SCHOOL DESIGN -- UNITED KINGDOM
Information on designing and building school facilities in the United Kingdom, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. See the related NCEF resource list on International School Design.
References to Books and Other Media
Natural Play. An Evaluation of GfL’s Project Work with 8 Primary Schools in Central Scotland.
(Grounds for Learning, United Kingdom, Jan 27, 2012)
A growing body of evidence suggests that play has a significant impact on almost every area of children’s lives. It also suggests that children have significantly fewer opportunities for non-prescriptive ‘free play’ than previous generations have enjoyed. Most children spend at least 2000 hours of their life in a school playground, probably more than in any other outdoor play setting. Despite this, many UK schools do little to create the kind of rich play environments and experiences that are important for children. In other parts of Europe, play is viewed as a crucial aspect of school life – and their playgrounds and play practice are radically different from the UK. The authors embarked on a 2-year project with 8 Scottish primary schools to explore whether some of these more ambitious European-style ideas could be adapted to a UK context and to assess what the benefits of this approach might be for children. This report summarizes the approach they took, the lessons they learned and the impact of these projects on children and schools. [Authors' abstract] 17p
Hazelwood School, Glasgow Scotland
(American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Jan 2012)
Description of the design of the award-winning Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland that serves the needs of autistic students with sight, hearing, mobility or cognitive impairments. Discusses the choice of materials, the parkland setting, and the safe, stimulating environment for students and staff. 4p
The Journey of Sustainable Schools: Developing and Embedding Sustainability.
(National College for School Leadership, UK , Oct 2011)
This report is for school leaders who are leading and developing sustainable schools. It summarizes the findings from Forum for the Future and the Institute of Education's 2009-10 research for the National College into how school leaders are developing and embedding sustainability within their schools and communities. It includes examples of the skills, tools and activities school leaders are using to do this. Includes characteristics of a sustainable school. The study highlighted that there are two distinct phases of innovation as schools make the transition from one stage to another. These phases are practice development and strategic integration.
Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011
(OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments , Sep 2011)
Showcases over 60 exemplary recently built or refurbished schools and universities from 28 countries and includes examples of early childhood, primary, secondary, vocational and higher education facilities spanning countries in six continents, from India, Uruguay and Portugal, to Australia, United States and Burkina Faso. Collectively, these projects demonstrate state-of-the-art design in this field and each one is lavishly illustrated with colour photos, plans and descriptions.TO ORDER: http://www.oecd.org/
Best of British Schools. British Council for School Environments 2011 Awards.
(British Council for School Environments, Jun 2011)
Descriptions and photographs of outstanding work of schools, local authorities, sponsors, design teams, contractors and suppliers in developing excellent learning environments for young people and communities around England. 24p.
Database of Best Practices in Educational Facilities Investment
(OECD/CELE and the European Investment Bank , 2011)
The purpose of the database is to inform the planning, design, construction, management and evaluation of educational spaces by providing an international resource of exemplary school and university facilities, combined with a bibliographical reference tool for strategic investment in educational infrastructure. This database draws on two sources of information: Information collected in the framework of the joint CELE/European Investment Bank project on “Strategic Investment Planning for Educational Infrastructure”. The 60 exemplary schools and universities featured in CELE’s publication Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011. The database provides detailed information on each project, in addition to high-quality photos and plans and contact information for schools and architects. The database classifies each design project by category: flexible learning settings, school regeneration, access, new technologies, outdoor spaces, furniture, safety, comfort, community use and involvement, integrated services, special needs provision, multi-sensory environment, cultural and historical value; environmental sustainability, energy efficiency, cost efficiency, library/resource centre, music facilities, fine art facilities, science laboratories, vocational facilities, sporting facilities, etc). In due course, details of all the 166 submissions received during the publication’s preparatory phase will be uploaded on the database.
Hazelwood School. Sketchbook.
(Alan Dunlop Architects, 2011)
Hazelwood is a school in Glasgow, Scotland, for children and young people, aged 2 to 18, who are blind and deaf – “dual sensory impaired”. Many of the school’s children are physically handicapped and all have a degree of cognitive impairment. Architecturally, it is a new type of project, and a real success. The children and young people respond well to their new environment and appear to be thriving. The building has received multiple national and international awards. For photographs of the school, see http://www.alandunloparchitects.com/work/hazelwood-school 18p.
Where Will I Do My Pineapples? The Little Book of Building a Whole New School.
(Crown House Publishing [United Kingdom], 2011)
This is the story of a community placed in an enviable position of receiving funding to build a new campus and the technology to transform learning. What is discovered very early on, is that no one had considered the human impact of such a project. This book seeks to do exactly that. The process of community engagement is addressed as well as the psychology of human behaviors that emerge in such a context. Written through the perspective of a senior leader, with many amusing and bizarre stories, the book describes how the struggle and effort required to keep sound educational principles at the heart of a project is worth it. What came out of the process was a building that had a variety of learning spaces, fully trained staff, modern ICT and a transition curriculum. It was the only school building in the country to be delivered on time, within budget, with a ground breaking CPD program. 216p
Learning Landscapes in Higher Education: Final Report.
Neary, Mike et al
(Centre for Educational Research and Development, University of Lincoln, England, Apr 2010)
Learning Landscapes is a research project looking at the ways in which academics work with colleagues in campuses and other key stakeholders to develop and manage innovation in the design of teaching and learning spaces in higher education. This project explored new pathways and strategies which universities are using to link academic expertise to the process of quality and cost effective campus development in the redesigning the university for the twenty first century. The research features a series of campus mapping profiles and case studies of particular innovative teaching and learning spaces in the participating universities. These case studies have been used to produce a number of development tools that can be utilised by academics, estates professionals and other key stakeholders working in the HE sector. 29p.
Rethinking Schools Capital Investment: The New 3Rs? Refresh, Refurbish, Reuse.
(British Council for School Environments, London , 2010)
Examines the opportunities that refurbishing existing school buildings can offer, breaking the term refurbishment into what the authors call "the new 3Rs." They are: Refresh, which looks at the valuable contribution that good interior design and high quality furniture can make; Refurbishment, which includes more major upgrading of the building fabric and services as well as remodelling of internal spaces; and Reuse, which considers new functions for redundant buildings, whether it is breathing new life into old school buildings or converting existing offices or retail units into new schools. 24p.
Ingenium - Room for Learning [Video]
(Presented at the Council of Educational Facility Planners International 86th Annual World Conference & Expo. , Oct 18, 2009)
In 2001, England's Richmond upon Thames Council assembled a team to work on a vision for the classroom of the future. The result is Ingenium — a completely new approach to classroom design reflecting the demands of 21st Century learning. Core members of the design team were students from the three partner schools. They said they didn’t want a rectangular box with desks: they wanted to be able to arrange the space to suit themselves; to have the resources they needed to be available on demand; and above all they wanted to feel comfortable, in every sense, in their classroom. They said they wanted plenty of light, colour and air. Video shows the resulting classroom and the design process.
Winter Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Acoustic Performance of Newly Built Secondary Schools in England.
D. Mumovica, et al
(Building and Environment, Volume 44, Issue 7, Jul 2009)
Previous studies have found that classrooms are often inadequately ventilated, with the resultant increased risk of negative impacts on the pupils. This paper describes a series of field measurements that investigated the indoor air quality, thermal comfort and acoustic performance of nine recently built secondary schools in England. The most significant conclusion is that the complex interaction between ventilation, thermal comfort and acoustics presents considerable challenges for designers. The study showed that while the acoustic standards are demanding it was possible to achieve natural ventilation designs that met the criteria for indoor ambient noise levels when external noise levels were not excessive. Most classrooms in the sample met the requirement of limiting the daily average CO2 concentration to below 1500 ppm but just a few met the need to readily provide 8 l/s per person of fresh air under the easy control of the occupants. It would seem that the basic requirement of 1500 ppm of CO2 is achieved as a consequence of the window areas being just sufficient to provide the minimum of 3 l/s per person at low and intermittent occupancy. Thermal comfort in the monitored classrooms was mostly acceptable but temperatures tended to be much higher in practice than the design assumed. [Authors' abstract] p1466-1477TO ORDER: http://www.mendeley.com/research/winter-indoor-air-quality-thermal-comfort-and-acoustic-performance-of-newly-built-secondary-schools-in-england/
Designing for Disabled Children and Children with Special Educational Needs.
(Department for Children, Schools, and Families; London; United Kingdom , 2009)
Provides building design guidance for accommodation of special needs pupils in British schools. The individual parts of the document describe main categories of special educational needs and how to plan for them, inclusive design principles for schools, initial design strategies, design of specific spaces, technical guidance, and case studies. 200p.
Growing by Degrees: Universities in the Future of Urban Development.
(Royal Institute of British Architects, London , 2009)
Examines the potential and challenges of higher education campus growth and community development. The document discusses how the university and local civic authority can no longer carry on their business with minimal engagement. Both need each other today if either is to succeed. The scenarios explored in this publication are intended as informed provocations to stimulate debate not only within universities and local authorities, but also, particularly, between the two. 50p.
The Case for New Academic Workspaces.
Pinder, James; Parkin, Jennifer; Austin, Simon; Duggan, Fiona; Lansdale, Mark; Demian, Peter; Baguley, Thom; and Allenby, Simon
(Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK, 2009)
Looks at how universities can provide more innovative, effective and enjoyable working environments for academics and researchers. This report draws on case study research into new academic workspaces in the UK, distilling the lessons learned from these innovative projects to offer guidelines for future implementation. It describes the challenges of academic workspace design in the 21st century and considers various strategies and design solutions that can help to achieve the goals of a higher education institution and its academic members. The research findings make apparent that there is no single best design response, and that universities must understand each situation in terms of what they are trying to achieve and how they both want and need to work in the future. 37p
Evaluation of Building Schools for the Future, 2nd Annual Report.
(PriceweaterhouseCoopers, London, United Kingdom , Dec 2008)
Reports that the United Kingdom's Building Schools for the Future (BSF) program is making good progress, and that there is increasing belief in all stakeholders that it will deliver strong benefits for teaching and learning. There is strong evidence of satisfaction with their new buildings from the staff and pupils of the first four new BSF schools opened, and transformation of educational delivery is seen to be enriching academic achievement. Includes 33 references. 106p.
360 Degrees: Issue 16.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Summer 2008)
Report on Britain's first-ever "green day," an initiative to encourage learning about buildings, spaces and climate change, and features a school in London that specializes in design and the built environment. 12p.
The Effects of the School Environment on Young People's Attitudes Towards Education and Learning.
Rudd, Peter; Reed, Frances; Smith, Paula
(National Foundation for Educational Research, Berkshire, United Kingdom , May 2008)
Summarizes research to demonstrate the difference that the British Building Schools for the Future (BSF) schools are making to young peoples attitudes towards education and learning, as measured by their levels of engagement and enthusiasm for school. Overall findings indicate that student attitudes had become more positive after the move into the new school buildings. The proportions of students who: 1) said that they felt safe at school most or all of the time increased from 57 to 87 per cent, 2) said that they felt proud of their school increased from 43 to 77 per cent, 3) Said that they enjoyed going to school increased from 50 to 61 per cent, 4) Perceived that vandalism in their school decreased from 84 per cent of respondents to 33 per cent, 5) perceived that bullying decreased from 39 per cent of students to 16 per cent, and 6) expected to stay on in the sixth form or to go to college increased from 64 per cent to 77 per cent. It is not possible to attribute a causal link between improved attitudes of the students and the move to the new BSF building, but the numbers and levels of positive findings suggest an association between the move to the new surroundings and improvements in students' outlooks regarding their experience of school and their expectation for the future. 31p.
360 Degrees: Issue 15.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Spring 2008)
Considers how young people can learn about sustainability from their built environment, and profiles the Dalton School, an "eco-school" in The Netherlands. 12p.
Improving the School Estate.
(Audit Scotland, Edinburgh , Mar 2008)
Reports on a sample of 18 of the 219 Scottish schools that have been built or refurbished in the past ten years. The study shows that, although pupils and staff are generally satisfied with design, it could be better. Many said that their schools overheat and have poor ventilation. An early problem was that environmental sustainability was not a key factor in the designs, but more recently there have been some good examples of environmental factors being considered. The report sets out a number of further recommendations for government consideration. 47p.
An Introduction to Building Schools for the Future.
(Public Private Partnership Programme, London, United Kingdom , Jan 2008)
Offers guidance for the United Kingdom's Building Schools for the Future (BSF) program. The document offers an introduction to the BSF program, and advice on funding, design, technology integration, making the business case, finding the right private sector partner, conventionally funded projects, special issues for special school types, and sources for additional information and training. 48p.
Family Guide to School Environments.
(British Council for School Environments, London , 2008)
Assists families in performing an on-site inspection of a potential school. The guide presents descriptions of favorable situations and questions that should be considered while visiting the campus. These questions address the accessibility and safety of the campus, as well as the design of classrooms, availability of technology, the dining environment, the recreation areas, and the design and condition of restrooms and furnishings. 16p.
Just Another Brick in the Wall.
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2008)
Summarizes the results of a 2007 survey of British teachers revealing that just 12% said that their building provided an effective learning environment, 87% believed that school environments influence pupil behavior, and 60% said that their school didn't have an adjustable environment to support curriculum delivery. Architects participating in the Building Schools for the Future (BSF) program said that the demands during the procurement process were too great and that they felt rushed into producing less ambitious, poorer-quality designs without adequate consultation with schools. Architects also argued that BSFs aims were potentially unrealistic, given the information and funds available. Lastly, it was also argued that schools were failing to coordinate their design with nearby facilities and use other sources of funding in order to make their new building as beneficial as possible to the school and surrounding area. Teachers were unlikely to offer a design vision for the school because they had little or no experience of similar projects and few opportunities to learn from the experiences of others. The report recommends changes in the procurement and teacher engagement processes to improve BSF program schools. 2p.
Sure Start Children's Centres: A Post-Occupancy Evaluation.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2008)
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of 101 of Great Britain's Sure Start program centers, which was conducted two thirds of the way through the government's goal of providing 3,500 early childhood education centers nationwide. The results show that the majority are considered good by the staff and parents. Architecture and design professionals who conducted the evaluations considered the design of very few centers to rank as good or excellent. In many cases, some fundamental aspects such as environmental sustainability, external identity, storage and adult spaces are either not well designed or not included. Designs also need to cater for a wider and more varied range of uses because the buildings are more than just children's centers: they offer a wide range of family-orientated services. 89p.
Sure Start, Every Building Matters: A Visual Guide to Designing Sure Start Children's Centres and Other Early Years Facilities and Spaces.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2008)
Focuses on on both the preparation for and the design of an early childhood learning center by drawing on the lessons that British local authorities and other key partners have learned and highlighting the importance of quality design. The first section highlights the importance of five strategic issues that need to be addressed and outlines the qualities that should be present in the final building. Writing a project brief and how the design process works are also introduced. The next section focuses on specific issues to consider when creating an inspiring building for children and families, and demonstrates how small changes can impact positively on a building. This section uses visual examples of practical ideas and suggestions and highlights good design practice. Lastly, a summary of overriding qualities focuses on key aspects of every project, including incorporating sustainability features efficiently. 53p.
Transforming Schools for the Future?
(Futurelab, Bristol, United Kingdom , 2008)
Offers four British papers reviewing and supporting the transformation of school facilities under the Building Schools for the Future program. 23p.
Evaluation of Building Schools for the Future - First Annual Report.
(Dept. for Educational and Skills, London, United Kingdom , Dec 2007)
Reports on the educational impact of the Building Schools for the Future(BSF) capital investment in secondary schools in England, and identifies best practices in the delivery of the BSF programme. 25 school site visits were carried out involving interviews with headteachers and other members of staff, together with a pupil survey. In addition, a national headteacher survey was conducted with 1,918 schools. The report concludes that the vast majority of existing schools are now old (built before 1976) and are increasingly unsuitable for modern teaching and learning, that existing literature indicates that improved (new or refurbished) buildings contribute to pupil performance, and that there are high expectations of BSF with the majority of teachers believing that the BSF programme will support educational transformation. 324p.
Sustainable Schools: Are We Building Schools for the Future?: Government Response to the Committee's Seventh Report of Session 2006-07.
(House of Commons, Education and Skills Committee, London. , Oct 2007)
Presents the British government's response to a July, 2007 select committee report reviewing the record of Great Britain's Building Schools for the Future program. 47 recommendations from the original committee report are followed by paragraphs stating the government's response. 23p.
Sustainable Schools: Are We Building Schools for the Future? [United Kingdom]
(The Stationery Office, London, United Kingdom , Jul 16, 2007)
Reviews the record of Great Britain's Building Schools for the Future program, with regard to the creation of positive, sustainable learning environments. The conclusions, supported with extensive oral and written evidence, are that the visioning process for the creation of a new school should be lengthened to enable the inclusion of school staff and students; that greater design flexibility should be allowed at the local level; that individual institutions' technology integration experience should be made widely available, to the benefit of subsequent projects; that post-occupancy evaluations be conducted to determine what works and what doesn't; and that schools be as carbon neutral as possible. [There are two volumes, both available in PDF format. Scroll down the page to Reports, August 9, 2007.] 432p.
Learning Spaces Living Places.
(Arts Council England, Engaging Artists in the Built Environment Project, and Birmingham City Council, Jun 2007)
Invites students in Birmingham, England, schools to identify their concerns for space use in new and renovated schools. The students expressed a desire for personal safety, a “sense of space,” an accommodation of basic human needs, more nature and green areas, space for social contact and for quiet and prayer, complete handicap accessibility, and access to technology.
Building Schools for the Future: Introducing the CABE Schools Design Quality Programme
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK, Jan 18, 2007)
This leaflet is an initial introduction to CABE’s new schools design quality programme, which is supporting the £45 billion Building Schools for the Future (BSF) initiative. It summarises CABE's involvement from the pre-procurement process onwards and the key issues on which CABE will advise local authorities. It outlines the key stages in the design quality programme, and additional help that is available from CABE. 4p.
Better Buildings Better Design Better Education.
(Department for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Presents a survey of all 150 English local educational authorities, revealing the results of capital investment over the last 10 years. The booklet shows that schools are off to a positive start, and it demonstrates that excellent design can support broader aims from school sport and healthy eating to personalized learning and provision for pupils with special needs and disabilities. 62p.
Building Schools for the Future: The Role of a Design Champion.
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Outlines the qualities and duties of a person designated in a school building project to lead and coordinate efforts toward good design. A step by-step response guide for key points in the building process is included. 6p.
Creating Excellent Secondary Schools: A Guide for Clients.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
This British guide introduces some of the key issues around school design, and then proceeds through school building project stages: 1) creating a vision for the school and appraising the options: new build, refurbishment or a mixture; 2) developing the brief 3) selecting the team that will design and build your school; 4) developing the designs and constructing them; 5) the finished building. The guide explains what happens at each of these stages, how the school will be involved, and what help is available to enable informed decisions. The intent is to explain when the key decisions are made that influence the design quality of your school and the implications of those decisions. The guide features 13 case studies illustrating the secondary school design process. It also includes a glossary of terms, guidance and information on useful organizations and websites. 165p.
DFES School Grounds of the Future: Final Evaluation Report.
(Learning through Landscapes, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Evaluates the United Kingdom Dept. for Education and Skills' three-year School Grounds of the Future program, which encouraged schools to improve their school grounds. Evidence of best practices, value added to funding, impact on the educational program, and six recommendations for the future are detailed. 54p.
Learning Journeys, Moving Towards Designs for New Learning Spaces: Two Truths and a Suggestion.
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Discusses how educational space should reflect the pedagogy, the role of flexible furniture in learning spaces, and how boundaries between formal and informal learning spaces should be blurred. 19p.
Manifesto for Learning Environments: A Call to Action.
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
This "call to action" identifies a number of core principles which support the creation of effective environments for learning in Great Britain. These include: 1) ensuring design is focused on the needs of teaching and learning; 2)guaranteeing participation in the design, build, and equipping process by children, teachers and others who will use the new buildings; 3) ensuring schools are built to sustainable standards; 4) streamlining procurement processes to make them easier for all those involved in building and equipping schools, allowing room for choice and diversity; 4) promoting ideas of quality design and standards to develop safe, attractive and functional buildings and equipment; and 5)encouraging a small school culture to help nurture individual development and innovation. 12p.
Report on the School Environment: Survey 2007 Results. [United Kingdom]
(Teacher Support Network, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Reports the results of a British survey of teachers regarding their school environment. 530 respondents rated their schools for design, layout, lighting, ventilation, furnishings, flexibility, safety, and physical activity accommodation. 32 percent of the respondents rating their environment as poor, and 87 percent believed that the environment had an influence on pupil behavior. 6p.
Schools for the Future. Design of Sustainable Schools. Case Studies.
(Department for Education and Skills, London, UK , Sep 2006)
These twelve case studies of primary and secondary schools in the United Kingdom provide schools and design teams with real-world examples of places that have addressed sustainability challenges. The publication includes: 1) emerging themes; 2) detailed case studies, with photographs and plans, of twelve schools; and 3) a brief description of the main tools that support sustainable design. 110p.
Assessing Secondary School Design Quality.
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Jul 03, 2006)
Presents the results of an audit by the United Kingdoms Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) of 124 secondary schools completed between January 2000 and September 2005. CABE assessed the quality of 52 of these, which were selected as a representative sample. The assessment was based on 111 indicators, grouped into three categories: the way the building is designed to be useful as a school (functionality), its building quality, and its ability to create a sense of place and have an uplifting effect on the local community and environment (impact). Each school was then given an overall rating. In this audit, half of the schools completed in the last five years were assessed as "poor" or "mediocre," although there was some indication that the situation was improving in schools from the end of the period. 100p.
UK School Carbon Footprint Scoping Study.
(Sustainable Development Commission, London, UK , Mar 2006)
Reviews the current state of carbon emissions from British schools, their sources, and trends that will both increase and decrease carbon emissions in the near future. A variety of practices are proposed that will reduce school carbon emissions based on building design, waste, travel to school, procurement, and food preparation. 76p.
21st Century Learning Environments.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris , 2006)
Presents innovative designs for schools and analyzes needs for schools of the future, drawing on material presented at the OECD Programme on Educational Building's 2004 conference in London. The richly illustrated text offers analysis of seven themes in school design, thirteen conference presentations from international practitioners, and eleven school visits. The conclusions summarize planning and construction issues and make suggestions for the construction industry. 108p.
A-Z Sketchbook for School Build and Design.
(School Works, London, United Kingdom , Jan 2006)
Presents a visual guide to the key areas which must be considered when renovating or building a school. The publication is in an hand illustrated cartoon format, with each drawing isolating an issue of design, space use, adjacencies, educational appropriateness, etc. The drawings are organized in chapters according to school room or space type, design issue, or amenity. The purpose of the publication is to help students and others participate in the school design process. Though a British publication, it has application to school design anywhere.
Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities, Third Edition.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2006)
Profiles 65 school buildings from OECD member countries that illustrate good architectural programming and design. The schools were selected on behalf of the Programme for Educational Building by an international jury on the basis of their flexibility, involvement of community, sustainability, safety and security, and alternative financing. The profile for each school includes building statistics, project participants, a brief narrative, a plan, and several photographs. 177p.TO ORDER: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2, rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France
Designing Spaces for Effective Learning: A Guide to 21st Century Learning Space Design.
(Joint Information Systems Committee, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Addresses the design of entrances, teaching spaces, vocational teaching spaces, learning centres, and social spaces in higher education facilities. Within each category, issues of flexibility, future-proofing, bold look, creative design, supportive environment, and multiple use are covered. Numerous examples from British institutions, along with floor plans and photographs are provided. 34p.
Espaces Study on How Innovative Technologies are Influencing the Design of Physical Learning Spaces in the Post-16 Sector.
(University of Birmingham, Learning Development Unit, United Kingdom , 2006)
This British research details survey results and site visits exploring technology's influence on higher education teaching spaces, open access spaces, social spaces and other learning spaces. Major findings include: 1) The difficulty of forecasting over five years in any area of technology indicates that building and refurbishment projects need to build in contingencies for future changes. 2) The use of wireless networking and mobile computing devices is growing, but there is still a need for the institution to provide wired networking and permanently fixed desktop computers. 3) The provision of power for mobile devices is very important and will continue to be necessary for the next few years. 4) The management and development of technological facilities within open access and social spaces is growing in importance. 5) The design of all learning spaces needs to reflect the trend to more student-centered, collaborative and group learning. 6) The use of learning technologies within social spaces is of growing importance. 7) Access to online services from outside the traditional institutional boundaries is growing rapidly. 154p.
Ideas Book: Global Learning Environments.
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Summarizes presentations at the British Council for School Environments first Global Learning Environments Summit. Expert opinions on future pedagogy and learning spaces are illustrated by nine international case studies. 16p.
Primary Ideas: Projects to Enhance Primary School Environments.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Presents a toolkit of design principles, creative ideas, and projects for primary school environments, aimed at inspiring staff, pupils and parents. Its aim is to help schools take an inclusive approach towards rebuilding, refurbishing and upgrading premises. The publication contains examples from the United Kingdom and overseas and includes case studies by the authors from work carried out in building two new classrooms at Ballifield Primary School in Sheffield. 86p.TO ORDER: http://www.tsoshop.co.uk/education/bookstore.asp?FO=1205046&DI=568921
Schools for the Future: Design Schools for Extended Services.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Sets the United Kingdom policy context and provides advice on how local authorities and schools can design facilities in partnership with their communities, other agencies, and the private and voluntary sectors to deliver before- and after-school services.. It includes key questions which all schools can ask themselves as they think about the future and how best they can use one of their buildings. 136p.
Sustainable Schools: Getting It Right.
(British Council for School Environments, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Discusses features of sustainable schools in the light of their practicality. Basics are emphasized, such as passive design features, and "fit and forget" technologies like rainwater harvesting. Sophisticated and more maintenance-intense technologies that may not yield any benefit when the real costs are factored in are discouraged. Sustainability through the design team, construction, curriculum, technology, local authorities, and building controls are addressed. Two brief case studies are included. 16p.
Young Design Program 05-06.
(The Sorrell Foundation, London, United Kingdom , 2006)
Reviews the Sorrell Foundation's pilot study with 45 students from 4 colleges of the University of the Arts London and more than 100 pupils from 10 London primary and secondary schools. Ten professional mentors, who are experts in photography, architecture, product and communication design, supported the students in designing ideal new or renovated schools. Seven projects are profiled. 7p.TO ORDER: The Sorrell Foundation, Somerset House, Strand, London WC2R 1LA, United Kingdom; Tel: +44 (0)20 7845 5860, Fax: +44 (0)20 7845 5872, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Involving People Is Not Hard: It Makes Educational Sense, It's about Value for Money, It's about Ownership.
(School Works, London, United Kingdom , Jan 2006)
Presents case studies of ten British early childhood facilities that involved the community in the design process, where decisions were being made as to what services the facilities would provide. For each school, the varying goals and issues of the participants are presented, along with a description of the consultations that occurred and key design features of the completed facility. 42p.TO ORDER: http://www.school-works.org/
Building Schools for the Future: the Client Design Advisor.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment and the Royal Institute of British Architects, London. , Oct 2005)
This publication is aimed at local education authorities and schools in England. It explains the requirement for, role, and appointment of experienced architects as client design advisors within the Building Schools for the Future programme, which will transform every secondary school in England over the next 10-15 years. 6p.
School Grounds in Scotland.
(Learning through Landscapes, London, United Kingdom , Apr 2005)
Presents detailed results of a 2003 survey of all of Scotland's school properties that assesses their size, age, provision for sport, curricular and extra-curricular use, observability, challenges, and special education needs accommodation. A detailed list of 47 recommendations resulting from the survey is included, as are 84 references. 152p.
Design with Distinction: The Value of Good Building Design in Higher Education.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK , Mar 2005)
Reports on British research quantifying the effect of good architectural design on higher education staff and student recruitment and retention. Approximately 60 percent of students and staff indicated that the quality of the building design had a positive impact on their choice of institution, with higher figure for academic staff and postgraduate students. Building feature contributions to recruitment, retention, and performance are organized by the buildings' situational, structural/functional, and environmental factors. 50p.
Learning Environments Campaign Prospectus: From the Inside Looking Out.
(The Design Council, London, United Kingdom , Feb 2005)
Provides design guidance for innovative school environments. This British prospectus urges "bottom-up" innovation and a personalized approach to education and school design, led by the users rather than authorities. Problems with the traditional classroom format are cited and a case study of an innovative "360-degree Flexible Classroom" is provided. This classroom features a "wrap-around" design with instructional surfaces on all four walls, removable interactive whiteboards, and flexible furniture that can accommodate a variety of working arrangements and body positions. 54p.
Student Voice and the Architecture of Change: Mapping the Territory.
Flutter, Julia; Rudduck, Jean
(University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education, UK , Feb 2005)
Explores how schools, architects, and planners have consulted students about the school environment and what impact this consultation and participation have had on planning and design. Data were collected to identify the different ways in which students are being consulted and involved in school environment projects, what aspects of the physical environment in school have been identified by students as being important, how student input is being used to inform planning school architecture and facilities, benefits and difficulties that have been encountered in working with students on these projects. The review included an extensive literature search to investigate theoretical and practical aspects of this area of student voice, resulting in the inclusion of 83 references. 13p.
The Impact of School Environments: A Literature Review.
Higgins, Steve; Hall, Elaine; Wall, Kate; Woolner, Pam; McCaughey, Caroline
(The Design Council, London, United Kingdom; The Centre for Learning and Teaching, School of Education, Communication and Language Science, University of Newcastle. , Feb 2005)
Explores the impact of learning environments on student achievement, engagement, affective state, attendance, and well-being through an extensive review of the literature dating back approximately 25 years. This review finds clear evidence that extremely poor environments have a negative effects on students and teachers, and that improving these has significant benefits. However, once school environments are raised to minimum standards, the evidence of effect is less clear. Citations to the 167 sources reviewed are provided. 47p.
Great Britain's "Building Schools for the Future" Program.
Patel, Mukund; Averly, Joanna; Kalkhoven, Paul
(American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
Describes common themes that arose from the exemplar designs of 11 architects engaged by Great Britain's "Building Schools for the Future" Program, as well as efforts toward better school design from Britain's Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment and City Academies program. 4p.
Building Bulletin 77: Designing for Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities in Schools, Revised and updated 2005.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2005)
Provides building design guidance for accommodation of special needs pupils in British schools. The individual parts of the document describe the key issues which designers need to understand when commencing a project, outline the legal framework and educational context; provides information about the main categories of special educational need and describes the ways in which provision can be made to meet them; covers how local educational authority strategic planning will assist in the decision-making and briefing processes to meet local needs; provides guidance emphasizing the need to design accommodation which enhances pupils access to a broad, balanced and relevant curriculum that is also age-appropriate at each phase of education in all schools; gives practical and technical advice to assist in achieving best value; and advises on project-planning, with typical model schedules for different types of special school. 291p.
Design Quality and the Private Finance Initiative.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK , Jan 2005)
Presents the Commission's perspective on the British private finance initiative (PFI) to deliver well-designed public buildings (including schools), and considers what policy interventions are needed to remove the barriers to the delivery of design quality. 6p.
Picturing School Design. A Visual Guide to Secondary School Buildings and Their Surroundings Using the Design Quality Indicator for Schools.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, UK , Jan 2005)
Presents seven British case studies that illustrate solutions to overcoming recurring pitfalls in school design, using the Design Quality Indicator for Schools, which was developed by the DfES in partnership with the Construction Industry Council. The publication illustrates various approaches to key design issues within the school site and building, and share best practices as well as identifying common problem areas. 28p.
Schools for the Future: Inspirational Design for PE & Sport Spaces.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2005)
Advises on how to create physical education spaces that will serve all ability levels and promote lifelong habits of healthy living. The book consists of four parts: 1) "Vision," which discusses British policies that are setting the standard for new physical education and emphasizes the contribution good design can make. 2) "Design Principles," which summarizes the key issues that should be addressed to enable a successful project. 3)"Design Realisation," which offers design guidance for and case studies of high quality physical education delivery. 4)"Technical Detal," which offers technical guidance for design teams. Extensive photographs and diagrams accompany the text. 151p.
UK Higher Education Space Management Project: Drivers of the Size of the HE Estate.
(Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol , Jan 2005)
Presents a review of research undertaken to benchmark the size of any higher education institution's property in the UK. The key findings were: 1) Using central timetabling to allocate teaching space is associated with having a smaller campus. 2) There is support for the view that space charging reduces space. 3) Institutions in more urban areas have smaller campuses, all else being equal. 18p.
Joined Up Design for Schools
Sorrell, John; Sorrell, Frances
(Merrell Publishers, New York, NY , Jan 2005)
Profiles over sixty projects in which school children thoughout Britain have commissioned pioneering concepts from an array of notable international designers and architects. The client teams of children engaged designers to respond to their everyday needs and concerns, and this volume describes and illustrates an range of projects that deal with the built environment, communications, storage, color, clothing and identity in schools. 192p.TO ORDER: 49 West 24th St., 8th floor, New York, NY 10010
Schools Capital Investment for All.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , Nov 2004)
Capital investment in schools across England has reached a record high. With a £750 million increase from 2005-06, investment for the period 2007-08 will rise to £6.3 billion. This booklet outlines how the Department for Education and Skills' approach to investment will support England's five-year education strategy. By achieving a balance of investment--in building new schools from scratch, remodelling schools, and maintaining schools--England will provide the best educational environment for pupils and teachers. 36p.
Being Involved in School Design: A Guide for School Communities, Local Authorities, Funders and Design and Construction Teams.
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), London, England , Sep 2004)
This is a guide for school communities, local authorities, funders, and design and construction teams. The booklet includes ten case studies, useful information, and a glossary. The first five case studies illustrate school building through traditional procurement routes. The other five case studies discuss school building through the Private Finance Initiative. 66p.
Creating 21st Century Learning Environments [PowerPoint Presentations]
(OECD Programme on Educational Building (PEB) and the Department for Education and Skills, United Kingdom, May 2004)
This webpage provides access to the PowerPoint presentations of speakers at an international seminar held in London on May 26-28, 2004. OECD countries and PEB members shared ideas, best practices, and research on providing innovative, exciting and adaptable buildings, including current UK projects. Presentation topics include: Building Schools for the Future; Design Strategies for Tomorrow's Schools; the Joinedupdesignforschools Project; Classrooms of the Future; and Transforming Existing Schools.
360 Degrees: Issue 4.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Spring 2004)
Profiles British programs and resources that support sustainable school design and promote environmental awareness through the built environment. 11p.
Secured by Design - Schools.
(Secured By Design, London, United Kingdom , Apr 2004)
Provides guidance, from a British perspective, on how to establish and maintain a safe and secure environment in schools, describing design features, the role of the Architectural Liaison Officer and/or Crime Prevention Design Adviser during the design phase, principles and steps of a school facility assessment, and advice on management practices that enhance safety. 22p.
Building Schools for the Future: A New Approach to Capital Investment.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , Feb 2004)
Presents details of a new approach to building and renovating schools in England, made possible by substantially increased funding. Exemplar school designs by eleven leading architectural firms, intended to help local educational authorities (LEA’s) develop their own designs, are provided and the ways in which the local partnerships will function are outlined. This also explains the creation of the national Parterships for Schools, to advise and support ownership and local planning, and to make procurement more efficient. 33p.
Schools for the Future. Exemplar Designs. Concepts and Ideas.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , Feb 2004)
Exemplar designs aim to improve the design quality of school buildings in England. The designs — five primary schools, five secondary schools and one 'all-through' school — have been created by eleven leading British architectural practices and are based on close work with administrators, teachers, and students. The designs are intended to to provide inspiration for LEAs and schools developing their educational vision and requirements for new schools, in order to drive up the standard of school building across the country. The designs aim to help develop a shared vision of what are 'Schools for the Future'; create benchmarks for well designed schools; push forward the boundaries of innovation and inspiration; support the delivery of the Building Schools for the Future program; and encourage industry to develop new ways of delivering school buildings. Many of the designs include 'extended schools' facilities for use by the wider community and all have been developed to respond to the demands of current teaching styles while looking to the possibilities of the future. Includes plans, drawings, and color photographs. 121p.
21st Century Schools: Learning Environments of the Future.
(Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) and RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects), London, England , 2004)
This report explores the relationship between the physical school environment and the teaching that it contains. It illustrates four scenarios for learning environments in 2024. It concludes with an agenda for schools of the future: issues, recommendations, and questions for future exploration. The study suggests that learning environments of the future should be: 1) flexible at different scales and timescales, allowing for variation in use, occupancy, and layout; 2) inspiring to those working, learning, and visiting; 3) supportive of effective teaching and learning, accomodating a wide range of experiences and activities; and 4) involving of the users and the wider community, and linking with other learning places.(Includes 38 references.) 34p.
Asset Management Plans. [United Kingdom]
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
The aim of these documents is to assist Local Authorities in Britain with asset management planning (AMPs) for schools. AMPs set out the information needed, and the criteria used, to make decisions about spending on school premises which will: raise standards of educational attainment; provide sustainable and energy-efficient buildings; provide innovative design solutions that reflect the future needs of technology-based education; increase community use of school facilities; maximize value for money; ensure efficient and effective management of new and existing capital assets; help governors and head teachers in developing plans for individual schools by making fair and transparent the process of decision-making on funding priorities across the Authority; help the development of partnership projects; and provide assurance to stakeholders that capital projects are soundly based and represent good value for the money. The guidance on formulating AMPs is presented in eight sections: (1) the plan framework; (2) property information systems and school premises data; (3, 3a) condition assessment; 4) suitability assessment; (5) sufficiency assessment; (6) appraisal guidance; (7) data analysis.
Building Schools for the Future and Secondary Diversity and Specialism, Joining up Local Ideas, Planning and Funding, a Series of Regional Conferences.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
Presents sentiments gathered from conferences held to introduce England’s Building Schools for the Future program to local educational authorities and volunteers. The comments are organized under the topics of partnerships, allocation criteria, design issues, funding, planning, collaboration, and the role of the Department for Education and Skills. 25p.
Classrooms of the Future: Innovative Designs for Schools.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
Describes twelve pilot projects from British local education authorities creating innovative learning environments that are imaginative and stimulating, with the aim of inspiring children to achieve more. These primary and secondary schools feature increased community use of the buildings, partnerships with other cultural and scientific institutions, relocatable laboratories, sustainable design, and elevated service to rural communities. Includes drawing, plans, and color photographs. 80p.
EIS Survey of New and Refurbished Schools. [Scotland]
(Educational Institute of Scotland, Edinburgh , 2004)
Presents the results of a survey of Scottish school teachers working in new or renovated schools. Only 27 percent of teachers believed that their comments had had any impact on the final plans, and numbers for involvement with specific issues (HVAC, accessibility, lighting, safety and security) were considerably lower still. Satisfaction with completed projects, however, was somewhat higher, with ranges between 40 and 60 percent. 42p.
Evaluation, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Provides post-occupancy evaluation guidance for Scottish schools. Building evaluations are described, accompanied by advice on how to get the most out of a building evaluation, a case study with action checklist, and references to assist in the evaluation. 38p.
Managing Schools During Construction Projects, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Discusses staffing, training, planning, and management imperatives for schools that remain open during construction. School co-ordinator's training and responsibilities, recommended consultations, opportunities that might arise, communication issues, hazard and disruption management, and migration to the completed project are detailed. 19p.
Option Appraisal, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Offers guidance on weighing options for school construction projects. The stages of defining the objectives, developing the options, gathering information, assessing the options, analyzing the options, final consultation, selection, and reporting are detailed. 31p.
Output Specification, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Offers guidance on creation of the local education authority's requirements for a public/private school partnership. The output specification is the core of the RFP and covers issues such as accommodation, facilities, and level of service. This document covers who develops the output specification, when it is developed, and content, including scope, risk, project delivery, and procurement details. A model specification is included. 29p.
Schools for the Future. Transforming Schools: An Inspirational Guide to Remodelling Secondary Schools.
(Department for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
Presents recent British school renovation case studies that illustrate the benefits of refurbishing some facilities, and replacing others. Also described is how each school's budget will be set, with guidance on how to make the best use of those funds according to the vision and ethos of the school. Project statistics, floor plans, and photographs are included. 95p.
Sustainability: Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(The Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Outlines princples and processes for achieving a sustainable school, covering issues that should be considered throughout the design and construction process. The individual elements of sustainable schools are enumerated, and the processes for securing them described. Extensive practical advice from two architects and a government official, along with case studies of nine schools that addressed sustainability are included. 55p.
Improving School Buildings: Asset Management Planning in LEA's and Schools.
(Audit Commission, London, England , Feb 2003)
Reports on an independent audit pursuant to the British government's increased investment in schools, beginning in 1997. The report found that significant improvements in school facility conditions have been realized, but that problems in funding arrangements resulted in capital resources not being allocated to areas of greatest need, that Local Education Authorities (LEA's) needed to support schools in innovative ways so that resources can be deployed more effectively, and that schools now share substantially in the responsibility of their facilities' conditions. Substantial statistics are presented to illustrate areas of concern and recommendations for improvements on the part of the national government, LEA's, and individual schools are offered. (Includes 15 references.) 44p.
The 21st Century School, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Provides details on a the role of school facilities in delivering service under a range Scottish policies, not all of which are strictly education-related. The policies cover school design, safety, curriculum, health services, language, nutrition, after-hours learning, community development, transportation safety, sport and physical education, and sustainable development. 49p.
Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Describes the Scottish Executive's objectives and strategies for their school facilities, the current condition of their schools, a vision for what a 21st-century school will be like, and how they intend to make it all happen. 40p.
Building Schools for the Future: Consultation on a New Approach to Capital Investment.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2003)
Presents a summary of a new approach to building and renovating schools in England, made possible by substantially increased funding. The case for the new approach, proposed distribution of funding, and proposed partnerships with local educational authorities (LEA’s), are described. 33p.
Case Studies, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Presents case studies that illustrate how local authorities are implementing the school estate strategy. Each case study describes the project, the outcome, the lessons to be learned, and contact information. They represent creative and community-appropriate solutions that often balance conflicting issues. 100p.
Core Facts, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , Jan 2003)
Presents guidance to Scottish local education authorities for collection of significant facility data that will establish a baseline, and inform targets and spending decisions. 20p.
Creating New Schools.
(The Education Network, London, England , 2003)
This advises Britain's local education education authorities (LEA's) on innovative school design strategies. Various authors describe programs and experiences that include bringing students into the design process, creating healthy learning environments, preparing post-occupancy evaluation, and understanding the influence of buildings on student behavior. 12p.
Furniture for the Future. New Ideas for Tomorrow's Classroom.
(Dept. for Education and Skills; Design Council, London, England , 2003)
The British Design Council gave three teams of designers and manufacturers the challenge of producing innovative yet cost-effective school furniture that creates better learning experiences for pupils. In this publication, the teams explain the processes that led to three very different concepts including a radical reworking of the traditional classroom chair and table (featuring a swivel seat which orbits around an adjustable table); a unique primary school table that is easy to stack and group and can be adjusted to suit pupils of different heights; and a multi-purpose workbench that allows pupils to write, sketch, and carry out practical work in the same place. Extensively illustrated throughout, the publication also features examples of learning environments and resources from around the world. 64p.TO ORDER: Design Council, 34 Bow Street, London WC2E 7DL, United Kingdom. Tel: 44-020-7420-5200.
Joined Up Design for Schools
(The Sorrell Foundation, London, UK , 2003)
Reviews several British school design projects in which students and designers cooperated to create improved facility conditions in classrooms, restrooms, cafeterias, and lockers. The book describes and illustrates a range of projects that also deals with communications, storage, color, clothing, and identity in schools. Students commissioned pioneering concepts from international designers and architects, including Richard Rogers Partnership, Paul Smith, Will Allsop, Marks Barfield,Thomas Heatherwick,Wolff Olins, Conran & Partners, Priestman Goode and Kevin McCloud. 68p.TO ORDER: http://www.merrellpublishers.com
PFI in Schools: The Quality and Cost of Buildings and Services Provided by Early Private Finance Initiative Schemes.
(Audit Commission, London, England , 2003)
Reviews the United Kingdom's Private Finance Initiative by comparing 17 PFI schools with 12 traditionally-funded schools. The report found that the quality of school buildings built via traditional funding was, on average, better than the early PFI schools and that there was little evidence of design innovation in PFI schools. There was no clear-cut difference between PFI or traditionally funded schools in construction or operating costs. Cleaning costs appeared to be higher in PFI-funded schools, possibly reflecting higher standards. While PFI-funded school projects did not at the outset appear to outperform traditionally funded ones, the report maintains that the results for PFI-funded schools are not necessarily negative, considering that the projects studied were the very first to be constructed under the program. 55p.
School Design, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Offers guidance on good school design, describing several principles of good design, suggesting ways to procure quality and innovation, and providing several European examples of good design. 48p.
School Estate Management Plans, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Offers guidance on facility management plans, describing their purpose, content, scope, and preparation. Clarity and flexibility is emphasized, and a model plan is provided. 23p.
The School I'd Like: Children and Young People's Reflections on an Education for the 21st Century.
Burke, Catherine; Grosvenor, Ian
(RoutledgeFalmer, New York, NY , 2003)
In 2001 the British newspaper The Guardian launched a competition called "The School I'd Like" in which young people were asked to imagine their ideal school. This book presents material drawn from the competition and is illustrated by children's essays, stories, poems, designs, pictures, photographs, and plans. It expresses children's own ways of seeing and naming issues of concern to all involved in education and illuminates ways in which the built environment is understood and experienced by school-age children. 162p.TO ORDER: RoutledgeFalmer, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001.
Kit for Purpose - Design to Deliver Creative Learning.
(Design Council, London, United Kingdom , Oct 2002)
Proposes ways to redesign the tools and resources of learning, and the systems of procurement, to raise academic achievement and support a 21st-century curriculum in Great Britain. The report describes the consequences of poorly designed and poor quality educational furnishings and resources. It proposes three different approaches to solving the problem by: linking the design of learning tools to educational outcomes, employing an interdisciplinary and participatory partnership approach, and linking policy and practice to adapt government guidance, regulation, control, and funding to meet the needs of a changing school system. 107p.
Annesley, Barbara; Horne, Matthew; Cottam, Hillary
(School Works, London, England , Feb 2002)
This publication, from a non-profit organization in Britain concerned with educational facilities design, aims to stimulate a debate about the building environment of secondary schools in relation to other dimensions--people, the learning process, and the institutional framework. Its chapters are: (1) "School Buildings in Britain Today"; (2) "Institutions Out of Place," addressing how changes in society and education should influence changes in schools' physical facilities; (3) "Buildings as Frames for Life," addressing the symbolic and relationship-building aspects of schools; (4) "Design Examples," including illustrations from Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States; (5) "Partnership and Participation," describing the current "stifling" process for designing school buildings in Britain and offering a new approach to school architecture; and (6) "School Works Recommendations.” 56p.TO ORDER: School Works, Ltd., The Mezzanine, Elizabeth House, 39 York Rd., London SE1 7NQ, England
Monitoring and Evaluation of Public Policies for Educational Infrastructure. [England]
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France. , Feb 2002)
This paper provides an overview of how the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills is managing, monitoring, and evaluating investment in school accommodation in England. School infrastructure in the United Kingdom is going through a period of significant change as the government seeks dramatic improvements in educational standards. This has meant a five fold increase in capital investment in school buildings from 0.7 billion pounds a year in 1996-1997 to more than 3.5 billion pounds in 2003-004. It has required improving local processes for making investment decisions, which has required surveys of all schools, developing clear priorities, and improving appraisal expertise at local government and school levels. It has also required providing schools with their own capital budgets. It has been necessary to develop a better understanding of the impact on educational standards of capital investment in school infrastructure and to reassess the expectations for quality and purpose of accommodation that schools provide. It has been necessary to look for improvements to procurement and management of investment, particularly in making greater use of private sector capital to fund initial investment and private sector expertise in designing and managing buildings. 7p.
Schools for the Future: Designs for Learning Communities. Building Bulletin 95. [United Kingdom]
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2002)
This bulletin provides guidance on school building design in Britain for the 21st century, including issues such as increased use of information and communication technology, opening up the school to the wider community, more flexible learning patterns, inclusion of special educational needs pupils in mainstream schools, sustainability, and design quality. Part 1, "Key Issues for the 21st Century School," looks in detail at the changes in education and government priorities. Part 2, "Design Issues for Schools," examines the design implications of these developments, while Part 3, "The Building Process," considers how to achieve design quality and value for the money in the building process. Descriptive examples and photographs are scattered throughout the text. (Appendices include checklists on community use, inclusion, and security, and discussion of information and communication technology considerations.) 77p.
Building Education: The Role of the Physical Environment in Enhancing Teaching and Research.
(Institute of Education, London, England , 2002)
This British publication provides an overview of some of the current themes relevant to school building design. It looks at the relationship between school buildings, attainment, and behavior and describes projects that address ways in which school buildings can support and encourage participatory learning, and enhance both Great Britain's national curriculum and individual schools' curricula. It examines the implications of opening up school buildings to the wider community and the role of the physical environment in the inclusion of children with special educational needs and disabilities. Finally, factors that will have implications for school buildings in the future such as environmental concerns and the impact of multimedia technology are addressed.(Contains 91 references.) 41p.TO ORDER: Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL, England.
Building Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the Relationship between Schools Capital Investment and Pupil Performance.
(PricewaterhouseCoopers; Department for Education and Employment, London, England , Jan 2001)
This report presents empirical evidence about the impact that capital investment has on academic achievement in the United Kingdom public school system. The report presents an overview of the research methodology and the main findings from the existing literature and qualitative studies compared to those found in quantitative studies. Analysis indicates that, while most quantitative studies show that capital spending heightens academic performance, the relationship appears weak. However, qualitative studies and a literature review reveal a stronger link between capital spending and student achievement. The strongest relationship between capital investment and academic performance appears to be in specific school design features and school facility quality. Appendices contain additional information on the qualitative research design, issues related to the study's statistical methodology, and detailed statistical results. (Contains 54 references.) 64p.Report NO: R-242
Client Guide: Achieving Well-Designed Schools through PFI.
(Commision for Architecture and the Built Environment, London, England , 2001)
Provides guidance to those involved in delivering new schools through the Private Finance Initiative (PFI). It concentrates on how to place design at the heart of the process and draws on evolving good practice that the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment is developing through work with local education authorities. It is intended for use by all those involved in PFI schools projects: local education authorities, teachers, contractors, local authority design champions and design teams. 32p.
Design for Learning.
Bentley, Tom; Fairley, Ciara; Wright, Shelagh
(Demos, London, England, 2001)
Using design in British schools can improve the quality of life for students and staff, not just in terms of the built environment but also through better communications, individual uniforms, flexible furniture, and a powerful sense of identity. This report provides an insight into a process which can create a 'designed learning environment' to prepare young people for a world where creativity is vitally important. This collaborative approach brought together pupils, teachers, and design professionals from all over Britain. The projects range from a scheme to build a treehouse inside a classroom to enlisting one of the United Kingdom's leading menswear designers to rethink the school uniform. In each case, the pupils created a brief for their design consultant to deliver a real improvement to the life of a school through good design. 67p
School Works Tool Kit.
Seymour, Jane; Cottam, Hilary; Comely, Grace; Annesley, Barbara; Lingayah, Sanjiv
(School Works, London, England , 2001)
The United Kingdom's non-profit School Works project was initiated to respond to the challenges of updating school infrastructure by showing the links between design and education, producing beautiful schools which further learning, and working in new ways with new partnerships. The first part of this "toolkit" guide explains the thinking behind the School Works approach and what it has to offer. The second part discusses how to set up a participatory process step by step from the questions that need to be considered and the focus a school's project might take to the techniques schools can use to get everyone involved. It also refers to the School Works' experience at Kingsdale School in London. The third part explains how to select an architect and gives a broad outline of the processes involved in implementing a building project. 116p.
A Guide for School Governors: Developing School Buildings.
(Royal Institute of British Architects, RIBA Schools Client Forum, London, England , 2000)
This two-part guide presents information for United Kingdom school governors [school board members] to help them in the management and development of their educational facilities. The guide explains how to carry out duties and responsibilities as a client for a building project, and it shows how to ensure that the work carried out is appropriate and helps raise the school's educational standards. Part 1 establishes the context in which capital and recurrent funding may be used. Part 2 describes the possible processes needed to carry out building projects, whether minor repairs or a major capital project such as a new classroom or block. Lists of references and main professional bodies conclude the guide. 40p.
Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments.
(Architectural Press, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, Massachusetts , 2000)
This guide focuses on the architecture of primary and pre- school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture along with an overview illustrating the link between progressive educational ideas and experimental architecture. Chapter 2 explores the classroom environment and its importance to child development and learning, including the interweaving of the esoteric factors such as the effects on behavior of color, light, and texture with the practical aspects of designing for comfort, health, and education. Chapter 3 analyzes and discusses the best new examples of school design within the wider architectural and political context. Chapter 4 examines the issues outside the classroom such as environmental factors defining healthy, comfortable buildings for education and the structure of school funding within the United Kingdom. The book also analyzes 20 school or educational buildings in diagrammatic and visual terms revealing how wit and imagination applied in a discerning manner can be as inspiring as cutting-edge technologies adapted in previous eras. 238p.
Modernising the Schools Infrastructure in England
( Department for Education and Employment, Schools Capital and Buildings,United Kingdom , Oct 30, 1999)
This keynote speech addresses how to modernize school infrastructure for the delivery of 21st century education in England, including the background of the English education system and the current state of the English school estate and maintenance backlog. It discusses the government's role for improving the education system and raising standards, new sources of money using public private partnerships, and the following three challenges that large inflows of extra capital present: how to target money more effectively to raise standards; the need for better delivery mechanisms to improve value for money and the stewardship of school premises; and how to evaluate capital spending. Specific programs to address particular needs are also addressed, including the City Learning Centres program, community use of school facilities, and the millennium school. 9p.
Accommodating, Information, Communication, Education. A Symposium Held at the Royal Institute of British Architects (May 6, 1999).
(Royal Institute of British Architects, RIBA Client Forums, London, England , May 06, 1999)
This report presents participant presentations and case studies from the 1999 symposium, "Accommodating, Information, Communication, Education." Presentations are as follows: "Taking the Open University Forward" (Geoff Peters); "Learning Centres for the University for Industry" (Anne Wright); "The Real and the Virtual -- How Do They Interact?" (Chris Yapp); "Networking Lifelong Learning" (Keith Duckitt); "Property in FE Colleges" (George Edwards); and "Experiencing the Future of the New World of IT" (Ned Sifferlen). Case studies examine Newark and Sherwood College, Telford College of Arts and Technology, and SmithKline Beecham. Other international building designs are highlighted for their efficient use of light and heat, their thermal performance, good acoustics, and ingenious cable management. 49p.
Raising Standards: Opening Doors. Developing Links between Schools and Their Communities.
(Dept. for Education and Employment, London, England , 1999)
This British publication offers guidance to help schools open up the use of their premises and facilities and to enhance their links with the local community. It highlights the benefits of partnership and offers real examples of the type of activity which is already undertaken in many schools and how it is organised and funded. Also covered are the legal aspects of community use of school property arrangements such as ownership of the premises and the agreements, giving control to others, the roles of local education authorities and governor's duties, and operating childcare in schools. Final sections address practical aspects of community use of school property including health and safety, security, fire safety, public entertainment and other licenses, and maintenance. Appendices highlight ownership aspects of school premises, provide an example of a transfer of control agreement, and present a list of useful contacts. 52p.Report NO: PP3D15/40298/1299/14
Purchasing Energy. Managing School Facilities Guide 5.
(Department for Education and Employment,Architects and Building Branch, London, England. , 1998)
This booklet examines the purchasing choices which will be available with the introduction of full competition for all electricity and gas supplies in the United Kingdom, giving schools the chance to make significant savings on energy costs. The guide offers detailed purchasing information on such topics as tariff structures, contract energy management, the types of contract energy management available, and transportation charges. The central role of energy management is stressed, and the accounting procedures and tools required to maximize savings are described. 56p.
Schools' Environmental Assessment Methods (SEAM).
(Department for Education, Architects and Building Branch, London ,England , Oct 1996)
Responding to the need for users of schools to use their buildings in a way that creates a better internal environment for children and reduces harm to the environment, this document lists environmental issues and corrective recommendations. Environmental issues include sources of noxious fumes, water and air quality, lead-free paint, recycling and waste disposal, ventilation, lighting, energy management, and legionnaires' disease. 38p.Report NO: Building Bulletin 83
Building Bulletin 82: Area Guidelines for Schools.
Williamson, Beech, Ed.; Thompson, Andy, Ed.; Bishop, Robin; Watson, Lucy; Brooke, John
(Department for Education and Employment,Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Sep 06, 1996)
This bulletin provides non-statutory guidance on the provision of teaching and non-teaching accommodation for nursery, primary, and secondary pupils, as well as school grounds. It is directed at the early stages of school projects when strategic decisions must be made about the buildings and site. It follows the steps that designers and school planners can take to identify the appropriate areas for all mainstream schools. Section 1 identifies the approximate overall areas for the school buildings with the idea of helping to reduce the economic drain on school budgets. Section 2 helps to establish the number and types of teaching spaces needed to support particular curriculum or staffing models. Sections 3 and 4 provide more detailed information on the individual spaces required. Section 5 deals with the site area and layout, and provides help in choosing a site, in locating a new building or extension, and in planning a layout of the main eternal features. 85p.Report NO: Building Bulletin 82
Design and Technology Accommodation in Secondary Schools. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 81.
Watson, Lucy; Wadsworth, Alison; Daniels, Richard; Jones, Alan
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1996)
This publication illustrates examples and suggests an approach individual schools can use to assess their own design and technology accommodation requirements. Sections 1 and 2 give a guide to the number, type, and size of teaching spaces that are likely to be required, and describes the range of non-teaching support spaces, outlining key points to consider when planning the overall suite of spaces; and provide furnished layouts of typical specialist rooms. Section 3 provides detailed information on both teaching and non-teaching support spaces. Section 4 offers advice on the most typical furniture used in design and technology spaces. Section 5 describes typical workshop equipment and guidance on their accommodation needs. Section 6 outlines key points about servicing design and technology spaces. 84p
Grounds for Learning: A Celebration of School Site Developments in Scotland.
(Learning Through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
This manual contains ideas and descriptions of some of the best ways Scottish schools can use and develop their grounds. Chapters examine the process of change from getting started, planning, and making the changes necessary. Specific topics include setting up the management structure, surveying the school grounds, identifying needs and solution planning, implementing and adjusting the plans, dealing with multicultural issues, linking ground development with the curriculum, and addressing special needs issues. Case studies are included. 94p.
Educational Design Initiatives in City Technology Colleges. Building Bulletin 72.
Thompson, Andy; Williamson, Beech; Tindall, Sarah
(Department of Education and Science, Architects and Building Branch, London, England. , Jun 1991)
Six City Technology Colleges (CTC) were all site selected, built, and opened in under 2 years without being compromised by expense or loss of quality. This document examines this "fast-track" method of building projects using case studies of each school that illustrate the CTC concept and process. The CTC initiative is described including discussions of its funding and ethos, educational characteristics and objectives, curriculum framework, building objectives, and project management concepts. The case studies explore the different forms of building contracts used (management forms, design and build, and measured term), furniture procurement methods, the school design development that supported the educational objectives, the inclusion of technology that met or exceeded the minimum requirements for technology and science, and the creation of a learning environment that supported cross curricular activity with increasing use of technology throughout the curriculum. Each case study includes floor plans and photographs. 83p.
Accommodation for the 16-19 age group: Four Colleges in 1980. Design Note 23.
(Department of Education and Science, London , 1980)
Four English sixth form or tertiary colleges were visited in 1980 to determine the accommodation requirements of 16-19 year olds who are continuing their education at either of these types of institutions. This paper describes each college, summarizes the range of courses offered and the way the colleges were organized, and the range of teaching and non-teaching accommodations available to the colleges and how this met their requirements. Among the main conclusions was that non-teaching accommodations are not always adequately provided for, particularly at institutions re-using existing premises. Also, teaching accommodation can be significantly increased by specific organizational changes. Finally, by 1984, the 16-19 year-old population will start to decline following its peak in the 1981-82 academic year. Such decline of demand should allow scope both for rectifying deficiencies in non-teaching accommodation, and for the disposal of substandard or temporary teaching accommodation. Capital expenditure planning should strike a balance between short and longer term demand expectations. An appendix provides floor plans for two of the colleges. 40p.TO ORDER: Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)
Accommodation for the 16-19 Age Group: NAFE: Designing for Change. Design Note 22.
(Crown , 1980)
Many 16-year olds in England seek alternatives to traditional formal higher education thus requiring alternative means of attracting this group to continue their education in an educational atmosphere appropriate to their needs. This publication examines the problem of providing for non-advanced further education in the context of the expansion of an existing college. It considers the uncertainties of further educational requirements which, coupled with the constraints on building programs, indicate a pattern of growth in three discrete phases. Further, it provides details on the kinds of courses to be expected at the college and the accommodation which will be required. Finally, alternative approaches to the development plan are discussed and illustrated in relation to this overall strategy. Appendices include descriptions of two college non-advanced further education expansions; and calculation tables for teaching and non-teaching area capacities in existing buildings, and area allocations for 800 full- time equivalent students at the end of a phase 1 expansion. 47p.
Trends in School Design: Informal Schools in Britain Today.
(Citation Press, New York, NY , 1972)
Uses a number of small, contemporary primary schools to illustrate a trend toward residential-scale school buildings whose classrooms are informally arranged and flexible. 82p.
References to Journal Articles
Most Schools Miss Out on Privately Financed Renovation Programme
The Guardian; May 24, 2012
261 schools out of 587 that applied will be rebuilt or refurbished under the government's privately financed school building program, despite widespread concern about the state of school buildings.
Time-Wasting Accusation Over School Buildings
BBC News; May 09, 2012
Summarizes steps taken by the British government in rebuilding the dilapidated premises of existing schools.
An Emerging Framework for School Design Based on Children’s Voices
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p125-144 ; Spring 2012
This paper explores the views and expectations of children regarding their school environments and has constructed a framework for the school design process based on children’s information and reflections. The research objectives required analyzing secondary data, as well as qualitative and quantitative empirical studies— each one leading to the next. The issues raised by children about school design emerged through an analysis of three previous studies in the UK. The empirical study involved 260 children (11-12 years old) in two secondary schools in England. The findings highlight the importance children attribute to various issues. The overall findings have been developed as a school design framework to guide the design and decision-making processes of architects and designers. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
Operational Versus Designed Performance of Low Carbon Schools in England: Bridging a Credibility Gap
Amrita Dasguptaa, Antonis Prodromoub & Dejan Mumovicc
HVAC&R Research; v18 n2 , p37-50 ; Feb 29, 2012
In the UK, schools alone are responsible for 15% of the energy consumption in public and commercial buildings. The recent studies showed that newly built schools are failing to meet even basic performance criteria related to both energy consumption and provision of indoor environmental quality (acoustics, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and lighting). The main objectives of this article are three-fold: (a) to review the results of three major studies related to operational performance of newly built schools in England, (b) to identify major issues of importance for energy efficient provision of indoor environmental quality in school buildings based on results of a comprehensive survey of 286 UK building professionals, and (c) to estimate the influence of uncertainty of some design parameters on energy consumption using differential sensitivity analysis. The article concludes that our current ongoing efforts to deliver low carbon school buildings conducive to learning have had little success due to a poor understanding of how to design, engineer, and facilitate learning spaces for changing pedagogical practices to support a mass education system. Major identified issues refer to aspects of policy, design, and commisioning that affects building performance. [Authors' abstract]
Building Types Study: K-12 Schools
Architectural Record; Jan 2012
In-depth analyses of fifteen K-12 school buildings, with photos, drawings, specifications, descriptions and design solutions. Includes Evelyn Grace Academy, Zaha Hadid Architects London, United Kingdom; Gloria Marshall Elementary School, SHW Group, Spring, Texas; Leutschenbach School, Christian Kerez, Zurich, German; Machias Elementary School NAC Architecture, Snohomish, Washington; Marysville Getchell High School Campus, DLR Group,Marysville, Washington; Nathan Hale High School, Mahlum, Seattle, Washington; Pritzker Science Center, William Rawn Associates, Architects, Milton, Massachusetts; Samuel Brighouse Elementary School, Perkins+Will, British Columbia, Richmond, Canada; South Shore International College Prep High School, John Ronan Architects, Chicago, Illinois; Stoddert Elementary School & Community Center, EE&K a Perkins Eastman company, Washington D.C.; Summit Elementary School, Lee H. Skolnick Architecture + Design Partnership, Casper, Wyoming; W. F. Kaynor Technical High School, The S/L/A/M Collaborative, Waterbury, Connecticut; Cedar Ridge High School, Perkins+Will, Round Rock, Texas; Charles W. Morey Elementary School, Flansburgh Architects, Lowell, Massachusetts; Gary Comer College Prep, John Ronan Architects, Chicago, Illinois.
Designing and Constructing an Exemplar Zero Carbon Primary School in the City of Exeter, United Kingdom
CELE Exchange; , 6p ; Jan 2012
Montgomery Primary School is the UK’s first zero carbon in use and climate-change-ready exemplar school built to the Passivhaus standard. Its design and solar generating electrical power plant enable its electricity bill to be zero each year.
Leadership and Learning Landscapes: The Struggle for the Idea of the University
Neary, Mike; Saunders, Gary
Higher Education Quarterly; v65 n4 , p333-352 ; Oct 2011
This paper focuses on the academic involvement in the design and delivery of new teaching and learning spaces in higher education. The findings are based on research conducted at 12 universities within the United Kingdom. The paper examines the nature of academic involvement in the design and decision-making process of pedagogic space design, revealing some of the complexities and the tensions within this area of academic leadership. The research found that innovation and creativity on particular projects is often restricted by the project management decision-making processes and that broader institutional aims are often underplayed once the design process goes into project mode. The paper concludes by calling for greater academic involvement in the design process in ways that allow for critical reflexivity based on discussions around the concept of "the idea of the university". [Authors' abstract]
Schools in England Need £8.5bn Repairs.
Cook, Chris; Barker, Alex; Hammond, Ed
Financial Times; Mar 25, 2011
Discusses the backlog of repairs needed by English schools. Officials estimate that half of England’s schools were constructed between the second world war and the mid-1970s. Many of these schools are asbestos-riddled, flat-roofed and a long way beyond their intended lifespans.
Students' Experience of University Space: An Exploratory Study
Cox, Andrew M.
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education; v23 n2 , p197-207 ; 2011
The last decade has seen a wave of new building across British universities, so that it would appear that despite the virtualization discourses around higher education, space still matters in learning. Yet studies of student experience of the physical space of the university are rather lacking. This paper explores the response of one group of students to learning spaces, including virtual ones, preferences for the location of independent study, and feelings about departmental buildings. It explores how factors such as the scale of higher education and management efficiency tend to produce rather depersonalized and regimented environments that in turn are likely to produce surface engagement. Responses of hospitality, criticality, and solidarity are briefly explored.
Getting Students REALLY Involved in Design and Construction--Are You Mad?
Long, Gareth; Watson, Alison
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p14-16 ; Jan 2011
Discusses the British approach to student involvement in school design, which was encouraged under the previous labor government, but is not under the current conservative regime. Advantages to education of student involvement in design and construction are discussed, as is the poverty of excluding them from the process.
How Intuitive Design in Schools Can Be Achieved by Engaging with the Consumer.
CELE Exchange; 2010/12 ; Nov 2010
Highlights the work of the Sorrell Foundation in encouraging school architects to include a "client team" of students when forming the building program and design. Steps in collaborative architect/student research are suggested, and three British schools created via this process are profiled.
Monkseaton High School.
News Guardian; Nov 09, 2009
Profiles this new British high school that combines cost-effectiveness with student-led design and extremely high levels of innovation. Its distinctive oval and aerodynamic shape means it needs less energy to heat or cool and its orientation was specifically planned to maximize daylight but minimize over-heating. The multi-layered, open-plan interior of the building has also been constructed to maximize natural daylight. Its domed roof places an emphasis on allowing natural light into the building, and very few ceilings have been installed between its three floors. The design avoids the use of square classrooms, and incorporates triangular teaching spaces to create a 360 degree teaching environment which enables the teacher to be the focus of the students, wherever they are in the room. Sustainability features include thermal solar panels for hot water and a natural air ventilation system which uses 'wind catchers' incorporated into the school's roof.
How to Build a Sustainable Primary School: Four Case Studies.
The Architect's Journal; Sep 25, 2009
Offers case studies of four British schools that feature daylighting, superior indoor air quality, and links between indoors and out. Photographs, plans, and sections accompany each case study.
Abbott, Jane; William, Nick; Hopkins, Sarah; Bragg, Valeri
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p40-45 ; 2009
Describes several British schools and how they accommodate general education, vocational training, and education for life skills.
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p58-60 ; 2009
Profiles the playground at Moorside School in Newcastle, Great Britain. The playground was selected as the best external learning environment by the British Council for School Environment (BCSE). It features flexible activity areas, a stage for storytelling and performance, and wild areas for unstructured exploration.
Sustainability Innovation in United Kingdom Schools.
Head, Wayne; Buckingham, Richard
CELE Exchange; 2009/10 , p1-5 ; 2009
Recommends approaches to take in designing sustainable educational environments. The authors present recent examples of British school buildings that reduce carbon emissions and capitalize on renewable energy sources, and predict how schools will respond to energy needs in the future.
Learning Outside the Classroom.
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p47-57 ; 2009
Explores some of the drivers for change in outdoor learning, and reviews some British examples with pupil-led choice and responsibility at the heart of each offer. Examples include an inner-city nursery and children’s center, an early childhood school, two sustainable elementary schools, a secondary comprehensive school of engineering, and a city farm.
Pavilion in a Park.
Architectural Record; , p56-59 ; Jan 2009
Profiles the Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland, a school for students with dual-sensory impairment. All are deaf, blind, and have learning difficulties. Some are in wheelchairs and some have behavioral issues. Ample access to the outdoors, interior sensory detailing, and a domestic atmosphere are featured. Plans, photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants are included.
Private Finance for the Delivery of School Projects in England.
Aritua, B.; Smith, N.J.; Athiyo, R.
Management, Procurement, and Law; , p141-146 ; Nov 2008
The findings in this paper are based on case-study research in the Building Schools for the Future scheme (BSF), the largest single capital investment in 50 years to rebuild and renew all of England's secondary schools. Up to half of the school infrastructure is to be procured by PFI contracts. A major concern has been the high cost associated with PFI procurement and any subsequent changes to scope. The main conclusion is that the difficulties in BSF arise from not sorting out strategic issues and instituting appropriate organisational frameworks before engaging the private sector. The result of this is a lack of clarity about the long-term needs and end user aspirations.
Special Primary School Complex in the United Kingdom: Booker Park.
PEB Exchange; 2008/7 ; Jul 2008
Profiles the United Kingdom's Booker Park School, a new complex for pre-school and elementary school students with behavioral and learning difficulties. A high degree of flexibility accommodates the extreme range of emotional, sensory, and physical abilities of the students.
Fears Voiced Over Future BSF Design Quality.
Architects' Journal; Apr 14, 2008
Concern is growing that the public-private partnership that delivers the government's £45 billion Building Schools for the Future (BSF) schools will encourage speed of construction over quality design.
Teacher Perceptions of the Use of a Public-Private Partnership for School Facility Provision. [United Kingdom]
Journal of School Public Relations; v29 n1 , p74-90 ; Winter 2008
This article considers how the private finance initiative, a contract for infrastructure, affected teachers' perceptions of efficacy, job satisfaction, and morale at an urban secondary school in the United Kingdom. Qualitative data collection techniques, including unstructured observation and semistructured personal interviews, were utilized to determine teachers' perceptions. The findings indicate that two facets of the initiative were problematic for educational programming: the private corporation's control over construction design and its subsequent control over facility management. Implications of this research for lease-purchase agreements in the United States are discussed.
Dalry Primary-An Innovative Scottish Case Study.
PEB Exchange; 2008/15 ; 2008
Profiles an innovative school building in Scotland, describing its design as a collection of “houses,” and community use of the sports and arts facilities. The article also reports the viewpoints of the users, client and design team, and reveals the lessons learned.
Higher Education Space: Future Directions.
Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p5-15 ; Oct 2007
Discusses the future of higher education space in the United Kingdom, based on interviews with several British higher education administrators. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. Various influences of more, the same, and less available and needed space are covered. Space designations are blurring, increasingly multi-functional, and exploited more efficiently. Includes 23 references.
Academy of Environmental Excellence.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p33-35 ; Jun 2007
Profiles Liverpool's St. Francis of Assisi Academy, a high-performance school featuring extended hours, solar panels, rainwater collection that supplies the toilets, grass roofs, and an extensive recycling program.
Designing Libraries for 21st Century Schools.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p21-25 ; Jun 2007
Uses England's Castle Rock school library in Coalville, Leicestershire, and Jo Richardson Community School Library, Dagenham as an examples of inspirational school libraries that are beautiful, easily supervised, accommodate community use, host current technology, and are popular common areas for the secondary school pupils.
Palaces of Learning.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p10-14 ; Jun 2007
Profiles the new schools in England's Knowsley Borough. These "concourse environment" schools reflect a change in educational philosophy and a level of community participation in design that was needed in this economically and educationally disadvantaged area.
The Sky's the Limit.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p29-32 ; Jun 2007
Profiles an exemplar high-rise school design, conceived for tight urban sites in the United Kingdom. The small footprint of the design allows for it to be built alongside the school it will replace. Lighting and ventilation issues within the multi-story design are discussed.
Carbon Neutral Schools: Lessons Learned in the United Kingdom.
Modern Gov; , 2p. ; May 2007
The UK government intends to deliver 200 carbon neutral “eco-schools” in the next three years, to help cut emissions. As part of Building Schools for the Future (BSF) and the Primary Programme, the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) is encouraging design of sustainable schools that meet the criteria for an exciting and eco-friendly learning environment.
The Future Looks Bright for Solihull.
SchoolsforLife; n4 , p43-45 ; Mar 2007
Profiles two new British schools in Solihull, both for special needs pupils. The many features for accommodation and sustainability are covered, as are the special teacher and student retreat spaces.
A Sound Foundation? What We Know about the Impact of Environments on Learning and the Implications for Building Schools for the Future
Woolner, Pamela et al
Oxford Review of Education; v33 n1 , p47 - 70 ; Feb 2007
This paper reports on a literature review conducted in the UK for the Design Council and CfBT (Higgins et al., 2005) which looked at the evidence of the impact of environments on learning in schools. It reviews the available evidence regarding different facets of the physical environment and provided an analysis based on different areas of effect, including the extent to which different facets interact (positively and negatively) with one another. Conclusions suggest that, although the research often indicates the parameters of an effective environment, there is an overall lack of empirical evidence about the impact of individual elements of the physical environment which might inform school design at a practical level to support student achievement. However, at a secondary level of analysis, there are indications that environmental change can be part of a catalytic process of school development and improvement. The implications of these findings for Building Schools for the Future are discussed. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a770379224~db=all
School Building and Refurbishment
Scottish Executive; Jan 30, 2007
The Scottish government marked the achievement of its promise to refurbish 200 schools in the country's largest ever school building programme.
Government Defends School Building Record. .
The Guardian; Jan 18, 2007
Schools minister Jim Knight was forced to defend the government's troubled schools rebuilding programme after it emerged that the scheme was years behind schedule. He assured teachers, pupils and parents that contrary to reports, the programme is on track and will be delivered. "Let me be clear what we are doing with Building Schools for the Future. We inherited a school network that was crowded, crumbling and not fit for purpose. But this is not just about spending money. It is about improving the quality of education for all our children. It is an investment in our nation's future. I make no apologies for making sure we get this right, because these schools must be built to last. The process of planning, financing, designing and building is complex and can't be completed overnight - it will take time."
Pupils Kept in Crumbling Classrooms by Red Tape
The Times; Jan 15, 2007
Hundreds of thousands of pupils will be taught in dilapidated classrooms because the Government is abandoning its targets for a £45 billion schools rebuilding programme. The plans, heralded by Gordon Brown in successive budget speeches, have become mired in red tape, forcing the Government to admit that three years after promising to rebuild all 3,500 secondary schools before 2020 not a single project has been completed. It expects to open just 14 of the 100 new schools it had planned to by the end of this year, according to official Department for Education and Skills figures, The Times has learnt. Pupils, parents and teachers who had been promised new facilities are having to continue using buildings that have been described as not fit for purpose, with a lack of modern facilities and many temporary structures. The programme, Building Schools for the Future, is in such chaos that construction firms have pulled out, the official in charge has been replaced and the accountants PricewaterhouseCoopers have been brought in to review the mess.
Innovative Schools in Britain, Australia, and the Cayman Islands.
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 , p25-29 ; 2007
Highlights the policies, practices, and innovations in school planning for these countries, illustrated with examples of local building programs and specific schools.
Futuristic Facility is Class Act
BBC News; , 1p. ; Dec 15, 2006
A village school in Devon is claiming to have one of the most technologically advanced classrooms in the country.
Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom.
PEB Exchange; , p1-3 ; Nov 2006
Describes the United Kingdoms Design Quality Indicators (DQI) for schools, which helps stakeholders assess functionality, building quality, and impact and can be implemented at the planning, design, completion, or post-occupancy stages of a schools creation.
Environmental Design and Educational Performance, with Particular Reference to "Green" Schools in Hampshire and Essex.
Edwards, Brian W.
Research in Education; v76 , p14-32 ; Nov 2006
Examines the argument that "green" schools enhance educational performance. Having set the context of the relationship between environmentalism and the design of schools in the twentieth century, the article explores the performance of a number of green schools built in the UK between 1980 and 1995. The aim is to discover whether attention to environmental or ecological design produces measurable benefits in terms of learning levels in the classroom and the general performance of the school. The methodology consists of comparing the performance of green schools with that of orthodox schools which share similar characteristics of size, location and socio-economic features, and then relating variables of educational performance to design features. Three initial findings are highlighted: first, the importance of classroom daylight levels to learning; second, the benefits to the school of secondary sun spaces; third, the need for attention to the relationship between ventilation and acoustic control in open-plan solar schools. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/manup/rie/2006/00000076/00000001/art00002
Architecture Week ; , pB1.1 ; Sep 06, 2006
Case study of the Brandlehow Primary School classroom extension in Putney, which opened in January 2006. It is only the UK's second education project to use the prefabricated, wood FinnForest Merk system from Germany, which enabled the addition to be built in a matter of weeks. The new Brandlehow addition consists of a wood building linked by a glazed corridor to the existing building. The FinnForest Merk solid wood walls are highly insulated and clad with cedar boarding.
Building School Success?
RSA Journal; 2006
Highlights positive and negative experiences of the United Kingdom's Building Schools for the Future program. Successful projects, struggles, and unclear educational outcomes are covered.
The Mayor's School Cycle Parking Program in London.
Children, Youth and Environments; v16 n1 , p191-198 ; 2006
In response to demand from young people, London's mayor asked Transport for London's Cycling Centre of Excellence to provide and install modern cycle parking facilities at schools and colleges throughout the Greater London area. This paper reports the outcomes of that program and the contribution the infrastructure has made to the development of cycling in London. Free registration is required.TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
The School Building as Futuristic Teaching Tool.
Century 21 Schools; , p68-77 ; Fall 2005
Profiles in detail the Kingsmead School in Northwitch, Great Britain. This high performance primary school features movable walls, winter gardens, enhanced technology, photovoltaics, a biomass boiler, solar hot water, rainwater harvesting, and several other notable features. The considerably higher than average construction cost is believed justified by operational savings and the use of the building itself as a teaching tool.
Do PFI Schools Have To Be So Boring?
Century 21 Schools; , p42-46 ; Fall 2005
Laments the mediocrity of schools designed under Great Britain s Private Finance Initiative (PFI) school building campaign. The author considers most of the recent schools to be perfected examples of outdated designs that fail to accommodate current and future technology, have unwelcoming and inadequate common areas, are inflexible, and have poor grounds. Structural problems within the PFI program are cited and remedies proposed.
The Influence of School Architecture and Design on the Outdoor Play Experience within the Primary School
Paedagogica Historica ; v41 n4-5 , p535 - 553 ; Aug 2005
Since the very earliest times, schools have provided a place (the playground) and a time (playtimes) in which children can have time away from the direct involvement of adults and formal learning. Although the basic design of school grounds has changed in a number of ways over the years, from the subtle to the more direct, what effect these changes have had on the overall education of the child is less clear. Research has identified a number of positive effects on leaning that playtimes and the informal use of school grounds provides, yet it is also clear that schools themselves often greatly under-use this potential, or even actively restrict access to it, as a counter to what is often seen as the ‘problem’ of playtime. This paper will draw on recent research into ‘what’ happens on school playgrounds and ‘where’ it happens, using visual examples from the UK. The findings from this research will explore the direct links that have been found between school building design and children’s use of the outdoor environment for play. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00309230500165734
Contested Desires: The Edible Landscape of School
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education; v41 n4-5 , p571-587 ; Aug 2005
Food and drink are associated with survival and for children and young people the edible landscape represents an essential part of survival in the modern school. At one and the same time, food and drink and the space in which they are served and consumed can become a site of contested desires, a space where authority and resistance are exercised. This paper explores the interior and exterior edible landscape of school in the UK context and suggests some pointers to its significance in terms of the development of pedagogy and curriculum.TO ORDER: http://www.informaworld.com
In This School, the Classroom Revolution Is Now a Reality - All 360 Degrees of It.
Thorpe, Vanessa; Asthana, Anushka
The Guardian; , 2p. ; Feb 27, 2005
This article describes an experimental classroom in the Liverpool area of England that may change the shape of classrooms to come for British schoolchildren. Known as the 360 degree flexible classroom, it challenges the techniques used by teachers down the ages. Instead of simply standing at the front, the teacher circles students on a curved 'racetrack', occasionally taking up a position on a podium in the center of the room. Students sit at their own Q-Pods, special table and chair units on wheels. White writing boards can be used by the students then fit back on to the walls of the classroom so the class's work can be discussed. The wall boards can also become screens for computer projections, while the temperature and light in the room are electronically controlled. Mirrors mounted at three points serve as eyes in the back of the teacher's head.
Building Schools for the Future in the United Kingdom.
PEB Exchange; v2005/1 n54 , p11-13 ; Feb 2005
Reviews England's five-year "Building Schools for the Future" program, describing the investment, changes sought, and the publication of exemplary school designs from eleven firms.
Joinedupdesignforschools in the United Kingdom.
PEB Exchange; v2005/1 n54 , p18-21 ; Feb 2005
Describes this initiative, connecting client student teams with design firms to produce better school designs. The process of forming the team and solving design problems is described, as are four initial projects.
Architecture Week ; Nov 03, 2004
The refurbishment of a dilapidated 50-year-old secondary school in a London suburb has set a number of significant benchmarks for school design in the United Kingdom. The project has lifted concepts of roof design to new heights with what may be the first "variable membrane" roof in the world. The design reclaims formerly "dead" courtyard space and exploits the potential of the existing building. It stretches a new roof over the now-interior courtyard, offering new dining facilities, assembly/ performance space, improved circulation, and space for social activities.
King's College in London Uses Private Financing Tool to Acquire New Teaching and Research Facilities.
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p60 ; Oct 2004
As U.S. government funds become less available and research institutions seek greater autonomy, the British Private Finance Initiative (PFI) model may be worth exploring in the United States. With PFI, government agencies contract with private consortiums to design, build, own, and manage projects. The consortium leases the buildings back to a public authority, typically for 25 to 30 years, after which ownership transfers to the authority. This is a case study of two projects at King's College in London financed with PFI.
A School's Great Expectations.
The Guardian; Sep 14, 2004
The new Mossbourne Community Academy in Hackney, east London, boasts pristine buildings and embodies a government's hopes that Britain's inner cities can offer high quality, well-resourced state education to children of all abilities. The new £325m Mossbourne Academy is a timber and glass Richard Rogers Partnership-designed building that includes state-of-the-art computer "clusters" located on the ground floor of each "terraced house-style" learning areas.
The Guardian; Sep 06, 2004
In 2001, the Guardian newspaper ran a School I'd Like Competition. More than 15,000 primary and secondary school pupils told the Guardian about the school of their dreams and the children's manifesto was drawn up from their comments. In July, 2004, the competition winners had the opportunity to revisit their ideas and discuss with the Minister of Education what, if anything, had changed and what remained to be done.
The United Kingdom's Part-Privately Funded Business Academy Bexley.
PEB Exchange; v2004/2 n52 , p25,26 ; Jun 2004
Describes the funding mechanism and design of this public-private partnership school for ages 11-18. The open plan complements the unconventional, business-oriented curriculum.
A 21st Century School for Every Pupil -Building Schools for the Future [Press Release]
Department for Education and Skills Press Notice; Feb 12, 2004
UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and School Standards Minister David Miliband unveiled the Government’s Building Schools for the Future programme to rebuild or refurbish every secondary school in England. "This is the greatest school renewal programme in British history reversing a generation of under-investment in our schools."
Building Schools for the Future - A New Approach to Better School Buildings [Fact Sheet]
10 Downing Street; 2004
This fact sheet on the Prime Minister's website describes the Building Schools for the Future program and summarizes what the British government will be doing for this initiative.
Revoicing Classrooms: A Spatial Manifesto
FORUM: For Promoting 3-19 Comprehensive Education; v46 n1 , p36-38 ; 2004
Why is the physical learning environment in schools largely ignored by teachers within pedagogical practice? The author contends that the "Knowledge Age" requires that school, college, and university classrooms once again be converted to make more functional sense, and that one way of accomplishing this is through a campaign that relates space directly to changes in pedagogy, curriculum and ICT by placing spatial literacy firmly on the agenda of teachers' own learning.
The Use of Space in 21st Century Education Culture.
Forum; v46 n1 , p39,40 ; 2004
Examines the current British government initiative, "Schools of the Future," and asks how it might influence pedagogy and practice in 21st century schools. The Schools of the Future project was launched in 2002 and brings together the issues of emerging pedagogies and curriculum changes in primary and secondary education, with the possible impact of learning technology and provision for all the learners in the community. It goes on to tackle the design issues of space, the learning environment, and how to plan in a sustainable way. Includes 11 references.
User Involvement in School Building Design.
Forum; v46 n1 , p41-43 ; 2004
Proposes that involving students in school design will help create good citizens who later vote and participate in other aspects of community life. An example of how students were involved in a British school is provided. (Scroll down in PDF to find this article.)
Designing Schools for the Whole Community
ExtraTime Special ; v107 ; Fall 2003
School buildings should be beautiful and inspirational, raising the spirits of those who use them. This explains how important it is that schools with funding for building work or improvements involve pupils, staff, parents, and the local community in articulating their vision for how the buildings should be designed and used.
How to Build Schools for the 21st Century.
TES [Times Educational Supplement]; Jul 03, 2003
Case study of the Kingsdale School in South London, a dilapidated 50-year-old British secondary school that is at the cutting edge of school building design for the 21st century. This was the testing ground for School Works, a not-for-profit organization aiming "to link the design of secondary school buildings with their impact on teaching, learning, culture, and management of those schools."
The Private Finance Initiative — What Opportunities for Facilities Management?
Journal of Facilities Management; v2 n1 , p54-67 ; Jun 2003
Within the UK the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) has developed into a mature process for the procurement of improved infrastructure and associated facilities management (FM) service delivery. The role of FM within this process provides enormous opportunity to ensure maximum value is provided in terms of both value and performance of the final design and delivery of support services. As the first wave of PFI schemes are now becoming operational, this paper aims to explore these opportunities and identify what, if any, lessons have been learnt for the future development and success of the PFI and the value it can provide to both the taxpayer and private investor. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1528545&show=html
Supporting High Quality Interaction and Motivation in the Classroom Using ICT
Cooper, Bridget; Brna, Paul
Education, Communication & Information ; v2 n2-3 , p113-138 ; Dec 01, 2002
This article considers some of the final outcomes of the UK division of the NIMIS project (Networked Interactive Media in Schools). This was an international European Union funded project which involved creating a classroom of the future in three European elementary schools. This article concentrates on the outcomes of the UK section of the project in a Year 1 classroom in an elementary school near Leeds. The project set out to enhance interaction in the classroom through careful design of the system and careful selection of the hardware. This article looks in some detail at the evidence from the findings about the interactions that occurred in the classroom and the differing power relationships involved, both between teachers and children and between the children themselves. It also looks at evidence of the levels of engagement in the classroom and the emotional response of the children to lessons using the computers. It concludes that information and communications technology that is carefully planned and designed and integrated into good classroom practice can support both relationships and motivation, leading to long-lasting engagement and learning. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.mendeley.com
School Works in the United Kingdom: A New Approach to Local School Design.
PEB Exchange; v2 n46 , p13-15 ; Jun 2002
Describes the efforts of School Works, a not-for-profit company in the United Kingdom which has developed a secondary school design process that enables communities to create unique school buildings that cater to their own particular needs. Discusses its work with Kingsdale Secondary School in south London.
The UK Private Finance Initiative and Glasgow Schools
Fitzgerald E.; Melvin D.
Facilities; v20 n3-4 , p119-126(8) ; Mar 06, 2002
This paper considers the extent to which a facilities management (FM) approach has been applied in delivery of a secondary school development programme for Glasgow City Council. The approach involves purchase of service from a private consortium which will build, own, maintain and operate facilities using the private finance initative (PFI) version of the range of public-private (PPPs) to provide a share of UK public sector infrastructure. The paper describes influences upon the form and content of the ?400m Glasgow project including how mainstream FM principles have been employed to deliver a system which meets client, user and supplier requirements. Considers the extent to which experience can be informed by conventional theory of public choice and how other innovations, designed to bring business methods into local government, including compulsory competitive tendering and best value, impact on the arrangements involved in the schools project. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/
The Relationship Between Capital Investment and Pupil Performance: An Analysis by the United Kingdom.
PEB Exchange; n44 , p8-9 ; Oct 2001
Discusses a United Kingdom comparative study showing a positive link between educational capital spending and student performance. The study, which compared both qualitative and quantitative research, further reveals a positive link between capital spending and teacher and pupil motivation.
The United Kingdom's Classrooms of the Future.
PEB Exchange; n43 , p9-10 ; Jun 2001
Discusses the United Kingdom's "Classrooms of the Future," an initiative in school building design to develop pilot projects that explore different design options for delivering education in the 21st century. Twelve proposals for participation in the initiative are detailed.
City Learning Centres for the 21st Century.
PEB Exchange; n41 , p6-7 ; Oct 2000
Examines Englands City Learning Centres (CLC) component of the Excellence in Cities initiative aimed at driving up standards in inner city schools. CLC objectives, business involvement in the CLC initiative, funding, and technical guidelines in CLC development are discussed.
Improving the Performance of the Higher Education Estate: UK Research
PEB Exchange; n39 , p21-22 ; Feb 2000
Discusses research on the development of estate management statistics for the higher education sector in the United Kingdom and the identification key estate management "performance indicators." Key Estate Ratios (KERs) that institutions wish to focus upon from an estates perspective are listed and use of the KERs is discussed.