ACCESSIBILITY IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY FACILITIES
Information compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities on how school and university buildings and grounds can accommodate students with disabilities, including references to federal requirements.
References to Books and Other Media
Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments
Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana
(Wiley, Apr 2012)
The new standard text on the topic, this introduces architects, designers of interiors, products, landscapes, and communities the principles and practice of designing for all people. Includes best practices and many examples. 408pTO ORDER: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470399139.html
Hazelwood School, Glasgow Scotland
(American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Jan 2012)
Description of the design of the award-winning Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland that serves the needs of autistic students with sight, hearing, mobility or cognitive impairments. Discusses the choice of materials, the parkland setting, and the safe, stimulating environment for students and staff. 4p
Accessible Building Design. [Whole Building Design Guide]
(National Institute of Building Sciences, 2011)
This section from the Whole Building Design Guide includes the following: History of Accessible Building Design; Milestones of Accessible Design Requirements; Definition and Goals of Accessible Design; Emerging Issues; Relevant Codes and Standards; and Major Resources.
DeafSpace Design Guidelines.
(HBHM Architecture, 2011)
Online catalogue of more than one hundred and fifty distinct DeafSpace architectural design elements that address five major intersections between deaf experience and the built environment: space and proximity, sensory reach, mobility and proximity, light and color, and, finally, acoustics.
Specifying Lockers to Meet 2010 ADA Standards [Online Course]
(Hanley Wood University, Jul 2010)
The “2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design” issued by the Department of Justice (DOJ) contain new provisions that directly impact design specifications and construction on school projects completed after March 15, 2012. Failure to comply with newly mandated minimums could generate problems not only for schools and school districts, but also raise liability issues regarding architect responsibility. This course covers critical changes in ADA guidelines, focusing on key aspects relating to schools, ADA students, locks and lockers. We’ll compare functionality, ease of use and features of ADA-compliant locks and non-compliant locks. We’ll look at value-added design advantages, cost issues and long-term operational flexibility factors for you to consider when you are specifying locker locks for your next project. Finally, we’ll detail new product options available to better serve students whose abilities fall within the ADA Standards.
The ADA Companion Guide: Understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA).
Rhoads, Marcela A.
(Wiley, Apr 2010)
Combines the complete Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), as published by the U.S. Access Board in the Federal Registry in 2004 and subsequently updated, with a chapter focused on the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA), which is specific to those dealing with federal buildings and facilities funded by the federal government. Includes the guidelines with explanations, commentary, and illustrations, offering easy-to-follow guidance on how to eliminate unnecessary architectural barriers for persons with disabilities. 400p.
Independent Charter Schools Accessibility Report.
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of the Independent Monitor, California , Feb 22, 2010)
None of the 29 Los Angeles Unified charter schools examined in this study met state and federal standards for making campuses accessible to disabled students, some lacked wheelchair-friendly bathrooms and walkways, and one contained no compliant features whatsoever. 5p.
References to Journal Articles
Designed for Access in the School Washroom
American School and University; , p32-38 ; Jul 2012
Schools can use up-to-date resources when planning accessible restroom facilities.
Complying With New Mandatory ADA Standards
School Construction News; Apr 25, 2012
All state and government construction projects will soon have to bring their projects up to compliance to meet the 2010 Standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act — a requirement that includes school exteriors like playgrounds, pools and outdoor signage. For projects that start on or after March 25, 2012 the 2010 ADA standards will apply automatically.
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
Part 1: ADA Excuses Won't Keep Facility Managers Out of Court; and Part 2: ADA Complaints: How Facility Managers Can Evaluate Their Risks.
Early Education Center Uses Child-Centered Design
School Construction News; Aug 17, 2011
Recommends that design of early childhood centers should emulate the principles of 21st century pedagogy: holistic, flexible, collaborative, contextual, and tailored to the individual’s specific needs.” For children under age six, learning should not be a task but an adventure of discovery, which should be mirrored in the facility design. Discusses accommodating diverse needs, such as language barriers or physical, mental, or emotional challenges, can be achieved by having more space allocated for each child, given the individualized instruction present in early childhood center curriculum.
Universal Design for Academic Facilities
Salmen, John P. S.
New Directions for Student Services; n134 , p13-20 ; Summer 2011
Focuses on the impact of universal design (UD) on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that accommodate all users regardless of their size, age, or physical capabilities, allowing them to flourish, learn, and unleash their true potential. Since one size does not necessarily fit all, the application of UD needs to be appropriate to the institution's scale, facility type, and program for it to be completely effective. Universal design accommodates not only people who use wheelchairs or are blind, but also older learners, parents with children, and nontraditional learners of all sorts. The effort to provide UD can also help institutions comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other state and local accessibility regulations. This explains the differences between accessibility and UD and discusses methods of accommodation and areas of opportunity for UD on campuses.
The Secrets Behind Successful Braille Signage.
Facility Management Journal; v21 n3 , p18-20,22 ; May-Jun 2011
Offers detailed advice and suggestions for including Braille signage in schools, including choice of vendors and quality of materials to be used.
Are You Accessible?
Recreation Management; v12 n1 , p28-32 ; Jan 2011
Reviews 2010 additions to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that cover recreational facilities. The types of disabilities that recreation planners need to plan and design for, are discussed, as are typical changes needed for swimming pools, playing fields, and other specific areas. Cost effective changes and examples of recreation facilities that are already in compliance are included.
A Simple Guide to Detectable Warning Systems.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p18-21 ; May-Jun 2010
Discusses the placement of warning strips where pedestrian and vehicular pathways blend without a curb. The history of Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for these warning is briefly reviewed, and concrete-embedded, surface-applied, flexible mat solutions are addressed. Particulars of installation and prevention of trip hazards are also discussed.
An Automatic Solution for Door Closing Force/ADA Conflicts.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the use of automatic door operators when standards for closing force and standards for openability cannot be resolved. Conflicts between ANSI, ADA, and Fire safety codes are discussed, as are varying state requirements.
The Perspective of Children and Youth: How Different Stakeholders Identify Architectural Barriers for Inclusion in Schools.
Pivik, Jayne Renee
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v30 , 8p. ; Feb 2010
Recent inclusive policies are promoting the involvement of individuals with disabilities in identifying barriers that limit their full participation and inclusion in public spaces. The present two studies explored the contributions provided by different stakeholder groups in the identification of architectural barriers in elementary and secondary schools. In each school, the principal, special education resource teacher and a student independently identified architectural barriers using an observational walkthrough method. The first study consisted of 29 schools where the student evaluator had a physical disability and the second study consisted of 22 schools where the student evaluator did not have a disability. The results of both studies showed that students identified the greatest number of barriers and principals the least. The type and location of identified barriers are explored and the conclusions are examined in relation to person-environment congruence. The results highlight the efficacy of youth involvement and provide support for collaborative assessments that equitably involve all stakeholders in inclusive environmental assessments. [Author's abstract]
Increasing Door Accessibility: Balancing Form, Function, and Compliance.
Construction Specifier; v62 n11 , p70-77 ; Nov 2009
Addresses accessible doors in the context of retrofit and new construction. Particular attention is paid to aesthetics and architectural integrity. Topics covered include high/low switches, vertical actuation bars, and custom bollards
Pushing ADA Beyond the Limits.
University Business; v12 n10 , p50-52,54 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses the superiority of universal design concepts over accessibility upgrades and retrofits on higher education campuses. The low cost of thoughtful universal design in renovations is addressed, a variety of innovative universal design features implemented at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater are described.
Multi-Use Computer Classrooms.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , pF8-F11 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the connection between computer classroom furniture selection and universal design, emphasizing flexibility, ease of reconfiguration, flip-up computers, laptop safes, and selecting a collaborative partner to help select furnishings.
Recreation Management; v10 n10 , p36-39 ; Oct 2009
Describes a variety of playgrounds with accessibility features. Some focus on accommodating the disabled only, while others on accessibility for users of all abilities. Surface playgrounds and swimming pool design are addressed.
Does Your Hospital or School Comply with ADA Sign Regulations?
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p22-24 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Advises on signage requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act. These cover width-to-height ratios of lettering, character spacing, mounting locations and heights, Braille and pictorial symbols, finishes, and contrast.
American School and University; v81 n11 , p28-31 ; Jun 2009
Provides graphic design guidelines for accessible school restrooms, emphasizing mounting heights, clearances, and charts listing appropriate specifications for the various age groups.
Seizing an Opportunity: Creating ADA-Compliant, Attractive Signage.
College Planning and Management; v12 n5 , p37-39 ; May 2009
Discusses signage strategies for campuses, with particular attention to ADA compliance and easy wayfinding for all. Exploring the campus for decision points, creating consistent signage at each point, and consolidating all information into a signage manual are recommended.
Does Place Really Matter to Students with Learning Disabilities? A Study of Three University Campuses.
Open House International; v34 n1 , p75-81 ; Mar 2009
Examines the role of "place" as a component of academic success for those students with learning disabilities (LD). Methodology included both literature review and the development of a case study analysis of three post-secondary institutions in the United States. The conclusion of the research reveals three specific components of the physical environment that hold an increased value for a student with LD. These are wayfinding, formal learning spaces, and disability services spaces. The key to integrating a sense of place with the needs of students with LD is moving beyond meeting the minimum standards of the legal mandates and bridging the principles of universal design to the built environment.
Access for All.
Corning, Bob; Edden, Anne; Bhamra, Shirin
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p28-30 ; Jan 2009
Discusses universal design issues for schools, addressing entrances, laboratories, restrooms, playgrounds, site slope, and cohesion of design.
Designing the Least Restrictive School Environment.
Hutchings, Lynn; Olsen, Richard
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p14-16 ; 2009
Reports on university research regarding the creation of the most inclusive environment possible for students with disabilities. Conclusions include 1)Designs should foster social interaction and eliminate stigma and segregation. 2) Redundant cuing assists with wayfinding. 3) Create easily accessible storage for mobility equipment. 4) Organize hall traffic so that it runs smoothly, without crowding. 5) Include laboratory space where the developmentally challenged can practice functioning in public and private spaces. 6) Create flexible and versatile classrooms.
Universal Design: It's for Everyone.
College Planning and Management; v12 n1 , p15-17 ; Jan 2009
Discusses universal design at higher education institutions, highlighting the accomplishments of Pennsylvania's Edinboro University. Extensive ramping, special testing facilities for ADHD students, online courses, and handicap-accommodating dormitories are featured.