NCEF Resource List: Accessibility in School and University Facilities
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Information compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities on how school and university buildings and grounds can accommodate students with disabilities, including references to federal requirements.

References to Books and Other Media

Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments
Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana
(Wiley, Apr 2012)
The new standard text on the topic, this introduces architects, designers of interiors, products, landscapes, and communities the principles and practice of designing for all people. Includes best practices and many examples. 408p

Hazelwood School, Glasgow Scotland Adobe PDF
Dunlop, Alan
(American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Jan 2012)
Description of the design of the award-winning Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland that serves the needs of autistic students with sight, hearing, mobility or cognitive impairments. Discusses the choice of materials, the parkland setting, and the safe, stimulating environment for students and staff. 4p

Accessible Building Design. [Whole Building Design Guide]
(National Institute of Building Sciences, 2011)
This section from the Whole Building Design Guide includes the following: History of Accessible Building Design; Milestones of Accessible Design Requirements; Definition and Goals of Accessible Design; Emerging Issues; Relevant Codes and Standards; and Major Resources.

DeafSpace Design Guidelines.
(HBHM Architecture, 2011)
Online catalogue of more than one hundred and fifty distinct DeafSpace architectural design elements that address five major intersections between deaf experience and the built environment: space and proximity, sensory reach, mobility and proximity, light and color, and, finally, acoustics.

Specifying Lockers to Meet 2010 ADA Standards [Online Course]
(Hanley Wood University, Jul 2010)
The “2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design” issued by the Department of Justice (DOJ) contain new provisions that directly impact design specifications and construction on school projects completed after March 15, 2012. Failure to comply with newly mandated minimums could generate problems not only for schools and school districts, but also raise liability issues regarding architect responsibility. This course covers critical changes in ADA guidelines, focusing on key aspects relating to schools, ADA students, locks and lockers. We’ll compare functionality, ease of use and features of ADA-compliant locks and non-compliant locks. We’ll look at value-added design advantages, cost issues and long-term operational flexibility factors for you to consider when you are specifying locker locks for your next project. Finally, we’ll detail new product options available to better serve students whose abilities fall within the ADA Standards.

The ADA Companion Guide: Understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA).
Rhoads, Marcela A.
(Wiley, Apr 2010)
Combines the complete Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), as published by the U.S. Access Board in the Federal Registry in 2004 and subsequently updated, with a chapter focused on the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA), which is specific to those dealing with federal buildings and facilities funded by the federal government. Includes the guidelines with explanations, commentary, and illustrations, offering easy-to-follow guidance on how to eliminate unnecessary architectural barriers for persons with disabilities. 400p.

Independent Charter Schools Accessibility Report. Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of the Independent Monitor, California , Feb 22, 2010)
None of the 29 Los Angeles Unified charter schools examined in this study met state and federal standards for making campuses accessible to disabled students, some lacked wheelchair-friendly bathrooms and walkways, and one contained no compliant features whatsoever. 5p.

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Prepared in response to the June 2007 General Accountability Office report, "Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance" (GAO-07-609), this NCEF report reviews current practices in school building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs for the disabled. The report provides two recommendations: (1) School emergency management plans should include procedures and training for evacuating special needs and disabled students in a variety of emergencies and building conditions and by a variety of routes; (2) Schools should continue to work with emergency planners and building designers to ensure that facilities are equipped to shelter a range of individuals with special needs. 4p.

A School for Everyone: School Design to Support the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark , 2008)
Investigates the impact of school and classroom physical environments on the inclusion of students with disabilities. Researchers analyzed the physical environments of six inclusive schools in three school districts in the state of New Jersey. Half of these schools were newly constructed facilities, built within the past three years, and half were existing schools within the same districts. The findings showed that newer school buildings, designed to be accessible and barrier-free, were generally more supportive of the inclusion of students with physical disabilities. However, for students with intellectual and autism spectrum disorders, other design features had a major impact. Buildings that were predictable, consistent and orderly had a calming effect on students with sensory and behavioral issues and helped them to focus on their work. The ability to reduce environmental stimuli also had a positive impact on students' ability to focus. Classrooms that were configured to allow several activities to happen simultaneously and supported working groups of various sizes, increased teachers' flexibility and promoted interdependence among students. It was also found that many of the small scale environmental modifications that enabled students with disabilities to participate in inclusive educational environments also improved the environment for students who were not classified as having special needs. 25p.

Determination of the District's Progress Toward Meeting It's Obligations Under Section 10.Facilities, of the Modified Consent Decree, 2006-2007 School Year.
(Office of the Independent Monitor, Los Angeles, CA , May 29, 2007)
Reports on the Los Angeles Unified School District's progress in complying with a consent decree to improve accessibility of its schools to those with disabilities. The web site for this report includes the memorandum of the Independent Monitor, the consultants report, an accessibility compliance tracking log listing all the District's facilities, and 15 site surveys at specific LAUSD facilities. The report main conclusions are that the District's tracking is considerably inaccurate, expenditures are misrepresented, and that widespread disregard of federal and state accessibility standards exists for new and renovated schools. 534p.

Play Area Accessibility Online Training
(U. S. Access Board, 2007)
Offers web-based instruction on the Access Board’s accessibility guidelines for play areas. The interactive program explains how to apply and follow the guidelines for proper access. It covers the scope and application of the guidelines, including the number of play components required to be accessible, and technical provisions for accessible play equipment, surfacing in play areas, ramp and transfer system access to elevated structures, and access to soft contained play structures. The course covers all sections of the guidelines and provides multiple choice exams for each segment of the program.

Working with Students with Disabilities in a Disaster.
Daylin, Chris; Vincent, Ray; Ybarra, William
(Los Angeles County Office of Education, California , 2006)
Advises on the accommodation of the disabled during a disaster, covering levels and types of disabilities, special equipment and supplies to have on hand for the disabled, and procedures for working with individuals impaired in hearing, vision, learning, and mobility, as well as their service animals. Advice on evacuation planning, psychological symptoms, stress factors, and communication is included. 45p.

Accessible Play Areas: A Summary of Accessibility Guidelines for Play Areas. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Access Board, Washington, DC , Oct 2005)
Assists designers and operators in using federal accessibility guidelines for play areas by establishing minimum accessibility requirements for newly constructed and altered play areas. It provides specifications for elements within a play area to create a general level of usability for children with disabilities. Emphasis is placed on ensuring that children with disabilities are generally able to access the diversity of components provided in a play area, with consideration to layout, circulation paths, and the selection of play components. The guidelines also address the balance of costs, safety, and accessibility. 40p.

Long Range Facilities Planning and Design Implementation for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for New Jersey School Districts. Adobe PDF
Lowenkron, Ruth; Ponessa, Joan
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Sep 2005)
Offers guidance to assist with inclusion of universal design in long range educational facilities plans. The guidelines recommend the assembling of a facilities advisory board and an inclusion planning board to network with experts in inclusive education. These boards should be familiar with the federal requirements for accommodation of disabled persons, the condition and accessibility of existing facilities, and should develop facility and adjacency guidelines for the district. They should be equipped with demographic data including enrollment projections and the location and distribution of special needs students, which they should synthesize and communicate to appropriate personnel. Summary guidelines for the inclusion of disabled students are included, organized by type of disability. 15p.

Building Bulletin 77: Designing for Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities in Schools, Revised and updated 2005. Adobe PDF
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2005)
Provides building design guidance for accommodation of special needs pupils in British schools. The individual parts of the document describe the key issues which designers need to understand when commencing a project, outline the legal framework and educational context; provides information about the main categories of special educational need and describes the ways in which provision can be made to meet them; covers how local educational authority strategic planning will assist in the decision-making and briefing processes to meet local needs; provides guidance emphasizing the need to design accommodation which enhances pupils access to a broad, balanced and relevant curriculum that is also age-appropriate at each phase of education in all schools; gives practical and technical advice to assist in achieving best value; and advises on project-planning, with typical model schedules for different types of special school. 291p.

Access to Libraries for Persons with Disabilities: Checklist. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 89 Adobe PDF
Irvall, Birgitta; Nielsen, Gyda Skat
(International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2005)
In many countries all over the world, access for patrons with disabilities to use libraries is not yet available or even expected. In order to provide equal opportunities for all library users, it is necessary to look with the eyes of these patron groups at the physical condition of library buildings, as well as library services and programs. This checklist--developed by the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Standing Committee of Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP)--is designed as a practical tool for all types of libraries (public, academic, school, special) to (1) assess existing levels of accessibility to buildings, services, materials and programs and to (2) enhance accessibility where needed. Accessibility needs of library staff are beyond the scope of this document. A list of related resources and useful web sites in English is also included. 18p.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines Preamble and Text of Final Rule. Adobe PDF
(United States Access Board, Washington , Jul 23, 2004)
Provides specifications for various building elements and spaces, including entrances, ramps, parking, restrooms, and telephones, etc. This edition represents the culmination of a decade-long review and update of the Board's Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), which were first published in 1991. Revisions have been made so that the guidelines continue to meet the needs of people with disabilities and keep pace with technological innovations. As part of this update, the Board made the Guidelines more consistent with building codes and industry standards. It coordinated extensively with model code groups and standard-setting bodies throughout the process to reconcile differences. These guidelines serve as the baseline for standards used to enforce the ADA and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA). 310p.
Report NO: 36 CFR 1190-1191

Creating Inclusive Child Care Facilities.
Young, Leslie
(Easter Seals, Inc., Chicago, IL , May 2003)
Provides information and strategies to help ensure that child care facilities are welcoming and usable for everyone possible, covering principles of universal design, ideas to incorporate into existing and future facilities, review points for assessing the universal design features of a child care center, an overview of disability types and design tips for accommodating each group's needs, and resources for additional information. 92p.

Developing Accessible Play Space: A Good Practice Guide. Adobe PDF
(Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, London, United Kingdom , 2003)
Presents practical solutions to creating accessible playgrounds, often with ease and at low cost. Examples are based on existing good practice and consultation with disabled children, their parents and caregivers, equipment manufacturers, and government officials. Chapters are arranged according to the way the process typically proceeds: Understanding the Issues, Getting Started, Consulting and Engaging with Disabled Children and their Families, Inclusion by Design, and Moving Forward. 71p.

Report of the Feasibility Study for Consolidating the State's Two Schools for the Deaf, Blind, and Multidisabled.
(Commonwealth of Virginia, Richmond , 2003)
Presents the plan to build a new state-of-the-art school to replace the two Virginia Schools for the Deaf and the Blind. The report addresses the educational program, the proposed mission of the new school, and an architectural program. The resulting architectural program specifies the spaces needed for the program. The completed campus will accommodate 300 deaf, blind, and multi-disabled students with sensory impairment in the classrooms and dormitory settings. The needed staff and additional program components such as expanded support services, parent resource center, professional development center, and outreach services are also planned for in the campus design. 69p.

Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab.
Burgstahler, Sheryl
(University of Washington, Seattle , Jan 2003)
Briefly addresses accessibility issues in school computer laboratories, emphasizing accommodation of sensory impairments in web pages, software, and audio-visual presentations. Includes 12 references. 4p.

Access for Everyone: A Guide to Accessibility with References to ADAAG.
Osterberg, Arvid E.; Kain, Donna J.
(Iowa State University, Facilities Planning and Management, and The Department of Architecture, College of Design, Ames , Nov 2002)
Presents extensive accessibility design and dimension information, with references to the American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). Additional recommendations based on universal design are included that go beyond ADAAG. The book is organized in sections covering amenities, accessibility and safety technology, specific use areas, and building type. It can be used to evaluate plans, buildings, and sites to determine accessibility. It will help readers 1)understand the design needs of all people,including people with disabilities; 2) identify features of buildings and sites that need to be analyzed for accessibility; 3) decide what actions need to be taken to ensure accessibility; and 4) make new and existing buildings and sites accessible to all people. 512p.
TO ORDER: Iowa State University Book Store, Memorial Union, Ames, IA, 50011-1131, Toll free: 1-800-478-0048

The ADA and Public Schools: Access for All [Video]
(ADA National Access for Public Schools Project, Boston, MA , 2002)
This is an 18:46 minute video that provides an overview of Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for public schools. The video addresses the following: 1) relation of ADA to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; 2) ADA's administrative requirements (ADA coordinator, self-evaluation, transition plan, etc.); 3) definition of disability; 4)general nondiscrimination requirements; 5)employment; 6) program and facility accessibility; and 7) effective communication. The video is accompanied by five 6-10 page Briefing Sheets on Administrative Requirements, Program Accessibility, Effective Communication, Employment and Nondiscrimination Requirements.

The Garrett Case and Public School Accessibility. Adobe PDF
Ansley, James
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC. , Dec 2001)
This publication presents an assessment of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett (2001), which decided that Congress had no power to authorize suits for damages by individuals with disabilities against state employers under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The publication reveals the decisions leading to Garrett, examines the court's reasoning behind the decision, offers the dissenting view, and explores the ruling's implications for public education. A glossary of legal terms is also provided. (Contains nine references). 6p.

Planning and Designing for Students with Disabilities. Adobe PDF
Abend, Allen C.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jun 2001)
This report presents the laws, regulations, and design requirements needed for educational facilities to meet the challenge of educating students with disabilities. A list of planning and design principles to be considered when building or renovating school facilities is offered that includes creating versatile classroom spaces, minimizing travel distances, integrating general and special education programs, fostering parental involvement, maintaining student dignity, and providing the least restrictive environment for disabled students. Final comments address future design and planning challenges involving outdoor play areas, natural environment study areas, classroom acoustics, building security, classroom design, and indoor air quality. 6p.

Access to Play Areas.
(National Center on Accessibility, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN , 2001)
This publication is designed to assist park and recreation professionals, designers, and consumers in creating inclusive play environments for children with and without disabilities. Includes frequently asked questions and answers.

Universal Design of Instruction.
Burgstahler, Sheryl
(University of Washington, Seattle, WA , 2001)
This brief discusses how faculty can use principles of universal design to maximize the learning of all college students, including students with disabilities. Principles of universal design are first explained, including: equitable use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive use, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, and size and space for approach and use. The brief then lists examples of instructional methods that employ principles of universal design and make course content and activities accessible to people with a wide range of abilities: (1) inclusiveness, which creates a classroom environment that respects and values diversity; (2) physical access, which assures that classrooms, labs, and field work are accessible to individuals with a wide range of physical abilities and disabilities; (3) delivery methods and alternate delivery methods, which includes lecture, discussion, hands-on activities, Internet-based interaction, and field work; (4) information access, which uses captioned videotapes; (5) interaction, which encourages different ways for students to interact with each other and faculty; (6) feedback, which provides effective prompting during an activity and feedback after the assignment is complete; and (7) demonstration of knowledge, which provides multiple ways for students to demonstrate knowledge. A list of 17 resources on universal design is provided. 6p.

Inclusive School Design: Accommodating Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities in Mainstream Schools. Building Bulletin 94. Adobe PDF
Hrekow, Mary; Clark, Helen, Gathorne-Hardy, Flora
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 2001)
This bulletin discusses how to accommodate pupils with special educational needs and disabilities in mainstream schools; presents issues concerning physical access; and addresses how to meet the design needs of pupils with sensory, learning, and emotional and behavioral difficulties. Practical recommendations are included along with five case studies that demonstrate how becoming more inclusive can bring benefits to the lives of all pupils who study, rest, and play in mainstream schools. Different forms of practical provision, from whole school issues to the detail of furnishings, equipment, and auxiliary aids, are also examined. 101p.

Integrating Public Schools Through Universal Design. Adobe PDF
Weisman, Leslie Kanes
(Lecture presented at the Chicago Public Schools Design Competition , Nov 12, 2000)
This paper explains what universal design is and what it is not. Although the term universal design suggests a "one size fits all" approach to designing, quite the opposite is true. Universal designers strive to create aesthetically beautiful and environmentally sensitive buildings, places and products that are equally comfortable, accessible, and suitable for a wide spectrum of diverse people. The paper offers seven principles for universal design: (1) Equitable use: The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities; (2) Flexibility in use: The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities; (3) Simple and intuitive use: Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level; (4) Perceptible information; (5) Tolerance for error: The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions; (6) Low physical effort; and (7) Size and space for approach and use: Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. 9p.

U.S. Access Board, Play Area Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Access Board, Washington, DC , Oct 18, 2000)
The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has issued guidelines to serve as the basis for enforceable standards to be adopted by the Department of Justice for new construction and alterations of play areas covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The guidelines include scoping and technical provisions for ground level and elevated play components, accessible routes, ramps and transfer systems, ground surfaces, and soft contained play structures. Included is an amendment, dated November 20, 2000, which clarifies a potential "double-counting" problem involving the minimum number of ground and elevated level play components that must be located on an accessible route. Also included are tables of equipment and ground surface costs, typical maintenance frequencies and costs, and the number of small entities affected by the guidelines. 33p.

Final Accessibility Guidelines for Play Areas: Economic Assessment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Access Board, Washington, DC , Oct 2000)
Discusses and quantifies costs and benefits of the final accessibility guidelines for play areas issued by the Access Board. The guidelines are intended to provide minimum accessibility requirements for play areas designed for children ages two and over. The guidelines will affect children with disabilities, their parents, and owners and operators of play areas. The guidelines apply only to newly designed and newly constructed play areas and existing play areas that are altered. All newly designed, constructed and altered play areas must comply with the guidelines. 54p.

Creating Accessible Schools. Adobe PDF
Ansley, James
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jun 2000)
This publication examines the issues surrounding federal mandates to accommodate students with disabilities, including the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of Title V of the Rehabilitation Act, and advisory guidelines from the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. Addresses the vagaries of accessibility laws and the need for careful reflection when planning new or renovating old facilities. 14p.

Accessible Design Handbook
Callahan, Roselyn
(Race Point Press, Provincetown, MA, 2000)
With easy to read instructions and illustrations, this book makes the process of maintaining accessible facilities readily achievable. It is divided into four sections: Guidelines, Definitions & Diagrams, Checklists, and ADA & ADAAG. The first section includes instructions for maintaining accessibility in areas such as entrances, lobbies, corridors, assembly rooms, and cafeterias. With the checklists in hand, the person responsible for ADA compliance can easily and accurately assess the facility's accessibilty and make notes of any areas in need of modification. 246p.
TO ORDER: Race Point Press, PO Box 770, Provincetown, MA 02657; Tel:(508)487-1626

ADAAG Manual: A Guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines Adobe PDF
The Access Board
(Washington, DC; USGPO , Jul 1999)
The Access Board of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has issued this guide to assist in the use of its American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG). It explains some of the basic considerations for accessible design and clarifies specific ADAAG provisions. Advisory information is provided in the form of recommendations that are optional and go beyond the minimum required by ADAAG. Information is categorized under the main areas of scoping and technical requirements for specific building areas such as toilet facilities, curb ramps, entrances, and elevators; and special occupancies covering dining facilities, medical facilities, libraries, and accessible transient lodging. Diagrams, layouts, and other illustrations are contained throughout the guide. 143p.

Accessible School Facilities: a Resource for Planning Adobe PDF
(Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training , 1999)
Intended as a tool to help school districts plan accessible schools. Provides a listing from research and best practice of those factors which improve the accessibility for students with special needs, including parking, doors, ramps, drinking fountains, staff areas, workrooms, gymnasiums, auditorium, cafeteria, and recreational spaces. Other issues covered include room size and shape, sound features, health considerations, records storage, and specialized rooms. 22p.

Century High School: Better Than Accessible. [Videotape]
(Century High School, Rochester, MN , 1999)
This 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. Rooms and amenities detailed include accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science labs, and toilets.
TO ORDER: Century High School, 2525 Viola Rd., NE, Rochester, MN 55906; Tel: 507-287-7150

The Accessible School Universal Design for Educational Settings.
Bar, Laurel; Galluzzo, Judith
(MIG Communications, Berkeley, CA. , 1999)
This book provides practical reasons for the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for accessibility of school sites, buildings, and educational rooms as well as clear illustrations to aid in the explanation of the guidelines. It addresses practical matters such as safety and cost-effectiveness while increasing sensitivity to different levels of physical ability, locomotion, sensory awareness, and intellectual ability. Specific topics involving ADA guidelines include space allowances, reach ranges for wheelchair users, vehicle and pedestrian access, safety in outdoor play and learning environments, emergency systems, restrooms, and drinking fountains. Besides standard classrooms, room accessibility guidelines also cover art and music rooms, home economics rooms, science labs, greenhouses and gardens, assembly areas, gymnasiums, cafeterias, and libraries and media centers. 73p.
TO ORDER: MIG Communications, 800 Hearst Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710; Tel: 510-845-7549

Designing For All Children.
Stoecklin, Vicki
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 1999)
This paper examines four key elements in the designing-for-all-children concept for school environments. Designing-for-all-children designs acknowledge that children pass through differing, yet recognizable, stages of development; and that children need usable environments free from physical and social barriers. Key elements address equitable use, safety, and flexibility; and includes a description of the multi-disciplinary, cross-functional team used for design development. 4p.

Access for Disabled People to School Buildings: Management and Design Guide. Adobe PDF
Wood, Sue
(Department for Education and Employment (DfEE), Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1999)
This bulletin provides technical advice for building designers to augment the provisions of the Building Regulations for English schools. It summarizes the provisions within the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, addresses the process of the audit and the purpose and structure of the report created from it, explores meeting Construction Standards criteria and the building management issues involved, and considers requirements for safety, security, and accessibility. 55p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 91

Exceptional Children Facilities Planner; Sample Plans, Accessibility Guidelines
(North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh Division of School Support, School Planning, Raleigh, NC , Jun 1998)
This publication provides guidelines for designing facilities that support inclusionary programs from kindergarten through high school. Facility planning guidelines for instructional services are provided for: autism; behaviorally-emotionally disabled; deaf-blind, multi-handicapped, and severely/profoundly handicapped; hearing impaired; mentally disabled; specific learning disabled; speech-language impaired; and visually impaired. Each area provides a program description followed by guidelines on space requirements, furnishings and equipment. Appendixes list the classifications of exceptionality, adapted services, accessibility guidelines, sample floor plans for self-contained exceptional children facilities, and guidelines for seclusion or isolation time-out areas. (Contains 10 references.) 51p.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities: Building Elements Designed for Children's Use; Final Rule. Adobe PDF
(Architectural and Transportation Compliance Board, Washington, DC , Jan 1998)
Provides final guidelines to provide additional guidance to the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation in establishing alternate specifications for building elements designed for use by children. These specifications are based on children's dimensions and anthropometrics and apply to building elements designed specifically for use by children ages 12 and younger. This rule ensures that newly constructed and altered facilities covered by titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 are readily accessible to and usable by children with disabilities. 33p.
Report NO: 36 CFR Part 1191

Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)
(U.S. Access Board, Washington DC , 1998)
This report contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to buildings and facilities by individuals with disabilities under the ADA. These requirements are intended to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities covered by titles II and II of the ADA. It further contains the amendments to the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for State and local government facilities and building elements designed for children's use. The amendments add new sections that cover access to judicial, legislative, and regulatory facilities and to detention and correctional facilities, and provide alternate specifications based on children's dimensions for various building elements such as water closets and lavatories. 217p.

Commonly Asked Questions About Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act.
(U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, DC , Oct 1997)
Presents 30 questions and answers that address the Act's coverage, requirements, communication with parents, types of disabilities, administering of personal services to children, making the facility accessible, tax provisions, legal issues, and additional resources. 13p.

Regulatory Negotiation Committee on Accessibility Guidelines for Play Facilities. Final Report. Adobe PDF
(Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC , Jul 1997)
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board is responsible for developing accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, including play facilities. This report provides a section-by-section analysis of the proposed guidelines, and exceptions, for play areas. Guidelines include ground and elevated level play components; accessible routes; clear width and height; ramps, handrails, and transfer systems; maneuvering space; reach ranges; accessible surfaces; and soft-contained play structures. Definitions of play area terms conclude the report. 20p.

Common ADA Errors and Omissions in New Construction and Alterations.
(U.S. Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, Washington, DC , Jun 1997)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 includes a provision requiring that new construction and alterations to existing facilities comply with the ADA Standards for Accessible Design. This report explains 23 common accessibility errors or omissions that the Department of Justice has identified during the course of its enforcement efforts. Each error/omission addresses the specific point of failure, the probable result of the error, and the ADA requirement that has been violated. Also, the text includes references to figures found in the Standards for Accessible Design. Topics cover concerns such as parking specifications, stairs and doors, bathroom accessibility, drinking fountains, and lodging accommodations.

Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act: A Self Evaluation Guide for Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Washington, DC , 1996)
This guide is intended to serve as a resource to assist school districts in conducting their self-evaluations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Chapter Six describes the program accessibility requirements of Title II and highlights major similarities and differences between the program accessibility requirements of Section 504 and Title II. The chapter clarifies requirements for accessibility both in existing facilities and in new construction. It discusses and illustrates options for making programs accessible, addressing both administrative and architectural solutions. In addition, it clarifies relevant regulatory provisions related to leased space and historic properties. Worksheets structure the review process by providing forms for use in conducting the building inventory and noting inaccessible features, developing nonstructural solutions to providing access, and identifying the architectural features that must be addressed in the transition plan. 295p.

Accessible and Safe Playgrounds Into Every Town, U.S.A. Adobe PDF
Kienitz, E. Malle; Kent, Robert L.
( American Society of Landscape Architects, Annual Meeting Proceedings , 1996)
Landscape architects, playground manufacturers, and the federal government have all developed guidelines for accessible, safe play landscapes. This paper examines the difficulties in meeting these guidelines due to two main obstacles: ignorance of access needs and the perception that accessibility is expensive. It suggests that landscape architects have the skills to design access at a reasonable cost because they can evaluate sites for their potential advantages and drawbacks. The paper argues for playground layouts that allow handicapped and able-bodied children to play together. Concluding comments briefly address the needs for other playground components that include water, shade, and areas for supervising adults. Line drawings of two playground design concepts are included. (Contains 16 references and 7 notes.) p.136-140

Grounds for Sharing: A Guide To Developing Special School Sites. Adobe PDF
Stoneham, Jane
(Learning Through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
The Learning through Landscape Trust conducted research on the design and management of school grounds for children with special needs and has produced this guidebook detailing what research shows about ensuring that the school grounds benefit these students. It provides advice and information on developing school grounds that are long-term and sustainable, that help maximize and encourage abilities and overcome children's particular challenges, and involve children with diverse needs with their adult carers wherever possible. The outline of the research and its findings are provided followed by information on the school ground planning process; accessibility design of school grounds; landscaping design; animals that can be included, horticultural issues; and planning issues for enhancing social use, sensory experience, and physical activities. Concluding sections present nine case studies and resources for guidance in fundraising; and information on special needs, outdoor design, use and management, and help for construction and management work. 88p.
Report NO: 141

The Assessment of Physical and Program Accessibility for Students with Physical (Mobility) Disabilities. Adobe PDF
Peterson, Deana R.
(Paper presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, Indianapolis, IN, Apr 1995)
A checklist and instructions for evaluating the level of accessibility to school buildings, grounds, curricula, technology, and extracurricular activities for students with physical disabilities. Legislative mandates are reviewed, and the development and field testing of the checklist are discussed. The physical accessibility portion of the checklist includes routes, parking and loading zones, stairs, elevators, drinking fountains, bathrooms, telephones, libraries, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Curricular accessibility covers provision of music, physical education, and cultural arts; academic classrooms; adaptations in academic requirements and instructional materials; and instructional adaptations, including audiovisual aids and computer simulations. Access to extracurricular activities includes counseling and health services, recreational activities, transportation, and groups or clubs. 67

School Facilities: Accessibility for the Disabled Still an Issue.
(U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , 1995)
GAO found that: (1) while schools receiving federal financial assistance have been required to be accessible to the disabled since 1970, schools' accessibility to the disabled has not been comprehensively evaluated; (2) the Americans with Disabilities Act has further highlighted the need to improve schools' accessibility; (3) while over half of the schools nationwide have spent a total of $1.5 billion in the last 3 years to improve accessibility, about 20 percent of schools reported that such spending is not needed; (4) 56 percent of schools estimated that they would need an additional $5.2 billion for accessibility in the next 3 years; and (5) school districts are not required by law to make each facility fully accessible to the disabled, as funding may not be available to make necessary improvements. 37p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-96-73

ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, DC , Jul 1994)
Sets federal standards for accessibility to places of public accommodation and commercial facilities by individuals with disabilities. The guidelines are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of such buildings and facilities to the extent required by regulations issued by federal agencies, including the Department of Justice, under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The standards are to be considered in conjunction with the Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), found at 102p.

Universal Playground Design. Adobe PDF
Ensign, Arselia, Ed.
(PAM Assistance Centre, Lansing, MI , 1993)
This publication presents principles of universal playgrounds, designed to maximize accessibility for all children. First, the rationale for the universal playground is given. Next, current guidelines for playground design are discussed including safety, accessibility, developmental issues, social/emotional development, intellectual development, sensory development, perceptual-motor development, physical development, and age factors. Playground adaptations to improve accessibility are considered for site development, parking and curbs, walkways, and surface treatments. Playground layout is then considered in some detail including standards for equipment clearance, traffic patterns, practical aesthetics, maintenance, and possible equipment. Sample layouts, a planning survey form, a universal playground action plan checklist, and a list of 10 additional resources complete the publication.

Disabilities, Children, and Libraries: Mainstreaming Services in Public Libraries and School Library Media Centers.
Walling, Linda Lucas; Karrenbrock, Marilyn H.
(Libraries Unlimited, Inc., Englewood, CO , 1993)
Written for librarians and school library media specialists, this book is designed to foster awareness and encourage confidence in serving the needs of children with disabilities. It provides practical guidelines for recognizing and understanding many disabilities, including vision, hearing, and speech impairments; emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders; and disabilities affecting mobility and dexterity. Insights and solutions that will help librarians create mainstreamed environments for library users are offered. These include guidelines for selecting and adapting library materials and facilities and minimizing the effects of physical, societal, and environmental barriers in libraries. Separate discussions focus on planning, implementing and evaluating services and assistive technologies. Sources of materials, equipment, technology and other sources of information and assistance are provided, along with contact information.

How Libraries Must Comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Foos, Donald D., Comp.; Pack, Nancy C., Comp.
(Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ, 1992)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) directs public and private libraries--academic, public, school, and special--to provide services to people with disabilities that are equal to services provided to citizens without disabilities. Six chapters in this book provide information to help library administrators and staff to fully understand the applications of the law and its regulations as they relate to their respective library situations. 168p.
TO ORDER: Oryx Press, 4041 North Central at Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012-3397

Play for All Guidelines: Planning, Design, and Management of Outdoor Play Settings for All Children. Second Edition.
Moore, Robin C., Ed.; Goltsman, Susan M., Ed.; Iacofano, Daniel S., Ed.
(MIG Communications, Berkeley, CA. , 1992)
These guidelines assist professional designers, park and recreation managers, and community groups when making decisions about the planning, design, and ongoing management of children s public play environments. The guidelines are updated to meet or exceed the requirements of the Americans With Disabilities Act Guidelines (July 26, 1991) and the revised Consumer Product Safety Commission guidelines (1991). The first two of four parts cover site planning and design, and setting design and management. Part 3 examines the Play For All guidelines being used to help rebuild a public playground with emphasis on improving accessibility and providing amenities for all people. Finally, Part 4 provides an overview of play programming and management for integration of all children. 300p.
TO ORDER: MIG Communications, 800 Hearst Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710; Tel: 800-790-8444

Playground Design and Mainstreaming Issues: Beyond Ramps.
Esbensen, Steen B.
(Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Denver, CO , 1991)
This paper identifies issues confronting early childhood educators who want to integrate children with special needs with others, and the implications of such integration for the design of outdoor play settings. The paper focuses on the ambiguity involved when developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood education meets trends in playground design. It is emphasized that playground equipment needs to provide opportunities and challenges appropriate to the age and development of children. It is important to create an outdoor play setting abundant in: (1) aspects of nature; (2) furniture and shade that allow for creative and social experiences; (3) a variety of surface textures, materials, and loose parts for children to touch and manipulate; and (4) space that allows children to move around, interact with nature, socialize, and challenge their physical dexterity. 6p.

Removing the Barriers: Accessibility Guidelines and Specifications.
Cotler, Stephen R.
(APPA. Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1991)
Guidelines for meeting the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) Act in college and university buildings. The publication is divided into 10 chapters, the first 7 of which present construction drawings, evaluation criteria, and specifications for: (1) site accessibility (external path of travel, curbing, parking); (2) the building entrance; (3) doors, (4) interior circulation, (5) restrooms and bathing facilities, (6) drinking fountains and pay telephones, and (7) special spaces and equipment (such as dormitories, kitchens, dining halls, libraries). The eighth chapter provides guidance for facilities inventory and evaluation. Chapter 9 discusses other accessibility issues including cost effectiveness, communication, construction supervision, and program implementation. Chapter 10 lists additional resources. (Contains 59 references.) 136p.

Handbook on Design Guidelines for Easy Access to Educational Buildings by Physically Handicapped Persons. Adobe PDF
Reutersward, Lars
(Sweden Habitat, Lund, Sweden , 1990)
This handbook identifies design guidelines for creating equal access to schools and school facilities, with a focus on developing countries. The 1981 UNESCO guide, "Designing with Care--A Guide to Adaption of the Built Environment for Disabled Persons," serves as a model for the handbook. The design guidelines for the handbook pertain to moving, seeing, and hearing/speech difficulties. Following the introduction, the first section provides dimensional data for wheelchair users, people of varying physical statures, and people with visual impairments. The second section offers a series of illustrations that highlight basic physical requirements and identify potential problems. General design requirements are based on the principles of accessibility, reach, usability, orientation, safety, and workability. The third section provides design recommendations for infrastructurel facilities, building elements, specific areas, and classrooms. Sample building proposals from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Guyana, Swaziland, Haiti, and Ecuador are included in the fourth section. A review of literature concludes that there is a lack of information, access, awareness, building codes, and research and development in most countries. It is recommended that countries conduct needs assessment evaluations and set priorities for making schools more physically accessible. 134p.

Accessible Elementary Schools: A Renovation Planning and Design Manual. Adobe PDF
Allen, William; et al.
(Peoples Housing, Inc., Topanga, CA , 1981)
The manual is intended to help school districts comply with federal mandates for physical accessibility and least restrictive settings for handicapped elementary school children. A general introduction to the accessibility concept in chapter 1 considers the historical background, the role of the physical environment, and existing federal guidelines and regulations. Results of a survey of over 50 schools are reported in chapter 2, along with illustrations of 22 common problems (such as inadequate fire safety provisions, circulation hazards, unsafe stairs, limited access in libraries, inadequate furniture and cabinetry, and playgrounds not designed with disability in mind). Chapter 3 focuses on accessibility implementation, noting planning factors, problem identification, and cost estimating procedures. The fourth chapter presents technical information for the design of barrier free renovations, presenting solutions to problems posed in chapter 2. The final chapter presents case studies. 378p.

Mainstreaming the Handicapped: A Design Guide.
Cohen, Uriel; Beer, Jeffrey; Kidera, Elizabeth; Golden, Wendy
(University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, School of Architecture and Urban Planning , 1979)
Describes the range of strategies that have been developed to implement mainstreaming programs in public schools, then develops a guide for designers. Types of handicaps, their incidence and nature are explained. The report then presents a set of 18 design principles for the programing and design of environments for mainstreaming. 64p.
Report NO: R79-5


Housing for New Types of Students. Adobe PDF
Molloy, Larry; Moses, Vicki; Zachar, Sy
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jul 1977)
Examines the impact on student housing of the changing demographic pattern of college students which now includes more of the following constituencies: 1) women students and single women with children; 2) diverse adult students; 3) older students; 4) handicapped students; 5) part-time students; and 6) foreign students. Examples are given of how some colleges and universities have responded to the dual problem of filling academic and residential space and making themselves and their dormitories accessible to new types of students. Information sources are supplied for the programs described. 82p.

Arts and the Handicapped. An Issue of Access. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Nov 1975)
Focuses on the people and places now developing facility, planning, and program solutions that enable the handicapped to participate in the arts to their fullest potential. The appendixes contain resource material including partial lists of nature centers, trails, and fragrance gardens, and of agencies that are interested in removing architectural barriers to the handicapped and that have produced literature on the subject, and a selected bibliography on barrier-free design. 82p.

References to Journal Articles

Designed for Access in the School Washroom
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; , p32-38 ; Jul 2012
Schools can use up-to-date resources when planning accessible restroom facilities.

Complying With New Mandatory ADA Standards
School Construction News; Apr 25, 2012
All state and government construction projects will soon have to bring their projects up to compliance to meet the 2010 Standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act — a requirement that includes school exteriors like playgrounds, pools and outdoor signage. For projects that start on or after March 25, 2012 the 2010 ADA standards will apply automatically.

Close-Up: ADA
Stein, Joan
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
Part 1: ADA Excuses Won't Keep Facility Managers Out of Court; and Part 2: ADA Complaints: How Facility Managers Can Evaluate Their Risks.

Early Education Center Uses Child-Centered Design
School Construction News; Aug 17, 2011
Recommends that design of early childhood centers should emulate the principles of 21st century pedagogy: holistic, flexible, collaborative, contextual, and tailored to the individual’s specific needs.” For children under age six, learning should not be a task but an adventure of discovery, which should be mirrored in the facility design. Discusses accommodating diverse needs, such as language barriers or physical, mental, or emotional challenges, can be achieved by having more space allocated for each child, given the individualized instruction present in early childhood center curriculum.

Universal Design for Academic Facilities
Salmen, John P. S.
New Directions for Student Services; n134 , p13-20 ; Summer 2011
Focuses on the impact of universal design (UD) on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that accommodate all users regardless of their size, age, or physical capabilities, allowing them to flourish, learn, and unleash their true potential. Since one size does not necessarily fit all, the application of UD needs to be appropriate to the institution's scale, facility type, and program for it to be completely effective. Universal design accommodates not only people who use wheelchairs or are blind, but also older learners, parents with children, and nontraditional learners of all sorts. The effort to provide UD can also help institutions comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other state and local accessibility regulations. This explains the differences between accessibility and UD and discusses methods of accommodation and areas of opportunity for UD on campuses.

The Secrets Behind Successful Braille Signage.
Schneider, Danny
Facility Management Journal; v21 n3 , p18-20,22 ; May-Jun 2011
Offers detailed advice and suggestions for including Braille signage in schools, including choice of vendors and quality of materials to be used.

Are You Accessible?
Ahrweiler, Margaret
Recreation Management; v12 n1 , p28-32 ; Jan 2011
Reviews 2010 additions to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that cover recreational facilities. The types of disabilities that recreation planners need to plan and design for, are discussed, as are typical changes needed for swimming pools, playing fields, and other specific areas. Cost effective changes and examples of recreation facilities that are already in compliance are included.

A Simple Guide to Detectable Warning Systems.
Dodgen, Dan
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p18-21 ; May-Jun 2010
Discusses the placement of warning strips where pedestrian and vehicular pathways blend without a curb. The history of Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for these warning is briefly reviewed, and concrete-embedded, surface-applied, flexible mat solutions are addressed. Particulars of installation and prevention of trip hazards are also discussed.

An Automatic Solution for Door Closing Force/ADA Conflicts.
Barth, Chuck
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the use of automatic door operators when standards for closing force and standards for openability cannot be resolved. Conflicts between ANSI, ADA, and Fire safety codes are discussed, as are varying state requirements.

The Perspective of Children and Youth: How Different Stakeholders Identify Architectural Barriers for Inclusion in Schools.
Pivik, Jayne Renee
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v30 , 8p. ; Feb 2010
Recent inclusive policies are promoting the involvement of individuals with disabilities in identifying barriers that limit their full participation and inclusion in public spaces. The present two studies explored the contributions provided by different stakeholder groups in the identification of architectural barriers in elementary and secondary schools. In each school, the principal, special education resource teacher and a student independently identified architectural barriers using an observational walkthrough method. The first study consisted of 29 schools where the student evaluator had a physical disability and the second study consisted of 22 schools where the student evaluator did not have a disability. The results of both studies showed that students identified the greatest number of barriers and principals the least. The type and location of identified barriers are explored and the conclusions are examined in relation to person-environment congruence. The results highlight the efficacy of youth involvement and provide support for collaborative assessments that equitably involve all stakeholders in inclusive environmental assessments. [Author's abstract]

Increasing Door Accessibility: Balancing Form, Function, and Compliance.
Bedard, Lori
Construction Specifier; v62 n11 , p70-77 ; Nov 2009
Addresses accessible doors in the context of retrofit and new construction. Particular attention is paid to aesthetics and architectural integrity. Topics covered include high/low switches, vertical actuation bars, and custom bollards

Pushing ADA Beyond the Limits.
Sturgeon, Julie
University Business; v12 n10 , p50-52,54 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses the superiority of universal design concepts over accessibility upgrades and retrofits on higher education campuses. The low cost of thoughtful universal design in renovations is addressed, a variety of innovative universal design features implemented at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater are described.

Multi-Use Computer Classrooms.
Kessell, John
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , pF8-F11 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the connection between computer classroom furniture selection and universal design, emphasizing flexibility, ease of reconfiguration, flip-up computers, laptop safes, and selecting a collaborative partner to help select furnishings.

Meeting Needs.
Zowie, Richard
Recreation Management; v10 n10 , p36-39 ; Oct 2009
Describes a variety of playgrounds with accessibility features. Some focus on accommodating the disabled only, while others on accessibility for users of all abilities. Surface playgrounds and swimming pool design are addressed.

Does Your Hospital or School Comply with ADA Sign Regulations?
Poblocki, Paul
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p22-24 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Advises on signage requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act. These cover width-to-height ratios of lettering, character spacing, mounting locations and heights, Braille and pictorial symbols, finishes, and contrast.

Easy Access.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v81 n11 , p28-31 ; Jun 2009
Provides graphic design guidelines for accessible school restrooms, emphasizing mounting heights, clearances, and charts listing appropriate specifications for the various age groups.

Seizing an Opportunity: Creating ADA-Compliant, Attractive Signage.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v12 n5 , p37-39 ; May 2009
Discusses signage strategies for campuses, with particular attention to ADA compliance and easy wayfinding for all. Exploring the campus for decision points, creating consistent signage at each point, and consolidating all information into a signage manual are recommended.

Does Place Really Matter to Students with Learning Disabilities? A Study of Three University Campuses.
Whitmer, Susan
Open House International; v34 n1 , p75-81 ; Mar 2009
Examines the role of "place" as a component of academic success for those students with learning disabilities (LD). Methodology included both literature review and the development of a case study analysis of three post-secondary institutions in the United States. The conclusion of the research reveals three specific components of the physical environment that hold an increased value for a student with LD. These are wayfinding, formal learning spaces, and disability services spaces. The key to integrating a sense of place with the needs of students with LD is moving beyond meeting the minimum standards of the legal mandates and bridging the principles of universal design to the built environment.

Access for All.
Corning, Bob; Edden, Anne; Bhamra, Shirin
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p28-30 ; Jan 2009
Discusses universal design issues for schools, addressing entrances, laboratories, restrooms, playgrounds, site slope, and cohesion of design.

Designing the Least Restrictive School Environment. Adobe PDF
Hutchings, Lynn; Olsen, Richard
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p14-16 ; 2009
Reports on university research regarding the creation of the most inclusive environment possible for students with disabilities. Conclusions include 1)Designs should foster social interaction and eliminate stigma and segregation. 2) Redundant cuing assists with wayfinding. 3) Create easily accessible storage for mobility equipment. 4) Organize hall traffic so that it runs smoothly, without crowding. 5) Include laboratory space where the developmentally challenged can practice functioning in public and private spaces. 6) Create flexible and versatile classrooms.

Universal Design: It's for Everyone.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v12 n1 , p15-17 ; Jan 2009
Discusses universal design at higher education institutions, highlighting the accomplishments of Pennsylvania's Edinboro University. Extensive ramping, special testing facilities for ADHD students, online courses, and handicap-accommodating dormitories are featured.

Architecture and the ADA: One Size Does Not Fit All.
Lewis, Carolyn
College Planning and Management; v11 n11 , p52,54,56,59 ; Nov 2008
Discusses the need to accommodate varying disabilities and to involve the disabled in campus planning and design. Lessons learned in new construction and renovation at historic Ohio University, as well as the nature of the plan to move forward with more accessible facilities, provide the example.

Obstacle Course.
Fairbanks, Corey
Athletic Business; v32 n9 , p70-72,74,76,77 ; Sep 2008
Reviews typical accessibility obstacles found in athletic facilities, even in situations where legal requirements for accessibility are being met. Inaccessible lockers, showers, and changing areas lead the list. Accessible weight and cardiovascular equipment, gymnasiums with adequate floor space, and swimming pools are also addressed.

Predock Brings Accessibility to Milwaukee School.
Gordon, Douglas
AIArchitect; Aug 15, 2008
Highlights accessibility features of the Milwaukee Indian Community School, designed by renowned architect Antoine Predock.

Does Your Facility Comply with Sign Regulations?
Poblocki, Paul
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Reviews new Americans With Disabilibies Act (ADA) requirements for signage. Character proportion, mounting locations and heights, Braille and pictorial symbols, and finish and contrast are covered. Advice on choosing a signage professionals is included.

Access for All. Adobe PDF
School Construction News; v11 n4 , p18,19 ; May 2008
Profiles Greenville County (South Carolina) Schools' J.L. Mann High School, a magnet math and science facility that can accommodate the districts entire special needs student population. The design, construction, and special features of the school are discussed, emphasizing spaces and furnishings dedicated to the needs of special students and the teaching of single-gender classes in the future.

What Changes Are in the New ADA/ABA Accessibility Guidelines?
Terry, James
Facilities Manager; v24 n3 , p12-14 ; May-Jun 2008
Advises on upcoming changes in the Americans With Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) that will affect higher education institutions. The expansion of design accommodations for parking, circulation, egress, alarms, and seating are addressed.

Balancing Tradition.
Morin, Rhonda
College Planning and Management; v11 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2008
Discusses upgrading accessibility to historic campus buildings, emphasising adjusting the landscape over creating ramps.

Moving Beyond the ADA.
Stoecklin, Vicki
School Planning and Management; v47 n3 , p33,34,36 ; Mar 2008
Discusses "equitable" design for children with disabilities, so that they share common facilities with the able-bodied. Environments that foster independence, safety, interaction, and freedom from stigma are described.

New ADAAG: The New ADA/ABA Accessibility Guidelines.
Terry, James; Miles, Dennis
Facilities Manager; v24 n2 , p12,13,15 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Discusses the the Department of Justice's proposed adoption of the New Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (New ADAAG) as the enforceable standard under the current ADA. New ADAAG will also combine two federal standards into one called ADA/ABA (Architectural Barriers Act) Accessibility Guidelines. A more detailed analysis of the exceptions and distinctions for the New ADAAG is included.

Whole-Building Access.
Stein, Joan
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p18,20 ; Oct 2007
Reviews often overlooked areas of building accessibility, including heavy doors, non- slip flooring, larger print building directories, secured carpet runners, hangings that are close to the wall, and emergency systems that can be used by the hearing or visually impaired.

Honoring Ancestry, Landscape.
Gould, Whitney
Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel; Sep 02, 2007
Profiles this inter-tribal pre-K through 8th grade school and community center, located outside Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Visits to the site and various tribal lands informed an understanding of the physical and mythical place the building would occupy. The building form was carefully woven along a high ridge on the site in order to avoid removing ancient trees. The school was also recognized by the Paralyzed Veterans of America for its barrier-free design.

Low Energy Automatic Door Operators for ADA Applications.
Cianciolo, John
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the specifications and standards for both automatic and assist low-energy power doors. Also included is advice on installation and safety checking.

An Automatic Choice.
Johnson, Christopher.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p44-46 ; Jul 2007
For students with disabilities, the obstacles they face often are literal ones: manual doors. Accommodating those with disabilities or physical limitations is one reason for schools to consider installing automatic doors, but it is not the only one. Automatic doors can modernize the aesthetics of a building and create a positive first impression. This describes automatic swinging, sliding, and revolving doors, emphasizing a planned maintenance program for them and detailing steps to be taken in their daily inspection.

Campus Restrooms' Role in Universal Design.
Beltramini, Elizabeth
The Bulletin; v75 n3 ; May 2007
Details the pros and cons of unisex, single-stall restrooms on college campuses, as well as some legal and ethical implications. These facilities address accessibility, family needs, and transgender issues.

Ready, Willing and Able.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v 31 n5 , p32-34,36-38 ; May 2007
Reviews options for accommodating the disabled in fitness centers, both those designed exclusively for the disabled, and those for accommodating fully-abled and physically challenged exercisers together. Examples from a university and a rehabilitation hospital facility are detailed.

ADA for Everyone.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n3 , p54-56 ; Mar 2007
Explores the inclusion of accessibility into building codes as a means of accommodating the abled and disabled, taking into account differing heights and ages of the users. ADA features doubling as thoughtful design flourishes are also described.

One Size Fits Most.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v10 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2007
Reviews universal design considerations for higher education facilities. Classroom furnishings, residence hall equality, and the particular problems of renovations are considered.

Universal Design for Learning: Access to School Facilities.
Roettger, Caroline; Alhamisi, Judy
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p14-17 ; 2007
Discusses consideration of disabled students in educational facilities plans. Pertinent laws, principles of universal design, access to curriculum, and inclusion of current and projected special needs students in long-range planning are covered. Includes 19 references.

Building Blueprints: Accessible Playgrounds.
Zrein, Imad
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p84,85 ; Jan 2007
Discusses the features of accessible playgrounds, citing the experience of Framingham's Hemenway Elementary School in siting and creating such a facility.

Accessibility Programme and School Restoration in Lisbon. Adobe PDF
Homen de Bouveia, Pedro
Describes efforts in Lisbon to better integrate children with disabilities at the primary school level, focusing on the restoration of a historic mansion specifically for this purpose.

Standard of Care for Students with Disabilities.
Ruder, Robert
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p30-33 ; Jun 2006
Advises on protection and care of special education students in schools, considering harm that might come to or from them. Obligations of school districts under the Individuals with disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are cited, and the 1999 Cedar Rapids Community School Distric v. Garrett F. case is detailed. Includes seven references.

A Passing Grade.
Renner, Jason
American School and University; v78 n10 , p44-46 ; May 2006
Discusses the 2004 Americans with Disabilities Act Access Guidelines (ADAAG) that contain new provisions for adult access, as well as special considerations for "children's use" facilities. Vertical and horizontal clearances, surface heights, reach requirements, and accessory operation in restrooms are covered, as are exposure to hot water pipes and sharp objects.

Are You Discriminating?
Sampo, Kristen
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p40-42 ; May 2006
Discusses federal laws that prohibit discrimination against disabled parents and other visitors to a school facility. Potential architectural and communication barriers are listed, and advice on conducting an accessibility survey and developing a barrier removal plan is included.

Planning for Inclusion.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n4 , p20-22,24,26 ; Dec 2005
Offers advice on making facilities universally accessible, with examples of how some schools and universities have categorized their buildings by level of accessibility and have prioritized changes to be made. The outcome of a 1997 accessibility lawsuit at the University of California at Berkeley is detailed.

Proposed ADA Rules Raise Questions
Lorenz, Brandon
Building Operating Management; v52 n12 ; Dec 2005
The Justice Department’s ADAAG revisions to ADA Accessibility Guidelines harmonize the guidelines with model building codes and update technical specifications within the guidelines. The proposed changes mark the first major revision to ADAAG since its inception in 1991. How the revisions will affect existing buildings is unknown. The process is under way, with the Justice Department seeking public comment on how it should treat existing buildings.

School Access.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v44 n10 , p34-36 ; Oct 2005
Presents the experiences of an architect and two school districts in adapting their facilities for ADA compliance.

Clarifying Barrier-Free Washroom Accessibility.
Gettelman, Alan
The Construction Specifier; v58 n10 , p46-53 ; Oct 2005
Advises on accessibility and universal design in restrooms, including dimensions of openings, raised thresholds, interior doors, lavatories, left- and right-hand equality, appropriate mounting heights for mirrors, dispensers, trash receptacles, grab bars, and coat hooks. Plans and diagrams illustrate the text.

Assessing Access.
Brennan, Martin
American School and University; v77 n12 , p44,46,48 ; Jul 2005
Outlines elements of a campus accessibility assessment and describes accessibility requirements for parking, exterior routes, entrances, interior routes, doors, stairs, and restrooms.

The ADA-Compliant Restroom.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v8 n6 , p60-64 ; Jun 2005
Reviews restroom ADA requirements, including toilet stalls and accessories, with a focus on clearances, mounting heights, and reach distances.

Solutions for Accessibility Challenges.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p28-30 ; May 2005
Presents and interview with William E. Endelman that describes elements of an ADA program, financial obstacles to removing barriers, and cost-effective methods of creating accessibility.

Sports Venues and Accessibility.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v8 n5 , p25,26 ; May 2005
Discusses ADA compliance for sports facilities, with particular attention to new facilities, major renovations, and community involvement in both. Accessibility considerations for a new sports center at California State University, Fresno, are highlighted.

Restroom Renovations, Big Benefits
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Apr 2005
Restroom renovations bring these areas into compliance with access guidelines, and they give engineering and maintenance managers an opportunity to introduce new and water-saving technology. This article discusses the specific benefits of renovations, improving hygiene, standardizing cleaning, tackling access troubles, and measuring success.

Clearing a Path for Access
Boga, Michael
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2005
Tackling these 8 trouble spots in restrooms ensures greater accessibility for visitors and occupants: signage, door considerations, door hardware, spaces and clearances, water closets, urinals, dispensers, grab bars and mirrors.

Developing Accessible Play Space in the UK: A Social Model Approach.
Dunn, Karen; Moore, Michele
Children, Youth and Environments; v15 n1 , p331-353 ; 2005
Describes the research conducted to inform development of "Developing Accessible Play Space: A Good Practice Guide" published by the United Kingdom's Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) in November 2003. Key objectives of the research were to review current practice relating to accessible play space for disabled children and to advise play space providers on improving accessibility. The approach encourages play space providers to concentrate on dismantling barriers that create segregation, exclusion and disablement rather than worrying about the complexities of impairment.

Aluminum vs. Wood-A Cost Value Analysis for Handicap Ramps.
Head, Bob; , 2p. ; 2005
Advocates the use of aluminum handicap ramps over wood. Rising wood and decreasing aluminum prices, combined with the longer life and lower maintenance costs of aluminum make it a more viable option than in the past. A table of installation and maintenance costs for both products is included.

New ADA Codes.
Michener, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p37,38 ; Nov 2004
Outlines new guidelines in the 2004 Americans With Disabilities Act codes that clarify requirements for the number of accessible entrances, drop-off area specifications, and parking.

ADA Guidelines: A New Generation
Thorpe, Barbara
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2004
The Access Board’s publication of new facilities access guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) raises a host of new questions for maintenance and engineering managers. This describes the streamlined guidelines and outlines some of the changes made.

Getting from Here to There.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v7 n7 , p38,40 ; Jul 2004
Discusses ramps and lifts for handicap accessibility, discouraging the use of ramps that are too short and too steep. These may save money in the short run, but leave the institution open to expensive lawsuits. Lifts come in a variety of prices largely determined by the height to be covered and decorative qualities.

ADA Issues in Public Schools.
Bald, Richard J.
School Planning and Management; v43 n5 , p50,51 ; May 2004
Outlines accessibility issues that are most commonly encountered in school settings. These include proper door resistance, clearances, and hardware; accessible seating in auditoriums and gymnasiums; fire alarms with strobe lights for notification of the hearing impaired; properly designed and secured handrails and flooring; and proper heights of thresholds, controls, and telephones.

Universal Furniture.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v7 n4 , p25,26,28 ; Apr 2004
Describes attributes of standard furnishings that help the mobility impaired.

ADA Laws and Liabilities.
Goldman, Teri B.
School Planning and Management; v42 n12 , 12,14,16 ; Dec 2003
Describes laws preceeding the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that apply specifically to schools. These laws have required that disabled students receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) since the 1970's. Enumeration of a variety of physical and behavioral disabilities follows, along with the ways schools must provide modifications or accommodations to the physical environment to ensure the provision of FAPE to students with disabilities.

Meeting the Challenge.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v6 n8 , p17-19 ; Nov-Dec 2003
Describes the renovation of a 1927 dormitory at the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind. The project restored historical elements that had been covered in a previous renovation while updating the mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems. Accessible design was incorporated and the project was completed ahead of schedule and under budget.

Equal Opportunity Playgrounds.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v27 n10 , p60-62,64,66,68 ; Oct 2003
Describes the work of Hadley's Park, the National Center for Boundless Playgrounds, and Shane's Inspiration, three nonprofits that help develop barrier-free playgrounds for children. Also provides specifications for the design and furnishing of accessible playgrounds.

Accessibility for All: Proposed Changes in ADA Guidelines Would Affect School Designs.
Lauer, John
American School and University; v76 n1 , p30, 32-34 ; Sep 2003
Discusses proposed revisions to the Americans with Disabilities Act Access Guidelines that modify placement and clearance specifications for all bathroom fixtures. Age-specific guidelines for various school populations are a notable change.

Auditoriums for All End-Users and All Access.
Leisner, Hava
School Construction News; v6 n7 , p23 ; Sep 2003
Describes an auditorium design used at several schools that eliminates the need for handicapped ramps or elevators through the slope of the floor, design of the seating, and positioning of the stage.

Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.
Smyser, Michael
American School and University; v75 n11 , p24,26-28 ; Jul 2003
Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations and emergency showers for people with disabilities).

Using a Building's Site To Maximize Accessibility.
Barraza, Douglas A.
College Planning and Management; v6 n6 , p52, 54 ; Jun 2003
Describes a new basketball arena at the University of Missouri that meet the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act through careful use of the site to take advantage of site grading and provide multiple accessible entries while ensuring visibility and circulation.

The ADA: What's Your Plan?
Brennan, Martin L.
Facilities Manager; v19 n2 , p32-33 ; Mar-Apr 2003
Discusses how to create or refocus a transition plan for compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Steps include documenting needs, documenting solutions, prioritizing needs, and creating a schedule. Also briefly addresses accessibility requirements, the concept of undue burden, finding help, and summarized Title II requirements.

Equal Access.
De Patta, Joe
School Construction News; v6 n3 , p20-22 ; Mar-Apr 2003
Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

ADA Design.
Gips, Kathy
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p28-32 ; Mar 2003
Describes requirements for existing educational facilities under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and addresses issues such as guidelines for children, wheelchair-accessible and ambulatory stalls, areas without their own section in the standards, assistive listening devices in auditoriums, ramp slope, emergency evacuation planning, Web sites and software, and universal design aspects of acoustics and ergonomics.

A Gameplan For Access.
Thorpe, Barbara
Maintenance Solutions; Mar 2003
Compliance with the ADA is a legal requirement, and it is the right thing to do. To make facilities accessible for individuals with disabilities and meet the requirements of Title II of the ADA, managers need a plan. In many facilities, the task of spearheading facilities compliance often falls to maintenance managers. This article discusses strategies and tactics designed to help managers develop a successful barrier-removal plan for public facilities such as schools.

How To Solve the Restroom Design Equation.
Wilke, Arnie
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p39-41 ; Mar 2003
Offers design guidance for school restrooms, emphasizing the importance of keeping them sanitary and functional. Addresses the issues of building codes and American with Disabilities compliance.

Renovating To Meet ADA Standards.
Huber, Judy; Jones, Garry
School Planning and Management; v42 n2 , p62-63 ; Feb 2003
Using the examples of Owen D. Young School in Van Hornesville, New York, and the Tonawanda City school district in Buffalo, New York, describes how school planners should take the accessibility standards mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) into account when renovating.

Access Analysis for Two-Story Classrooms.
Shields, Tom
Modular Construction; Jan 2003
The purpose of this article is to examine State and Federal accessibility law, district responsibilities, and potential liabilities in the use of elevators versus wheelchair lifts where modular or relocatable two-story classrooms are added. This article deals primarily with issues in the state of California.

Through the Front Door.
Geller, Joseph
School Planning and Management; v41n12 , p16-20 ; Dec 2002
Discusses challenges that arise in creating school entranceways that meld accessibility with attractiveness, noting the importance of considering both aesthetic impact and the design mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Creative solutions include tying a walkway into a progressive stair; incorporating the ramp into a masonry wall; incorporating the ramp into the design of a stairway system; and using plantings to create a shielding screen.

Going Up? The Pros and Cons of Vertical Expansion.
Myler, Patricia A.; Boggs, Richard C
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p28-33 ; Dec 2002
Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the vertical expansion of school buildings. Considers such factors as fire protection, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and cost. Discusses alternatives to vertical expansion.

Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Education.
Pivik, Jayne; McComas, Joan; LaFlamme, Marc
Exceptional Children; v69 n1 , p97-107 ; Fall 2002
Reports on research in which 15 students and 12 parents identified four categories of physical environment and attitudinal barriers at their schools. Environmental barriers involved doors, passageways, restrooms, stairs and ramps, lockers, water fountains, and recreational areas. Recommendations for promoting accessibility are provided and discussed in relation to inclusive education efforts.

Assistive Technologies.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v41 n8 , p32-33 ; Aug 2002
Describes assistive technologies that are available to help schools meet the requirements of Individualized Education Plans for students with disabilities. The offerings include computer devices and specialized software programs.

Is Your Queuing System ADA-Compliant?
Lawrence, David
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p45-47 ; Apr 2002
Discusses the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) and Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) regulations regarding public facilities crowd control stanchions and queuing systems. The major elements are protruding objects and wheelchair accessibility. Describes how to maintain compliance with the regulations and offers a list of additional resources.

Marble Fairbanks Architects. Chicago Public School.
Architecture; v91 n1 , p68-71 ; Jan 2002
Looks at the design features of a 120,000 square foot Chicago elementary urban school that accommodates 900 students, 25 percent of whom are disabled. The school is based on a small school design that can maintain a feasible budget while providing universal access. The design also helps the school blend into the surrounding urban neighborhood. Photographs and floor plans are included.

By Design.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p16-22 ; Jan 2002
Examines some key areas that school administrators need to consider when creating new, or updating old, school spaces for students and staff. Design considerations encompass space management, building flexibility, technology integration, school accessibility to the disabled, sensitivity to the environment, and cost effectiveness.

Accessibility Guidelines and Standards: What's What?
Ansley, James
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p33-35 ; Jul 2001
Examines the regulatory differences between three pieces of federal legislation that address facility accessibility: the Americans with Disabilities Act; Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Discusses why these differences are important for school officials to understand.

Effective Classroom Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments.
Cox, Penny R.; Dykes, Mary K.
Teaching Exceptional Children; , v33 n6 ; Jul-Aug 2001
This article discusses strategies for including students with visual impairments into general education settings. The article provides a starting point from which general educators can begin to learn about visual impairments and build skills that will benefit all their students. Discusses orientation and mobility, designing effective learning environments, collaborating with vision specialists, and visual learning accommodations. Includes a checklist for outdoor and indoor orientation and mobility adaptations to assist in identifying areas of need.

Are You Sitting Down?
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v25 n4 , p80-87 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the ease with which recreational facilities can accommodate wheelchair softball and other adapted sports, including activities for aquatic facilities. The legal requirement for sporting facilities to be adaptable to persons with physical disabilities is also stressed.

Classroom Accessibility.
Gorleski, Robert
Commercial Modular Construction Magazine ; Mar 2001
Discusses accessibility issues for relocatable classrooms, including accessible entrances on an accessible route, usable doors, accessible elements inside the classroom such as drinking fountains, accessible locations for electrical devices and controls, and accessible bathrooms.

Universal Design: An All-Inclusive Approach
Stratton, Peter A.
The Construction Specifier; v54 n2 , p27-32 ; Feb 2001
Accessible design is specifically geared toward those with disabilities. The concept of universal design is broader in scope; it seeks to accommodate the needs of everyone, including those with disabilities. The principles of universal design can incorporate the principles of accessible design. However, the reverse is not always true. When applied at the onset of a project, both universal and accessible design can reduce the need for modifications later when abilities change.

The Furniture of Science.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p71-73 ; Jan 2001
Examines how the introduction of new technology has spawned the emergence of new types of furniture, furnishings, and classroom design to support high school science instruction. The challenges imposed by the Americans with Disabilities Act on school science labs are highlighted.

Gaining Access.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n4 , p14,16-18 ; Dec 2000
Discusses issues that schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and examines ways that facilities can be made more accessible to the disabled. Includes a discussion of the Act's vagueness and reviews the necessity for architects to understand the regulations.

Exceptional Kids Need More Than Feet: Designing Barrier-Free Schools for Special-Education Students
Merritt, Edwin T.; Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p24-29 ; Dec 2000
A prime mover behind larger space requirements is expansion of legal entitlements for children with disabilities, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The list of architectural interventions has lengthened, and is matched by burgeoning effects on space and budgets. Nonphysical barriers must also be addressed.

One for All.
Hammatt, Heather
Landscape Architecture; v90 n10 , p109-13 ; Oct 2000
Discusses how accessible equipment for children with disabilities makes integrated playground design a reality. Examples of playground designs are provided.

Creating Communication Rich Environments
Hartmann, Elizabeth
California Deaf-Blind Services, reSources; v10 n8 , p3-4 ; Summer 2000
This article discusses how the design of the classroom space can directly effect whether or not the individual who is deaf-blind is able to move beyond themselves and into their environment to make communication exchanges. It suggests ensuring that the classroom space is accessible and conducive to communication by always making the learner’s communication system accessible to them, and teaching them how to access it from the different areas in the classroom, and by creating ways to label the student’s shelves,cabinets and personal space so that they know where their things are and how to get them.

Playing It Safe.
ONeill, Steve
American School and University; v73 n1 , p36,38,40 ; Sep 2000
Provides tips on how to avoid accidents and injuries on school playgrounds. Tips include removing old, dangerous equipment; relocating play areas to safer ground; choosing the right surface; factoring in long-term costs for replenishing and redistributing loose materials; and considering Americans with Disabilities Act issues.

ADA: An Integrated Approach
Stein, Joan Weiss
Maintenance Solutions Online; Sep 2000
Explains fine points of ADA compliance to facilities managers, noting that compliance is not a one-stop process but one that must be approached in the same manner that all other facilities issues are resolved — by integrating ADA issues into overall strategic and financial planning.

ADA, Present and Future
Patterson, Kelly
Maintenance Solutions ; May 2000
Recognizes the frustration and confusion that facilites managers and consultants experience in attempting to interpret ADA access guidelines. Discusses the challenges of specifying appropriate products and creating sensible designs for the following building systems: faucets, pipes and doors in restrooms; exterior doors and entrances; ramps; and ADA-compliant products such as door handles, sinks, and dispensers.

ADA Restroom Design.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p38,40-42 ; Mar 2000
Discusses the challenges that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) creates for designing school restrooms. The issues of mobility and circulation of users are addressed. Some of the dimension requirements required by the ADA are listed.

Providing for Disabled Students: University of Grenoble, France. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n39 , p7-8 ; Feb 2000
Examines how France's University of Grenoble provides accommodations in its residence hall for students that have disabilities. Includes a description of the university's services for disabled students, and a depiction of a hospital/education center where disabled students can receive care and physiotherapy while attending school.

Planning Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.
Hudson, Susan; Thompson, Donna; Mack, Mick
School Planning and Management; v39 n2 , p35-36,38-40 ; Feb 2000
Argues that planners should design play areas based on children's physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs. Specific playground planning goals are examined that address childrens' physical abilities, emotional development, and social and intellectual performance as well as help satisfy the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Re-creating Recreation.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v23 n11 , p63-69 ; Nov 1999
Discusses the importance of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board guidelines for recreational and sports areas and their ancillary spaces. Examples of how the guidelines affect specific areas are highlighted such as team seating areas, fitness centers, tennis courts, swimming pools, and locker rooms.

Guidelines for Children s Facilities.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v72 n3 , p322-24 ; Nov 1999
Presents Americans with Disabilities Act guidelines for building school toilet facilities that serve children with disabilities. Several dimension charts are provided showing min/max measurements.

Ensuring Upgrades Meet ADA Standards.
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Jul 1999)
American School and University; Jul 1999
Focuses on the need for school planners to be aware of the accessibility standards required by the Americans with Disabilities Act as they renovate and upgrade their facilities, particularly with respect to entrances.

The Corridor Concept: New and Improved Restroom Design.
Champagne, Roger
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p33-35 ; Jul 1999
Discusses the advantages of placing school hand-washing stations in adjacent hallways in terms of space conservation, traffic management, cost savings, and facility maintenance. Also addresses issues of privacy, meeting Americans with Disabilities Act requirements, and reducing vandalism.

Going the Distance.
Kessler, David; Keefe, Barbara
American School and University; v71 n11 , p44,46,48 ; Jul 1999
Examines the planning process behind successfully providing full access to distance-learning programs for all students. Distance learning under the regulatory mandate of the Americans with Disabilities Act is addressed along with facility design considerations and the impact of regulatory requirements on design options.

Universal Design.
Rydeen, James E.
American School and University; v71 n9 , p56,58,60,62 ; May 1999
Examines school universal designing that is both user-friendly for all students and compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act. It provides the basic functional design issues for easy traffic control and orientation and classrooms that are adaptable to future curricular changes. New standards that impact design decisions for pre-high school facilities are discussed and a model preschool center is highlighted.

Washrooms and the ADA.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v37 n12 , p37-39 ; Dec 1998
Discusses the updated version of the Americans with Disabilities Act and how it applies to primary and middle school washrooms. It provides the specifications for water closets serving children ages 3 to 12, as well as other details concerning mirrors and lavatory dimensions.

Bleacher Comforts.
Scandrett, Donald G.
Athletic Business; v22 n12 , p86-90,92,94 ; Dec 1998
Examines the planning issues when replacing telescoping bleacher units and for analyzing seating options. It addresses the importance of complying with local building codes, and the considerations on maintenance following installation.

Pass to Compliance.
Robb, Sam
American School and University; v70 n11 , p36, 38, 39 ; Jul 1998
Offers advice on washroom compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act Title III (ADA) regulations during school construction and renovation projects. Critical issues concerning bathroom accessibility and practical solutions in washroom design are discussed. Other recommended, non-ADA restroom design guidelines for elementary schools are highlighted.

Understanding Accessibility Laws
Solomon, Nancy
Architectural Record; v186 n7 , p.109-112 ; Jul 1998
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) passed by Congress on July 26, 1990, still causes confusion. Although awareness of the needs of the disabled has undoubtedly increased, and more buildings are accessible to people, much about the law is still in flux. To minimize the risk of violating the ADA, architects should stay informed of ongoing legislation and take advantage of available tools and resources. The regulations and guidelines that cause confusion are discussed.

Following the Signs.
American School and University; v70 n9 , p56-57 ; May 1998
Discusses meeting ADA guidelines when purchasing permanent signs for schools. ADA guidelines are provided and the use of raised characters and braille are discussed. It notes that ADA guidelines are not building codes: noncompliance is enforced through the Justice Department.

Growing Pains.
Walls, Tom
American School and Hospital Maintenance; , p6-8 ; Spring 1998
Discusses the challenges inherent with ensuring that exit devices comply with guidelines specified in the Americans with Disabilities Act. Focuses on compliance problems with grasping the pull side trim on an exit device, the difficulties with surface vertical rods and latches in compliance with barrier-free guidelines, and other concerns.

Better Safe Than Sorry.
Wilson, Walter E.
School Planning & Management; v36 n12 , p36,38 ; Dec 1997
Describes the use of nonslip flooring in educational facilities to reduce fall injuries and litigation costs. Discussions include the influence of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regulatory considerations, and a brief litigation overview. A comparison chart of nonslip flooring surface performance is provided.

Designing Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.
Goltsman, Susan
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p26-29 ; Nov 1997
Provides performance criteria for creating accessibility for and integration of children of all abilities within school playgrounds. Included are recommendations for accessible route designs; play equipment; sand and water play; gathering places and outdoor classrooms; entrances and signage; and fences, enclosures, and barriers. Proposed changes in ADA law are highlighted.

ADA Means All Children Can Have a High-Quality Education.
Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p8 ; Nov 1997
Discusses school district progress in complying with the facility accessibility aspects outlined in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It notes inconsistent compliance and the need for greater school district spending. The ADA's current impact and future concerns are addressed.

Planning for Accessibility.
Spoor, Dana L.
American School and University; v70 n2 , p14-17 ; Oct 1997
Argues that barrier-free designs should be incorported in the first steps of school facility planning to avoid the difficulties in meeting ADA guidelines during renovations. It explains why not all barriers need be removed to make facility accessible to everyone. Issues involving ADA guidelines and child access are discussed.

Beyond the Basics.
McGuinness, Katherine
American School & University; v69 n11 , p39-40,42 ; Jul 1997
Addresses the concept of universal design in school planning and construction that can help remove barriers found in today's new and diverse educational requirements. Universal design and its impact on diversity and inclusion, technology, and community/school relationships are discussed.

Planning Accessible Play Facilities.
Christoph, Nancy J.
American School and University; v69 n8 , p22, 24-26,28 ; Apr 1997
Criticism of the guidelines being drafted by a committee of the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board on playground surfacing and play-equipment access and the affect on school districts when they are building, renovating, or planning playgrounds.

13 Points to Washroom Safety.
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v36 n3 , p.31-32,34 ; Mar 1997
Washrooms today must be outfitted according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but many of the safety features mandated by the ADA also make good common sense for any school restroom. Provides checklists of items to look for in safe washrooms and locker rooms.

Towards Better Listening and Learning in the Classroom
McSporran, Eileen
Educational Review; v49 n1 , p13-20 ; Feb 1997
Examines the effects of classroom acoustical problems on children, including those at risk for underachievement. Suggests ways to optimize classroom listening, especially through sound-field classroom amplification.

Barrier-Free Washrooms.
Gloekler, Mark
American School and Hospital Maintenance; Nov 1996
Low-energy operators offer a straightforward, "readily achievable" solution to a common problem found in many accessibility-related bathroom retrofit projects. The problem is lack of adequate space to provide sufficient maneuvering room for wheelchair users seeking to enter or exit the bathroom.

Access to Knowledge.
Leslie, Donald S.
American School and University; v69 n2 , p32,34 ; Oct 1996
Discusses how modern library systems can protect collections while not impeding disabled persons' access to facilities. Describes the problem with swinging gates and offers some security alternatives, such as high-tech gateless security, video detection, and voice alarms, that do not impede disabled persons' movements.

Unlocking the Locker Room.
St. Clair, Dean
Athletic Business; v20 n5 , p67-70 ; May 1996
Discusses locker room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms.

Opening Doors to Compliance.
Otten, Kenneth
American School and University; v68 n8 , p28-30 ; Apr 1996
Understanding the requirements of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) can help educational facilities managers, planners, and administrators achieve rapid, cost-effective compliance. Educational institutions fall under Title I, Title II, and Title III of the ADA. Guidelines for how to start and conduct an inspection and develop a written plan for ADA compliance are detailed.

Making Schools Accessible.
Savidge, Tracy Fellin
Learning By Design; n5 , p49-51 ; Mar 1996
Presents basic guidelines to help school districts comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in making their schools accessible to disabled students. A brief overview of the ADA is provided as well as a list of where to get help for advise prior to new school construction or renovation.

Seating for Assembly Spaces
Beasley, Kim A.; Davies, Thomas D.
Progressive Architecture; v76 , p.92-93 ; Apr 1995
Guidelines for designing accessible seating in sports and concert facilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines require wheelchair companion seats and comparable lines of sight for wheelchair seating locations. Adaptable seating or elevated wheelchair areas are two possible options.

Washing Your Hands of Vandalism.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v67 n8 , p49-50,52-53 ; Apr 1995
Discusses planning techniques that help reduce washroom vandalism and also comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Guidelines for washroom accessories are highlighted, and accessory mounting and location tips are explored. Suggests use of heavy-duty installation configurations in combination with institutional hardware and vandal-resistant materials to reduce repair and replacement costs.

Creating Play Environments for Children with Special Needs
Winter, Susan M.; And Others
Childhood Education; v71 n1 , p28-32 ; Fall 1994
Examines the implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the role of developmentally appropriate practice when insuring the safe inclusion of children with disabilities in play environments. Discusses four principles that should guide the creation of safe, inclusive play environments: safety; developmentally appropriate practice; full inclusion; and interplay of the first three principles in unison.

The ADA and Public Schools
Joffee, E.
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; v88 n3 , p.6-7 ; May-Jun 1994
The requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) concerning public school building accessibility are summarized. Requirements discussed include facility design and braille and raised letter signs.

In Search of Equitable Learning Environments: The Acoustics of Classrooms Used in "Mainstreaming" Hearing-Disadvantaged Students
McVey, G. F.
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n3 , p16-23 ; 1994
A school system engaged an acoustical consultant to test designated classrooms to determine whether an acoustical problem existed. The consultant conducted tests and concluded that there was no problem. Findings from an investigation of the data differed appreciably from those of the acoustical consultant. Acoustical design criteria for remodeling the classrooms were recommended. Contains 24 references, 5 figures, and 2 tables.

Implications of Special Education on School Design: Practicality, Not Theory
Lane, Kenneth E.; Swartz, Stanley L.; McNair, Jeff
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n5 ; Sep 1993
This article addresses the practical impact of special education on school design based on the four major Congressional enactments which have impacted and will continue to impact those designs. Of the four enactments promoting barrier-free schools (the Education of the Handicapped Act, Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990) special attention is given to ADA requirements. Topics addressed include: 1) Parking, Passenger Loading & Building Access; 2) Corridors, Elevators & Stairs; 3) Classrooms; 4) Restrooms; 5) Cafeterias; and 6) Libraries. References are included.

A Bridge Over Troubled Water: Facility Needs for Inclusive Classrooms
Pierce, Judy; Rasdall, Joyce; Ferguson, Janice
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n5 ; Sep-Oct 1993
Based on the premise that no student is disabled, the authors of this article on inclusive classrooms call for universal design in schools that meets the needs of ALL students, each of whom possesses different abilities. In addition to a definition of and background on inclusive education, attention is paid to barrier-free legislation, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Other topics addressed are: 1) User Perception of Space; 2) Socially Responsible Design; and 3) Universal Designs. Also included are a facility programming paradigm diagram, matrix of user needs, and references.

Designing Schools for All Kids
Sydoriak, Diane
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n5 , p15-17 ; 1993
Contending that tomorrow's schools will not be designed with the same students in mind for which they were designed within even the last 10 years, the author cites the education reform movement (including its restructuring component) and passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 as catalysts for designing barrier-free schools to meet the needs of all students. Given this move toward inclusive classrooms, the author lists 24 questions to be posed to school administrators, school board members, faculty, and constituents, the answers to which will "paint a realistic picture of the school's mission and accurately describe all students and their diverse needs."

Access, Public Schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act
Whisenant, Jay
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1993
With a greatly expanded definition of "disabled," the ADA carries forward the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 but eliminates the proviso that federal funds must be involved. The article provides a summary of key provisions as well as those provisions which affect existing and new or altered facilities. Other topics addressed are design standards, implementation schedule, enforcement provisions, and relationship to state regulations.

Granting Each Equal Access
Walling, Linda Lucas
School Library Media Quarterly; v20 n4 , p216-22 ; Summer 1992
Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings, acoustics, light, and temperature, signage, ambiance, and safety. (19 references)

Adaptive Playgrounds for All Children
Raschke, Donna B.; And Others
Teaching Exceptional Children; v24 n1 , p25-28 ; Sep 1991
Procedures are discussed for developing a playground design that will enable all children, including those with disabilities, to participate in playground activities. The article addresses designing a needs assessment tool, planning the playground, and selecting and funding equipment. A needs assessment tool and addresses for information about three model playgrounds are provided.

The Universal Playground.
Exceptional Parent; v20 n7 , p26-29 ; Oct 1990
The universal playground, designed for the full spectrum of developmental abilities, works to the advantage of children with special needs. The universal playground includes spring rides, work and play tables, sympathetic swings, sand tables, steering wheels, gadget panels, wide slides, adjustable basketball hoops, and music panels.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).