NCEF Resource List: Assessing School Facilities Damaged by Natural Disasters
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ASSESSING SCHOOL FACILITIES DAMAGED BY NATURAL DISASTERS

Information on assessing flood-, wind, and earthquake-damaged schools, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

Damage Assessment Worksheet For Volunteers Assisting in Recovery Efforts. Adobe PDF
(American Institute of Architects, 2011)
One-page checklist to assist in assessing damage to a building after a natural disaster, such as flooding or earthquakes. 1p.

Flood Damage Assessment: Procedures for Cleaning Out a House or Building Following a Flood
(American Institute of Architects, North Carolina Component, Raleigh, NC, 2011)
This discusses flood water damage and recovery and provides basic clean-up procedures, including warnings on what to do before beginning clean-up efforts. Specific advice is provided for assessing and mitigating water damage to foundations, floors, interior walls, ceilings, doors and cabinets, exterior walls, ductwork systems, gas system, electrical systems, appliances, and repainting. 3p.

Flooding and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2011)
Discusses what flooding can do to schools; how to prevent or mitigate flood damage; how to prepare for and respond to flood emergencies; and how to recover from a flood. Includes an appendix on schools as emergency shelters, 31 references and additional online resources. 4p.

Mold Resources.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011)
Resources include an introduction to molds, basic mold cleanup guidelines, ten things you should know about mold, asthma and mold, floods/flooding, health and mold, homes and mold, indoor air regulations and mold, large buildings and mold, schools and mold and indoor air quality, and other mold-related resources and links.

Checklist for Tornado/Hurricane Damaged Structure Inspection
Harper, Charles
(American Institute of Architects, 2011)
After a structure has been damaged during any of the wind storms -- tornado, hurricane, or high winds -- this describes the damage signs that should be noted for a wood frame structure (exterior and interior), steel frame or load bearing walls, or concrete frame, slab. A damage assessment worksheet is included.

Guidelines for Re-Occupancy of Flooded Buildings. Controlling Exposure to Biological Building Contaminants
(North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Aug 30, 2010)
In order to minimize exposure to biological contamination in buildings and to reduce the risk of illness or disease, this provides guidelines for re-occupancy of flooded buildings. 2p.

Postearthquake Damage and Safety Evaluation of Buildings.
(Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, 2010)
This product series contains guidelines and related materials for postearthquake evaluation and repair of damaged buildings. Included are all products in the ATC-20 Series and reports prepared under the ATC-43 project. The ATC-20 Series is a set of documents containing guidance for rapid and detailed evaluation of earthquake-damaged buildings to determine if they can be safely occupied. Included are the basic procedures manuals, a field manual, a manual containing case studies of rapid evaluation, a training slide set, and a TechBrief concerning earthquake aftershocks and building safety evaluation. Documents prepared under the ATC-43 project provide guidance on in-depth engineering evaluation and repair of earthquake-damaged mason-wall buildings and concrete-wall buildings.
TO ORDER: https://www.atcouncil.org/

Rebuilding New Orleans Schools.
(Recovery School District and the Orleans Parish School Board, 2010)
Provides the School Facilities Master Plan for New Orleans schools, a joint effort of the Recovery School District and the Orleans Parish School Board. The Master Plan provides a blueprint for the school construction program that began as a result of the impact of Hurricane Katrina. Sections of the website provide building names, current school programs, building status in the Master Plan, technical information, and a photo gallery of projects. The Current Capital Construction Report provides information about every capital project currently underway, including minor projects (such as roof replacements) and demolitions. The Phase 1 Project Update provides construction status of all projects in Phase 1, a summary of the number of projects in each stage of construction, and the total cost of all projects in each stage of construction. An interactive map of the school districs is also included.

Basic Techniques for Quick and Rapid Post-Earthquake Assessments of Building Safety. Adobe PDF
Vidal F., Feriche M., Ontiveros A.
(8th International Workshop on Seismic Microzoning and Risk Reduction,15-18 March 2009, Almería, Spain, Mar 2009)
Immediately after and during the first days after a strong earthquake occurs, thousands of buildings may result in damages, while new shocks can still occur. Of main interest is to carry out as quickly as possible the evaluation of building safety in order to identify which buildings are safe or not for immediate use (or for entering them) mainly against subsequent aftershocks. The success of inspections depends upon the manner it has been designed and planned in advance. This work presents two single and direct methods designed for post-earthquake building inspections and safety classifications in small-to-medium size towns stricken by a damaging earthquake. 10p.

HT: Emergency School Reconstruction Project. Adobe PDF
(The World Bank, Washington, DC , Feb 17, 2009)
Outlines the World Bank's project to "build back better" and safeguard Haitian schools seriously damaged by hurricanes. The project intervenes in schools that have been destroyed and/or schools whose infrastructure represent a serious risk for the safety of the occupants, finance the upgrade of facilities in a few selected schools that are used as temporary shelters in case of natural disasters, and put in place a nation-wide program contributing to the reduction of major risks to and vulnerability of schools caused by natural disasters. 7p.

Disaster Planning, Management, and Recovery Guide.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners,International, Scottsdale, AZ, 2007)
Assists school districts in the preparation of their emergency preparedness guide. This online publication takes the user through the responsibilities of essential staff, as well as providing checklists of tasks which department heads should complete before, during, and after an event, and issues to consider when creating your district's disaster preparedness guide. The guide is organized in eleven major categories that must be addressed, as they directly impact school district operations: people transportation, communications, food service, planning supplies, facilities, legal, technology, financial, and education. Each category has a short overview to explain the major objectives of the section, followed by an outline of items to consider when assembling a planning, management and recovery plan for the district.

Performance of Physical Structures in Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita: A Reconnaissance Report. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD , Jun 2006)
Describes the environmental conditions (wind speed, storm surge, and flooding) that were present during the hurricanes in regions that were affected by these hurricanes. The report further documents the NIST-led team's observations of damage to major buildings, infrastructure, schools, and residential structures resulting from wind and wind-borne debris, storm surge, surge-borne debris, and surge-induced flooding. Damage reports are organized by part such as structural systems, roofs, windows, and cladding. The report concludes with 23 recommendations for: 1)improvements to practice that will have an immediate impact on the rebuilding of structures damaged or destroyed by the hurricanes; 2)improvements to standards, codes, and practice; and 3)further study or research and development. 222p.

Hurricane Katrina: Army Corps of Engineers Contract for Mississippi Classrooms. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Government Accountability Office, Washington , May 2006)
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) tasked the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) to purchase temporary classrooms for Mississippi schools. To accomplish its task, the Corps placed a $39.5 million order for the purchase and delivery of 450 such classrooms. GAO received an allegation on its Fraud Hotline that the Corps paid inflated prices for the classrooms, and in response, this report reviews the facts and circumstances related to the Corps' issuance of the order. The Corps had no prior experience, no advance notice, and the need to buy the classrooms as quickly as possible. Corps contracting officials lacked knowledge of the industry and information about classroom suppliers, inventories, and prices that would have been useful in negotiating a good deal. Faced with these circumstances, they chose to purchase the classrooms by placing an order, noncompetitively, on an existing agreement with a vendor certified under the Small Business Administrations Business Development Program. The Corps accepted the vendor's proposed price of $39.5 million although it had information that the cost for the classrooms was significantly less than what the vendor was charging. Based on analysis of a quote obtained by the vendor from a local Mississippi business, the price that the vendor actually paid for the classrooms, and prices for similar units from GSA schedule contracts, it was determined that the Corps could have, but failed to, negotiate a lower price. 17p.
Report NO: GAO-06-454


Mississippi School Design Institute: A Report of Findings. Adobe PDF
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , 2006)
Presents the findings from a workshop with four Mississippi districts whose school infrastructure was seriously damaged by Hurricane Katrina. A summary of each school district and its demographics is followed by descriptions of the damage it sustained and the particular challenges it faces in rebuilding and reconfiguring its school facilities options. 28p.

Hurricane Katrina School District Damage Assessment.
(Mississippi Department of Education, Jackson , Sep 2005)
A two-page form to be used by Mississippi districts to report damage from hurricane Katrina. The form is used to report damage to instructional buildings, the central office, and buses, as well as to report need for elementary and temporary classrooms. 2p.

Field Manual: Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings: Second Edition.
(Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, 2005)
Provides procedures and guidelines for the safety evaluation of earthquake-damaged buildings. These procedures and guidelines are written specifically for volunteer structural engineers, as well as building inspectors and structural engineers from city building departments and other regulatory agencies, who would be required to make on-the-spot evaluations and decisions regarding the continued use and occupancy of damaged buildings. 159
Report NO: ATC-20-1

TO ORDER: https://www.atcouncil.org/

Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington , Jan 2004)
Provides design guidance for the protection of school buildings and their occupants against natural hazards, concentrating on K-12 facilities. The focus is on the design of new schools, but the repair, renovation and extension of existing schools, as well as the economic losses and social disruption caused by damage from these three hazards is also addressed. Two core concepts emphasized are multihazard design, where the characteristics of hazards and how they interract are considered together with all other design demands, and performance-based design, where the specific concerns of building owners and occupants a considered over and above what is covered in the building code. Chapters 1-3 present issues common to all hazards. Chapters 4-6 cover risk management for each of the three specific hazards of the title. 361p.
Report NO: FEMA 424


Kansas Disaster Assessment Program. Adobe PDF
(Kansas Emergency Management and AIA Kansas, Topeka; International Code Council, Falls Church, VA , 2004)
Provides guidance and forms to prepare for and conduct a disaster assessment survey. These include pre-disaster buildings inventory, collection of civil personnel information, disaster operations facilities and supply inventory, and map lists. An organizational structure of the disaster team is suggested, along with job titles, qualifications, duties, and the process for mobilizing this team in the event of a disaster. Post-disaster recovery procedures and responsibilities are also outlined. 66p.

Handbook of Facility Assessment
Piper, James
(Fairmont Press , 2004)
This guide is designed for facility and maintenance managers who are facing "repair or replace" decisions for their buildings. Filled with useful information and resources to aid in the decision process, this hands-on reference shows how to accurately rate the condition of existing equipment and components, effectively assess options, and avoid making costly mistakes. Detailed step-by-step instructions are provided, along with forms listing specific criteria identified for rating each building component. 452p.

Flood Cleanup: Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003)
Discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms. This fact sheet provides tips to avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. 2p.

Ensuring That Structures Built on Fill In or Near Special Flood Hazard Areas Are Reasonably Safe From Flooding.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 2001)
Provides guidance on the construction of buildings on land elevated above the base flood elevation (BFE) through the placement of fill. Several methods of construction are discussed, and those that result in the entire building being above the BFE are recommended. This bulletin gives additional guidance on how to determine that buildings with basements will be reasonably safe from flooding during the occurrence of the base flood and larger floods. 26p.

Engineering Checklist for Public School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, Division of School Support, Raleigh, NC , May 2000)
This reference document for public school facility designers includes code items, principles that experience has shown to be desirable and practical, and best practices from a variety of professional sources. Organized into the four major engineering categories of electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and structural, these guidelines represent the thinking of a cross-section of design professionals and are consistent with the North Carolina Public Schools Facilities Guidelines. 54p.

Feasibility and Cost Analysis Forms. North Carolina Public Schools Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh, NC , Apr 08, 1998)
A comprehensive set of checklists and rating systems on 13 pages intended to help evaluate the cost and feasibility of renovating or replacing an old school building. The forms are intended to be used by North Carolina Schools whenever a new project would replace an older school building. 13p.

Building Condition Evaluation Manual. Adobe PDF
(Washington State Board of Education, Olympia , 1997)
Provides checklists to enable a person of moderate training to make an accurate estimation of the structural, mechanical, and safety condition of a school buildings. The lists are divided into sections for exterior, interior, mechanical systems, and safety/building code considerations. Direct examples of the ratings to be entered on the building condition evaluations are provided, as is a means for indicating the nature of the condition, if the rating is lower than "good." 56p.

Guide for School Facility Condition Surveys
Hightower, Harley; Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael
(Alsaka Dept. of Education & Early Development, Juneau, AK , 1997)
A guide for helping facility managers determine their facility's overall physical condition. Includes regulatory data and codes pertaining to educational facility evaluation. Survey sections cover general site conditions, including athletic and play areas; architectural and structural exterior features and systems; interior spaces including classrooms,laboratories, kitchens, and corridors/commons areas; the mechanical system; and the electrical system. Samples of completed survey forms and recommendations narrative are included. 54p.

Case Studies in Rapid Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings.
(Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA, 1996)
Offers 53 case studies of specific buildings evaluated using the ATC-20 Rapid Evaluation procedure. The 53 case studies include 21 from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and 12 from the 1994 Northridge event. Each case study is illustrated with photos and describes how a building was inspected and evaluated for life safety, and includes a completed safety assessment form and placard (INSPECTED, RESTRICTED USE, OR UNSAFE). The report is intended to be used as a training and reference manual for building officials, building inspectors, civil and structural engineers, architects, diaster workers, and others who may be asked to perform safety evaluations after an earthquake. 295
Report NO: ATC-20-3

TO ORDER: https://www.atcouncil.org

Flood-Resistant Materials Requirements for Buildings Located in Special Flood Hazard Areas.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 1993)
Provides guidance on what constitute flood-resistant materials, and how and when these materials must be used to improve a building's ability to withstand flooding. A flood-resistant material is defined as any building material capable of withstanding direct and prolonged contact with floodwaters without sustaining significant damage. The term "prolonged contact" means at least 72 hours, and the term "significant damage" means any damage requiring more than low-cost cosmetic repair. Charts rating the acceptability of various flooring, wall, and ceiling materials are included, as are six references. 18p.

Post-Earthquake Damage Evaluation and Reporting Procedures: A Guidebook for California Schools. [California] Adobe PDF
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, Office of the State Architect, Sacramento, CA, 1993)
The California Office of the State Architect, Structural Safety Division (OSA/SSS) is responsible for evaluating public school structures after an earthquake. However, final authority on whether a building should be reoccupied after damage lies with the school district. This guidebook is designed to help school officials assess earthquake damage before a qualified engineer arrives at the site and report building conditions to OAS/SSS to assist in establishing a priority list for site visits by structural engineers. 19p.

Treatment of Flood-Damaged Older and Historic Buildings. Adobe PDF
(National Trust for Historic Preservation Information Booklet No. 82, 1993)
Includes information on how to care for wet plaster, problems with foundations, treatment for saturated wood-framed walls and floors, exterior paint problems, cleaning out mud, where to go for assistance, and a checklist of practical considerations. 15p.

References to Journal Articles

After the Storm
Satterly, Stephen
School Planning and Management; , p14-18 ; May 2012
Details recovery planning for tornado strikes on schools.

When the Creek Rises.
Brousard, Dave
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p16-18 ; May 2011
Describes the facility cleanup and technology restoration at the Grant Wood Area Education Agency in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, after June 2008 flooding.

At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
Sharp, Linda
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.

Here Comes the Rain--Again.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the damage done by 1993 and 2010 floods to Iowa State University in Ames. The different behaviors of the floods, how buildings succumbed or survived, and plans to flood-proof vulnerable buildings are addressed.

University of Iowa Finds Renewal in Rebuilding.
Biemiller, Lawrence
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v57 n5 , pA1,A12-A14 ; Sep 24, 2010
Reviews the University of Iowa's rebuilding from a 2008 flood. The $743 million in damages, the closure of 22 buildings, efforts to fight the flood, and negotiations with FEMA are described, along with opportunities realized to relocate and rebuild. The music and art departments took over an abandoned mall temporarily, but then decided to remain in its new downtown location.

Road to Recovery.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n7 , p6,8 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the University of Iowa’s response to 2008 flooding, which reached the 500-year flood threshold and exceeded the existing disaster response plan. Protection of building systems where possible, restoration of minimal operations in time for Fall classes, mold control, and deployment of temporary and off-campus facilities are discussed.

Rebounding from Tragedy.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v81 n9 , p14-16,18,19 ; Apr 2009
Uses examples of school district and higher education disaster recovery to discuss important steps to restore instruction after natural and man-made disasters. Maintaining communication when buildings and networks are disabled is emphasized, and temporary classroom options addressed.

Picking up the Pieces.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p72-78 ; Apr 2009
Discusses preparation for and recovery from natural disasters, citing examples of several athletic facilities that were damaged or destroyed, and how they were rebuilt. Proper preparation includes adequate insurance coverage and thorough equipment inventories. Recovery strategies included community help in cleanup and temporary relocation to other facilities.

When Disaster Strikes: How School Facilities Can Cope with the Unthinkable.
Dufresne, Ray
School Business Affairs; v75 n2 , p8,9 ; Feb 2009
Advises on the use of skilled assessments after a major damage to school facilities. Reliable pre-event assessment data is recommended and this information must be retained in a disaster-proof location.

After the Storm.
Leslie, Thomas
Iowa Architect; 09:269 , p24,25 ; Jan 2009
Profiles the building of a new Aplington-Parkersburg High School in Parkersburg, Iowa, after destruction by a tornado. The new school was able to be built in one year due to expedited decision- making and project management.

Starting Over. (When Disaster Strikes Your Schools.)
Hardy, Lawrence
American School Board Journal; v195 n12 , p28-31 ; Dec 2008
Discusses recovery from Hurricane Ike in several coastal Texas school districts. Some schools served as storm shelters, while others were heavily damaged and their students distributed elsewhere. Class size limitations were lifted in neighboring districts that absorbed the students. Schools with disaster plans were able to recover relatively quickly, within weeks or even days after the storm. In some cases, well-built schools survived in neighborhoods that were otherwise devastated.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com

Lessons from the Flood of 2008: The University of Iowa.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n11 , p48-50 ; Nov 2008
Reviews flood response and damage to the University of Iowa from June 2008 flooding. An aggressive response plan limited the damage to 17 percent of the campus square footage, and half of that was restored to use in time for the Fall semester beginning on August 18.

Iowa Floods Test Mount Mercy's Emergency Management Plan.
Altorfer, Molly; Jones, Stacey
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p52,54-56 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Reviews this college's response to 2008 flooding in Cedar Rapids, including closing the campus to regular activities so that they could host first responders and the Red Cross, who were tending to the emergency.

St. Paul's Episcopal School.
Architectural Record; , p44-47 ; Jan 2008
Reviews a design charrette for this New Orleans school that is gradually reopening after being flooded by Hurricane Katrina. The rebuilding offers a chance to correct deficiencies in the former campus, with particular attention to site design and a performing arts center to be shared by the community.

Merry Christmas, Embry-Riddle.
Brown, Joni
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p34-36 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Narrates this aviation school's experience with a December 25, 2006 tornado. Details of the extensive damage and rebuilding are included, as are lessons learned.

Up from the Ruins: State and District Leaders Are Fighting to Rebuild and Repair New Orleans Schools.
Maxwell, Leslie
Education Week; v27 n6 , p27-30 ; Oct 03, 2007
Reviews the rebuilding program for New Orleans public schools damaged by Hurricane Katrina. The first step was to make sure that the usable schools were safe, clean, and relatively modern, which was not typically their state before the storm. The implementation of modular buildings, triage of schools to be repaired or replaced, and the role of the Federal Emergency Management Administration are also covered.

Recovery.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n2 , p18-20,22-24 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the recovery of New Orleans schools after Hurricane Katrina, highlighting a district whose facilities were inadequate before the storm, and converted to a "Recovery District" that is plagued by many of the same problems.

Nature Teaches Lessons.
Penney, Tom
School Planning and Management; v45 n12 , p28,30 ; Dec 2006
Narrates the restoration process of a Firth, Nebraska, middle school campus after a tornado. Volunteer cleanup, emergency spending authorization, the reinforcement of halls in the replacement structure, and the continuation of plans to build a new middle school on the site are described.

Coming Back from Katrina.
Schachter, Ron
University Business'; v9 n11 , p66-70 ; Nov 2006
Describes the damage done to several New Orleans universities by Hurricane Katrina, and briefly narrates some of their experiences restoring their campuses, programs, and enrollment.

Lessons Learned: A Threshold Forum.
Threshold; v3 n1 , p14,15,18,19 ; Fall 2006
Presents the preparation and rebuilding experiences of three state education leaders whose systems endured recent natural disasters.

The Longest Days.
Shorr, Pamela
Threshold; v3 n1 , p20-23 ; Fall 2006
Discusses rebuilding of schools after natural disasters, covering details of the assessment and rebuilding of facilities, mental health, information systems, communications, and memorials.

Rebuild. Rebirth. Renew.
Dillon, Naomi; Vail, Kathleen
American School Board Journal; v193 n9 , p18-28 ; Sep 2006
Reviews the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to New Orleans schools, as well as obstacles to their recovery. Also presented are the coping and rebuilding experiences of a school board member, principal, community activist, college president, student, and charter school principal.

Response.
Hammatt, Noel
American School Board Journal; v193 n9 , p32,33 ; Sep 2006
Describes the East Baton Rouge School District's response to Hurricane Katrina, which included absorbing 8,000 displaced students into a system operating under strict court-enforced capacity limits.

Recover.
Hardy, Lawrence
American School Board Journal; v193 n9 , p29-31 ; Sep 2006
Reviews demographic losses, insurance increases, temporary structures, and recovery efforts related to Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi and Alabama schools.

Hard Times in the Big Easy. Putting the Pieces Back Together After Hurricane Katrina
Clark, Nancy
Edutopia; v2 n4 , p44-48 ; Jun 2006
Reviews the extent of Hurricane Katrina damage to New Orleans schools, their enrollment, and their tax base. Competing plans for restructuring the schools, and especially those that were taken over by the state before the storm due to poor performance, are described, as are possible corporate contributions to rebuilding.

Renovation and Repair in New Orleans.
Mangan, Katherine
Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n34 , pB4,B6 ; Apr 2006
Describes the extent of Hurricane Katrina's damage to Dillard University, as well as plans to demolish some buildings, rebuild with elevated structures, and revisit the entire campus plan.

Rebuilding New Orleans Schools.
Vail, Kathleen
American School Board Journal; v193 n4 , p28-30 ; Apr 2006
Discusses various combinations of traditional and charter schools envisioned in the restoration of the New Orleans public school system following Hurricane Katrina, as well as the struggle between supporters of competing visions.

Redevelopment Planning after Hurricane Katrina: Challenges Facing Education and School Facility Design.
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v 71 n11 , p22-25 ; Dec 2005
Outlines recovery goals and strategies for areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, emphasizing a multiregional plan that includes coordinated multicounty oversight of construction, creation of joint-use facilities and cross-curricular K-12 schools with flexible design for future conversion, modular buildings, continual communication with the public, re-usable design prototypes and systems construction, design improvements for stronger storm resistance, and use of available commercial facilities for educational purposes.

Blueprint for Rebuilding.
Kendler, Peggy
District Administration; v41 n12 ; Dec 2005
Reports on assessment of storm damage to schools following hurricanes Katrina and Rita, citing the possible "silver lining" of obtaining better and more educationally appropriate facilities in the rebuild. Also described are federal efforts to replace property taxes lost in the region and lessons learned about the particular ways hurricanes assault buildings.

Coping with Crisis: Members Respond to Hurricane Aftermath.
Thaler-Carter, Ruth
Facilities Manager; v21 n6 , p34-37 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Presents personal narratives from facility managers at New Orleans area universities citing their experiences before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. Experiences in with safeguarding the students, and assessing and recovering from damage are described.

The Hurricanes of 2004.
Smith, Thomas
Professional Roofing; v35 n9 , p23-27 ; Sep 2005
Presents an overview of the Federal Emergency Management Association's findings and recommendations, following evaluations of roof performance in three 2005 hurricanes. Roofing equipment, membrane systems, asphalt shingles, metal panels, and tile are covered.

Expecting the Unexpected.
Borges, Reggie
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p38-40 ; Jun 2005
Discusses the importance of communication, insurance, return to class, and raising of community morale after natural disasters, citing examples from storms that struck Nebraska and Florida.

School Choice: Build New or Not
Greim, Clif
Building Operating Management; Mar 2005
Before a school district embarks on a major renovation project, it must determine whether it is better to replace the existing facility with a new school. While sometimes the cost of replacing outdated systems, upgrading life and safety deficiencies, and accommodating program expansions within existing K-12 schools far exceeds the cost of building a new facility, there may be good reasons for to renovate an older building rather than build a new one. This discusses the question of character, health and safety upgrades, system upgrades, electrical systems, program upgrades, and aesthetic gains.

Understanding the Facility Assessment Process.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v8 n3 , p14,16,18 ; Mar 2005
Explains the physical and functional building conditions that are examined in a facility assessment. In a physical condition assessment, the mechanical and electrical systems, structural integrity, building envelope, hazardous materials, accessibility, sustainability, and energy use will be examined. In a function condition assessment, the educational standards, technology, acoustics, lighting, and program suitability will be examined. The utilities infrastructure and landscaping is considered in a multi-building, campus-wide assessment.

A Final Determination.
Rabenaldt, Carl A.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p284-87 ; Nov 2003
Discusses ways of comparing costs of renovation and maintenance of a facility versus building new. A detailed table provides an itemized example of how capital renewal costs might compare to new construction costs. In this case, as in most cases, the cost of renovating and maintaing an existing building that has been properly cared for is less than the cost of new construction.

Build New or Renovate: How Facility Assessments Can Help.
Denton, Bob
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p14-17 ; 2003
Explains what a facilities assessment consists of, what it measures, the benefits of engaging a professional, and how long it might take.

A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.
Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.
Facilities Manager; v18 n5 , p57-64 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis.

Getting a Grip on Facility Condition Assessments.
Bhimani, Karim; Pantaleo, Anthony
College Planning and Management; v4 n11 , p31-33 ; Nov 2001
Discusses how handheld pen computing devices and specialized software systems can make educational facility assessment more efficient. Explores how these tools can be used for information management and for developing short and long term maintenance and capital improvement plans.

A Proven Methodology for Assessing School Buildings.
Nair, Prakash; Chin-Santos, Nadine
School Planning and Management; v39 n12 , p59-61 ; Dec 2000
Discusses the methodology and benefits of the Building Condition Assessment Survey (BCAS) approach for evaluating school building conditions for long-range capital planning. The level of survey detail needed and its scope are examined as is BCAS preplanning tips.

Making Your Case. Facilities Upgrade and Retrofit.
Rabenaldt, Carl
American School and University; v72 n11 , p20,22,24 ; Jul 2000
Explains how a comprehensive analysis of school facilities' needs can help persuade decision makers to support budget requests. Steps discussed include establishing repair costs, measuring building conditions, forecasting future costs, determining the long-term budget, and communicating consequences.

They've Seen Fire and They've Seen Rain
Chandler, Kurt
Education FM; v1 n2 , p18,20-22 ; May 1998
Recounts what school district facilities managers did and what they learned from the flood and fire disaster in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Examines the taxing and complex cleanup effort, which required officials to scramble to locate sufficient architectural and construction crews to meet repair demands. Identifies unforeseen problems that leaders faced, such as toxic biological growth. Also describes the damage and repair expenses.

Braving the Elements: Protecting Schools Against Weather-Related Disasters
Breighner, Mary
School Business Affairs; v63 n4 , p37-42 ; Apr 1997
Discusses common weather-related hazards (floods, windstorms, and winter storms) and provides some steps administrators can take to protect their schools. Suggests administrators periodically assess their school's commitment to loss control, housekeeping, suitable building construction and reinforcement, sprinkler systems, water supply, emergency-response teams, regular inspections, building and equipment maintenance, and special-hazards-protection system.


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Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (hgreen@nibs.org, 202-289-7800).