelines for Sports and Arts Facilities in Primary Schools for Dual School and Community Use. Adobe PDF
Young, Eleanor
(Department for Education and Employment, London, England , 2001)
This guide offers general design proposal guidance for sports and arts spaces in England's primary schools, where these types of spaces can be used by both school and community members. It presents case studies and detailed specifications for the multipurpose main hall. It also discusses ways to deal with dual use design challenges in order to promote higher design quality and allow for innovation. Practical everyday design considerations also addressed include security, accessibility for disabled persons, health and safety, and environmental issues. 21p.

Tennis Courts: A Construction and Maintenance Manual. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Assoc., Ellicott City, MD.; U.S. Tennis Assoc., White Plains, NY. , 1999)
This addresses court design and planning; the construction process; court surface selection; accessories and amenities; indoor tennis court design and renovation; care and maintenance tips; and court repair, reconstruction, and renovation. Numerous design and layout drawings are also included along with Tennis Industry Magazine's maintenance planner. Sources of information and a glossary of terms conclude the manual. 187p.

USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Assoc., Ellicott City, MD , 1998)
Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of court and field design and construction issues to consider when building these facilities. Section One provides guidelines in the areas of general conditions for construction, site investigation and preparation, and vegetation control and drainage for recreational areas. Section Two focuses on tennis court guidelines that include court orientation and dimensions, court surfaces, lighting, surface painting, maintenance and repair of asphalt courts, conversion of hard to fast dry courts, and indoor tennis air structure construction. The third and final section addresses track guidelines and includes basic dimensions and site considerations, concrete construction, fencing, six types of track surfaces, field event construction, and layout and striping of running tracks. 215p.

NFHS Court and Field Diagram Guide.
Gillis, John, Ed.
(National Federation of State High School Associations, Indianapolis, IN , 1998)
Collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national sports governing bodies for Olympic/Pan American sport organizations, affiliated sport organizations, armed forces sport organizations, community-based multisport organizations, and disabled and education-based multisport organizations. 126p.
TO ORDER: NFHS Order Department, P. O. Box 361246, Indianapolis, IN 46236-5324; Toll free: 800-776-3462

Climbing Walls: From Form to Function. Adobe PDF
Moore, Tim J.
(Proceedings of the International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education , 1997)
Surveys were returned from 40 of 235 climbing gyms nationwide in an effort to identify or verify issues concerning the design, construction, and use of artificial climbing walls. Prominent or recurring themes such as space, design, and location were cited both as problems experienced by gyms and as features critical to gym success. Conclusions include a need for detailed planning; a need for planners to experience climbing and to confer with the climbing community; and a need for adequate space surrounding the wall to address safety issues and supporting services. 12p.

Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.
(U.S. Tennis Court and Track Builders Assoc., Ellicott City, MD , 1996)
This booklet provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Budgeting, site selection, track surface selection and developing working specifications, and contractor selection are covered. Hiring a consultant to assist in planning, building, or renovating a track facilityis also addressed. Contains lists of information sources, design professionals, and related publications. 15p.

Sport Facility Planning and Management.
Farmer, Peter J.; Mulrooney, Aaron L.; Ammon, Rob, Jr.
(Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc. , 1996)
This textbook offers students a mix of practical examples and recognized theory to help them in the planning, constructing, promoting, and managing of sports facilities. It examines topics ranging from the early history of sport facilities through to the managing of an event within a modern sport facility. The textbook offers case studies involving a wide variety of facilities, from fitness centers to race tracks to major stadiums. 333p.
TO ORDER: Fitness Information Technology, Inc., P.O. Box 4425, University Ave., Morgantown, WV 26504; Toll free: 800-477-4348

Facility and Equipment Management for Sport Directors.
Olson, John R.
(Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL , 1996)
This book, intended for directors or managers of sport facilities, presents an overview of management techniques, strategies, and considerations. The first section focuses on planning for effective facility and equipment management. Part 2 presents specific strategies for implementing and evaluating these plans. These strategies include guidelines, checklists, and forms that illustrate important components of an equipment management plan. The section also describes the importance of facility maintenance to the satisfaction and safety of users, provides operational guidance to the overall supervisor and coordinator of the multiple activities in the facility, considers the multiple aspects of facility scheduling, and outlines a comprehensive model for planning and conducting new facility construction. 171p.
TO ORDER: Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076.

Buyer's Guide for Tennis Court Construction.
(U.S. Tennis Court & Track Builders Assoc., Ellicott, MD. , 1995)
This booklet examines seven planning and decision-making tips for investing in and building tennis courts that can prolong court life and get the most from the investment. It examines defining needs, developing a budget, considering the use of a consultant, choosing a site, choosing a surface and developing working specifications, making specific choices regarding amenities and accessories to be included in the tennis court project, and hiring a qualified contractor. Tennis court surface classifications are also examined. The booklet concludes with lists of tennis organizations and design professionals. 17p.

Guidelines for Movable Soccer Goal Safety.
(Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC. , Jan 1995)
This handbook presents guidelines for the installation, use, and storage of full-size or nearly full-size movable soccer goals to help prevent deaths and serious injuries from soccer goal tipover. The guide first reviews soccer goal injuries and deaths occurring in the United States and briefly examines the soccer rules associated with goals. It then examines the guidelines on goal design/construction, anchoring/securing/and counterweighting, goal storage and securing, and additional safety tips. Soccer goal warning labels and a consumer product safety alert on anchoring are attached. Appendices list soccer organizations for more information and contact information for the Coalition to Promote Soccer Goal Safety. 10p.

Facility Planning for Physical Education, Recreation, and Athletics.
Flynn, Richard B., Ed.
(American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA , 1993)
This publication reflects the composite knowledge of many professionals on the topic of the planning and construction of facilities for athletics, physical education, and recreation. The text is organized into nine chapters: (1) "Facility Planning Process: Factors To Consider" (H. R. White and J. D. Karabetsos); (2) "Indoor Facilities" (E. Turner); (3) "Outdoor Facilities" (B. A. Macomber); (4) "Swimming Pools and Natatoria" (D. J. Hunsaker); (5) "Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities" (T. Seidler); (6) "Ancillary Areas" (H. LaVoie); (7) "Recreation Parks and Camping" (E. Buchanan); (8) "Risk Management: Purpose and Value of Risk Management" (M. Rabinoff); and (9) "Trends in Facility Design" (D. Miller). Appendices provide information on planning facilities; associations pertinent to planning facilities, and planning for accessibility; Athletic Business Magazine's top athletic and recreational facilities; health, fitness, sports and recreation site inspection facility safety checklist and risk analysis; selected litigation, physical education; assumption, consent, waiver, release forms; safety certification for gymnastics; photos and floor plans of athletic and recreational facilities; and metric conversion formulas. 279p.

Public Assembly Facilities.
Jewell, Don
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY , 1992)
Presents planning and facilities management information on arenas, stadiums, theaters, convention centers, and exhibition halls. 146p.

An Investigation of Costs of Inexpensive Enclosures for Recreational Areas. Adobe PDF
Koppes, Wayne F.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Oct 1969)
Presents cost information of inexpensive types of clear-span structures used for recreational and athletic activities. Detailed cost calculations for four variations of air-supported structures; three variations of frameless corrugated steel arch; a rigid frame metal building; a plywood building with folded plate roof; a geodesic dome; a trussed steel arch building; and a steel rigid frame are analyzed, compared and summarized in both tabular and graph form. Recommendations are included as to the essential features of the "ideal" structure for uses of this kind. 48p.

Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1961)
Describes various design features of a high school’s geodesic dome field house. A comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and a conventional gymnasium. The study concludes that the geodesic field house has the advantage with respect to housing both physical education and assembly. Also the field house will cost somewhat less than the conventional gymnasium. Graphic illustrations are included.. 20p.

References to Journal Articles

Sponsor-Supported Video Boards Make Impact at High School Level
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; , p28-32 ; Aug 2012
Installing large video boards in high school football stadiums makes strong fiscal sense. Loaded with paid sponsorships, the boards are entirely dependent on outside revenues and private donations, and they boast a fast rate of return.

A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts
Recreation Management; , p63-66 ; Jun 2012
The economic downturn has been particularly hard on schools and school districts. Respondents from schools and school districts, who made up 7.2 percent of the total response to the Industry Report survey, were the most likely to indicate that they were "extremely concerned" about the impact of the economic downturn on their facilities. Nearly half (49 percent) said they were extremely concerned. This makes sense, as funding for schools is often based on property taxes or funded through referenda, which may not receive the same level of support when taxpayers are already stretching their budgets. In what is hopefully good news for this sector, the recent stimulus package included funding for schools and school districts to retain staff and improve facilities.

Beckerman Athletic Center Hamden Hall Country Day School
Athletic Business; Jun 2012
Comprehensive facility that provides updated fitness and recreational spaces for the entire Hamden Hall Country Day School student population, 50 varsity and subvarsity athletic programs, families, alums, faculty and the community, and also serves as a critical social gathering place.

Exelon Gymnasium Rowe Clark Math & Science Academy
Athletic Business; Jun 2012
Sustainable strategies in the project include a green roof, a super-insulated envelope with high internal thermal mass, diffuse daylighting and heat recovery ventilation. The gym and the school share a sophisticated lighting control system that utilizes occupancy sensors and daylight harvesting technology to save energy.

Renovating Outdoor Athletic Facilities
Stephan Howick andRodney Wiford
School Planning and Management; Jun 2012
Successfully renovating outdoor athletic facilities requires a high level of preparation. Before you start a project, it is important to take the time and answer a few basic questions.

School Districts Embrace Monolithic Domes as Gymnasiums
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; , p38-42 ; Apr 2012
Describes the history of the use of monolithic domes for school gymnasiums, and provides case studies of schools in Texas, Missouri and Idaho.

Loaded Decks
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; , p43-50 ; Feb 2012
Describes how to build competitive natatoriums with expansive decks and elevated seating that provides ample space for swimmers and spectators.

Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo
Health Education Research; v27 n1 , p101-114 ; 2012
This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from Scottish secondary school girls and head teachers participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/06 study. Compared with schools with no after school clubs, girls who attended schools with activities at least 1 day per week were likely to have increased MVPAdays. PE allocation and extra-curricular clubs are likely to be of greater importance to girls' participation than school facilities per se. This study demonstrates how schools can maximize their environment to increase girls' PA and offers encouraging findings for those with limited sports facilities. [Authors' abstract]

Landmark School — Alice Ansara Athletic Facility
Athletic Facilities; Oct 2011
The Alice Ansara Athletic Facility in Prides Crossing, Massachusetts includes a gymnasium, a fitness center, a wrestling room, locker rooms, a sports medicine suite, an equipment room, an administration area and a team/community room. Includes a full photo gallery.

Elements to Increase Students' Physical Activity
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p36-39 ; Oct 2011
Describes four elements to consider when increasing students' physical activity: equipment and space; creative teachers and creative spaces; athletic trainers; and examples to follow. Includes several successful projects that show a commitment to physical fitness.

Center Stage. The Latest in Scoreboards and Sports Lighting.
Vence, Deborah L.
Recreation Management; Oct 2011
Discusses wireless and LED technology taking the scoreboard industry by storm, and the latest trends in sports lighting. Includes key steps to selecting a scoreboard.

Ripley High School Event Center.
Design Cost Data; , p29-31 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Case study of Ripley High School Event Center in Ripley, Mississippi. The 26,500-square-foot building houses a gymnasium along with the support functions of boys/girls home locker rooms with showers and laundry, four visiting team locker rooms for tournament play, restrooms, concession, coaches offices/showers, stage, green room, hospitality room, janitor/mechanical, and closet/storage.

Nothin' But New.
Kamal, Sameea
School Construction News; , p16-18 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Case study of the new basketball and volleyball facility at Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Virginia.

Zero Hour.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p28-30,32-34 ; Jul 2011
Profiles the field house of Vermont's Putney School, a net-zero facility that features careful siting, double insulation, daylighting, photovoltaic energy, and the capture of cool night air during the Summer.

Design for All Times: Trends in Sports Facility Design.
Klingensmith, Dawn
Recreation Management; v12 n7 , p28-33 ; Jul 2011
Records history of athletic facilities use for social, personal growth, and even spiritual uses by students. No longer "just a gym," athletic facilities have meditation gardents, conferences rooms, and chapels.

Cause a Stir.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 2011
Discusses destratification of air in large athletic spaces with fans or fabric ducts. Common HVAC mistakes in these spaces are also addressed.

24th Annual Architectural Showcase.
Recreation Management; v35 n6 , 29-165 passim ; Jun 2011
Profiles the winners of 24th annual Architectural Showcase for athletic facilities. Forty K-12 and higher education facilities are featured among the winners.

A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v12 n6 , p68-71 ; Jun 2011
Summarizes survey responses from K-12 school administrators, indicating steady or slightly declining budgets and staff reductions. 53.7 percent have no plans for construction, with the remainder planning renovations. Survey response and programming statistics are also discussed.

Suit Yourself: Locker Rooms to Fit Your Facility.
Ocken, Jessica
Recreation Management; v12 n5 , p12-17 ; May 2011
Details design and safety consideration for locker rooms, including locker and floor selection, lighting, sight lines, ventilation, family changing rooms, and appropriateness for the sport or sports that will be using them.

Sports Stadiums/Athletic Facilities.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p143-157 ; Nov 2010
Profiles fourteen athletic facilities honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.

The Key to Designing Specialty Spaces.
Bane, Dennis; Miller, Steven; Cordon, Andrew; Lerner, Jonathan; Aldis, Jonathan
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p20 ; Nov 2010
Dicusses specialty educational spaces by providing general design advice, illustrated with five examples from various schools. A media center, music suite, auditorium, outdoor classroom, and athletic facility are addressed.

Courting Variety.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; V34 n11 , p32-35 ; Nov 2010
Discusses floor selection for gymnasiums according to the activities they host. For basketball, wood is still the most highly favored surface. Synthetic floors may be permanent or rolled out over wood floors specific activities. Synthetic surfaces are typically less expensive and easier to maintain, and are frequently preferred for second gymns that host multiple sport and exercise activities.

Team Chemistry.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; V34 n11 , p47-49 ; Nov 2010
Discusses athletic laundry issues, addressing equipment and chemical selection, and the interaction of water temperature, chemicals, mechanical action, and time in the washing process.

Cover Ups: Selecting the Right Shade Structure for Your Needs.
Anderson, Kelli
Recreation Management; v11 n10 , p20-27 ; Oct 2010
Discusses shade structures for athletic and recreational facilities, noting attention to climate, potential vandalism, aesthetics, self-installation, water resistance or porosity, and orientation toward the sun are discussed.

Recreation, Health and Learning at Sac State "WELL" Center.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p24,25 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Profiles this new recreation center that integrates health services, outdoor adventure clubs, and exercise. The LEED Gold-rated facility features a transparent exterior that reveals the activities going on within, and makes it a beacon that attracts students.

Recycling Buildings: Aging, Multipurpose Gyms have Future as Repurposed Classrooms.
School Construction News; v16 n6 , p22,23 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses the conversion of outdated and undersized school gymnasiums into other uses. Typical re-uses are described, as are issues concerning the extent of renovation required and examples from three public schools whose gymnasiums were converted to a theatre, a health and wellness center, and a computer lab.

Conversion Convenience.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v34 n9 , p47,48,50,52,54 ; Sep 2010
Describes the variety of athletic equipment that can be suspended from a gymnasium ceiling, or rolled in from storage to create courts for basketball, volleyball, wrestling, or even non-athletic events. The advantages and disadvantages of both suspended and stored systems are discussed, as are the floor coverings needed to soften a gymn floor for some sports and netting that is desirable for separating simultaneous activities within the gymn.

Building Blueprints: Sports and Athletics.
Schuster, Fred; Woolever, Tim; Dillonis, Dave
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p52,53 ; Jul 2010
Discusses flooring for athletic facilities, noting issues of maintainability, performance, aesthetics, installation, and recyclability of various options.

Sports Venue Renovations: How to Make the Building Code Work for You.
Villotti, Paul
Facilities Manager; v26 n4 , p53,54 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses the influence of modern codes on athletic facility renovations. Restrooms, spectator seating, and equivalencies are addressed.

A look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v11 n6 , p54-57 ; Jun 2010
Summarizes survey responses from K-12 school administrators, indicating concern that budget cuts will have on their facilities. Nonetheless, 55.4 percent of respondents plan new construction, which is an increase over the previous year. New construction plans are largely limited to enhancement or replacement of existing playing surfaces and amenities.

Architectural Showcase 2010.
Athletic Business; v34 n6 , 34-167 passim ; Jun 2010
Describes winners of 23rd annual Architectural Showcase for athletic facilities. Text and photographs illustrate innovations and best practices.

Light Touches.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v34 n4 , p53,54,56 ; Apr 2010
Reviews examples of stadiums where the light fixtures are an integral part of the stadium's aesthetics. Citi Field, Rio Tinto Stadium, and Target Field are described.

From the Ground Up: What You Need to Know to Get Climbing Right.
Miller, Matthew
Recreation Management; v11 n4 , p24-27 ; Apr 2010
Advises on the construction of climbing walls, with an emphasis on selecting the right type of wall for the facility's space and typical user. Types of walls and their component materials are described, as are essential safety features.

Building Blueprints: Locker Rooms.
Wadley, Bill
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p40,41 ; Feb 2010
Advises on locker room design that accommodates more students, a variety of sports, administrative areas, and learning spaces.

Community-Based Athletic Facilities.
Neff, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p70-73 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the creation of school athletic facilities that can be used by the community. Zoning and placement, programming and scheduling, and operational costs for expanded-use facilities are addressed, as are their advantages to building community support for the school construction.

Double Vision.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v34 n1 , p42-44,46,48,49 ; Jan 2010
Describes athletic venues that use seating, concessions, locker rooms, restrooms, and other amenities for more than one athletic field or court. Designs at various schools are described, as well as advantages to space saving, and peculiarities of hosting simultaneous events.

Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblocks. Adobe PDF
Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p38-43 ; 2010
Reports results of study measuring noise levels in elementary, middle, and high school physical education settings, and compare them to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for acoustics in educational settings. The findings show that all of the settings were significantly higher than the established standards. Strategies for reducing high noise levels in physical education settings are discussed.

A Safe Bet.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p74-79 ; Dec 2009
Advises on safety in athletic facilities, addressing the use and integration of surveillance, biometrics, radio-frequency identification (RFID), smart cards, and video analytics.

Specialized Facilities.
American School and University; v82 n3 , p149,150,152-171 ; Nov 2009
Profiles 19 specialized educational facilities, awarded for their adherence to the stated goal of the facility, their ability to enhance learning, functionality, and sustainability. These include athletic, adult education, and arts facilities. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine s school design awards.)

Audio and Illumination: Space-Specific, Sport-Specific.
Klingensmith, Dawn
Recreation Management; v17 n11 , p24-27 ; Nov 2009
Advises on proper design of sound and lighting systems in sports facilities. Even illumination of the field and distribution of sound is emphasized. Examples of poorly and well-designed systems are detailed, noting the increasing popularity of energy-efficient fluorescent lighting in indoor venues.

Scoreboard Showdowns.
Klingensmith, Dawn
Recreation Management; v10 n11 , p20-23 ; Nov 2009
Discsusses the lowering price of high-definition video that has made elaborate scoreboards available even at the high school level. Not all fans are happy about the advent of these multi-tasking boards, as they feel it detracts from the game. Scoreboard one-upmanship between schools, the risks of faulty installation, and environmental considerations are also addressed.

Fit(ness) Designs: Meeting a Growing Need.
Ocken, Jessica
Recreation Management; v17 n11 , p28-31 ; Nov 2009
Advises on selection of fitness equipment to accommodate various ages and abilities, including those with disabilities. The welcoming of beginners who might be intimidated by elaborate equipment is emphasized.

Dryer Learning.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v33 n10 , p55,56,58,59 ; Oct 2009
Discusses athletic facilities dryers, including the tendency to over-dry, the benefits of high-extraction washers, axial airflow, auto-dry features, proper matching of dryer to washer capacity, and proper laundry room design.

Under Cover.
Klingensmith, Dawn
Recreation Management; v10 n10 , p20-27 ; Oct 2009
Discusses shade structures at recreational and athletic facilities, including playgrounds and stadiums. Solid and cloth structures are addressed, as are budgeting, durability, and design.

Making Organization a Team Sport: Winning Approaches for Auxiliary Athletic Spaces.
Nelson, Gregg
The Construction Specifier; v62 n10 , p54-63 ; Oct 2009
Provides detailed guidance on the design of auxiliary athletic spaces, including equipment room, team and locker rooms, storage areas, laundry rooms, offices, and meeting space. Square footage recommendations, traffic flow, security, safety, sanitation, and instilling pride are addressed.

Southside High School Activity Center.
Design Cost Data; v53 n5 , p32,33 ; Sep 2009
Profiles this athletic facility that accommodates indoor football, baseball, and soccer. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Physical Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p107-111 ; Aug 2009
Profiles three higher education and one high school athletic facility selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Finish Lines.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p37-38,40,42 ; Aug 2009
Discusses gymnasium floor coatings, which are evolving toward polymers with lower volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to more stringent attention to and regulation of indoor air quality. Application techniques, costs, color, maintenance, and durability of both oil- and water-based products are described.

A Drain on Resources?
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p27,28,30-32,34 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the high cost of maintaining pools and how some schools are closing theirs, even though interest in competitive swimming is increasing. Cost-saving measures and alternative funding strategies for building and maintaining pools are addressed.

Under the Lights: Athletic Facilities Take Center Stage in Establishing School Identities.
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v12 n5 , p14-17 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Profiles athletic facilities at two universities and one high school. The new arena at Missouri State University features a dedicated student seating section and concourse, the University of Arizona facility features expanded and consolidated practice facilities for all indoor sports, and the Union City, New Jersey, high school football field was built on the roof of a new high school.

Sustained Applause.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v33 n7 , p31-37 ; Jul 2009
Discusses sustainable design of athletic facilities, citing projects that are using passive cooling, solar hot water, high-efficiency HVAC systems, and rainwater capture. The particular problems of athletic facilities with their large spaces and roof spans are addressed.

Surface Impact.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v33 n7 , p38-40,42,44,46,48,40,42 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the environmental impact of natural grass, synthetic turf, synthetic tracks, hardwood courts, and ice sheets.

A Look at Trends in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v10 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Discusses trends in K-12 school athletic facilities, based on a survey of school district athletic facility personnel. Effects of the recession, plans for new and renovated facilities, increase in usage, and planned amenity additions are highlighted.

Arena Security Is No Game Taken Lightly.
Moran, Mark
Doors and Hardware; v73 n5 , p10-12,14 ; May 2009
Advises on security at athletic venues, discussing perimeter and access control, credentialing, physical protection systems, risk and emergency management, recovery, security personnel, training, and toxic materials protection.

Down and Dirty: Dress up Your Locker Rooms and Restrooms.
Zowie, Richard
Recreation Management; v10 n5 , p14-19 ; May 2009
Discusses the range of features that have become expected, or preferred, in athletic facilities locker rooms. Social spaces, handicapped access, security, aesthetics, cleanliness, alternatives to metal, and sustainability are addressed.

Aural Report.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p64-66,68,70 ; Apr 2009
Discusses computer modeling of acoustics in athletic facilities to assess and vary sound properties in a three-dimensional model during the design phase.

Building Blueprints: Sports and Fitness Facilities.
Hill, John
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p90,91 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the evolution of high school physical education curricula into programs that more closely resemble the offerings of local health clubs. Group exercise, weightlifting, and fitness equipment amenities are accompanied by computer programs that monitor fitness progress. Fusion of fitness programs with academic subjects is also described, as are opening of the fitness facilities to public use.

Picking up the Pieces.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p72-78 ; Apr 2009
Discusses preparation for and recovery from natural disasters, citing examples of several athletic facilities that were damaged or destroyed, and how they were rebuilt. Proper preparation includes adequate insurance coverage and thorough equipment inventories. Recovery strategies included community help in cleanup and temporary relocation to other facilities.

Shocking Statistics.
Bingham, Dave
American School and University; v81 n7 , p32-34 ; Mar 2009
Discusses automatic external defibrillators in schools, citing arguments for and against their installation. An installation program should be accompanied by training of key personnel, maintenance of the units, and placement in key locations.

Noise Control.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p34-37 ; Feb 2009
Discusses control of noise and reverberation in noisy school spaces, such as gymnasiums. The balance of reflective and absorptive materials is discussed, as are HVAC systems and other sources of background noise. Acoustics should be considered in the design phase, but is frequently overlooked, or eliminated to save costs.

Specialized Facilities.
American School and University; v81 n3 , p220-266 ; Nov 2008
Profiles 40 outstanding new or renovated specialty education facilities selected for their contribution to the educational program, adaptability, design, technology accommodation, sustainability, and maintainability. These include arts, athletic, and specialized scinece. facilities. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Buying Time.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v32 n11 , p34-36,38,40,42 ; Nov 2008
Discusses features of sports arenas that can help spectators feel more connected to the event. These included center-hung scoreboards; full-range sound delivered to all seating areas, the concourses, and the restrooms; upgraded lighting; closed-circuit television; and wireless connectivity throughout the facility.

The Next Precedent.
Athletic Business; v32 n9 , p45,46,48-50 ; Sep 2008
Advises on liability for injuries related to athletic equipment and game accidents. Cases are cited and techniques which athletic facility managers use to lower risk are described.

Obstacle Course.
Fairbanks, Corey
Athletic Business; v32 n9 , p70-72,74,76,77 ; Sep 2008
Reviews typical accessibility obstacles found in athletic facilities, even in situations where legal requirements for accessibility are being met. Inaccessible lockers, showers, and changing areas lead the list. Accessible weight and cardiovascular equipment, gymnasiums with adequate floor space, and swimming pools are also addressed.

Floored! Choices in Indoor Sports Surfaces.
Poremba, Sue
Recreation Management; v9 n9 , suppl. 14,16-21 ; Sep 2008
Discusses options for indoor sports flooring, highlighting the many available products. Type, frequency, and duration of activities on the floor, along with the ages and skill levels of the users, accompanying equipment, and maintenance are covered, as are specific differences between wood and synthetics, special flooring for exercise areas, sustainability, and durability.

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v80 n13 , p126-134 ; Aug 2008
Profiles ten K-12 and higher education physical education and recreation centers that were recognized in the American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their sustainability, character, long-term appropriateness of materials and colors, innovation, adaptability, collaborative spaces, and safety. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Building Blueprints: Fieldhouse Design and Function.
Pittman, Latasha
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p48,49 ; Aug 2008
Advises on design of school fieldhouses, including details on sizing of the facility and selection of the correct surfaces.

Slam-Dunk Finishes.
Berchenko, Joseph
Journal of Architectural Coatings; v4 n4 , p54-56,58,60,61 ; Jul 2008
Reviews slip resistance, durability, and transparency considerations for maple athletic floor coatings. The article also provides step-by-step and product guidance for sealing and finishing maple athletic floors, LEED guidance, and a discussion of typical problems that may be encountered in maple floor maintenance.

Know the Score: Scoreboard Options Run the Gamut.
Klingensmith, Dawn
Recreation Management; v9 n7 , p30-35 ; Jul 2008
Explores a wide range of scoreboard options, from the most economical flip-style models that can cost as little as $30, to the most elaborate LED screens, whose significant costs may sometimes be offset by the selling of advertising. Wireless scoreboard technology and decorative architectural elements are also discussed.

Architectural Showcase.
Athletic Business; v32 n6 , 44-207 passim ; Jun 2008
This 21st annual compilation of notable new or renovated athletic facilities includes 43 secondary school and higher education installations. Photographs and statistics are included with each project description.

School Days: A Look at Trends in Recreation and Sports in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v9 n6 , p62-66 ; Jun 2008
Presents the results of a 2008 survey indicating that 70 percent of K-12 schools have plans for recreational center construction, with 30 percent planning to build new, 32.3 percent planning to renovate, and 49.7 percent planning to make additions. Lists of top amenities and features being added are included.

Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v32 n6 , p239-241 ; Jun 2008
Discusses school/community partnerships for building, maintaining, and sharing athletic facilities. Examples of successful partnerships are included, and conditions of shared-use agreements are briefly discussed.

The New Tennis Construction Boom.
Burke, Rick
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , pA10,A12,A14 ; May 2008
Reviews the growing participation in school tennis team, and accompanying growth in court construction. Surfaces, costs, and maintenance issues of new and rebuilt courts are addressed.

Green Design and Sustainability in Sport and Recreation Facilities. Adobe PDF
Gison, Fred; Lloyd, Jeffrey, Bain, Sonya, Hottell, Derek
The Smart Journal; v4 n2 , p26-31 ; Spring 2008
Defines "green" facilities, and discusses their contribution towards resource conservation, energy and water efficiency, and indoor environment. Automated building systems, potential costs and savings, green facility rating systems, "greening" existing facilities, and maintenance are discussed. Ten references are included.

Hot Topic.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v32 n4 , p84-86,88-90,92 ; Apr 2008
Reviews options for shading structures at athletic facilities, with particular attention to their health benefits and the many design and material options currently available.

St. Raphael Academy Alumni Hall Athletic and Wellness Center.
Design Cost Data; v52 n2 , p23,24 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Profiles this private secondary school athletic center, which accommodates competitive athletics as well as programs for those who are athletically challenged. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, and photographs are included.

Turn it Down: Dealing with Acoustical Issues in Recreational Facilities.
Barkman, Art
Recreation Management; v9 n2 , p8 ; Feb 2008
Discusses strategies for reducing reverberation in recreational facilities, including acoustical ceilings and banners, wall treatments, and transmission of sound from gymnasiums to adjacent spaces.

Shower Strategies: Reducing Maintenance and Water Use.
Pfund, Ryan
Recreation Management; v9 n2 , p10,11 ; Feb 2008
Discusses strategies for athletic facility showers, including maximizing shower room space, use of easy-to-clean surfaces, sophisticated temperature control valves, and low-flow showerheads.

Meet Lockers.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p60-62,64,65 ; Jan 2008
Discusses current preferences in locker room design; attributes of metal, wood, and plastic lockers; and various lock configurations, including digital and card-operated access systems.

Fitness Assessment.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p32-34,36-39 ; Jan 2008
Reviews the outcome of several Carl M. White Physical Education Program (PEP) grants, which gives federal money to help overhaul school fitness programs with new equipment and programming that encourages individual fitness training. The history, method of disbursal, and examples of school programs enhanced by the funds are included.

Good As New.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p72-74 ; Jan 2008
Reviews athletic facility upgrades in the Buffalo Public Schools, focusing on the historic renovation of the formerly decrepit 1920's-era All-High Stadium.

Matrix Revolution.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p40-44,46,48 ; Jan 2008
Discusses the latest digital scoreboard technology, which is increasingly preferred in high school installations. Features of these boards, their infrastructure requirements, and examples of some notable high school installations are included.

Rocking the House.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p66-69 ; Jan 2008
Reviews concern over the effect of spectator movement on the structural integrity of stadiums. Damage to some structures is reported, as well as installation of structural monitoring systems, retrofitting for group movement, and limitations on the playing of pieces known to encourage movement.

Making Tracks.
Jordan, Janet; Blaisdell, Howard
Athletic Business; v31 n12 , p118-120,122,124-126 ; Dec 2007
Advises on the design and equipping of sports tracks, including storage of the many varieties of track equipment, traffic flow, track configurations, surface specifications, finish line accuracy, infields, and special considerations for throwing areas.

2007 Architectural Portfolio: Specialized Facilities.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p194-236 ; Nov 2007
Profiles 33 outstanding new specialized school facilities selected for their innovation, sustainability, security, aesthetics, and life-cycle costs. These include art, performing arts, athletic, student health, service, K-12, science, and other facilities. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Dry Runnings.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v31 n11 , p46-52,54 ; Nov 2007
Advises on humidity control in athletic facilities, with particular attention to natatoriums and ice rinks. HVAC design, vapor barriers, dehumidification, water temperature, and indoor air conditions are covered.

Bowl Games.
Dethlefs, Don
Athletic Business; v31 n10 , p48-54,56 ; Oct 2007
Reviews seating configurations in sports arenas, including ADA requirements, schemes for distribution of seats on tiers, spectator comfort, renovation, flexibility for various events, luxury suites, and club seating.

Square Roots.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v31 n10 , p76,78,80,82 ; Oct 2007
Discusses modular sports flooring, which is resilient, easily maintained, less expensive than wood, and may be permanently or temporarily installed. Maintenance of these floors, their recyclability, and the benefits of modular floors to various indoor sports are covered.

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v79 n13 , p131-135 ; Aug 2007
Profiles four high school and university fitness centers honored in American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their high performance principles, innovation, functionality, contextual relationship, humanism, and building quality. Photographs and building statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

This Must Be the Place.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v31 n8 , p32-34,36,38,40 ; Aug 2007
Discusses environmental graphics and design for athletic facilities that enhance wayfinding as well as reinforce awareness of the institution's team mascot and colors. Advice on working with an architect/environmental design team is included.

Building Blueprints: Outdoor Athletic Facilities.
Neff, Thomas; Miller, Kyle
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p48,49 ; Aug 2007
Reviews master planning, drainage, turf, soils, irrigation, support buildings, and seating for outdoor athletic facilities.

Behind the Scenes.
Dahnert, Roger; Pack, Andrew
American School and University; v70 n12 , p20,22,24 ; Jul 2007
Discusses desirable features of locker rooms, team rooms, and training rooms to attract and retain coaches and student athletes.

Back to School: A Look at Trends in Recreation and Sports in Schools and School Districts.
Recreation Management; v8 n6 , p58-62 ; Jun 2007
Reviews trends in public school recreation facility use, including funding, community use, staffing, expansion plans, amenities, programming, and supervision.

Restrooms and Locker Rooms.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p30,32,34,36-38 ; Jun 2007
Discusses desirable, and more durable, locker room and restroom fixtures and furnishings. These inevitably cost more, but yield many more years of use due to their resistance to vandalism and the wear of ordinary use. The lower water use of newer fixtures also offer a return on the higher initial investment.

Dream Fields, Lone Star Style.
Yoders, Jeff
Building Design and Construction; v48 n7 , p36-38,40 ; Jun 2007
Profiles several recently built sophisticated school athletic facilities in Texas, enabled by heavy demand and revenue from naming rights. The design and financing of these multi-use facilities is covered.

Architectural Showcase.
Athletic Business; v31 n6 , 46-209 passim ; May 2007
This 20th annual compilation of notable new or renovated athletic facilities includes 38 public, private, and higher education installations. Photographs and statistics are included with each project description.
TO ORDER: Athletic Business Publications, Inc., 4130 Lien Road, Madison, WI 53704; Tel: 608-249-0186

General Assembly: Garland Special Events Center.
Recreation Management; v8 n5 , p26,27 ; May 2007
Profiles this award-winning school and community arena, selected for its dramatic design and detailing. Photographs and project statistics are included.

Stadium Solutions: George Dilboy Memorial Stadium.
Recreation Management; v8 n5 , p51 ; May 2007
Profiles this award-winning Massachusetts facility, which serves several area high school teams and is properly scaled for its residential setting. Photographs and project statistics are included.

Ready, Willing and Able.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v 31 n5 , p32-34,36-38 ; May 2007
Reviews options for accommodating the disabled in fitness centers, both those designed exclusively for the disabled, and those for accommodating fully-abled and physically challenged exercisers together. Examples from a university and a rehabilitation hospital facility are detailed.

Creating a Winning Plan for Athletic Equipment Storage.
Nelson, Gregg
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , pA10,A12-A15 ; May 2007
Advises on creating an effective athletic equipment storage scheme. Recommended steps include: 1) Assess the quantity, condition, and of the equipment. 2) Develop traffic flow logistics. 3) Consider multiple, but compatible, use of rooms. 4) Find and use wasted space. 5) Ensure that facilities accommodate proper cleaning and aerated storage. 6) Standardize inventory, distribution, and replacement schedules.

Hearts on the Line.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v 31 n5 , p82,84,85 ; May 2007
Reviews Texas' precedent-setting mandate to include automated external defibrillators (AED's) in school athletic facility equipment, as well as the trend in other states toward mandating their presence in schools. Advice on costs, placement of the equipment, and staff training is included.

Dressed to Impress.
Ryan, Joseph
Recreation Management; v8 n5 , p12-17 ; May 2007
Advises on the most popular and affordable locker room amenities, which include quality lockers, private showers, fresh paint and carpet, and enough space for individuals to move around in. Regular staff walk-throughs are recommended to pick up dropped items and check cleanliness. Tile and grout should not be white, as it is too difficult to keep clean-looking.

Show Time.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v 31 n5 , p40-42,44,45 ; May 2007
Reviews conversion of sports venues for non-athletic events, including types of floor, turf, and ice coverings and how they are deployed, as well as temporary seating and audio systems.

See Change.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v31 n3 , p46-48,50,52,54 ; Apr 2007
Discusses state-of-the-art glass applications for athletic facilities. Transparency of the building exterior and interior, shatter resistance, safety, CPTED, and costs are covered.

High Standards.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v31 n3 , p66,67 ; Apr 2007
Reviews controls for raising and lowering ceiling-suspended retractable equipment such as basketball goals and volleyball nets. Ways to save money at installation and staff time during operation are covered.

Roof Lines.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v31 n3 , p80-84 ; Mar 2007
Discusses types of roofs for athletic facilities, with variations in design and materials noted according to climate and building purpose. Typical warranty limitations, the work of roof inspectors, current energy-saving measures, and other environmental considerations are considered.

Friday Night Fever.
Kendler, Peggy
District Administration; v43 n3 , p34-40 ; Mar 2007
Profiles recent large and luxurious new high school stadiums, what they feature, how they were financed, and, in some cases, the amenities they offer for community use. Tips for planning and design of a new facility are included, as are suggestions for supplemental private funding from sponsorships and luxury box rentals.

Grand-Slam Scoreboards.
Summerfeld, Brian
Recreation Management; v8 n3 , p26-30 ; Mar 2007
Describes current scoreboard technology, focusing on LED illumination that provides a clear image with lower electrical costs and longer bulb life. Advantages, disadvantages, and challenges to installation and operation are discussed.

Football Strength and Conditioning Facility, Syracuse University.
Design Cost Data; v51 n1 , p26,27 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Profiles this new facility featuring extensive glazing that reveals the activity within. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, floor plans, and photographs are included.

The School Spirit of Adventure.
Bloch, Daniela
Recreation Management; v8 n1 , p48,49 ; Jan 2007
Profiles Ohio State's new Adventure Recreation Center, which includes 4,000 square feet of climbing surfaces, a bouldering cave, 5,000 square feet of fitness space, two indoor turf fields, four hardwood courts, spectator seating, and locker rooms.

Athletic Facility Planning for Schools.
Roettger, Lloyd; Clough, Curtis
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p22-26 ; 2007
Considers basic principles of planning new or renovated school athletic facilities. The duality of their use for athletic and educational purposes, as well as the multiple constituencies that will occupy them indicate strategic planning and community involvement. Includes eight references.

Designing for Sports: Children Dive in with Ideas.
Davids, John
School Planning and Management; v45 n12 , p32-35 ; Dec 2006
Profiles a design charrette for students surrounding the construction of a family aquatic center by the Spring Lake (Michigan) Public Schools. Several "themes" were elaborated by student teams, with the scheme entitled "Neptune's Underwater World" being the final selection.

26th Annual Facilities of Merit.
Athletic Business; v30 n11 , 42-62 passim ; Nov 2006
Describes the ten winners of this competition, which include four higher education and two secondary school athletic centers that were chosen for functionality, innovative design, relationship to site, cost- effectiveness, and innovative financing.

Tour of Duties.
Wolohan, John
Athletic Business; v30 n11 , p110-112,114-116 ; Nov 2006
Advises on risk management in recreation facilities, citing court cases involving private and school-based facilities. A room-by-room tour offers suggestions on locker room, shower, pool deck, weight room, cardiovascular area, climbing wall, and outdoor field inspections and fixes.

Fixtures Fixation.
Bloch, Daniel
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p30-33 ; Oct 2006
Discusses how to accessorize a sports facility so it can best serve as both competition and practice venues for a variety of sports. Facility managers and other experts share their advice on how to go about buying equipment, collaborating with designers and architects, as well as cutting costs without compromising quality.

Crime Watch.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v30 n10 , p99-101 ; Oct 2006
Describes recent notable examples of vandalism at high school athletic facilities and steps being taken to prevent it, including rewards, more surveillance and lighting, anonymous hotlines, and stricter access control. The difficulty of securing fields versus indoor facilities is noted.

Age of Enlightenment.
Spak, Kara
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p34-39 ; Oct 2006
Advises on how to make athletic facility lighting more eye-catching, practical, and environmentally sensitive. Examples of upgrades and the money saved are provided, as is advice on controlling spill, ease of maintenance, and quietness of the fixtures.

Green Up.
St. Clair, Stacy
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p40,41 ; Oct 2006
Presents ideas to improve the eco-friendliness of athletic facilities, citing "The Four R's" of reduction, reuse, recycling, and rebuying. Under these categories come advice on construction and maintenance waste reduction, landscaping, water conservation, turf maintenance, recycling, and specification of materials with recycled content.

Student Life Center, Lancaster Christian School.
Design Cost Data; v50 n5 , p46,47 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Describes this new private school athletic facility with a concession stand designed to commercial standards. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, floor plans, and photographs are included.

Tread Carefully.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v30 n9 , p76-80,82,83 ; Sep 2006
Discusses flooring options for locker and shower areas. Aesthetics, safety, maintainability, cost, and sustainability are considered in this discussion of tile, poured epoxy, concrete, ruber, vinyl, acrylic, and carpet.

Main Winners.
American School and University; v78 n13 , p14,16-19 ; Aug 2006
Presents the two main winners of the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The K-8 Eagle Creek Academy and University of Alabama Student Recreation Center excelled in their use of natural lighting and materials, respect to site, and support of the learning program. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreations Centers.
American School and University; v78 n13 , p134-144 ; Aug 2006
Presents seven higher education and one high school athletic facilities, along with a private school boathouse selected for the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their creative renovations and use of existing conditions, engaging and delightful spaces, use of natural light and sustainable materials, technology integration, functionality, and flexibility. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

Audio Vision.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v30 n8 , p52-56 ; Aug 2006
Advises on audio systems for athletic facilities, including proper matching of equipment components to each other and to the facility's use, environment, and acoustical properties. Ease of operation and maintenance, acoustical consultants, neighborhood considerations, and computer simulation of proposed systems are also covered.

Off the Hook.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v30 n8 , p58-60,62,64 ; Aug 2006
Discusses space-maximizing storage options for athletic facilities, recommending compact shelving systems strategically placed to athletes' traffic patterns. Optional features for these systems and potential for construction savings because less built space is needed are also covered.

Restroom and Locker Room Design.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p48, 50, 52 ; Jul 2006
Describes some finer points of restroom and locker room design, citing design and equipment that enhances user safety, privacy, acoustics, water savings, moisture control, maintainability, and durability.

A Complete Guide to Sports Surfaces and Flooring.
Spak, Kara
Recreation Management; v7 n6 , suppl. 4-26 passim ; Jul-Aug 2006
Discusses athletic surfaces for tennis, field sports, and track, including a lengthy case study of surfaces used in the 184,772-square-foot Centre of Elgin (Illinois). The surfaces of the Centre's entrance, gymns, courts, halls, locker rooms, climbing wall area, dance studios, and kitchen are described. Options for recycling and sustainability in material selection are included.

Architectural Showcase.
Athletic Business; v30 n6 , 44-170 passim ; Jun 2006
This 19th annual compilation of notable new or renovated athletic facilities includes 35 public, private, and higher education installations.

Building Blueprints: Special Events Centers.
Corrigan, Jesse
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p54,55 ; Jun 2006
Describes the Garland (Texas) Independent School District's Special Events center. The 190,000-square-foot facility is designed to host convocations, graduations, sporting events, conferences, concerts, and teacher in-service activities. The building is distinguished by its flexible spaces and design that is considerate of the surrounding neighborhood.

Light Reading.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v30 n5 , p66-68,70,71 ; May 2006
Describes newer energy-efficient sports field lighting that has minimal spill, is challenging industry illumination standards, and whose quality of light over the life of the lamp under debate.

Clean and Comfortable: Avoiding Errors in Locker Room and Restroom Design.
Ocken, Jessica
Recreation Management; v7 n5 , p12-17 ; May-Jun 2006
Offers extensive advice on design and material selection to make locker rooms and restrooms easy to maintain. The needs and ages of users, the types of exercise offered at the facility, traffic flow, large "rush hour" crowds, safety, sanitation, cleanability and maintainability of the surfaces, and amenities are covered.

Stadiums and Sports Venues.
VanderVoort, Mark
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p44,45 ; May 2006
Profiles Dallas Independent School District's Jesse Owens Memorial Complex. The combined stadium/indoor arena complex features shared locker, training, and support facilities. Significant savings were realized by building bleacher seating into the natural topography.

Bleacher Safety.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , p21-24 ; Apr 2006
Encourages aggressive inspection of older bleachers, and describes safety upgrades that can bring them up to the standard to which new bleachers are typically constructed.

Open Door Policy.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v30 n4 , p60-62,64,66,68,70 ; Apr 2006
Offers several examples of how high school athletic facilities are being shared with the community, also describing tactics for meeting the increased operating costs that accompany extended use.

Hitting the Wall: New Compliance Concerns for Wall-Pad Safety in Gymnasia.
Schroeder, Ed
The Construction Specifier; v59 n4 , p52-60 ; Apr 2006
Provides an extensive review of gymnasium wall padding considerations. Types of padding, their installation, impact ratings, fire safety, and specification advice for different types of facilities are discussed. A table listing court dimensions and recommended clearances is included.

Zone Offense.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v30 n4 , p75-77 ; Apr 2006
Describes efforts to establish an increased distance between basketball court end lines and gymn walls. Numerous injuries, player preferences, and the wall padding industry indicate that an improved standard is needed.

Physical Education Facilities.
Neff, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , p42,44,46-49,51 ; Feb 2006
Advocates a different approach to integration of spaces for physical activity into the school facility, promoting visibility for fitness spaces and their users, as well as a closer connection to nutrition and learning activities.

Grain Power.
Brown, Aaron
Athletic Business; v30 n1 , p32-34,36,38-40 ; Jan 2006
Provides advice on selection and installation of wood athletic flooring, including subflooring selection and construction, wood selection, permanent versus portable floors, and floor testing.

Sideline Supplies.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v30 n1 , p58-60,62-65 ; Jan 2006
Describes a variety of sideline equipment and furnishings designed to improve players safety, health, and comfort. These include special benches, hydrating supplies, body temperature regulating devices, stretching equipment, and storage.

25th Annual Facilities of Merit.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v29 n12 , 80-96 passim ; Dec 2005
Describes the ten winners of this competition, which include six higher education athletic centers chosen for functionality, innovative design, relationship to site, cost- effectiveness, and innovative financing.

Daylighting Gymnasiums. Sky's the Limit.
Loveland, Joel; Meek, Christopher
Athletic Business; v29 n12 , p126-130,132,133 ; Dec 2005
Discusses daylighting of gymnasiums, including the placement, number, and design of clerestories and windows, glare reduction, types of glazing, and accompanying automated lighting sytems.

The Beat Goes On.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v29 n10 , p50-54,56-58,60 ; Oct 2005
Cites numerous cases in which automated external defibrillators might have saved student athletes lives, had they been available. Various campaigns to require their installation, largely led by bereaved parents, are described, as are the various manufacturers installation programs in certain state and local school jurisdictions. Opposition to requiring their installation are largely based on the cost of the units, which is decreasing.

Building Blueprints: Athletics Complex.
Ladesich, Jim
School Planning and Management; v44 n10 , p46,47 ; Oct 2005
Describes the well-appointed athletic complex at South Carolina's Paul M. Dorman High School, created with funding assistance from the booster club and season ticket revenue.

Long-Term Fitness.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v44 n10 , p10 ; Oct 2005
Discusses efforts towards improving the physical fitness of children generated by the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations.

Thorough Control.
Fagan, Vince
American School and University; v78 n1 , p29-31 ; Sep 2005
Discusses touchless cleaning and better athletic facility design in order to mitigate the spreading of germs.

High Times.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v29 n9 , p82-84,86,88,90 ; Sep 2005
Describes climbing wall design, construction and selection, with information on available configurations, materials, and modes of installation.

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v77 n13 , p135-144 ; Aug 2005
Presents seven athletic facilities selected for the American School & University 2005 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their functionality, sustainability, craftsmanship, cost-effectiveness, and community connection. Building statistics, designer information, and photographs are included.

Free at Last.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v29 n8 , p72-74,76,78,80,81 ; Aug 2005
Describes dynamic new athletic facility designs made possible by advances in metal building product technology. Facilities described used metal elements as revealed structural components of the building, to break up a massive facade, to create shady overhangs, and to provide energy-saving roofing.

Venue Visuals.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v29 n8 , p63,64,66,68,70 ; Aug 2005
Describes low-cost visual enhancements to athletic facilities including banners, wall murals, playing-surface graphics, and wall padding. These are recommended to refresh an non-descript facility, or to add a sense of spirit to even the most state-of-the-art new facility.

Friday Night Lights.
VanderVoort, Mark
American School and University; v77 n13 , p179-181 ; Aug 2005
Describes state-of-the-art high school stadiums that emulate college and professional venues. Typical features include accessibility, updated and gender-adequate toilet facilities, sophisticated artificial turf, increased lighting to accommodate broadcasting, and open concourses with high visibility.

Sharing Private Spaces.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p30,32,33 ; Jul 2005
Discusses the design of entrances, locker rooms, and restrooms in school athletic facilities that are shared with the community.

Good Sports.
Traum, Robin
American School and University; v77 n12 , p30,32,33 ; Jul 2005
Discusses long-term care of sports floors and how it affects materials selection and use.

High School Stadium Design Tips.
Vandervoort, Mark
School Construction News; v8 n5 , p27 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Presents a list of 73 succinctly stated design tips that address most aspects of stadium planning, design, lighting, and equipping.

Joint Venture Facilities.
Athletic Business; v29 n6 , p136-140 ; Jun 2005
Describes the designs of four joint-venture athletic facilities including an elaborate community-use facility located at Milford High School in Highland, Michigan.

School Facilities.
Athletic Business; v29 n6 , p208-212,214-218 ; Jun 2005
Describes the designs of eight new high school physical education/recreation buildings, including the educational context,design goals, and photographs.

Athletic Field House, St. Luke's School.
Design Cost Data; v49 n3 , p42,43 ; May-Jun 2005
Describes this 30,000 square foot facility, built on a steep grade, and featuring diffused natural light that illuminates playing courts without glare. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Rec Center Has Students Climbing Up a (Rock) Wall.
Ostroff, Tracy
AIArchitect; May 2005
Describes the Wade King Student Recreation Center at Western Washington University, whose sustainable design accommodates a wide range of fitness opportunities, including a sophisticated climbing wall.

Community Relations.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v29 n5 , p30,32,33 ; May 2005
Describes the Huron Valley Schools' successful funding and completion of extensive new athletic facilities, designed for shared use with the community. Community use generates revenue and the response has far exceeded expectations.

School Health and Safety Standards for Dance Education and Dance in Physical Education
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; v76 n4 p20 , p20-26 ; Apr 2005
Student safety is an important goal when teaching physically active skills, and school safety standards should be considered as important as the dance content standards for students. A recent survey identified many health and safety concerns in dance education, including inadequate facilities and other deficiencies. This looks at environmental health and safety standards for dance education and dance in physical education.

High-Tech High School Fitness.
Ryan, Kyle
Recreation Management; Apr 2005
Describes the Buffalo Grove, Illinois, schools system's sophisticated fitness facilities, which required significant fundraising from the community, and have been overwhelmingly popular.

Goal Oriented.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v29 n4 , p85,86,88,90,92,94 ; Apr 2005
Describes improvements to basketball goal backboards and rims that have enhanced player safety, the work of referees, and visibility for the spectators.

Handle with Care.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v29 n1 , p71,72,74,76 ; Jan 2005
Describes energy- and water-saving laundry equipment. Savings can be significant enough to pay for the equipment in as little as two years. Suggestions for maintaining maximum efficiency from new and existing equipment are also offered.

Connolly, Lawrence
Texas Architect; v55 n1 , p30-33 ; Jan-Feb 2005
Describes the Austin, Texas, Waldorf School Performing Arts Center and Athletic Building, which was successfully built on a small site and extremely tight budget. A listing of project participants, photographs, and a site plan are included.

Sharing with the Community.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v44 n1 , p64-66 ; Jan 2005
Discusses the conception, design, funding, and scheduling of high school fitness facilities that can be shared with the community.

A New Generation Gymnasium.
Hutton, Paul
Recreation Management; Jan 2005
Describes a new gymnasium that saves energy and improves the indoor environment with daylighting and displacement ventilation.

Prep Power Houses.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v29 n1 , p63,64,66,68,69 ; Jan 2005
Describes extensive weight lifting facilities being built in high schools. Originally conceived to offer the football teams a competitive edge, the expanded facilities are typically large enough to accommodate the student body at large and even community use. Costs of equipping such a facility are described, as are ways of securing private funding, which is typically necessary in this costly endeavor.

Everyone's a Winner.
Milder, Scott
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , p28-31 ; Dec 2004
Discusses a trend toward the creation of large, amenity-laden athletic facilities in public schools, due to the heavy demands of large athletic programs, large numbers of fans, and expanding community use.

Analyze These.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v28 n11 , p131-135 ; Nov 2004
Advises on calculating the total cost of an athletic floor by factoring installation, maintenance, life expectancy, refurbishment/replacement. A lifecycle cost comparison worksheet and analysis table is provided.

Promoting Underground Activities.
Wasserman, Sue
School Construction News; v7 n8 , p20 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Describes the National Cathedral School's Athletic Facility, which was built underground to provide space for playing fields, preserve views, and protect a grove of 100-year-old trees.

Physical Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v76 n13 , p127-131 ; Aug 2004
Presents two high school and to higher education athletic facilities selected for the American School & University 2004 Educational Interiors Showcase. The awards were based on the jury's estimation of the projects' adaptability, innovation, humanism, appropriateness to site, sustainability, and timelessness. Building statistics, designers, and photographs are included.

Squeaky Clean.
Bonney, Valerie
American School and University; v76 n12 , p30,32,35 ; Jul 2004
Suggests design and furnishing concepts that can encorage locker room use through better appearance and cleanliness. Improvements for surfaces, lighting, painting, amenities, and privacy are recommended.

Shared Spaces.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n12 , p24,26,29 ; Jul 2004
Describes design, space planning, and security considerations for k-12 recreational facilities that are shared with the community.

Joint-Venture Facilities.
Athletic Business; v28 n6 , p150,152-154 ; Jun 2004
Describes three athletic facilities built as a joint venture between the community and a local school system or community college. Includes photographs.

School Facilities.
Athletic Business; v28 n6 , p214-220 ; Jun 2004
Describes the designs of five school physical education/recreation buildings, including the educational context, design goals, and photographs.

Sports Flooring Solutions for Your Athletic Facility.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p55-61 ; Jun 2004
Lists six material types, five performance criteria, and six mechanical criteria for sports flooring. The three steps in the decision process are determining what activities will occur on the floor, visiting other installations, and visiting manufacturers. Acoustics, colors, cost, room humidity, maintenance, and resiliency should also be considered.

A Strong Foundation.
Popke, Michael.
Athletic Business; v28 n4 , p83,84,86-88 ; Apr 2004
Describes the efforts of several athletic booster clubs in raising funds for facility improvements. Organizational advice with examples of successes and failures are included.

Bently Upper School Gymnasium.
Architectural Record; Mar 2004
Describes this private school gymnasium which features a floating cantilevered metal roof shell above a continuous clerestory window. Architect information included.

Sudden Impact.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v28 n3 , p51,52,54,56,58 ; Mar 2004
Discusses varieties of padding for gymnasium walls and athletic field fences, prioritizing of the areas to be covered, common deficiencies in specification and installation, and an ASTM standard currently being developed for wall padding.

Athletic Facilities: Improving the Performance of Existing Facilities.
Neff, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v43 n1 , p72,73 ; Jan 2004
Describes ways of maximizing the flexibility and versatility of existing athletic spaces to accommodate expanded programs and simultaneous use by teams of both genders.

Learning to Share.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n11 , p29-30 ; Nov 2003
Describes two programs where schools and their communities successfully share athletic fields and a swimming facility. Cooperation of the parties has been continuous from construction through maintenance and operation. The Veterans Park complex in Wilmington, N.C., includes a new high school, middle school, and elementary school on 210 acres and includes a park for the community in that area. When Allegan High School in the small community of Allegan, Mich., decided to add a competition swimming pool to its facilities, the community voiced interest in using it. Instead of building one pool, the school built two.

Pipe Dreams.
McDonald, Robert
Athletic Business; v27 n11 , p78-80,82,84 ; Nov 2003
Outlines athletic facility design considerations that affect plumbing design. The arrangement of all areas that use water and generate waste water should be considered together for maximum efficiency of piping. Considerable construction and maintenance costs can be saved when the amount and complexity of piping is minimized.

Internal Revenue.
Noyes, Brad
Athletic Business; v27 n10 , p80-82,84,86 ; Oct 2003
Describes revnue options for academic athletic facilities. These include student fees, memberships, program charges, private sector sponsorships and rentals.

Hardin/Jefferson High School Field House.
Design Cost Data; v47 n5 , p34,35 ; Sep-Oct 2003
Describes this Texas athletic field house expansion, which was budget-conscious and sensitive to the surrounding residential/agricultural built environment. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, cost details, a floor plan and photographs are included.

Mental Gymnastics.
Jarmusch, Ann
Architecture; v92 n9 , p60-64 ; Sep 2003
Describes the addition of a library and gymnasium addition to the Rose and Alex Pilibos Armenian School in Los Angeles. Significant savings were realized by using a customized Butler building for the gymnasium. Detailing reminiscent of Armenian culture was used throughout.

Acoustical CMU's for Cost-Effective Sound Control.
Proudfoot, Ned; Loseth, James
The Construction Specifier; v56 n9 , p56-58, 60-62 ; Sep 2003
Discusses the use of sound absorbing concrete masonry units (CMU's) in school auditoriums, gymnasiums and cafeterias.

Physical Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p120-31 ; Aug 2003
Presents K-12 and college physical education/recreation facilities considered outstanding in a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, highlighting unique concepts and ideas. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total cost, total cost/square foot, cost of project entry category, cost/square foot of project entry category, and completion date.

School Facilties.
Athletic Business; v27 n6 , p218-23 ; Jun 2003
Describes the designs of four school physical education/recreation buildings, including the educational context and design goals. Includes photographs.

Shared Destinies.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v27 n5 , p70-76 ; May 2003
Describes examples of high schools sharing their physical fitness and recreation facilities with other community groups, discussing the benefits and inevitable scheduling and programming challenges.

Bright Ideas.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v27 n5 , p79-84 ; May 2003
Describes trends in indoor sports lighting, including new technology that is coupling familiar looks with new energy and cost efficiencies. Offers examples of their use at various schools.

Out of the Box.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v27 n4 , p71-78 ; Apr 2003
Describes new approaches to gym design that demonstrate the gradual increase in sensitivity among designers to the ways in which gyms can be better used and provide a more enjoyable experience.

Automatic Transition.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v27 n4 , p105-10 ; Apr 2003
Describes how new automation technologies are providing more amenities to users, and energy and cost savings to facilities managers, in the areas of lighting, mechanical systems, and water.

Frank and Dorothy Grisanti Gymnasium at Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences, Santa Monica, California.
Architectural Record ; v191 n3 ; Mar 2003
This recently opened sports center features a gym, a new competition pool, and a multi-purpose playing field. The 23,724-square-foot double gymnasium includes exhibition basketball and volleyball courts and bleacher seating for 800 spectators. When the bleachers are retracted, the gym is converted into two full-size basketball courts and three practice volleyball courts. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Trends in Education.
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p14-16 ; Jan 2003
Discusses trends noted by experts in education facilities management in the areas of construction, energy, security, and athletic facilities.

Good Sports.
De Patta, Joe
School Construction News; v5 n7 , p39-42 ; Nov-Dec 2002
Presents an interview with former National Football League (NFL) linebacker Scott Radecic, who works as an architect designing athletic facilities for the education market.

A Running Start.
Patton, Jack D.
Athletic Business; v26 n11 , p127-32 ; Nov 2002
Discusses key factors in designing an appropriate and successful recreational track, such as who will use it, how they will use it, how the design can enhance their experience, and how much of the building's budget will be allocated to it.

The Way the Ball Bounces.
Rush, Richard D.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p374-75 ; Nov 2002
Discusses choosing the right floor for an athletic facility based on the types of games that will be played there and the age of the players.

Bad Combination.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v26 n9 , p79-85 ; Sep 2002
Discusses how vulnerable lockers are to vandalism and thieves, offering examples from various athletic facilities of both forcible and "light-fingered" theft.

Physical-Education Facilities/Recreation Centers.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p134-40 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable school physical education/recreation facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

Sound Barriers.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v26 n8 , p67-74 ; Aug 2002
Discusses how gymnasiums, natatoriums, and lobbies can be notorious echo chambers, but that panels, baffles, banners, and blocks can help reduce unpleasant acoustics.

Great Planes.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v26 n7 , p82-86 ; Jul 2002
Details advances over the past 25 years in the technology involved in athletic surfaces, including natural turf, synthetic turf, hardwood floors, tracks, tennis courts, and ice sheets.

School Facilities.
Athletic Business; v26 n6 , p243-51 ; Jun 2002
Describes the building designs of eight school athletic and recreational facilities, including the educational contexts and design goals. Includes information on architects and designers, construction cost, size, and occupancy date. Also provides photographs.

A Complex Issue.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v26 n5 , p24,26 ; May 2002
Describes the $17-million sports complex being constructed in Topeka, Kansas to serve the city's 3 high schools and 125,000 residents. Describes how the school district successfully "pitched" a major sports project by assuaging the concerns of special-interest groups and garnering the support of skeptical taxpayers.

After the Fall.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v26 n5 , p55-60,62 ; May 2002
Describes Minnesota's landmark Bleacher Safety Act, enacted after a 6-year-old fell to his death from bleachers, and the efforts and recommendations of other states and organizations regarding bleacher safety.

School Gymnasiums--When To Renovate.
Knouse, S. Dwight, II
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p41-44 ; Apr 2002
Discusses considerations when contemplating gym renovation, including examples of illustrative schools: Is the current volume adequate to consider renovation? Does the current structure allow for expansion? How will Americans with disabilities regulations affect the project? Is there an alternate space to hold classes and sporting events during renovation? If the gym cannot be salvaged, what are its alternate uses?

A Sound Arena.
Thompson, Gary F.; Riley, Keith
Athletic Business; v26 n4 , p97-106 ; Apr 2002
Describes how a new arena configuration, the Alpha design, seeks to make facilities more multidimensional, with enhanced acoustics that offer superior entertainment as well as sports uses. Discusses the design's various configurations and its unique features in terms of shape and volume, loudspeakers, private suites, lighting, support spaces, stage mechanics, surface materials, and mechanical equipment.

Fabric Fact & Fiction.
Cohen, Andrew
Facilities Manager; v17 n6 , p55-61 ; Nov-Dec 2001
Examines the positive and negative attributes of fabric structures in providing affordable shelter for a variety of multipurpose applications, including temporary or seasonal use. Describes the three basic types of fabric structures: air-supported, frame-supported, and mast-supported. This article focuses on smaller structures of the air- and frame-supported type, which can often provide shelter for facilities that would normally be closed during winter months, thus extending a facility s viability and utility. Other issues examined include fabric opacity vs. translucency, large vs. small spans, hot vs. cold climates, and large vs. small budgets.

The Sweet Smell of Success.
Huddleston, Elizabeth
Athletic Business; v25 n11 , p63-64,66,68,70 ; Nov 2001
Examines how careful attention to the design and maintenance of locker rooms can not only contain odors, but greatly enhance a facility's image. Locker systems, flooring options, ventilation, and cleaning regimens are addressed.

Against the Grain.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v25 n11 , p73-74,76-77,80-81 ; Nov 2001
Assesses the benefits of using synthetic surfaces as an alternative to hardwood flooring in multipurpose gymnasiums. Explores such issues as durability, flexibility, and ease of installation.

Improving Your Game.
Waggoner, Tom; Bredar, Randy
American School and University; v74 n3 , p343-44 ; Nov 2001
Discusses ways a new athletic training facility can do more than just improve school sports programs. Explores the new facility's ability to increase functional and operational efficiencies, improve student academic performance, and recruit athletes.

Building Bridges.
Huddleston, Elizabeth
Athletic Business; v25 n10 , p47-49,51-52 ; Oct 2001
Discusses how partnerships between municipalities and school recreation departments are providing better facilities and programs for the entire community. Some successful collaborations are examined.

What's New in Locker Rooms?
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p25-27 ; Jul 2001
Discusses athletic facility design and renovation issues that exist because of increasing numbers of female athletes. Outlines renovation issues such as locker room facilities, space for sports equipment, and additional athletic fields.

Sports Facilities, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.
Amelar, Sarah
Architectural Record; v189 n6 , p118-22 ; Jun 2001
Highlights a new K-12 school gymnasium in Mexico that changes and reacts to weather conditions, requires no air conditioning, and, on typical days, uses sunlight filtering through its ample clerestory as the sole source of illumination. Includes numerous photographs, a section drawing, and a site plan.

Track and Field Facilities.
Wood, Tony
School Planning and Management; v40 n6 , p48-49 ; Jun 2001
Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space.

Mixing It Up.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v25 n5 , p45-50,52 ; May 2001
Examines how innovative architecture and improvements in surface technology are making multipurpose athletic facilities open to many more sporting events and users.

Night Games.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v25 n5 , p61-67 ; May 2001
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community.

Are You Sitting Down?
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v25 n4 , p80-87 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the ease with which recreational facilities can accommodate wheelchair softball and other adapted sports, including activities for aquatic facilities. The legal requirement for sporting facilities to be adaptable to persons with physical disabilities is also stressed.

Safety at the Summit.
Huddleston, Elizabeth
Athletic Business; v25 n3 , p62-65,67,69 ; Mar 2001
Explores how risk-management strategies can make the difference in climbing wall safety. Wall design, adhering to wall construction standards, limiting wall access, and climber evaluation are discussed.

Gymnasium Makeovers.
Holzrichter, Doug
Athletic Business; v25 n1 , p59-60,62-65 ; Jan 2001
Discusses improving old gyms to enhance the experience of players and spectators while still respecting the gym's historical significance. Planning and design development phases are examined covering such areas as creating multipurpose courts, building stages, and considerations concerning lighting, acoustics, interior finishes, equipment, storage, and windows. Examples of questions to ask prospective architects are included.

Community Service.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v25 n1 , p26,28-29 ; Jan 2001
Discusses how Boston-area school fitness centers open doors for both students and local residents. Two high schools that offered town residents memberships in their new fitness facility are highlighted. Facility operations are discussed.

Middle School Gyms.
Sands, Robert L., Jr.
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p74-75 ; Jan 2001
Examines the impact that Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 has had on middle school physical education and gymnasiums and the areas a facility assessment process needs to review to determine the school's level of compliance. What primary and secondary middle schools should include to make their gyms gender equitable are listed.

Houses of Cards.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v24 n12 , p121-22,124,126,128,130 ; Dec 2000
Explores how plastic identification cards are key to building security in athletic facilities. Card and identification system technology are addressed as are their benefits and complications. Final comments address security issues that still need consideration even if a card system is used.

Design Rewards.
Cozzi, Richard P.
Athletic Business; v24 n12 , p98-100,102,104-106 ; Dec 2000
Explores how high school athletic directors can use collaboration to lessen the burdens given them during athletic facility building projects. Several examples of collaborative planning and their benefits are discussed.

Outdoor Physical Education Facilities.
Scheideman, Elton Dale
School Planning and Management; v39 n12 , p50-51 ; Dec 2000
Examines typical high school physical educational facility courts found in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas), an area noted for building or reconstructing over 950 courts over the past decade. Base materials and surfaces used are addressed. Photos are included.

Opening Doors to Equity.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v24 n12 , p109-10,112,114,116,118 ; Dec 2000
Discusses the need to reexamine school locker rooms built before the women's sports boom to determine if they need to comply with Title IX standards. Some tangible evidence of Title IX problems are explored along with some of the struggles a few high schools have had when their male oriented locker rooms were found not to be in compliance.

Making the Grade.
Dahlgren, Sally
Athletic Business; v24 n11 , p77-78,80-82,84 ; Nov 2000
Explains the importance of choosing wood flooring for athletic facilities and why the grade of wood specified can significantly impact sports-facility aesthetics. The three types of wood grades are explained along with thoughts on why choosing the priciest grade may not be satisfactory.

Scoreboards: Timing Sports Events for More Than 65 Years.
Childerson, Shelly S.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , pAF4-AF5 ; Oct 2000
Provides a brief history of game scoreboards, including improvements in their technology. Scoreboard standards, safety, and outdoor scoreboard technology are addressed.

Major Considerations in Planning and Renovating Indoor Athletic Facilities.
Neff, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , pAF6-AF8 ; Oct 2000
Explores various concerns when planning and renovating indoor athletic facilities, including zoning issues, facility access and function, and the need for flexibility and adaptability.

From Classroom to Courtside: Extending the Benefits of Carpet in Schools.
Sellers, Kathryn
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , pAF2-AF3 ; Oct 2000
Discusses the use of carpeting in athletic facilities, why it is a good idea, how it would look, and cleaning and maintenance issues.

LEDing the Way.
Dahlgren, Sally
Athletic Business; v24 n9 , p73-74,76,80-81 ; Sep 2000
Discusses how advances in light-emitting diode (LED) technology is helping video displays at sporting events get fans closer to the action than ever before. The types of LED displays available are discussed as are their operation and maintenance issues.

Cleaning Up.
Musgrave, Chuck; Spencer-Workman, Sarah
Athletic Business; v24 n9 , p65,67-68,70-71 ; Sep 2000
Provides a nine-step process in designing athletic facility laundry rooms that are attractive and functional. Steps include determining the level of laundry services needed, ensuring adequate storage and compatible delivery systems, selecting laundry equipment, and choosing suitable flooring.

It Takes Two.
Ballard, Ken
Athletic Business; v24 n8 , p69-70,72,76,78,80 ; Aug 2000
Discusses planning points when negotiating joint ventures for designing public recreational facilities. The obstacle and impact of money in the negotiations is examined as are handling the definition of operational responsibilities, personnel and maintenance, program and service delivery, and progress of the partnership and facility itself.

Sound Advice.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v24 n8 , p101-017 ; Aug 2000
Discusses the planning and decision-making process in acquiring sound equipment for sports stadiums that will help make the experience of fans more pleasurable. The bidding process and use of consultants is explored.

Equality of Athletic Facilities.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , p32, 34, 36-37 ; Jun 2000
Discusses when one school greatly upgrades or builds a new athletic facility and the issue of parity involving other schools in the district. How the Clark County School District (Las Vegas) addressed parity issues is examined.

Indoor Athletic Facilities: Sharing Resources To Maximize Investments.
Fleming, E. Scott
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p44-45 ; May 2000
Examines the concept of shared-use facilities to help financially support and meet the demand for athletic facilities. Shared-use considerations are explored including cost sharing of ongoing operations, aesthetics, locker rooms, support facilities, parking and site access, and building access and security.

An Eye on Prevention.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n9 , p65-66 ; May 2000
Discusses the types of washroom fixtures and locker room equipment that educational facilities can utilize to help minimize and discourage student mischief. Topics include controlling germs by substituting epoxy paint for tile grout, using phenolic toilet-stall partitions to reduce vandalism, and using expanded metal lockers to control locker odor.

On Your Marks.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v24 n5 , p76-80,82-83,88 ; May 2000
Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed.

Stadium Complex Serves Athletics, Arts.
Galvis, Dan; Milder, Scott
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p48-51 ; Mar 2000
Discusses how a Birdville, Texas, school put the wasted space in its football stadium to use as meeting places for various district and community activities, a black box theater, and space for displaying student art. Playing field quality and high-tech amenities that enhance team coaching and play and the public's enjoyment of the sporting events are highlighted.

Facilities Specifications Guide.
Athletic Business; v24 n2 , p437-453 ; Feb 2000
Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed.

Crenosphere, A Dream Come True.
Parker, Freda
Roundup: Journal of the Monolithic Dome Institute; v13 n4 , p24-27 ; Winter 2000
Examines the Crenosphere Dome sports facility and how such large structures can be afforable to build. The benefits of using domes for large sports facilities and their construction benefits are explored. Approximate construction costs for various stadium domes are highlighted.

Parker, Freda
Roundup: Journal of the Monolithic Dome Institute; v13 n4 , p28-30 ; Winter 2000
Presents examples of the long-term benefits and greater value of using monolithic dome sports facilities. Experiences from one church, three high schools, and a university are used to illustrate construction and dome feature benefits.

Squeeze Play.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v24 n1 , p30-31 ; Jan 2000
Describes how California schools have creatively incorporated athletic facilities when space is limited. Describes school's use of non-school properties to supplement needed sports spaces and a few of the negotiated agreements that made their use possible.

Re-creating Recreation.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v23 n11 , p63-69 ; Nov 1999
Discusses the importance of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board guidelines for recreational and sports areas and their ancillary spaces. Examples of how the guidelines affect specific areas are highlighted such as team seating areas, fitness centers, tennis courts, swimming pools, and locker rooms.

First and Goal.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v23 n11 , p30,32 ; Nov 1999
Discusses the importance of community and school official collaboration and compromise behind building secondary school multipurpose stadiums. Examples of how some schools resolved funding issues are highlighted.

Weighty Research.
Conklin, Aaron R.
Athletic Business; v23 n10 , p85-56,88,90,96,98,99 ; Oct 1999
Discusses the selection process for weight-training machines that are user-friendly and provide the best fit for the training facility. Machine factors to consider include ease of maintenance, adjustability, ease of use, its biomechanics, structural strength, the upholstery and finish used, and its safety.

Gender Issues and Equity in Athletic Management
Miles, Albert S.; Miller, Michael T.; Newman, Richard E.
School Business Affairs; v65 n9 , p17-18 ; Sep 1999
Although discrimination is no longer routinely accepted in education, incidents of gender-based discrimination and harassment are being reported in record numbers. Schools must ensure equality of female athletic facilities; be aware of oral-contract, tort, and sexual harassment pitfalls; and meet Title IX's three-pronged compliance test. Contains 18 references

This Way Up.
Horne, Thomas F.; Crossley, Ned
Athletic Business; v23 n9 , p61-65 ; Sep 1999
Examines ways of developing successful climbing programs in athletic facilities through a sound business plan augmented by climbing challenges that keep climbers interested. Ideas for attracting new climbers and retaining climber interest are highlighted.

Locker-Room Talk.
Lowe, Jason; Noyes, Brad
Athletic Business; v23 n9 , p69-70,72-74 ; Sep 1999
Explains how proper athletic facility locker-room design can save time and money. Design factors that address who will be using the facility are discussed as are user requirements, such as preparation areas, total storage area per user, grooming area, and security areas. Final comments address maintenance and operations issues.

Building Teamwork.
Beaudin, James A.; Free, Louis
American School and University; v71 n12 , p101,103-05 ; Aug 1999
Explains the use of proper collaboration when planning and designing an athletic facility. Consultation with the coach and athletic staff is stressed along with an explanation of administrating the planning process. An example of one school's answer to balancing athletics and academics is provided.

Fitness Facilities: The New Trend in Athletic Equipment.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 , p24,26-28 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the requirements and costs associated with building a high school weight room in terms of space renovation and new construction. Observations from high schools that have experienced these types of renovations are explored, and advice on space design and equipment purchasing is presented.

Architectural Showcase, 1999
Athletic Business; v23 n6 , p50-217 ; Jun 1999
Profiles 81 facilities constructed or renovated within the past 3 years that will be competitively judged in Athletic Business' 12th Facility of Merit award. Facilities are presented in the following eight categories: colleges over $15 million; colleges under $15 million; school facilities; private facilities; non-profit facilities; joint-venture facilities; pro facilities; and municipal/public recreation facilities.

First-String Field Houses.
Peterson, Erin
Athletic Business; v23 n4 , p79-82,84,86 ; Apr 1999
Discusses how to build field houses that not only cater to athletes and recreational users alike, but is also designed and supplied to satisfy a wide range of interests and abilities. Tips include having good flooring; using divider curtains; and providing ample space to store equipment, supplies, and portable surfaces to aid facility personnel.

Round and Round.
Davis, Christopher
Athletic Business; v 23 n1 , p61-63,68-69 ; Jan 1999
Examines the process of designing a track and field facility to ensure better results in field efficiency. Each of the planning and design, schematic, and construction phases are discussed. Safety factors including track surface options, barriers, and drainage considerations are covered.

Techniques for Choosing the Correct Locker System.
Hohns, Charles
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1999
Today, locker manufacturers can custom design locker configurations in order to meet an educational facilities specific needs and budget. Discusses features and accessories, and includes a dictionary of locker features.

Athletics from the Ground Up: Selecting a Surface To Play On.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n12 , p25-28 ; Dec 1998
Discusses flooring options for high school gymnasiums and the issues to consider when selecting flooring in light of the new sports activities now available. Explanations of how schools decided on whether to buy synthetic or wood flooring are provided.

Prepped for Success.
Noyes, Brad; Brailsford, Paul; Kaplan, Heidi
Athletic Business; v22 n12 , p59-60,62,64,66 ; Dec 1998
Discusses reasons why private high schools are significantly expanding their athletic spaces and the singular challenges these schools face in meeting the needs of increasing numbers of students. Also addressed are the enrollment competition between private schools and the resulting increase in costs to provide programs and facilities that will attract students.

Getting Physical.
Peterson, Erin
Athletic Business; v22 n12 , p51,53-56 ; Dec 1998
Discusses how high schools are responding to the decline in student physical fitness with new facilities that attract students to fitness. Use of alternative sports, e.g., hiking, climbing, and in-line skating is discussed; as are creating new facilities that encourage student use through technology; and integrating physical education with other subject areas.

Bleacher Comforts.
Scandrett, Donald G.
Athletic Business; v22 n12 , p86-90,92,94 ; Dec 1998
Examines the planning issues when replacing telescoping bleacher units and for analyzing seating options. It addresses the importance of complying with local building codes, and the considerations on maintenance following installation.

Dreams of Fields.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p45-46,48-49 ; Nov 1998
Presents an example of one school's solution to space needs for handling play and practice times for its multiple sports teams. It explains the school's planning efforts towards agreeing to, then gaining public support for a major renovation project.

Conklin, Aaron R.
Athletic Business; v22 n10 , p73-74, 76, 78-79 ; Oct 1998
Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained as are the advantages and disadvantages it has compared with incandescent lamp boards. How to select materials for scoreboard casings is also covered.

Beneath the Surface.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v22 n9 , p56-58,60-62,64,66 ; Sep 1998
Discusses wood flooring components for athletic facilities, what materials make up these floors, and how they affect a floor's performance once installed. The pros and cons of anchored versus floating systems are examined, including the issue of moisture resistance. Also discussed is the influence of Deutsches Institut fur Normans (DIN) standards on floor manufacturing.

The Name Game.
Kiesewetter, Sue
School Planning and Management; v37 i8 , p29-30, 32-33 ; Aug 1998
Discusses the selling of naming rights for school sports complexes as a way of funding the construction of school athletic facilities. It explains how schools can effectively manage such arrangements and provides an example of one such project involving the building of a $3 million ice center for the Arrowhead School District in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin.

Shedding Some Light.
Whitney, Tim
Athletic Business; v22 n8 ; Aug 1998
Discusses the basics of designing natural and artificial light in an indoor athletic facility. It also examines individual lighting requirements of typical rooms such as weight and fitness rooms, aerobics and multipurpose rooms, gymnasiums, field houses, pools, and racquetball and squash courts.

Athletic Facilities: Planning, Designing, and Operating Today's Physical-Education Centers.
Spoor, Dana L.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p2-15 ; Jun 1998
Examines what should be featured in an athletic facility, how to plan for the many different sports and activities that will be housed, and how to get the community involved. Areas addressed include planning for locker rooms and storage, flooring and lighting, building code adherence, spectator seating, building security, and outdoor recreation design considerations.

Team Needs.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v22 n1 ; Jan 1998
Explores locker room design concepts that can be used to accommodate multipurpose athletic facilities and make the locker room more efficient and user friendly. Spaces are described that can be added to the typical locker room that will compliment expanding facility functions.

Strengthening Weight Rooms.
Sherman, Rachel M.
Athletic Business; v21 n10 , p73-74,76,78,80 ; Oct 1997
Examines ways of giving an existing weight training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and paying attention to cleaning and storage.

Locker Rooms: The Durable Design.
Viklund, Roy; Coons, John
Athletic Business; v21 n9 ; Sep 1997
Offers advice on heavy-use locker room design that provides easier maintenance and vandal resistance. Design features and materials used for flooring, ceilings, and walls are addressed as are built-in systems and equipment, toilet and shower fixtures and partitions, lockers, and mechanical and electrical systems.

Revitalized Gyms.
Schmid, Sue; Romer, Steve
Athletic Business; v21 n7 , p49-55 ; Jul 1997
Provides examples of why four educational facilities decided that renovation of their gyms was preferable over building new ones. Tips on managing gymnasium revitalization are suggested.

Designing Physical Education Facilities.
Muller, Cynthia B.
School Planning and Management; v36 n6 , p32-35 ; Jun 1997
With increased enrollments and more girls participating in sports programs, the challenge for planners is to get the most functional and interactive use from the same space. Lists critical safety requirements.

The Right Combination.
Hohns, Charles
American School & University; v69 n9 , p52,54 ; May 1997
Discusses school locker characteristics and evaluation steps to consider before purchasing them. Locker door features are highlighted and the importance of knowing the degree of personal storage, strength, and security needs is addressed.

Staying Ahead of the Competition.
Houston, Gregory J.
American School and University; v69 , p52 ; Apr 1997
Given the range of activities provided in school physical fitness facilities, these centers must have new and improved materials with performance characteristics that are flexible and durable. A key element in the design of school recreation centers is the user's desire for a fun experience that incorporates visual interest, functional layout, and brilliant colors.

Making It Multipurpose.
Krenson, Fred
Athletic Business; v21 n4 , p67-68,70,72,74,76 ; Apr 1997
Discusses how schools are meeting the athletic and recreational needs of students with multipurpose field houses. It discusses the importance of properly communicating the building's function to the architect, clarifies the difference between multipurpose and multiuse facilities and the affect on facility design, and explores how facility operations and space utilization design are affected when using multipurpose facilities.

13 Points to Washroom Safety.
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v36 n3 , p.31-32,34 ; Mar 1997
Washrooms today must be outfitted according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but many of the safety features mandated by the ADA also make good common sense for any school restroom. Provides checklists of items to look for in safe washrooms and locker rooms.

Beyond the Field House.
Myers, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Nancy R.
School Planning and Management; v35 n9 , p23-26 ; Sep 1996
Changes in laws, curricula, and community needs mean rethinking the traditional in physical education facilities. Title IX of the Educational Act of 1972 requires schools that receive federal funds to bring gender equality to their programs and facilities. A focus on personal fitness is accompanied by an increasing demand for community access.

Your First Design Decision.
Barnard, Andrew W.
Athletic Business; v20 n8 , p49-53 ; Aug 1996
Discusses what services architects can offer to those planning to build recreation centers and advice on planning the selection process for hiring an architectural firm. Concluding comments address important steps in the interview process during the final selection phase.

Play it Again.
Katz, Jane Sarah
American School & University; v68 n11 , p30-32 ; Jul 1996
Explores questions of renovation or new construction when evaluating older gymnasiums in schools. Discusses the drawbacks of older structures and the relevant issues of building a new gym, such as access and the use of space, daylight, and materials.

Unlocking the Locker Room.
St. Clair, Dean
Athletic Business; v20 n5 , p67-70 ; May 1996
Discusses locker room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms.

Great Walls.
Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim
Athletic Business; v20 n1 , p45-50 ; Jan 1996
Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.

Does Your Gym Have Six Walls?
Steffen, Jeffrey P.; Stiehl, Jim
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; v66 , p43-47 ; Oct 1995
Sport climbing is being included in many innovative physical-education curriculums. This sport typically involves the use of specially designed climbing ropes and harnesses, which, in the event of a fall, protect participants as they climb on walls that have been fitted with holds.

Scoring with Renovation.
Miller, David
American School and University; v67 , p44-46 ; Jul 1995
Existing sports and recreation facilities can be renovated and expanded as a cost-effective option to new construction. Administrators must determine the school's needs in a recreational facility, determine whether renovating or expanding makes more sense, commission architects and facility planners to program buildings to accommodate the needs of future users, reconcile the program with the existing structure, consider life-safety issues, and keep a contingency allowance for unexpected conditions.

Keep the Noise Down!
Whitney, Timothy W.; Foulkes, Timothy J.
Athletic Business; v18 n12 , p57-60 ; Dec 1994
Examines noise abatement planning for large athletic facilities, gymnasiums, pool areas, and recreational areas. Acoustical controls for smaller, special purpose areas are also discussed.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).