ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS
Information compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities on school and university access control and monitoring with metal detectors, surveillance cameras, and card access systems including smart cards.
References to Books and Other Media
Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p
School Security Technologies.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Provides current information on school security technologies, including access control systems, surveillance equipment, weapons detectors, communications and alarm systems, and emergency notification systems (ENS). Explains the shift underway from individual system controls to an IP (Internet protocol) model where everything feeds into the same network. Updates and replaces two landmark publications on school security technologies. 20p.
Door Locking Options for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.
References to Journal Articles
Case Study: San Mateo High School District
Doors & Hardware; , p36-38 ; Aug 2012
Describes the combination of simple but effective access control solutions at the San Mateo Union HIgh School District that protect students, teachers, and staff with minimal system management requirements.
Emerging Technology for School Security
Doss, Kevin T.
American School and University; , p20-22 ; Jul 2012
An up-and-coming technology enables smartphones to open access-controlled doors, do laundry, buy lunch and much more.
Security in Schools
School Construction News; , p13 ; Jun 20, 2012
Explores passive vs. active security in K-12 schools and postsecondary institutions. Passive security measures include access control systems, video monitoring and other means that use technologies. Active security measures involve posting an officer at a site or traffic control measures.
School Security: Ensuring Access Control
American School and University; Jun 2012
Deterring intruders is critical for school safety. Discusses the characteristics a recommended school access-control system.
Today's School Security
American School and University; Apr 01, 2012
Improved technology and more effective prevention programs help schools and universities provide safer learning environments. Discusses controlled access, video surveillance, mass notification, and prevention programs.
The Integration Step
School Planning and Management; v51 n1 , p67-69 ; Jan 2012
Discusses networking and integrating security technologies including electronic access control, video surveillance, and intrusion systems.
School Planning and Management; , p52-53 ; Jan 2012
Implementing electronic access control in K-12 environments requires extensive planning as well as processes to ensure maximum usage of the technology. Discusses recommended steps to successfully implement electronic access control in a K-12 school.
Finding a Better Way to Lock the Doors
College Planning and Management; , p30-32 ; Dec 2011
Access control on campus is not very effective, say college and university officials who influence security decisions. Includes a case study of an electronic access control system at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
Close It Up & Lock It Down?!?
School Planning and Management; , p42-44 ; Dec 2011
Discusses the most effective ways of controlling access to facilities, including perimeter access, exterior doors, and visitor management.
Case Study: Security is in the Cards for Skidmore College
Doors and Hardware; , p18-22 ; Oct 2011
Discusses the conversion of the access control of its residence halls and academic buildings from mechanical keys to cards.
Designing Safe Facilities
District Administration; v47 n9 ; Sep 2011
Presents the observations of Judy Marks, Kenneth Trump, Larry Borland, and Tod Schneider regarding school security, with particular regard to heightened concerns since the 1999 Columbine and 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. The article addresses entry control, video intercoms, smart card access, elimination of dead space, natural surveillance, and cameras. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is frequently cited, as are examples of security enhancements from recently built schools.
Boone County Schools Move up the Security Pyramid.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n8 , p16-18 ; Aug 2011
Describes upgrades to access control in this Kentucky school system. Multiple key systems existed across the district, and even within some schools. Conversion of existing schools to battery-operated electronic locks, as well as wiring of new buildings for electronic access is described, as is networking of the locks, manual overrides, and a highly-restricted key system.
R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p39-42 ; May 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked decisions attached to selecting appropriate doors for schools. Who will be coming and going in and out of them? How much control is needed over comings and goings? What level of monitoring is desirable and necessary? What technology is needed to meet these goals? What wear and tear can be expected? What natural emergencies (hurricanes, etc.) need to be anticipated? Recommendations are given also for access control, interior doors, and classroom doors.
Security: A Matter of Performance. [Door Hardware: Focus on Security]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p27,28 ; May 2011
Advises on door maintenance, listing the parts of a door assembly in need of preventive maintenance, typical problems that prevent proper door function, lock maintenance, and electronic door access.
Door Hardware: Safety and Security Strategies.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p12,13 ; Feb 2011
Recognizes rapidly improving technology for door hardware components and provides insights on staying abreast of what is available and what should be considered when selecting.
Getting Serious about Access Control.
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p44,45 ; Dec 2010
Acknowledges the potential for prohibitively expensive access control systems and the possibility for ineffectiveness if people do not learn to use the systems. The author describes the essential components in order to stay within a budget, as well as training measures for faculty and administration.
Access Control Needs to be Comprehensive.
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p46 ; Dec 2010
Addresses the need for comprehensive school access control. The article is framed in the context of the "four D's" (deter, detect, delay, and detain).
Granite School District Security System Grows with Needs.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p14-16,18 ; Dec 2010
Describes the evolution of this Utah county school district's security program from simple burglar alarms, to sophisticated access control. Specifications of the systems are described, with an emphasis on how older buildings were retrofitted and how efficiency was obtained to enable a small staff to control the systems.
Security at the University of Kentucky.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n11 , p16-18,20 ; Nov 2010
Describes access control at the University of Kentucky coliseum, along with its attached new athletic addition. The keyless system enables complex control of access during lockdown, day-to-day operations, and special events. The configuration of the hard-wired, computer-controlled doors and battery-operated doors is described, as is the necessity of separating spectators from players.
Case Study: Cobb County School District.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n8 , p14-16 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the upgrade of elementary school door locks in Georgia's Cobb County School District. The research of existing systems, standardization of doors and electronic locks, and flexibility of the system are described.
Security System Blends Keys and Credentials.
Ayers, Mark; Crook, Kevin
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p20-22,24 ; Jul 2010
Describes the Boulder Valley School Districts switch from keys to electronic door access, which enabled the district to control an employee's access to spaces, ended complicated key production, and relieved itinerant employees of having to carry multiple keys.
Energy-Harvesting Sensors Power Building Controls to New Levels of Sustainability.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Describes the function of self-powered wireless sensors in the control of building systems, noting their ability to be placed conveniently for building occupants and their benefits to lowering energy use.
University Gets the Jump on Security.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n5 , p14-116 ; May 2010
Describes how a university installed access card security in its residence halls, saving frequent re-keying and strengthening security. Examination of access card use led to the apprehension of residents who committed break-ins in the adjacent parking lot.
What's in Your Wallet?
College Planning and Management; v13 n3 , p46-49 ; Mar 2010
Discusses access card security on higher education campuses. The nature of campus crime, typical systems in place, and system simplicity are discussed.
Life Safety, Security and Operational Conflicts.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n2 , p17-19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses security features of doors, including anti-tailgating technology, door prop alarms, delayed egress, and electrified dogging.
The Key to Door Closers.
Construction Specifier; v63 n1 , p44--49 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the selection of door closers, considering firm closure for security and fire safety, but also resistance low enough to pass accessibility requirements, where necessary. Applicable codes and accessibility tests are cited.
Site Surveys: A Closer Look at Security.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p12,13 ; Jan 2010
Advises on conducting a security assessment of an existing site, addressing the multiple components of facility security and the typical results that a site survey will produce.
A Safe Bet.
Athletic Business; v32 n1 , p74-79 ; Dec 2009
Advises on safety in athletic facilities, addressing the use and integration of surveillance, biometrics, radio-frequency identification (RFID), smart cards, and video analytics.
Integrating School Security Systems.
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p32-34 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the benefits of converging surveillance technology with IT infrastructure, with an emphasis on converting existing analog equipment to digital and networking the technology for staff-wide and public safety personnel access.
Door Hardware Goes Hi-Tech.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p8,9 ; Dec 2009
Reviews the current generation of door hardware technology, with a variety of computerized features that are now largely available in a wireless mode. Advice on training front-line technicians is included.
Case Study: Vacaville Schools Upgrade Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n11 , p18-20,22 ; Nov 2009
Details the upgrading of this California school systems locks. The systems schools have classroom doors that open to the outdoors. Locks were changed so that doors that could be locked from the inside, which was not previously possible. Upgrades to the key system and consultation with experts before work was begun is also described.
Cash or Credit?
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p33,34 ; Oct 2009
Describes use campus identification cards that admit students to facilities for a range of purchasing options both on and off campus.
Effectively Managing Visitors.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p48-50 ; Oct 2009
Advises on managing school visitors with mandatory identification check, sign-in by a staff member, sign-out, and use of visitor badges. Features of visitor management software are highlighted, as well as training of staff to be polite, but vigilant.
Case Study: Piedmont California Schools Lock Down Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Oct 2009
Describes this district's replacement of 50 classroom door locks that can be locked from inside with a key, new panic bars for exit doors that can be found in the dark, and standardization of the key system.
Greenwood Community Schools Prioritize Building Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n6 , p28-30,32,33 ; Jun 2009
Profiles recent security measures taken in Indiana's Greenwood Community School Corporation. After assessment by security consultants, video surveillance, electronic door access, and visitor identification were employed. Architectural adjustments to buildings, staff training, information and warnings delivered by the software, and accommodation of special events are covered.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p32-34 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the advantages of campus keyless access systems, particularly in combination with other access control technologies that help deter intruders and "piggybacking" of the unauthorized with the authorized.
Ensuring Our Schools Are Safe.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p44-47 ; Mar 2009
Illustrates how many sophisticated school security systems can be breached, suggests elements of a school safety assessment and components of the assessment team, and describes necessary qualifications of an outside security assessment firm.
Bethany College Toughens Up Exit Devices for Better Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2009
Describes how this college upgraded to electronic door latches, although initial equipment did not stand up to the heavy use, and had to be upgraded yet again.
Case Study: Diablo Valley College Goes Wireless to Integrate with Network Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n2 , p20-22 ; Feb 2009
Profiles this institution's use of wireless locks to retrofit an older building for increased access control. Proximity card access and a key override are featured.
Safety Balance: Achieving a Secure but Friendly Access Control.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p77-79 ; Jan 2009
Discusses school access control, emphasizing a welcoming environment that is nonetheless carefully controlled. Careful evaluation of how the building is used by students, staff, and the community begins the process. Design and staffing of entrances, visitor identification, and internal space controls are addressed.
Access Control Systems, Policies, and Procedures.
College Planning and Management; v12 n1 , p84,85 ; Jan 2009
Discusses the problem of failed access control systems due to improper use, failure to comply with the system, and disabling for convenience.
The Basic Fundamentals of Doorway Security.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p10,12,13 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews door security applications, including types of bolts, locksets, latchsets, strikes, cylinders, door closers, protection of the door from traffic damage, gaskets, and signage.